Science.gov

Sample records for granulometric characteristics relative

  1. Clustering granulometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Marcel; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Barrera, Junior; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2002-05-01

    Granulometric features have been widely used for classification, segmentation and recently in estimation of parameters in shape models. In this paper we study the inference of clustering based on granulometric features for a collection of structuring probes in the context of random models. We use random Boolean models to represent grains of different shapes and structure. It is known that granulometric features are excellent descriptors of shape and structure of grains. Inference based on clustering these features helps to analyze the consistency of these features and clustering algorithms. This greatly aids in classifier design and feature selection. Features and the order of their addition play a role in reducing the inference errors. We study four different types of feature addition methods and the effect of replication in reducing the inference errors.

  2. Levels and distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surface sediments from Galicia coast (Northwestern, Spain) according to granulometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Moureira, A

    2002-08-01

    In order to know distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the marine environment from Galida, PCBs n degrees 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180 were isolated by Soxhlet extraction from three fractions of different particle size (<0.063 mm, 0.063-0.2 mm and >0.2 mm) in surface marine sediments; the quantification was performed using GC-MS and GC-ECD. Distribution of PCB congeners was shifted in favour of higher chlorinated compounds (CBs 138,153 and 180) and highly correlated to TOC content. In general, the finest fractions (<0.063 mm) of sediment presented the highest loadings of PCBs, only the sediment from As Pías zone exhibited the highest concentration of chlorinated congeners in the coarsest fraction. CB 52 concentration, slightly volatile compound, was related to water temperature. By means of multivariate techniques of data exploration as hierarchical duster analysis and principal components analysis, sediment samples from un-contaminated and slightly contaminated areas were clearly separated; groupings between samples from nearby zones appeared.

  3. Quaternary alluvial deposits of Wadi Gaza in the middle of the Gaza Strip (Palestine): Facies, granulometric characteristics, and their paleoflow direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeid, Khalid Fathi

    2016-06-01

    The Quaternary rocks of the Gaza Strip mainly consist of clastic sedimentary rocks. In Wadi Gaza, the outcropping rocks consist of brownish fine-grained deposits, sandstones, and conglomerates. The deposits have been studied from a genetic point of view, and six facies have been described: (i) graded clast-supported conglomerates, (ii) cross-bedded clast-supported conglomerates, (iii) sandy matrix conglomerates, (iv) cross-laminated medium-grained sandstones, (v) graded coarse-grained sandstones, and (vi) massive sandstones. The field work observations and granulometric analysis show that the sphericity of the grains increase toward the west, where its value ranges from ∼0.64 in the east to ∼0.70 in the west. In addition, the grain forms tend to be disc shape in the east, whereas they tend to be disc-to spheroid shape in the west, and they become well rounded to well sorted toward the west. Moreover, the features, geometry, and spatial relationship among these facies suggest that the Wadi Gaza was meandering wadi fed from Beir Sheva and the Northern Negev in the southeast of Gaza Strip through Wadi Al Shallala and Wadi Sheneq and from Hebron mountains in the West Bank at the east through Wadi Al Shari'a alluvials. Within the Gaza Strip, paleocurrent data ranges from 210° to 310°, indicating a mean a paleoflow direction to the W (276°) and a median value about 275°. The sedimentary rocks in the Wadi Gaza are considered to be deposited in two periods of climate conditions: the coarse-grained rocks were deposited during the period of wet condition before 12.4 ka age, whereas the eolinite fine-grained rocks were deposited during semiarid climate conditions which are younger in age than 12.4 ka.

  4. Analysis of Pelletizing of Granulometric Separation Powder from Cork Industries

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Sepúlveda, Francisco José; Arranz, José Ignacio; Nogales, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Cork industries generate a considerable amount of solid waste during their processing. Its management implies a problem for companies that should reconsider its reuse for other purposes. In this work, an analysis of pelletizing of granulometric separation powder, which is one of the major wastes in cork industries and which presents suitable properties (as an raw material) for its thermal use, is studied. However, its characteristic heterogeneity, along with its low bulk density (which makes its storage and transportation difficult) are restrictive factors for its energy use. Therefore, its densified form is a real alternative in order to make the product uniform and guarantee its proper use in boiler systems. Thus, the cork pellets (from granulometric separation powder) in the study met, except for ash content specification, the specifications in standard European Norm EN-Plus (B) for its application as fuel for domestic use. PMID:28788207

  5. Principal components granulometric analysis of tidally dominated depositional environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.W. ); Long, W.T. ); Friedrich, N.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Sediments often are investigated by using mechanical sieve analysis (at 1/4 or 1/2{phi} intervals) to identify differences in weight-percent distributions between related samples, and thereby, to deduce variations in sediment sources and depositional processes. Similar granulometric data from groups of surface samples from two siliciclastic estuaries and one carbonate tidal creek have been clustered using principal components analysis. Subtle geographic trends in tidally dominated depositional processes and in sediment sources can be inferred from the clusters. In Barnstable Harbor, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the estuary can be subdivided into five major subenvironments, with tidal current intensities/directions and sediment sources (longshore transport or sediments weathering from the Sandwich Moraine) as controls. In Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo county, California, all major environments (beach, dune, bay, delta, and fluvial) can be easily distinguished; a wide variety of subenvironments can be recognized. On Pigeon Creek, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, twelve subenvironments can be recognized. Biogenic (Halimeda, Peneroplios, mixed skeletal), chemogenic (pelopids, aggregates), and detrital (lithoclastis skeletal), chemogenic (pelopids, aggregates), and detrital (lithoclastis of eroding Pleistocene limestone) are grain types which dominate. When combined with tidal current intensities/directions, grain sources produce subenvironments distributed parallel to tidal channels. The investigation of the three modern environments indicates that principal components granulometric analysis is potentially a useful tool in recognizing subtle changes in transport processes and sediment sources preserved in ancient depositional sequences.

  6. Granulometric profiling of aeolian dust deposits by automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Determination of granulometric parameters is of growing interest in the Earth sciences. Particle size data of sedimentary deposits provide insights into the physicochemical environment of transport, accumulation and post-depositional alterations of sedimentary particles, and are important proxies applied in paleoclimatic reconstructions. It is especially true for aeolian dust deposits with a fairly narrow grain size range as a consequence of the extremely selective nature of wind sediment transport. Therefore, various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed only from precise grain size data. As terrestrial wind-blown deposits are among the most important archives of past environmental changes, proper explanation of the proxy data is a mandatory issue. Automated imaging provides a unique technique to gather direct information on granulometric characteristics of sedimentary particles. Granulometric data obtained from automatic image analysis of Malvern Morphologi G3-ID is a rarely applied new technique for particle size and shape analyses in sedimentary geology. Size and shape data of several hundred thousand (or even million) individual particles were automatically recorded in this study from 15 loess and paleosoil samples from the captured high-resolution images. Several size (e.g. circle-equivalent diameter, major axis, length, width, area) and shape parameters (e.g. elongation, circularity, convexity) were calculated by the instrument software. At the same time, the mean light intensity after transmission through each particle is automatically collected by the system as a proxy of optical properties of the material. Intensity values are dependent on chemical composition and/or thickness of the particles. The results of the automated imaging were compared to particle size data determined by three different laser diffraction instruments

  7. Microplastics elutriation from sandy sediments: A granulometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; Bourseau, Patrick; Bellegou, Hervé; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2016-06-15

    Although relatively easy to extract in the marine environment, microplastics are very difficult to recover when they are trapped in sediments. The elutriation column is one of the best tools currently available for extracting plastics from sediment, but with a high sand recovery yield. This study aims to address the following questions: (i) is it possible to use a sedimentological approach to limit the sand recovery? (ii) does the extraction velocity of the sand and plastic particles vary according to density and granulometry? (iii) what is the relative recovery efficiency obtained for dense polymer particles mixed with marine sand? Based on a new granulometric classification, different plastic particle-size fractions are defined. Their extraction velocities are experimentally determined on particles of sediment and different plastics (PA, PVC). The particle recovery experiments indicate that it is possible to extract >90% of dense plastic particles in cases of negligible sand recovery.

  8. Growing axons analysis by using Granulometric Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mariela A.; Ballarin, Virginia L.; Rapacioli, Melina; Celín, A. R.; Sánchez, V.; Flores, V.

    2011-09-01

    Neurite growth (neuritogenesis) in vitro is a common methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analyses of growing neurites are usually difficult because their thinness and low contrast usually prevent to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution in order to automatically obtain information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results here presented show that the granulometric size distribution results in a very useful morphological tool since it allows the automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation such as the quantification of the angle of deviation of the growing direction. The developed algorithms automatically quantify this orientation by facilitating the analysis of these images, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  9. Uncertainty relations for characteristic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Tasca, D. S.; Walborn, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    We present the uncertainty relation for the characteristic functions (ChUR) of the quantum mechanical position and momentum probability distributions. This inequality is more general than the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and is saturated in two extreme cases for wave functions described by periodic Dirac combs. We further discuss a broad spectrum of applications of the ChUR; in particular, we constrain quantum optical measurements involving general detection apertures and provide the uncertainty relation that is relevant for loop quantum cosmology. A method to measure the characteristic function directly using an auxiliary qubit is also briefly discussed.

  10. Technical description of the microinjection pump (MIP(®)) and granulometric characterization of the aerosol applied for pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC).

    PubMed

    Göhler, Daniel; Khosrawipour, Veria; Khosrawipour, Tanja; Diaz-Carballo, David; Falkenstein, Thomas Albert; Zieren, Jürgen; Stintz, Michael; Giger-Pabst, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is gaining acceptance in clinical practice, but detailed information about the microinjection pump (MIP(®)), the generated aerosol and drug distribution is missing. Ex vivo granulometric analyses by means of laser diffraction spectrometry were performed for MIP(®) aerosol characterization. Beside the standard operation conditions, the impact of the volumetric liquid flow rate on the aerosol characteristics was investigated with different liquids. Granulometric results as well as the local drug distribution were verified by ex vivo gravimetric analyses. On the basis of determined MIP(®) characteristics, the aerosol droplet size, which is necessary for a homogenous intra-abdominal drug distribution, was calculated. Granulometric analyses showed that the MIP(®) aerosol consists of a bimodal volume-weighted particle size distribution (PSD3) with a median droplet diameter of x 50,3 = 25 µm. Calculations reveal that the droplet size for a homogenous intra-abdominal drug distribution during PIPAC therapy should be below 1.2 µm. We show that >97.5 vol% of the aerosolized liquid is delivered as droplets with ≥3 µm in diameter, which are primarily deposited on the surface beneath the MIP(®) by gravitational settling and inertial impaction. These findings were confirmed by ex vivo gravimetric analyses, where more than 86.0 vol% of the aerosolized liquid was deposited within a circular area with a diameter of 15 cm. The granulometric aerosol properties, as well as the aerodynamic conditions achieved by standard MIP(®) operation, do not support the idea of widespread or homogenous drug distribution in the abdominal cavity.

  11. Effects of granulometric and mineralogical composition on spectral reflectance of soils in a Sahelian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssa, Rachida; Pion, Jean-Claude; Yésou, Hervé

    During the Hapex-Sahel international investigation, portable radiometers (Barringer and Cimel) were used to study, in the optical domain, the relationship between soil mineralogical and granulometric compositions and radiometric indices: redness index, colour index and texture index. The results show that the granulometric distribution and the mineralogical composition have both important influence on these indices. In this Sahelian area, for soils having more than 1% of hematite, the redness index presents a high correlation with hematite content. For soils with less than 1% of hematite, the redness index depends on the size of the particles and their distribution at the surface. For eolian sandy and ferricrust soils, the colour and texture indices present good correlations, respectively, with iron oxide and kaolinite content. No such correlation is observed for ferruginous soils because of the complex interactions existing between iron oxides, kaolinite and the size of particles.

  12. Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ≈ Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 μm are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

  13. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  14. USB flow characteristics related to noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Reddy, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle and flap geometry on upper surface blown flow field characteristics related to noise generation were examined experimentally using static models. Flow attachment and spreading characteristics were observed using flow visualization techniques. Velocity and turbulence profiles in the trailing edge wake were measured using hot-wire anemometry, and the effects of the geometric variables on peak velocity and turbulence intensity were determined. It is shown that peak trailing edge velocity is a function of the ratio of flow length to modified hydraulic diameter.

  15. Granulometric and magnetic properties of deposited particles in the Beijing subway and the implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guipeng; Zhou, Liping; Dearing, John

    2016-10-15

    The subway system is an important traffic facility in Beijing and its internal air quality is an environmental issue that could potentially affect millions of people every day. Due to the intrinsic nature of rail abrasion in subway tunnels, iron-containing particles can be generated and become suspended in the subway environment. While some studies (e.g. Li et al., 2006) have monitored the in-train levels of PM2.5 (particles<2.5μm), there is a lack of systematic assessment of the concentration and characteristics of iron-containing particles in the Beijing subway system. Here we report results of a study on the granulometric and magnetic properties of deposited particle samples collected at different localities of the Beijing subway system. Our results show that the subway samples are characterized by the presence of fine particles. Volume proportions of 6.1±1.3% for particles<2.5μm and 27.5±6.1% for particles<10μm are found in the bulk subway samples. These samples exhibit a strong magnetic signal, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that in naturally deposited particles collected in Beijing. Fine grained ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g. iron and magnetite, respectively) are identified from mineral magnetic measurements and scanning electric microscopy. The samples collected from the Beijing stations with platform screen doors are found to be magnetically stronger and finer than those without them, suggesting that platform screen doors have failed to block the fine iron-containing particles released from the rail tunnel. Given the potential health consequences of fine suspended iron-containing particles, our results have important implications for air quality management in the Beijing subway system.

  16. Granulometric characteristics of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakheyev, Y. I.; Vulfson, Y. K.; Ivanov, A. V.; Florenskiy, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The particle size distributions in the 1-1000 micrometer range along the length of the core of lunar surface material returned by Luna 16 were recorded by electrical impulse as well as sieve methods. The measurements are represented in the form of cumulative functions of the logarithm of size versus the logarithm of particle number, and also as the logarithm of size versus particle mass on a probability scale. The former functions at all depths consist of the super-positioning of two straight lines with slopes from 2.10 to 4.05. The second functions are near linear, which together with the closeness of the calculated asymmetries of the distribution to zero and the nearness of the calculated excess of the distributions to unity indicate the closeness of the recorded distributions to the logarithmically normal law. This agrees with the assumption that regolith particles were formed in a process of intensive mechanical grinding.

  17. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury.

  18. Characteristics of Mesiodens and Its Related Complications.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ok Hyung; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Kim, Mi Sun; Yun, Kwan Hee; Bang, Jae-Beum; Choi, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mesiodens on adjacent permanent anterior teeth according to mesiodens characteristics. To evaluate complications associated with mesiodens, according to its characteristics, a total of 107 children were studied who had a chief complaint of mesiodens. The number, morphology, direction of eruption, position of mesiodens, root developmental stage and complications related to adjacent permanent maxillary central incisors (APMCIs) were evaluated by radiographic imaging. The final sample was 107 children and total number of mesiodens was 153. Among these patients, 67 percent showed clinical complications. The primary morphologic type was conical (96.1 percent) and the most common direction of eruption was inverted (56.2 percent). Most mesiodens (80.4 percent) were located on the palatal side of the APMCIs. The direction of mesiodens and the eruption period of adjacent permanent incisors affected the complication rate. The positional relationship between mesiodens and adjacent permanent central incisors had the strongest influence on both eruption disturbance and displacement of permanent central incisors.

  19. Characteristics of Astronomy-Related Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    1999-05-01

    Several characteristics of contemporaneous astronomy-related organizations have been investigated from an exhaustive up-to-date world-wide sample (the master files for the directory StarGuides and the database StarWorlds): geographical distributions of organizations and of observing facilities, as well as ages and sizes of currently active organizations. Interesting comments are drawn from each of these studies and from their inter-comparison. Geographical distributions are also compared with a survey of observing facilities carried out around 1900 by Stroobant et al.: the overall aspect did not change over the past century -- another example of the well-known self-reinforcement effect. This however could be interpreted as an alarming factor. Apart from strong densities in Europe and North America, the most striking feature is the desperate emptiness of most of the African continent and of so-called third-world countries. Those investigations show also that numerous astronomy-related organizations are not involved in direct observing. Cultural components and deliberate policies in some countries are also clearly visible, especially at the level of associations, planetariums and public observatories. The astronomy-related publishers and software producers are interestingly concentrated in only a few places. Some events had a clear impact on the rate of foundation of astronomy-related organizations, such as World Wars I and II, the beginning of space exploration and the landing of man on the Moon, but not all of them affected in the same way Western Europe and North America. It is still too early to assess the real impact of the end of the Cold War. Also if the rate of creation of astronomy-related organizations since the end of the fifties is really impressive, there is no indication that this should still go on that way half a century later, especially at a time the society at large has obviously moved to other priorities than space investigations and cosmological

  20. Automated white blood cell counting via classification-free granulometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we describe an application of the granulometric mixing theorem to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, an iterative algorithm based on the mixing theorem can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. Therefore, a new algorithm based on the theorem is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive mixing theorem to each initial component. Applying the mixing theorem to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the proposed algorithm on 6 classes of cell -- Myeloblast, Promyelocyte, Myelocyte, Metamyelocyte, Band, and PMN -- are very close to the actual numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is not larger than deviation of counts produced by human experts. An important technical point is that, unlike previous algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require prior knowledge of the total number of cells in an image.

  1. Relational Support and Person Characteristics in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aken, Marcel A. G.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an heuristic model of the personality characteristics of adolescents and the supportive dimensions of interactions, relationships, and groups. The results of several empirical studies are presented to illustrate the model. Together, these studies present a transactional picture of the personality of adolescents and their relationships in…

  2. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  3. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  4. Dust deposits in Souss?Massa basin, South-West of Morocco: granulometrical, mineralogical and geochemical characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, F.; Ezaidi, A.; Kabbachi, K.

    2004-08-01

    Samples of dust deposits were periodically collected from July 1, 1997 to January 30, 1999, at Souss-Massa basin, in the South of Morocco. Granulometrical, geochemical and mineralogical characterisations show that quartz, calcite and feldspars dominate the mineral contents of the dust deposit with a minor clay fraction. It indicates the mineralogical composition of dust collected in peri-Saharan regions. The material collected in the summer period is dominated by local dust against a mixture of local and proximal dusts in the winter period.

  5. Ejaculatory process and related semen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Moscoso, R; Alarcon, V; Ordoñez, C

    2002-01-01

    South American camelids are dribble ejaculators, and urethral contractions occur throughout copulation, which may last 25 min. The urethral contractions and their association with semen characteristics during copulation were determined in llamas and alpacas. A transrectal probe was held in the rectum of the male while copulating an artificial vagina, which was accessed underneath the dummy through a hole. The semen-collecting tube was changed every 5 min. Semen characteristics, color, volume, consistency, motility, concentration, and percentage of live sperm were determined at 5-min intervals. Urethral contractions were evenly distributed during copulation: 40 in alpacas and 63 in llamas (p < .05), with a general range of 11 to 132. Semen color was milky in 63%, and translucent in 36.5% for alpacas; and creamy (9.9%), milky (47%), and translucent (42%) for llamas. The mean volume of ejaculate was 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, and 3.0 mL for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min, respectively. Semen consistency was variable: viscous (65%) and semiviscous (34%) in alpacas; and viscous (57%) and semiviscous (42%) in llamas. Spermatic motility varied between 60 and 80% for the llama, and 40 and 80% for the alpaca. Spermatic concentration varied between 60 and 188 x 10(3)/mm3 in llamas, and 30 and 170 x 10(3)/mm3 in alpacas. Percentage of live sperm varied the least: 81 to 90% in llamas and 65 to 90% in alpacas. The ejaculate of llamas and alpacas is not fractionated, urethral contractions are evenly distributed, during copulation, and semen characteristics are present throughout the copulatory period.

  6. Definition of facies conditions by granulometric analysis on the example of horizons JK2-5 in Em-Egovskoe field (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, L.; Belozerov, V.

    2014-08-01

    The significance increase of recoverable oil reserves in reservoirs of deep horizons requires more detailed study of their formation conditions. Granulometric and mineralogical investigations of terrigenous sediments allow obtaining the basic ideas on their sedimentation conditions. In this case the combination of the existing methods enables to address some issues of facies analysis. The integrated investigations of the horizons JK2-5 of Tumensk formation in Em-Egovskoe area, Krasnoleninskoe field (208 samples) have been performed. Based on granulometric and mineralogical studies, the authors made the conclusion that the sediments studied had been formed within the estuary. The results of the study show that the sedimentation conditions may be different under the same dynamic accumulation conditions and similar particle granulometric distributions. The efficiency of facies prediction can be enhanced only through the integrated analysis.

  7. Characteristics of Astronomy-Related Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    Geographical distributions, ages and sizes of astronomy-related organizations have been investigated from comprehensive and up-to-date samples extracted from the master files for StarGuides/StarWorlds. Results for professional institutions, associations, planetariums, and public observatories are commented, as well as specific distributions for astronomy-related publishers and commercial-software producers. The highly uneven general pattern displayed by geographical distributions is still very much the same as it was at the beginning of the XXth century, even if the densities are higher - another illustration of the well-known socio-economic effect of self-reinforcement. Other geographical peculiarities (local concentrations, national cultures and policies, electronic astronomy, ...) are discussed in the paper, as well as the uneasy separation between amateur and professional astronomers in associations. Some events had a clear impact on the rate of foundation of astronomy-related organizations, such as World Wars I and II, the beginning of space exploration, the landing of man on the Moon, the end of the Cold War, spectacular comets, and so on. However, as detailed in the paper, not all of them affected in the same way Western Europe and North America, nor the various types of organizations. The size of the vast majority of astronomy-related organizations is relatively small, with again some differences between Western Europe and North America.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS IN THE HEALTH RELATED PROFESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUNTEMAN, GEORGE H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS MONOGRAPH PRESENTS A PORTION OF A LONGITUDINAL STUDY BEING CONDUCTED BY THE REHABILITATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. THE TOTAL PROGRAM ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS IN EACH OF THE HEALTH RELATED PROFESSIONS. THE CHARACTERISTICS SOUGHT ARE THOSE WHICH DISCRIMINATE ONE PROFESSION FROM ANOTHER AND…

  9. A Stratigraphic, Granulometric, and Textural Comparison of recent pyroclastic density current deposits exposed at West Island and Burr Point, Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, C. A.; Browne, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano (Alaska) is the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands, with 6 violent eruptions over the past 200 years and at least 12 catastrophic debris-avalanche deposits over the past ~2,000 years. The frequency and destructive nature of these eruptions combined with the proximity of Augustine Volcano to commercial ports and populated areas represents a significant hazard to the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. The focus of this study examines the relationship between debris-avalanche events and the subsequent emplacement of pyroclastic density currents by comparing the stratigraphic, granulometric, and petrographic characteristics of pyroclastic deposits emplaced following the 1883 A.D. Burr Point debris-avalanche and those emplaced following the ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island debris-avalanche. Data from this study combines grain size and componentry analysis of pyroclastic deposits with density, textural, and compositional analysis of juvenile clasts contained in the pyroclastic deposits. The 1883 A.D. Burr Point pyroclastic unit immediately overlies the 1883 debris avalanche deposit and underlies the 1912 Katmai ash. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 48 cm and consists of fine to medium sand-sized particles and coarser fragments of andesite. In places, this unit is normally graded and exhibits cross-bedding. Many of these samples are fines-enriched, with sorting coefficients ranging from -0.1 to 1.9 and median grain size ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 mm. The ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island pyroclastic unit is sandwiched between the underlying West Island debris-avalanche deposit and the overlying 1912 Katmai Ash deposit, and at times a fine-grained gray ash originating from the 1883 eruption. West Island pyroclastic deposit is sand to coarse-sand-sized and either normally graded or massive with sorting coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 and median grain sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 mm. Some samples display a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, while

  10. The effective porosity and grain size relations in permeability functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urumović, K.; Urumović, K., Sr.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogeological parameters of coherent and incoherent deposits are deeply dependent of their granulometric characteristics. These relations were shaped in formulas and defaultly used for calculation of hydraulic conductivity, and are valid only for uniform incoherent materials, mostly sands. In this paper, the results of analyses of permeability and specific surface area as a function of granulometric composition of various sediments - from siltey clays to very well graded gravels are presented. The effective porosity and the referential grain size are presented as fundamental granulometric parameters which express an effect of forces operating fluid movement through the saturated porous media. Suggested procedures for calculating referential grain size and determining effective (flow) porosity result with parameters that reliably determine specific surface area and permeability. These procedures ensure successful appliance of Kozeny-Carman model up to the limits of validity of Darcy's law. The value of an effective porosity in function of referential mean grain size has been calibrated within range from 1.5 μm to 6.0 mm. Reliability of these parameters application in KC model was confirmed by very high correlation between predicted and tested hydraulic conductivity - R2 = 0.99 for sandy and gravelly materials and R2 = 0.70 for clayey-siltey materials. Group representation of hydraulic conductivity (ranged from 10-12 m s-1 up to 10-2 m s-1) presents coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.97, for total sum of 175 samples of various deposits. These results present the new road to researches of porous material's effective porosity, permeability and specific surface area distribution, since these three parameters are critical conditions for successful groundwater flow modelling and contaminant transport. From the practical point of view, it is very important to be able to identify these parameters swiftly, cheaply and very accurately.

  11. Do community characteristics predict alcohol-related crime?

    PubMed

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Slade, Tim; Love, Stephanie; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-related crime is a substantial community problem. There is evidence to suggest that certain geographic areas experience higher rates of alcohol-related crime and that both individual and community factors are associated with alcohol-related crime. There is limited research at the community level despite communities being the target of interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm. This study aims to determine whether there are differences in alcohol-related crime at the community level and examines whether certain community characteristics are associated with increased alcohol-related crime. Routinely collected police data from 20 rural communities in New South Wales, Australia were analysed. The ratio of alcohol to non-alcohol-related criminal incidents was used as a proxy for alcohol-related crime. Predictor variables were population-adjusted community characteristics, including demographic and resource variables. Regression analyses suggest that there are differences between communities in alcohol-related crime. Less socioeconomic disadvantage and more GPs and licensed premises (pubs and clubs) are associated with greater alcohol-related crime at the community level. Decreasing the socioeconomic well-being of a community is not appropriate; however, introducing additional taxes to increase the cost of alcohol may decrease consumption and therefore alcohol-related crime. Reducing or capping the number of licensed premises, specifically the number of pubs and clubs, may be an appropriate strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime in rural communities.

  12. Home Visiting Processes: Relations with Family Characteristics and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…

  13. Relations between structural and dynamic thermal characteristics of building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of internal thermal structure on dynamic characteristics of walls is analyzed. The concept of structure factors is introduced and the conditions they impose on response factors are given. Simple examples of multilayer walls, representing different types of thermal resistance and capacity distribution, are analyzed to illustrate general relations between structure factors and response factors. The idea of the ``thermally equivalent wall``, a plane multilayer structure, with dynamic characteristics similar to those of a complex structure, in which three-dimensional heat flow occurs, is presented.

  14. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Rudasill, Kathleen M; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis L; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent-reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep, and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph-based records. The findings that parent-reported and actigraph-recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents' awareness of their child's sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep.

  15. Sexual Assault Characteristics and Perceptions of Event-Related Distress.

    PubMed

    Blayney, Jessica A; Read, Jennifer P

    2015-11-20

    Sexual assault (SA) is a potent psychological stressor, linked to harmful mental health outcomes in both the short- and long-term. Specific assault characteristics can add to the toxicity of SA events. Although research has assessed characteristics of the assault itself (e.g., force, penetration), few studies have examined the larger socioenvironmental context in which SA takes place. This was the purpose of the present study. Young adults (N = 220; 80% female; 54% current students) reported on their most recent SA during college. Cross-sectional associations were tested via structural equation modeling to determine the contributions of socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics in predicting event-related distress. Socioenvironmental context from the most recent assault included assault setting, intoxication at the time of the assault, perpetrator relationship, and prior consensual sexual experiences with the perpetrator. We also examined assault characteristics, including physical force and penetration. Participants reported how upsetting the most recent assault was (a) at the time it occurred and (b) currently. Results revealed differential patterns for socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics based on the timing of distress (past or present). Notably, many of the socioenvironmental factors showed associations with distress above and beyond the powerful effects of physical force and penetration. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the unique factors that contribute to and maintain psychological distress in sexually victimized young adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Cytogenetic, clinical, and cytologic characteristics of radiotherapy-related leukemias

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, P.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J.

    1988-04-01

    From 1978 to 1985, we observed eight cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemia, three cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and three cases of chronic myeloid leukemia in patients previously treated exclusively with radiotherapy for other tumor types. The latent period from administration of radiotherapy to development of leukemia varied between 12 and 243 months. Clonal chromosome aberrations reported previously as characteristic of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia following therapy with alkylating agents were observed in three of the eight patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (5q- and -7) and in two of the three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (-7 and 12p-). All three patients with radiotherapy-related chronic myeloid leukemia presented a t(9;22)(q34;q11). The results suggest that cytogenetic characteristics may reflect the etiology in radiation-induced acute leukemias, whereas radiation-related chronic myeloid leukemia does not seem to differ chromosomally from de novo cases of the disease.

  17. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 108 and 3 × 1010 particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed.

  18. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings.

    PubMed

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(10) particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed.

  19. Relative motion characteristics of 2 near-Earth Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of the nonlinear dynamical system of two GRAVSAT - type satellites was investigated by performing several numerical experiments which provide the simulations of the relative motion characteristics between the two satellites for various specified time intervals. The simulations included the relative range, range-rate, and relative acceleration magnitude. These simulations were generated with respect to appropriate initial orbital elements which were obtained such that the instantaneous separation distance between the two satellites has small fluctuations from a specified constant separation distance. The simulation results indicate that the behavior of the relative motions is very sensitive to the initial orbital elements of the satellites and that for a specified time interval of interest. A stable behavior is possible only with the use of an appropriate set of initial orbital elements compatible with the gravity field used to derive them.

  20. Solution nonideality related to solute molecular characteristics of amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, C R; Fullerton, G D; Cameron, I L; Xiong, J

    1995-01-01

    By measuring the freezing-point depression for dilute, aqueous solutions of all water-soluble amino acids, we test the hypothesis that nonideality in aqueous solutions is due to solute-induced water structuring near hydrophobic surfaces and solute-induced water destructuring in the dipolar electric fields generated by the solute. Nonideality is expressed with a single solute/solvent interaction parameter I, calculated from experimental measure of delta T. A related parameter, I(n), gives a method of directly relating solute characteristics to solute-induced water structuring or destructuring. I(n)-values correlate directly with hydrophobic surface area and inversely with dipolar strength. By comparing the nonideality of amino acids with progressively larger hydrophobic side chains, structuring is shown to increase with hydrophobic surface area at a rate of one perturbed water molecule per 8.8 square angstroms, implying monolayer coverage. Destructuring is attributed to dielectric realignment as described by the Debye-Hückel theory, but with a constant separation of charges in the amino-carboxyl dipole. By using dimers and trimers of glycine and alanine, this destructuring is shown to increase with increasing dipole strength using increased separation of fixed dipolar charges. The capacity to predict nonideal solution behavior on the basis of amino acid characteristics will permit prediction of free energy of transfer to water, which may help predict the energetics of folding and unfolding of proteins based on the characteristics of constituent amino acids. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7711253

  1. Drought propagation and its relation with catchment biophysical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Lara, A.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts propagate in the hydrological cycle from meteorological to soil moisture to hydrological droughts. To understand the drivers of this process is of paramount importance since the economic and societal impacts in water resources are directly related with hydrological droughts (and not with meteorological droughts, which have been most studied). This research analyses drought characteristics over a large region and identify its main exogenous (climate forcing) and endogenous (biophysical characteristics such as land cover type and topography) explanatory factors. The study region is Chile, which covers seven major climatic subtypes according to Köppen system, it has unique geographic characteristics, very sharp topography and a wide range of landscapes and vegetation conditions. Meteorological and hydrological droughts (deficit in precipitation and streamflow, respectively) are characterized by their durations and standardized deficit volumes using a variable threshold method, over 300 representative catchments (located between 27°S and 50°S). To quantify the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought, we propose a novel drought attenuation index (DAI), calculated as the ratio between the meteorological drought severity slope and the hydrological drought severity slope. DAI varies from zero (catchment that attenuates completely a meteorological drought) to one (the meteorological drought is fully propagated through the hydrological cycle). This novel index provides key (and comparable) information about drought propagation over a wide range of different catchments, which has been highlighted as a major research gap. Similar drought indicators across the wide range of catchments are then linked with catchment biophysical characteristics. A thorough compilation of land cover information (including the percentage of native forests, grass land, urban and industrial areas, glaciers, water bodies and no vegetated areas), catchment physical

  2. Characteristics of sex-related homicides in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Henry, Tara

    2010-01-01

    The identification and interpretation of anogenital findings postmortem is a critical component of a sex-related homicide investigation. The use of a colposcope to assist in identifying anogenital injuries in living sexual assault victims is well established. The use of a colposcope for postmortem anogenital examination has been briefly mentioned in a few publications, however, no studies were found regarding the types and sites of postmortem anogenital injuries identified with a colposcope in sex-related homicide cases. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic, physical examination, and victim-suspect relationship characteristics of sex-related homicides in Alaska. Genital findings in living and deceased sexual assault victims in Alaska were compared. Given the results of this study, postmortem sexual assault examinations should be conducted in all suspected intimate partner homicides. Further implications for forensic nursing practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  3. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  4. Characteristics and outcomes of work-related open globe injuries.

    PubMed

    Kanoff, Justin M; Turalba, Angela V; Andreoli, Michael T; Andreoli, Christopher M

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated for open globe injuries sustained at work and to compare these results to patients injured outside of work. Retrospective chart review of 812 consecutive patients with open globe injuries treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1999 and 2008. A total of 146 patients with open globe injuries sustained at work were identified and their characteristics and outcomes were compared with the rest of the patients in the database. Of the patients injured at work, 98% were men, and the average age of the patients was 35.8 years (17-72 years). The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma (56%); 38 patients examined had intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB). Nine work-related open globe injuries resulted in enucleation. There was a higher incidence of IOFBs (P = .0001) and penetrating injuries (P = .0005) in patients injured at work. Both the preoperative (P = .0001) and final best-corrected visual acuity (P = .0001) was better in the work-related group. The final visual acuity was better than 20/200 in 74.1% of cases of work-related open globe injuries. However, there was no difference observed in the rate of enucleations (P = .4). Work-related injuries can cause significant morbidity in a young population of patients. Based on average patient follow-up and final visual acuity, those injured at work do at least as well as, if not potentially better than, those with open globe injuries sustained outside of work. While the statistically higher rate of IOFB in the work population is not surprising, it does emphasize the importance of strict adherence to the use of eye protection in the workplace. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraocular Muscle Characteristics Related to Myasthenia Gravis Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiping; Li, Jie; Gou, Lin; Zhang, Lihua; Miao, Jianting; Li, Zhuyi

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of extraocular muscle (EOM) weakness in myasthenia gravis might involve a mechanism specific to the EOM. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of the EOM related to its susceptibility to myasthenia gravis. Methods Female F344 rats and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received injection with Ringer solution containing monoclonal antibody against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), mAb35 (0.25 mg/kg), to induce experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, and the control group received injection with Ringer solution alone. Three muscles were analyzed: EOM, diaphragm, and tibialis anterior. Tissues were examined by light microscopy, fluorescence histochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to assess marker expression and ELISA analysis was used to quantify creatine kinase levels. Microarray assay was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes. Results In the experimental group, the EOM showed a simpler neuromuscular junction (NMJ) structure compared to the other muscles; the NMJ had fewer synaptic folds, showed a lesser amount of AChR, and the endplate was wider compared to the other muscles. Results of microarray assay showed differential expression of 54 genes in the EOM between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion Various EOM characteristics appear to be related to the increased susceptibility of the EOM and the mechanism of EOM weakness in myasthenia gravis. PMID:23409007

  6. Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Park, Jin-Hee; Lim, Juyun

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener with various functional properties, compared to other sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, rebaudioside A), over a wide range of sweetness commonly found in foods and beverages (3% to 20% sucrose [w/v]). A total of 34 subjects evaluated aqueous solutions of the 5 sweeteners for the perceived intensities of sweetness, bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations, and sweet aftertaste, using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale. The relationship between the physical concentrations of the sweeteners and their perceived sweetness (that is, psychophysical functions) was derived to quantify the relative sweetness and potency of the sweeteners. The results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities (bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations). Out of the 5 sweeteners tested, rebaudioside A was the only sweetener with notable bitterness and chemical-like sensations, which became progressively intense with increasing concentration (P < 0.001). In terms of perceived sweetness intensity, the bulk sweeteners (tagatose, erythritol, sucrose) had similar sweetness growth rates (slopes > 1), whereas the high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, rebaudioside A) yielded much flatter sweetness functions (slopes < 1). Because the sweetness of tagatose and sucrose grew at near-identical rates (slope = 1.41 and 1.40, respectively), tagatose produced about the same relative sweetness to sucrose across the concentrations tested. However, the relative sweetness of other sweeteners to sucrose was highly concentration dependent. Consequently, sweetness potencies of other sweeteners varied across the concentrations tested, ranging from 0.50 to 0.78 for erythritol, 220 to 1900 for sucralose, and 300 to 440 for rebaudioside A, while tagatose was estimated to be approximately 0.90 times as potent as

  7. Characteristics of alcohol-related fatal general aviation crashes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Lamb, Margaret W; Qiang, Yandong; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2005-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on piloting performance have been studied extensively. Information describing alcohol-related aviation crashes, however, is scant. We developed a data system for fatally injured pilots in Maryland, New Mexico, and North Carolina by linking autopsy data from the state medical examiner offices and crash investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board. Alcohol-related crashes are defined as those in which the pilot had a blood alcohol concentration of 20 mg/dL or greater. Differences between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related crashes were assessed with regard to pilot characteristics, crash circumstances, and human factors. The National Transportation Safety Board recorded 313 general aviation crashes fatal to the pilot in the three states between 1985 and 2000. Of these crashes, 255 (81%) were matched successfully with medical examiner records. Alcohol testing results were available for 233 of the fatally injured pilots. Of those tested for alcohol, 25 (11%) had blood alcohol concentrations > or =20 mg/dL (mean=75 +/- 64 mg/dL). The majority of alcohol-related crashes (52%) occurred at night (7p.m. to 6a.m.), compared with 28% of other crashes (P < 0.01). Alcohol-related crashes were significantly more likely than other crashes to have involved continued flight under visual flight rules (VFR) into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) (32% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and flawed decisions (64% versus 41%, P = 0.03). Distinctive epidemiological patterns are exhibited in alcohol-related fatal general aviation crashes. Alcohol appears to play a particularly important role in crashes involving flight under VFR into IMC.

  8. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Injury severity related to overturn characteristics of tractors.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P; Westneat, Susan C

    2009-01-01

    Early studies of injuries associated with overturns indicate that more fatalities occurred when a tractor overturned beyond 90 degrees (continuous roll) relative to the impact plane. Recently, the principle of preventing continuous rolls has re-emerged for the protection of riding lawnmower operators. Related to tractors, a population-based study was conducted that compared the severity of fatal and nonfatal injuries between a 90 degrees and continuous roll for tractors equipped with rollover protective structures (ROPS) and not equipped with a ROPS (non- ROPS). In 2002, the Kentucky Farm Tractor Overturn Survey was administered to an 8% random sample (6,063) of Kentucky farm operators. The farmers responded to questions that differentiated between the types of overturns and operator injury outcomes for ROPS-equipped and non-ROPS tractors during overturn events. Overturn characteristics were collected that included 90 degrees to the side, beyond 90 degrees to the side, and to the rear for both ROPS-equipped and non-ROPS tractors. Of the 541 overturns reported in this study, 535 (99%) of the respondents reported the most recent overturn characteristics of the tractor: 92 (17%) were ROPS-equipped and 443 (83%) were non-ROPS. For side overturns, 67% of the rolls occurred with ROPS-equipped tractors, and 54% occurred with non-ROPS tractors. The percentages of deaths related to rolls to the side for ROPS-equipped and non-ROPS tractors were, respectively, 1.6% and 3.7%. There was one (2%) deaths related to 90 degrees rolls for ROPS-equipped tractors, whereas for continuous rolls there were 6.4% fatalities related to side overturns, 13% resulted in non-fatal injuries with an average of 1 day of hospitalization for ROPS-equipped tractors, and 39% resulted in non-fatal injuries with an average of 18 days of hospitalization for non-ROPS tractors. The results from this study indicated that a ROPS was more effective at stopping an overturn at 90 degrees than no ROPS, with an

  10. Biocompatilibity-related surface characteristics of oxidized NiTi.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Anatoli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Tuukkanen, Juha; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-09-15

    In the present study, we examined the effect of NiTi oxidation on material surface characteristics related to biocompatibility. Correspondence between electron work function (EWF) and adhesive force predicted by electron theory of adsorption as well as the effect of surface mechanical stress on the adhesive force were studied on the nonoxidized and oxidized at 350, 450, and 600 degrees C NiTi alloy for medical application. The adhesive force generated by the material surface towards the drops of alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) was used as a characteristic of NiTi adsorption properties. The study showed that variations in EWF and mechanical stress caused by surface treatment were accompanied by variations in adhesive force. NiTi oxidation at all temperatures used gave rise to decrease in adhesive force and surface stress values in comparison to the nonoxidized state. In contrary, the EWF value revealed increase under the same condition. Variations in surface oxide layer thickness and its phase composition were also followed. The important role of oxide crystallite size in EWF values within the range of crystallite dimensions typical for NiTi surface oxide as an instrument for the fine regulation of NiTi adsorption properties was demonstrated. The comparative oxidation of pure titanium and NiTi showed that the effect of Ni on the EWF value of NiTi surface oxide is negligible.

  11. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  12. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations.

  13. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  14. Fixed mesh refinement in the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, W.; de Oliveira, H. P.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.

    2017-08-01

    We implement a spatially fixed mesh refinement under spherical symmetry for the characteristic formulation of General Relativity. The Courant-Friedrich-Levy condition lets us deploy an adaptive resolution in (retarded-like) time, even for the nonlinear regime. As test cases, we replicate the main features of the gravitational critical behavior and the spacetime structure at null infinity using the Bondi mass and the News function. Additionally, we obtain the global energy conservation for an extreme situation, i.e. in the threshold of the black hole formation. In principle, the calibrated code can be used in conjunction with an ADM 3+1 code to confirm the critical behavior recently reported in the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in an asymptotic anti-de Sitter spacetime. For the scenarios studied, the fixed mesh refinement offers improved runtime and results comparable to code without mesh refinement.

  15. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is

  16. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  17. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15–49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions – a finding that is

  18. Fatigue in employees with diabetes: its relation with work characteristics and diabetes related burden

    PubMed Central

    Weijman, I; Ros, W; Rutten, G; Schaufeli, W; Schabracq, M; Winnubst, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine the relations between work characteristics as defined by the Job Demand-Control-Support model (JDCS) (that is, job demands, decision latitude, and social support), diabetes related burden (symptoms, seriousness of disease, self care activities, and disease duration), and fatigue in employees with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Employees (n = 292) aged 30–60 years, with insulin treated diabetes, filled in self administered questionnaires that assess the above mentioned components of the JDCS model and diabetes related burdens. Results: Both work and diabetes related factors are related to fatigue in employees with diabetes. Regression analyses revealed that work characteristics explain 19.1% of the variance in fatigue; lack of support, and the interaction of job demands and job control contribute significantly. Diabetes related factors explain another 29.0% of the variance, with the focus on diabetes related symptoms and the burden of adjusting insulin dosage to circumstances. Fatigue is more severe in case of lack of social support at work, high job demands in combination with a lack of decision latitude, more burden of adjusting insulin dosage to circumstances, and more diabetic symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that diabetic symptoms and the burden of adjusting the insulin dosage to circumstances are especially relevant in combination with high job demands. Conclusions: Both diabetes and work should be taken into consideration—by (occupational) physicians as well as supervisors—in the communication with people with diabetes. PMID:12782754

  19. Game-specific characteristics of sport-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Ingo

    2016-09-14

    Concussions are common incidences in sports. However, game-specific characteristics such as tactics, field positions, etc. might positively/negatively contribute to the occurrence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in various sports such as soccer, volleyball, handball, or basketball. Thus, the intention of this study was to analyze game- specific characteristics of concussive incidents in active players from the perspective of different sportive disciplines. Four sport-specific questionnaires for soccer, handball, volleyball and basketball were established using an online survey tool. 3001 participants completed the questionnaires. 18% of the participants answered that they had experienced a concussion which significantly differed depending on the sport practiced (χ2(3)=56,868, p<0,001; soccer 25%, handball 24%, volleyball 13%, basketball 15%). Whereas handball and soccer players experienced most concussions on the amateur level, volleyball players experienced most on the professional level and basketball players during leisure play (χ2(9)=112,667, p<0,001). Soccer players experienced most concussions by a collision with another player, volleyball players instead experienced most concussions by hits from the ball (χ2(6)=211,260, p<0,001). In soccer, goalkeepers and defensive midfield players showed most concussive incidences (χ2(7)=19.638, p<0,01); in volleyball, the "libero" position and outside positions showed to be significantly affected from sport-related concussions (χ2(6)=13.617, p<0,05). The present results showed that factors critically contributing to the occurrence of concussions are sport-specific and particularly concern amateurs. This indicates that most concussions in ball games appear in situations, where medical care units are not necessarily present. Preventive measures should therefore especially address amateurs in ball sports.

  20. Pregnancy-related Characteristics and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J.; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Hutson, Alan D.; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B.; Edge, Stephen B.; Freudenheim, Jo L.

    2013-01-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman’s pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n=960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n=1,852) were randomly selected from Motor Vehicle records (<65 years) or Medicare rolls (≥65 years). Women were queried on their lifetime pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (P-trend<0.001), longer duration (P-trend<0.01), and larger proportion of affected pregnancies (P-trend<0.0001) among women with ≥3 pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (<5y). Findings did not differ by menopausal status or breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention. PMID:23737027

  1. Work-related injuries: injury characteristics, survival, and age effect.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Barmparas, Galinos; Plurad, David; Lam, Lydia; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-06-01

    Work-related injuries impose a significant burden on society. The goal of this study was to delineate the epidemiology and the effect of age on type and mortality after occupational injuries. Patients 16 years of age or older sustaining work-related injuries were identified from the National Trauma Databank 12.0. The study population was stratified into four age groups: 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years old. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, setting of injury, use of alcohol or other illicit drugs, and mortality were analyzed and related to age strata. Overall 67,658 patients were identified. There were 27,125 (40.1%) patients in the age group 16 to 35 years, 30,090 (44.5%) in the group 36 to 55 years, 6,618 (9.8%) in the group 56 to 65 years, and 3,825 (5.7%) older than 65 years. The injury severity increased significantly with age. Elderly patients were significantly more likely to sustain intracranial hemorrhages, spinal, and other skeletal injuries. The overall mortality was 2.9 per cent (1938) with the latter increasing significantly in a stepwise fashion with progressing age, becoming sixfold higher in patients older than 65 years (OR, 6.18; 95% CI, 4.78 to 7.80; P < 0.001). Our examination illustrates the associations between occupational injury and significant mortality that warrant intervention for mortality reduction. There is a stepwise-adjusted increase in mortality with progressing age.

  2. Characteristics of methadone-related fatalities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg

    2015-11-01

    There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (<1 g/L) (n = 21); group 2 - multiple additional drugs/substances detected below lethal levels (n = 175); group 3 - one or more additional drugs/substances detected at lethal levels, or ethanol >3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication.

  3. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  4. Empirical relations between large wood transport and catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Rickli, Christian; Badoux, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    The transport of vast amounts of large wood (LW) in water courses can considerably aggravate hazardous situations during flood events, and often strongly affects resulting flood damage. Large wood recruitment and transport are controlled by various factors which are difficult to assess and the prediction of transported LW volumes is difficult. Such information are, however, important for engineers and river managers to adequately dimension retention structures or to identify critical stream cross-sections. In this context, empirical formulas have been developed to estimate the volume of transported LW during a flood event (Rickenmann, 1997; Steeb et al., 2017). The data base of existing empirical wood load equations is, however, limited. The objective of the present study is to test and refine existing empirical equations, and to derive new relationships to reveal trends in wood loading. Data have been collected for flood events with LW occurrence in Swiss catchments of various sizes. This extended data set allows us to derive statistically more significant results. LW volumes were found to be related to catchment and transport characteristics, such as catchment size, forested area, forested stream length, water discharge, sediment load, or Melton ratio. Both the potential wood load and the fraction that is effectively mobilized during a flood event (effective wood load) are estimated. The difference of potential and effective wood load allows us to derive typical reduction coefficients that can be used to refine spatially explicit GIS models for potential LW recruitment.

  5. Relating rainfall characteristics to cloud top temperatures at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Cornelia; Belušić, Danijel; Taylor, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Extreme rainfall from mesoscale convective systems (MCS) poses a threat to lives and livelihoods of the West African population through increasingly frequent devastating flooding and loss of crops. However, despite the significant impact of such extreme events, the dominant processes favouring their occurrence are still under debate. In the data-sparse West African region, rainfall radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) gives invaluable information on the distribution and frequency of extreme rainfall. The TRMM 2A25 product provides a 15-year dataset of snapshots of surface rainfall from 2-4 overpasses per day. Whilst this sampling captures the overall rainfall characteristics, it is neither long nor frequent enough to diagnose changes in MCS properties, which may be linked to the trend towards rainfall intensification in the region. On the other hand, Meteosat geostationary satellites provide long-term sub-hourly records of cloud top temperatures, raising the possibility of combining these with the high-quality rainfall data from TRMM. In this study, we relate TRMM 2A25 rainfall to Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) cloud top temperatures, which are available from 2004 at 15 minutes intervals, to get a more detailed picture of the structure of intense rainfall within the life cycle of MCS. We find TRMM rainfall intensities within an MCS to be strongly coupled with MSG cloud top temperatures: the probability for extreme rainfall increases from <10% for minimum temperatures warmer than -40°C to over 70% when temperatures drop below -70°C, confirming the potential in analysing cloud-top temperatures as a proxy for extreme rain. The sheer size of MCS raises the question which scales of sub-cloud structures are more likely to be associated with extreme rain than others. In the end, this information could help to associate scale changes in cloud top temperatures with processes that affect the probability of extreme rain. We use 2D continuous

  6. Clinical characteristics of refractory melamine-related renal calculi.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Chen, YiRong; Huang, Gang; Ru, XiaoRui; Li, WenHui; Zhang, Wei; Huang, XiaoGang

    2011-11-01

    The melamine urinary stones are uric acid-based and amenable to alkalization and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). However, a significant percentage of stones failed in alkalization and ESWL. To predict it before a likely deemed failed treatment, we attempt to confirm their clinical characteristics. A total of 6 refractory- and 9 sensitive-melamine-related renal calculi were included from 15 children (age 6-51 months, mean 14). Renal function, and blood calcium and uric acid level were measured before treatment. Stone composition was determined qualitatively using Fourier transform infrared. Stone computed tomography (CT)-attenuation value, stone melamine and cyanuric acid level, and stone calcium level were performed quantitatively using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively. Blood biochemical parameters in all children within the normal reference range and no difference was observed between refractory melamine stones and sensitive melamine stones (P >.05). Compared with sensitive melamine stones, stone calcium level and stone CT-attenuation value in refractory melamine stones were significantly higher (21.58 ± 5.76% vs 1.37 ± 1.47%, P = .000; 1037 ± 341HU vs 156 ± 61HU, P = 0.000). Multivariate regression analysis indicated stone calcium level had more impact on alkalization failure than other factors (P(children's age) = .670, P(feedingtime) = .826, P(stonesize) = .376, and P(stonecalcium level) = .000, and P(regressionmodel) = .000). Higher stone calcium level is the essential change of refractory melamine stones. The stones from children older than 2 years or stones with in vivo CT-attenuation value >700 Hounsfield units in clinical setting should be strong suspected for alkalization- and ESWL-resistance because they most likely contain >10.88% calcium level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristic(s) of Hypermedia and How They Relate to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastrez, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Offers a redefining of three problem areas associated with the cognitive effects of the semiotic characteristics of hypermedia: hypertext associativity, non-linearity, and the rapprochement of real and hypertext navigation. Focuses on navigation and discusses characteristics of hypermedia and its rapport with knowledge. (Author/LRW)

  8. Combat-related PTSD nightmares and imagery rehearsal: nightmare characteristics and relation to treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Harb, Gerlinde C; Thompson, Richard; Ross, Richard J; Cook, Joan M

    2012-10-01

    The characteristics of nightmares of 48 male U.S. Vietnam war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as revised dream scripts developed in the course of Imagery Rehearsal therapy, were examined in relation to pretreatment symptomatology and treatment outcome. Features, content, and themes of nightmares and rescripted dreams were coded by 2 independent raters. Nightmares were replete with scenes of death and violence and were predominantly replays of actual combat events in which the veteran was under attack and feared for his life. Although addressing or resolving the nightmare theme with rescripting was associated with a reduction in sleep disturbance, references to violence in the rescripted dream were related to poorer treatment outcome in nightmare frequency; B  = 5.69 (SE = 1.14). The experience of olfactory sensations in nightmares, a possible index of nightmare intensity, was also related to poorer treatment response; B  = 2.95 (SE = 1.06). Imagery rehearsal for individuals with severe, chronic PTSD and fairly replicative nightmares may be most effective when the rescripted dream incorporates a resolution of the nightmare theme and excludes violent details.

  9. Community Characteristics and Mortality: The Relative Strength of Association of Different Community Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric; McCleary, Rachael; Buttorff, Christine; Gaskin, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality data, violent crime statistics, and loan delinquency data. We modeled 5-year average mortality rates (1998–2002) for all-cause, cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases as a function of county-level characteristics using ordinary least squares regression models. We limited analyses to counties with population of 100 000 or greater (n = 458). Results. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, particularly the percentage older than 65 years and near poor, were top predictors of all-cause and condition-specific mortality, as were a high concentration of construction and service workers. We found weaker associations for air quality, mortgage delinquencies, and violent crimes. Protective characteristics included the percentage of Hispanics, Asians, and married residents. Conclusions. Multiple factors influence county-level mortality. Although county demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are important, there are independent, although weaker, associations of other environmental characteristics. Future studies should investigate these factors to better understand community mortality risk. PMID:25033152

  10. Clinical characteristics of cervicogenic-related dizziness and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Hain, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Cervical vertigo has long been a controversial entity and its very existence as a medical entity has advocates and opponents. Supporters of cervical vertigo claim that its actual prevalence is underestimated due to the overestimation of other diagnostic categories in clinics. Furthermore, different pathophysiological mechanisms have been attributed to cervical vertigo. Here the authors discuss the clinical characteristics of rotational vertebral artery vertigo, postwhiplash vertigo, proprioceptive cervical vertigo, and cervicogenic vertigo of old age. A clinical entity named subclinical vertebrobasilar insufficiency appears in the context of cervical osteoarticular changes. Migraine-associated vertigo may explain why some patients suffering from cervical pain have vertigo while others do not.

  11. Attachment representations and characteristics of friendship relations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and peer relations, as assessed with an interview in a sample of 43 adolescents. Secure attachment representations were significantly related to interview-based assessments of close friendships, friendship concept, integration in a peer group, and emotion regulation within close friendships. Attachment experiences reported during the AAI, their integration, and their coherency were related to friendship quality and friendship concept. Results show the close associations between attachment representations and friendship relationships during adolescence. The associations between peer relations and attachment representations differed depending on whether an interview approach or a questionnaire approach was used.

  12. SSME model, engine dynamic characteristics related to Pogo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A linear model of the space shuttle main engine for use in Pogo studies was presented. A digital program is included from which engine transfer functions are determined relative to the engine operating level.

  13. Violence-related Versus Terror-related Stabbings: Significant Differences in Injury Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-01-24

    To demonstrate the gap between injury epidemiology of terror-related stabbings (TRS) and non-terror-related intentional stabbings. Terror attacks with sharp instruments have multiplied recently, with many victims of these incidents presented to hospitals with penetrating injuries. Because most practical experience of surgeons with intentional stabbing injuries comes from treating victims of interpersonal violence, potential gaps in knowledge may exist if injuries from TRS significantly differ from interpersonal stabbings (IPS). A retrospective study of 1615 patients from intentional stabbing events recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the period of "Knife Intifada" (January 2013-March 2016). All stabbings were divided into TRS and IPS. The 2 categories were compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources, and clinical outcomes. TRS patients were older, comprised more females and were ethnically homogenous. Most IPS incidents happened on weekdays and at night hours, whereas TRS events peaked midweek during morning and afternoon hours. TRS patients had more injuries of head, face, and neck, and severe head and neck injuries. IPS patients had more abdomen injuries; however, respective injuries in the TRS group were more severe. Greater injury severity of the TRS patients reflected on their higher hospital resources utilization and greater in-hospital mortality. Victims of terror stabbings are profoundly different in their characteristics, sustain injuries of a different profile and greater severity, require more hospital resources, and have worse off clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need of the healthcare systems to adjust itself appropriately to deal successfully with future terror attacks.

  14. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  15. Measurement of "turbidity" and related characteristics of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickering, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division has adopted the following principles to be used in selecting methods for the measurement of light transmitting characteristics of natural waters: (1) standard instruments and methods are to be adopted to measure and report in optical units, avoiding ' turbidity ' as a quantitative measure; (2) reporting of ' turbidity ' in JTU 's, Hellige units, severity, or NTU 's will be phased out; (3) the basis for estimations of sediment concentrations based on light measurements must be documented adequately; and (4) use of transparency measurement by Secchi disk is not changed, although light transmittance may prove to be more precise means of obtaining the same information. A schedule has been established to implement new methods beginning October 1, 1976, and with the transition to be completed at all stations by October 1, 1977. Provisions are provided to meet requirements of cooperators who have legal requirements for ' turbidity ' data. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Climate Related Vegetation Characteristics Derived From MODIS LAI and NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Anderson, B.; Barlow, M.; Tan, B.; Myneni, R.

    2004-12-01

    MODIS-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used to examine detailed information regarding growing season and total annual production across the globe. Overall, MODIS LAI has larger variability and demonstrates more information regarding the evolution and structure of the seasonal vegetation characteristics. In contrast, the NDVI saturates around 0.7 and tends to overestimate the length of the growing season in regions where it is already long. Next, a Climatic Impact Index (CII) is derived to provide additional information regarding the potential sensitivity of vegetation to changes in climatic variables by accounting for the length of growing season. By normalizing the growth rate to the biome-average growth rate, this index can identify fractional loss of annual production during a given month, as opposed to the absolute loss which may be strongly weighted by the overall growth rate for different ecosystems. Our index provides a quantitative framework for assessing the importance of the length of the growing-season in determining climatic vulnerability and highlights regions such as the Sahel, eastern Africa, and central southwest Asia, which are highly susceptible to climate-induced variability during their short but intense growing seasons. In the last part of the paper, we use the long time series AVHRR products as a substitute for the MODIS products, and test the temporal characteristics of the CII, which is termed the CVII (Climate-Variability Impact Index). Major drought events are well-captured by the CVII, suggesting potential use as a monitoring and evaluation tool. Furthermore, the strong positive correlation between the CVII and the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) suggests that the CVII can quantitatively identify the effects of climatic variability upon vegetation activity. Finally, CVII is used to generate models to monitor and predict the crop production at different temporal and spatial scales. Overall

  17. Maternal and birth characteristics in relation to childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Podvin, Danise; Kuehn, Carrie M; Mueller, Beth A; Williams, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association of childhood leukaemia with selected maternal and birth characteristics by conducting a population-based case-control study using linked cancer registry and birth certificate records for Washington State. We compared maternal and infant characteristics of 595 Washington-born residents <20 years old with leukaemia diagnosed during 1981-2003, and 5,950 control children, using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Maternal age 35+ years (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 2.0), infant birthweight 4,000+ g (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8), neonatal jaundice (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), and Down's syndrome (OR 31.3; 95% CI 6.4, 153.4) were associated with an increased risk of leukaemia. Among women with 2+ pregnancies, having at least two prior early (<20 weeks' gestation) fetal deaths was also associated with an increased risk (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.97, 2.1). Maternal unmarried status (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6, 0.9) and African American race (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3, 0.9) were associated with a decreased risk. These results were more marked for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) than for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and for leukaemia diagnosed <5 years of age. These results may provide clues to the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. Genetic epidemiological studies are needed to expand our knowledge of inherent and possibly prenatal influences on the occurrence of this disease.

  18. MULTI-WAVELENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L. E-mail: wendy@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2012-01-10

    We present a physically motivated explanation for the observed, monotonic increase in slope, and the simultaneous (and also monotonic) decrease in the width/scatter of the Leavitt law (the Cepheid period-luminosity (PL) relation) as one systematically moves from the blue and visual into the near- and mid-infrared. We calibrate the wavelength-dependent, surface-brightness sensitivities to temperature using the observed slopes of PL relations from the optical through the mid-infrared and test the calibration by comparing the theoretical predictions with direct observations of the wavelength dependence of the scatter in the Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheid PL relation. In doing so we find the slope of the period-radius (PR) relation is c = 0.724 {+-} 0.006. Investigating the effect of differential reddening suggests that this value may be overestimated by as much as 10%; however, the same slope of the PR relation fits the (very much unreddened) Cepheids in IC 1613, albeit with lower precision. The discussion given is general and also applies to RR Lyrae stars, which also show similarly increasing PL slopes and decreasing scatter with increasing wavelength.

  19. PETN: Variation in Physical and Chemical Characteristics Related to Aging.

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D. C.; Laintz, K. E.; Kramer, J. F.; Peterson, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Physical and chemical analyses of five PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) batches have been conducted to assist in defining powder acceptance criteria for qualification of newly manufactured powders, as well as for examination of potential changes related to aging and thus changes in performance. Results showed that (1) repeatable Fisher Sub-Sieve Sizer measurements (which relate well to historic performance data) could be obtained with consistent sample setup and measurement techniques; (2) BET nitrogen adsorption estimates of surface area correlate well with Fisher measurements and appear less variable; (3) PharmaVision particle size analyses show promise in discriminating among PETN batches; and (4) SEMs are extremely useful in semi-quantitative discrimination among batches. Physical and chemical data will be related to performance data (to be obtained) to develop quantitative physical and chemical tests useful in predicting performance over time, i.e., as powders age.

  20. Relations of Mothers' and Fathers' Reports of Infant Temperament, Parents' Psychological Functioning, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Jaqueline N.; Stevenson, Marguerite B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines 95 parents' reports of relations between infant termperament and parental psychological conditions, as well as familiy characteristics of socioeconomic status, birth order, and infant gender. (HOD)

  1. Relations of Mothers' and Fathers' Reports of Infant Temperament, Parents' Psychological Functioning, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Jaqueline N.; Stevenson, Marguerite B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines 95 parents' reports of relations between infant termperament and parental psychological conditions, as well as familiy characteristics of socioeconomic status, birth order, and infant gender. (HOD)

  2. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females.

  3. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  4. An examination of personality characteristics related to acquiescence.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B; Motl, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Acquiescence, the tendency to agree with statements regardless of content, is often a concern when administering self-report instruments. While there is evidence to support acquiescence as a response style, this reporting tendency may be related to personality factors of individuals. Using a sample of 757 adults, we investigated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale for acquiescence response tendencies by applying the Rasch partial credit model. Results suggested that favorable (i.e., Agree or Strongly Agree) responses were more frequent for the positively worded items than for negatively worded items. Second, the relationship between acquiescence and seven additional personality measures was examined overall and by sex. Among females, acquiescence was correlated with personality measures measuring perceptions by others, whereas acquiescence among males was related to exhibition types of behaviors.

  5. General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2017-04-11

    The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft.

  6. A Characteristic Mass in the Low Redshift Tully Fisher Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Raymond; Kassin, S. A.; Weiner, B. J.; Lee, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    We study the stellar mass Tully Fisher relation (TFR; rotation velocity versus stellar mass) without pre-selecting morphologies for a sample of star forming galaxies at redshifts 0.1 < z < 0.375 from Kassin et al. (2007). Spectra are from Keck/DEIMOS (DEEP2 Survey) and images are from Hubble (AEGIS and CANDELS Surveys). In particular, we study the role morphology plays in the TFR, using qualitative and quantitative measures. Kassin et al found that the TFR at these redshifts is relatively tight for galaxies with stellar masses log M* > 9.5, but has significant scatter to low rotation velocities for less massive galaxies which are disturbed/compact. We show quantitatively that the low mass galaxies log M* < 9.5 which scatter from the TFR at these redshifts are compact and asymmetric. We perform a careful review of literature on the TFR at log M* < 9.5 and find that the vast majority of galaxies have quantitative morphologies indicating disks. We argue that a sample without pre-selection reveals that a significant population of star forming galaxies at these masses (locally and in our relatively low redshift range) are actually compact and asymmetric with large components of disordered motions. It is unclear whether the disorder in these low redshift systems is a result of external dynamic interactions (tidal forces, merger history) or if these galaxies are in a less evolved state.

  7. General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft. PMID:28397797

  8. General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft.

  9. Scorpion-related cardiomyopathy: Clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Abroug, Fekri; Souheil, Elatrous; Ouanes, Islem; Dachraoui, Fahmi; Fekih-Hassen, Mohamed; Ouanes Besbes, Lamia

    2015-07-01

    Scorpion envenomation is a threat to more than 2 billion people worldwide with an annual sting number exceeding one million. Acute heart failure presenting as cardiogenic shock or pulmonary edema, or both is the most severe presentation of scorpion envenomation accounting for 0.27% lethality rate. The purpose of this review is to characterize the scorpion-related cardiomyopathy, clarify its pathophysiological mechanisms, and describe potentially useful treatments in this particular context. We searched major databases on observational or interventional studies (whether clinical or experimental) on the cardiorespiratory consequences of scorpion envenomation and their treatment. No limit of age or language was imposed. A critical appraisal of the literature was conducted in order to provide a pathophysiological scheme that reconciles reported patterns of cardiovascular toxicity and hypotheses and assumptions made so far. Early cardiovascular dysfunction is related to the so-called "vascular phase" of scorpion envenomation, which is related to a profound catecholamine-related vasoconstriction leading to a sharp increase in left ventricular (LV) afterload, thereby impeding LV emptying, and increasing LV filling pressure. Following this vascular phase, a myocardial phase occurs, characterized by a striking alteration in LV contractility (myocardial stunning), low cardiac output, and hypotensive state. The right ventricle involvement is symmetric to that of LV with a profound and reversible alteration in right ventricular performance. This phase is unique in that it is reversible spontaneously or under inotropic treatment. Scorpion myocardiopathy combines the features of takotsubo myocardiopathy (or stress myocardiopathy) which is linked to a massive release in catecholamines leading to myocardial ischemia through coronary vasomotor abnormalities (epicardial coronary spasm and/or increase in coronary microvascular resistance). Treatment of pulmonary edema due to scorpion

  10. Characteristics of Naval Recruits Related to Reading Improvement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-08-01

    were converted into reading levels expected of school children . - ~~ Criterion. The criterion for This study was the difference between fine l and...of read ing improvement . For those men who experi enced a loss in reading abili ty, the statement of having been jailed or in a detention home was the...AQ-A037 327 NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAw DIEGO CALIF FIt 5/9 CHARACT (RIST:CS OF NAVAL RLCRUITS RELATED TO READING IMPROVEMEN——ETC

  11. Characteristics of YouTube™ Videos Related to Mammography.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; MacDonald, Zerlina L; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E

    2015-12-01

    With a monthly total of more than one billion unique visitors, YouTube™ is one of the Internet's most visited websites and contributes to the growing amount of health-related information on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to analyze coverage of mammography screening in popular YouTube™ videos. A total of 173 videos were included in the analysis. Compared with professionally created videos, consumer-created videos had a significantly greater number of comments (>9 comments 38.0% for consumer vs. 11.8% for professional videos, p=<0.001). Videos created by professionals more often portrayed general mammography information (97.1 vs. 88.7%) compared to those created by consumers. The vast majority of videos presented general information (93.6%) related to mammography, and almost two thirds addressed preparing for the test. Less than 20% dealt with other types of examinations. Approximately 30% discussed pain associated with the examination (35.3%) and addressed issues of anxiety (32.4%) and fear (29.5%). Nearly half of the videos presented information about the test results (46.2%). Over 25% covered medical or family history. The majority did not pertain to a specific age group. Future research should focus on analyzing the accuracy of the information in the videos.

  12. Granulometric distribution of natural and flux calcined chert from Ypresian phosphatic series of Gafsa-Metlaoui basin compared to diatomite filter aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, R.; Tlili, A.; Fourati, A.; Ammar, N.; Ounis, A.; Jamoussi, F.

    2012-02-01

    The cherty rocks of the Chouabine Formation of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin (south-western Tunisia), that is composed by biogenic silica, are treated using thermal treatment at 1000°C with flux calcination method in order to prepare a specific filter aids of melting sulfur filter used for the production of sulfuric acid. This work presents the effect of heating on the granulometry of chert. The mineralogical composition of natural starting chert is composed by opal CT (cristobalite/tridymite) and by the mineral mixture of quartz, smectite clay minerals, palygorskite-sepiolite fibrous clay minerals, calcite and hematite. After thermal treatment, at 1000°C, the crystallinity of chert increases significantly and the opal-CT, transforms mostly to opal-C. The comparison of infrared spectra of untreated and treated cherts shows systematic variation of the wavenumber and the intensity of the absorption bands, due to the apparition of 619, 795, 1094 and 1202 cm-1 absorption bands of cristobalite in the infrared spectrum of chert treated sample, which is similar to diatomite. Granulometric analysis show that the natural untreated chert sample displays unimodal distribution, whereas the treated chert sample display bimodal distribution, as same as diatomite. Thus, a new mode appears systematically, between 0.1 μn and 1 μm, for all thermal treated samples with alkaline flux as observed for diatomite.

  13. Family social characteristics related to physical growth of young children.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, N; Mora, J O; Herrera, M G

    1975-01-01

    Altogether 164 poor families who had children of normal and subnormal weight and height were studied in Bogota, Colombia. Physical growth was found to be positively associated with expenditure on food, sanitary conditions in the home, mother's age, birth interval between surviving children, level of parental newspaper reading, aspirations for children, and socioeconomic status. Physical growth was negatively associated with crowded living conditions and family size. Only mother's age, family size, spacing of births, and sanitary conditions were related to weight and height, independent of socioeconomic status. Food expenditure, crowding, parental newspaper reading, and aspirations for children all reflected the influence of socioeconomic status upon physical growth. The findings emphasized the importance of within-class social differences as they affect the physical growth of young children. PMID:1182354

  14. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  15. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  16. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: clinical and pathologic characteristics and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    D'Agati, Vivette D; Chagnac, Avry; de Vries, Aiko P J; Levi, Moshe; Porrini, Esteban; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Praga, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related glomerulopathy is increasing in parallel with the worldwide obesity epidemic. Glomerular hypertrophy and adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis define the condition pathologically. The glomerulus enlarges in response to obesity-induced increases in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, filtration fraction and tubular sodium reabsorption. Normal insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR signalling are critical for podocyte hypertrophy and adaptation. Adipokines and ectopic lipid accumulation in the kidney promote insulin resistance of podocytes and maladaptive responses to cope with the mechanical forces of renal hyperfiltration. Although most patients have stable or slowly progressive proteinuria, up to one-third develop progressive renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade is effective in the short-term but weight loss by hypocaloric diet or bariatric surgery has induced more consistent and dramatic antiproteinuric effects and reversal of hyperfiltration. Altered fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism are increasingly recognized as key mediators of renal lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Newer therapies directed to lipid metabolism, including SREBP antagonists, PPARα agonists, FXR and TGR5 agonists, and LXR agonists, hold therapeutic promise.

  17. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  18. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  19. Associations of quality of life with health-related characteristics among children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kuhlthau, Karen A; McDonnell, Erin; Coury, Dan L; Payakachat, Nalin; Macklin, Eric

    2017-07-01

    We examine whether behavioral, mental health, and physical health characteristics of children with autism are associated with baseline and change in health-related quality of life. We measured health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 total scores from children enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. We used linear mixed model regressions with random slopes. Predictors of lower health-related quality of life at baseline included demographic and insurance characteristics, diagnosis, higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing and externalizing scores, sleep problems by Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, seizures, gastrointestinal problems, and mental health problems. Several characteristics had different associations over time. This study demonstrates that in addition to behavioral and autism-related characteristics, physical and mental health conditions are associated with health-related quality of life in children with autism.

  20. School Characteristics Related to Principals' Perceived Needs for a Violence Prevention Program in the Arkansas Delta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howerton, D. Lynn; Enger, John M.

    The fear of violence among students and teachers is straining the learning environment in many schools. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated school district characteristics in relation to the level of principals' expressed needs for school-violence prevention programs. The district characteristics included finance, size,…

  1. Relations between Housing Characteristics and the Well-Being of Low-Income Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N =…

  2. Nutrition-Related Characteristics of High School Teachers and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jean D.; Woodburn, Margy J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between nutrition-related teacher (N=62) characteristics and effective nutrition education for their teenage students (N=1,073). Instruments used assessed such teacher characteristics as nutrition knowledge, dietary practices, and self-confidence as nutrition educators as well as students' knowledge and dietary practices…

  3. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  4. Peer Relations and Behavioral Characteristics of Isolated Children in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwalk, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly shows that heterogeneity exists in the etiology, associated characteristics, and outcomes of social withdrawal/isolation. While individual level characteristics are thought to contribute to withdrawal and isolation, research suggests that peer relations may play an important role in the extent to which social withdrawal/isolation…

  5. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  6. Peer Relations and Behavioral Characteristics of Isolated Children in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwalk, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly shows that heterogeneity exists in the etiology, associated characteristics, and outcomes of social withdrawal/isolation. While individual level characteristics are thought to contribute to withdrawal and isolation, research suggests that peer relations may play an important role in the extent to which social withdrawal/isolation…

  7. Relations between Housing Characteristics and the Well-Being of Low-Income Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N =…

  8. Relational job characteristics and nurses' affective organizational commitment: the mediating role of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alda; Chambel, Maria José; Castanheira, Filipa

    2016-02-01

    To study work engagement as a mediator of the associations between relational job characteristics and nurses' affective commitment to the hospital. Earlier research has shown that work engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and affective organizational commitment. However, relational job characteristics, which may be job resources, have not been studied or examined in relation to work engagement and affective organizational commitment in the nursing profession. This study uses a correlational survey design and an online survey for data collection. Data for this correlational study were collected by survey over months (2013) from a sample of 335 hospital nurses. Measures included Portuguese translations of the Relational Job Characteristics' Psychological Effects Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Affective Organizational Commitment Scale. Data analysis supports a full mediation model where relational job characteristics explained affective commitment to the hospital through nurses' work engagement. Relational job characteristics contribute to nurses' work engagement, which in turn contributes to affective organizational commitment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children’s outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative as well as qualitative neighborhood characteristics related to outdoor play by means of neighborhood observations. Methods Questionnaires including questions on outdoor play behavior of the child were distributed among 3,651 parents of primary school children (aged 4–12 years). Furthermore, neighborhood observations were conducted in 33 Dutch neighborhoods to map neighborhood characteristics such as buildings, formal outdoor play facilities, public space, street pattern, traffic safety, social neighborhood characteristics, and general impression. Data of the questionnaires and the neighborhood observations were coupled via postal code of the respondents. Multilevel GEE analyses were performed to quantify the correlation between outdoor play and independently measured neighborhood characteristics. Results Parental education was negatively associated with outdoor play among children. Neither the presence nor the overall quality of formal outdoor play facilities were (positively) related to outdoor play among children in this study. Rather, informal play areas such as the presence of sidewalks were related to children’s outdoor play. Also, traffic safety was an important characteristic associated with outdoor play. Conclusions This study showed that, apart from individual factors such as parental education level, certain modifiable characteristics in the neighborhood environment (as measured by neighborhood observations) were associated with outdoor play among boys and girls of different age groups in The Netherlands. Local policy makers from different sectors can use these research findings in creating more activity-friendly neighborhoods for

  10. An Investigation of Grade 12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Molecules and Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith; Preston, Kirk R.

    An understanding of the concepts of atoms and molecules is fundamental to the learning of chemistry. Any misconceptions and alternative conceptions related to these concepts which students harbor will impede much further learning. This paper identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules which Grade 12…

  11. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  12. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  13. An Investigation of Grade 12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Molecules and Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith; Preston, Kirk R.

    An understanding of the concepts of atoms and molecules is fundamental to the learning of chemistry. Any misconceptions and alternative conceptions related to these concepts which students harbor will impede much further learning. This paper identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules which Grade 12…

  14. An assessment of health related quality of life in a male prison population in Greece associations with health related characteristics and characteristics of detention.

    PubMed

    Togas, Constantinos; Raikou, Maria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population.

  15. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  16. Investigation of the relation between the return periods of major drought characteristics using copula functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüsami Afşar, Mehdi; Unal Şorman, Ali; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Different drought characteristics (e.g. duration, average severity, and average areal extent) often have monotonic relation that increased magnitude of one often follows a similar increase in the magnitude of the other drought characteristic. Hence it is viable to establish a relationship between different drought characteristics with the goal of predicting one using other ones. Copula functions that relate different variables using their joint and conditional cumulative probability distributions are often used to statistically model the drought characteristics. In this study bivariate and trivariate joint probabilities of these characteristics are obtained over Ankara (Turkey) between 1960 and 2013. Copula-based return period estimation of drought characteristics of duration, average severity, and average areal extent show joint probabilities of these characteristics can be satisfactorily achieved. Among different copula families investigated in this study, elliptical family (i.e. including normal and t-student copula functions) resulted in the lowest root mean square error. "This study was supported by TUBITAK fund #114Y676)."

  17. Temperament characteristics in patients with panic disorder and their first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Altınbaş, Gülçin; Altınbaş, Kürşat; Gülöksüz, Selin Aktan; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Aydemir, Ömer; Özgen, Güliz

    2015-07-01

    Panic disorder is one of the highly heritable anxiety disorders; and temperament characteristics are considered predicting liability to panic disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests temperament characteristics are intermediate phenotypes for clinical conditions. Given this background, we aimed to investigate temperament characteristics in patients with panic disorder, their first-degree relatives, and healthy controls. Study sample consisted of 60 patients with panic disorder, 37 first-degree relatives of these patients, and 37 age, gender, and education level matched healthy controls (HC). SCID-I, the Panic Agoraphobia Scale, and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to assess clinical characteristics of the patient group. Temperament characteristics were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). Anxious, depressive, cyclothymic, and irritable temperament scores of patients were higher than those of HC. There was no difference between the patients and the relatives, with the exception of higher anxious temperament scores in patients. Overall, our findings suggest that anxious temperament characteristic might be a trait marker for liability to panic disorder. Further research with a prospective design in a larger sample is required to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Agentic personality characteristics and coping: their relation to trait anxiety in college students.

    PubMed

    Weigold, Ingrid K; Robitschek, Christine

    2011-04-01

    Anxiety and its disorders, often present before adulthood, have high personal and societal costs for men and women. This study tested a mediation model in which 3 forms of coping mediate the relation of 3 agentic personality characteristics (i.e., traits associated with the belief that people can effectively exercise control over their lives) to lower levels of anxiety within 1 subgroup of young adults (i.e., college students). The agentic personality characteristics were (a) hardiness, (b) personal growth initiative, and (c) coping self-efficacy. The forms of dispositional coping were (a) problem-focused, (b) emotion-focused, and (c) avoidant. Results suggest that agentic personality characteristics differentially relate to forms of coping and trait anxiety. In addition, coping appears to fully mediate the relations of the personality characteristics to anxiety. The results imply that agentic personality characteristics and coping are important in decreasing and/or protecting against anxiety, in part because of how they relate to forms of coping, and suggest the need for more research.

  19. Agrichemicals in ground water of the midwestern USA: Relations to soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Jaquis, R.J.; Cole, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to ground water. This paper examines the relation of local soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrence of nitrate, atrazine (2-chloro-4 ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-trazine), and atrazine residue [atrazine + deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine)] from 99 wells completed in unconsolidated aquifers across the midwestern USA. The occurrence and concentrations of nitrate and atrazine in ground water were directly related to soil characteristics that determine the rate of water movement. The substantial differences in the relations found among soil characteristics and nitrate and atrazine in ground water suggest that different processes affect the transformation, adsorption, and transport of these contaminants. A multivariate analysis determined that the soil characteristics examined explained the amount of variability in concentrations for nitrate (19.0%), atrazine (33.4%), and atrazine residue (28.6%). These results document that, although soils do affect the transport of agrichemicals to ground water, other factors such as hydrology, land use, and climate must also be considered to understand the occurrence of agrichemicals in ground water.

  20. Predicting relative toxicity of metal ions to bacteria (Microtox{reg_sign}) using ion characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Newman, M.C.; Clark, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The use of predictive effects models with metals has received little attention in toxicology. The purpose of this study was to predict the relative toxicity of individual metal ions and metal mixtures using ion characteristics. The concentration of metal resulting in a 50% reduction in light output (EC50) in marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) was determined for several metals using the Microtox{reg_sign} Toxicity Analyzer. Trends in metal toxicity were predicted by combining metal speciation calculations with empirical models based on metal ion characteristics. These trends were consistent for nine divalent metals (Ca{prime} Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) whether the media mimicked salt water (NaC, medium) or freshwater (NaNO{sub 3} medium). When expanding the study to include an additional 14 mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions, ion characteristics were still useful for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions to bacteria. The prediction of nonadditive toxic effects using metal mixtures was also possible based on ion characteristics. Overall, models based on ion characteristics show much promise for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions using the Microtox{reg_sign} assay.

  1. Dispositional characteristics, relational well-being and perceived life satisfaction and empowerment of elders.

    PubMed

    Francescato, Donata; Pezzuti, Lina; Mebane, Minou; Tomai, Manuela; Benedetti, Maura; Moro, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    The broad purpose of this research is to identify the key modifiable variables most related to elders' life satisfaction and empowerment in order to improve the efficacy of interventions projects. Our study aims to integrate the theoretical perspectives of personality and community psychology focusing both on dispositional characteristics and relational well-being of elders, investigating triads, composed by an elder, a paid caregiver and the most involved relative. This study explores the impact of (1) some socio-demographic characteristics of elders, (2) some modifiable dispositional variables of elders and (3) elders' relational well-being on elders' empowerment and life satisfaction. The study involved 429 people in 143 triads. Semi-structured interviews with elders, paid caregiver and close relatives were used to construct a new pilot measure of elders' relational well-being. Life Satisfaction, Empowerment, Loneliness, Positivity, Humor and Emotions self-efficacy scales were also administered. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed. Elders' positivity, relational well-being of elders and living alone were significantly related to empowerment. Elders' relational well-being and positivity significantly contributed to life satisfaction. Interventions to increase empowerment and life satisfaction should focus primarily on augmenting positivity and relational well-being integrating the theoretical premises of both personality and community psychology.

  2. Characteristics related to elderly persons' not eating for 1 or more days: implications for meal programs.

    PubMed Central

    Frongillo, E A; Rauschenbach, B S; Roe, D A; Williamson, D F

    1992-01-01

    We examined how social, economic, location, health, and food need characteristics are related to elderly persons' not eating for 1 or more days. The following variables were positively related to not eating: ethnicity, location, receipt of Medicaid, living alone, health problems, mobility, age less than 80 years, cancer, nausea, difficulty swallowing, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and receipt of food from a food pantry. These results have implications for allocating meal program funds, screening clients, and monitoring whether clients eat regularly. PMID:1546786

  3. Does Spirituality Make a Difference? Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Spiritual Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammermeister, Jon; Peterson, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships among college students' differing levels of spiritual well-being and 11 psycho-social and health-related characteristics. Results revealed that students scoring higher on the spiritual health measure displayed better outcomes on psycho-social measures (e.g., loneliness, self-esteem and hopelessness). Alcohol and drug use…

  4. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  5. Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

  6. Relation of Course, Instructor, and Student Characteristics to Dimensions of Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckert, Teresa M.; Latier, Amanda; Ringwald, Amy; Silvey, Brenna

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the relation of course, instructor, and student characteristics to student ratings of teaching effectiveness, both overall and within the dimensions of pedagogical skill, rapport with students, difficulty appropriateness, and course value/learning. Interest in the course content, expected grades, satisfaction with the…

  7. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  8. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  9. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  10. Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

  11. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  12. Adult Learners' Satisfaction and Its Relation to Characteristics of the Individual and the Educational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Nicaise, Ides; Baert, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article explores satisfactory learning experiences of adult learners in Flemish formal adult education. Satisfaction is an important issue in motivational psychology. We used the Comprehensive Lifelong Learning Participation Model of Boeren, Nicaise and Baert and explored whether satisfactory experiences relate to characteristics of the…

  13. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  14. Environmental Relative Moldiness Index and Associations with Home Characteristics and Infant Wheeze

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible relationships between mold contamination, as described by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), home characteristics, and the development of wheeze in the first year of life were evaluated among a cohort of urban infants (n = 103) in Syracuse, New York. Pre...

  15. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  16. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Turkish Parents in Relation to Their Recognition of Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslu, Runa Idil; Kapci, Emine Gul; Yildirim, Revan; Oney, Esra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To develop an instrument which could assess the extent to which emotionally maltreating parental behavior was recognized by Turkish parents (Study 1) and to evaluate a group of parental and family characteristics that were related with their recognition of emotional maltreatment (Study 2). Methods: Self-administered instruments were…

  17. Flaccidgrass forage mass and canopy characteristics related to steer digesta kinetics and intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Carostan’ flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb.) has potential as a perennial, warm-season grass for pastures. This 2-yr study examined digesta kinetics, dry matter intake (DMI), and diet of steers as related to canopy characteristics. Steers (Bos Taurus L.) were continuously and variably stoc...

  18. Environmental Relative Moldiness Index and Associations with Home Characteristics and Infant Wheeze

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible relationships between mold contamination, as described by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), home characteristics, and the development of wheeze in the first year of life were evaluated among a cohort of urban infants (n = 103) in Syracuse, New York. Pre...

  19. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  20. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  1. Adult Learners' Satisfaction and Its Relation to Characteristics of the Individual and the Educational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Nicaise, Ides; Baert, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article explores satisfactory learning experiences of adult learners in Flemish formal adult education. Satisfaction is an important issue in motivational psychology. We used the Comprehensive Lifelong Learning Participation Model of Boeren, Nicaise and Baert and explored whether satisfactory experiences relate to characteristics of the…

  2. Fall-related gait characteristics on the treadmill and in daily life.

    PubMed

    Rispens, Sietse M; Van Dieën, Jaap H; Van Schooten, Kimberley S; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2016-02-02

    Body-worn sensors allow assessment of gait characteristics that are predictive of fall risk, both when measured during treadmill walking and in daily life. The present study aimed to assess differences as well as associations between fall-related gait characteristics measured on a treadmill and in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, trunk accelerations of 18 older adults (72.3 ± 4.5 years) were recorded during walking on a treadmill (Dynaport Hybrid sensor) and during daily life (Dynaport MoveMonitor). A comprehensive set of 32 fall-risk-related gait characteristics was estimated and compared between both settings. For 25 gait characteristics, a systematic difference between treadmill and daily-life measurements was found. Gait was more variable, less symmetric, and less stable during daily life. Fourteen characteristics showed a significant correlation between treadmill and daily-life measurements, including stride time and regularity (0.48 < r < 0.73; p < 0.022). No correlation between treadmill and daily-life measurements was found for stride-time variability, acceleration range and sample entropy in vertical and mediolateral direction, gait symmetry in vertical direction, and stability estimated as the local divergence exponent by Rosenstein's method in mediolateral direction (r < 0.16; p > 0.25). Gait characteristics revealed less stable, less symmetric, and more variable gait during daily life than on a treadmill, yet about half of the characteristics were significantly correlated between conditions. These results suggest that daily-life gait analysis is sensitive to static personal factors (i.e., physical and cognitive capacity) as well as dynamic situational factors (i.e., behavior and environment), which may both represent determinants of fall risk.

  3. Handedness and its association with gender-related psychological and physiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, M E; Forbes, S

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to a high level of testosterone is thought to result in sinistrality and increased masculinization in females. This paper seeks to determine whether sinistral females show more masculine characteristics relative to dextral females. Demonstration of such a relationship would support the proposition that testosterone affects laterality. Masculine and feminine personality characteristics, breast size, age at menarche, and regularity of menstruation were measured via a questionnaire administered to 40 dextral and 40 sinistral female university students. Sinistrals were found to score significantly higher on the masculine subscale and lower on the feminine subscale of the Bem Sex Role Inventory relative to their dextral counterparts. No differences were found between the groups for breast size, menstrual regularity, or age at menarche. These results demonstrate that hand preference is associated with gender-related psychological characteristics, but not the physiological characteristics measured. Thus, the possibility that the different sex roles adopted by sinistrals and dextrals is the result of socialisation rather than biological mechanisms, such as testosterone, cannot be ruled out.

  4. Visualization of relation between sound symbolic word and perceptual characteristics of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.; Sakamoto, M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans interact with environmental sounds by easily and quickly identifying external and natural sounds in daily life. Interestingly, we verbalize the perceived auditory information from environmental sound. Onomatopoeia, i.e. sound symbolic word, indicates the linguistic form deeply related to environmental sound. The objective of this study is to visualize the relationship between perceptual properties of onomatopoeia and affective characteristics ("pleasant - unpleasant") perceived from the environmental sound. We have mapped the correlation between perceptual properties by phonemes of onomatopoeia and "pleasant/unpleasant" evaluations of environmental sound. The results showed that many onomatopoeias are related to various perceptual and affective scales. We suggest the importance of relation between the perceptual characteristics in auditory sensation and the phonological properties of sound symbolic words.

  5. Predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions using ion characteristics: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Newman, M.C.; Clark, S.B.

    1996-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been used to predict the relative toxicity of organic compounds. Although not as common, ion characteristics have also proven useful for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the relative toxicity of metal ions using the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay was predictable using ion characteristics. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) were determined for 20 metals in a NaNO{sub 3} medium, which reflected freshwater speciation conditions, using the Microtox bacterial assay. The log of EC50 values was modeled using several ion characteristics, and Akaike`s Information Criterion was calculated to determine which ion characteristics provided the best fit. Whether modeling total ion or free ion EC50 values, the one variable which best modeled EC50s was the softness index, while a combination of {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r ({chi}{sub m} = electronegativity, r = Pauling ionic radius) and {vert_bar}log K{sub OH}{vert_bar} was the best two-variable model. Other variables, including {Delta}E{sub 0} and {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r (one-variable models) and (AN/{Delta}IP, {Delta}E{sub 0}) and ({chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r, Z{sup 2}/r) (two-variable models), also gave adequate fits. Modeling with speciated (free ion) versus unspeciated (total ion) EC50 values did not improve fits. Modeling mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions separately improved the models. The authors conclude that ion characteristics can be used to predict the relative toxicity of metal ions whether in freshwater (NaNO{sub 3} medium) or saltwater (NaCl medium) speciation conditions and that this approach can be applied to metal ions varying widely in both valence and binding tendencies.

  6. Electron correlation and relative energy characteristics in nonempirical calculations of complex beryllohydrides of light elements

    SciTech Connect

    Charkin, O.P.; Cimiraglia, R.; Persico, M.; Tomasi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Nonempirical ab initio calculations have been carried out for 15 molecules of simple and complex beryllohydrides and their salts in the SCF approximation and with consideration of the electron correlation in the CIPSI, MP3, and CISD approximations with various basis sets from 6-31G to 6-311G**. The importance of the correlation contributions to the relative energy characteristics (the dissociation energies, the relative energies of alternative geometric configurations, etc.) of these molecules has been analyzed. The effectiveness of the additive approach for the description of the correlation contributions has been analyzed in series of closely related compounds.

  7. Characteristics of medical schools related to the choice of family medicine as a specialty.

    PubMed

    Campos-Outcalt, D; Senf, J H

    1989-10-01

    Previous research has identified five characteristics of medical schools that are related to the choice of family medicine as a specialty: (1) the amount of time devoted to required training in family medicine, (2) the timing of the required family medicine training, (3) the type of ownership of the school (public or private), (4) the geographic location of the school, and (5) the administrative structure of family medicine within the school. These five characteristics of U.S. medical schools during the mid-1980s, together with the school tuition levels, were examined with both univariate and multivariate analysis to observe their relationships to the percentage of U.S. medical graduates entering family medicine between July 1986 and December 1987. With univariate analysis, each characteristic was significantly related to the percentage of graduates entering family medicine. Using multivariate analysis, only the number of weeks required and the type of ownership of the school were significantly related to the percentage of graduates entering family medicine, with the higher percentages related to greater numbers of required weeks of family medicine training and to public ownership of the school.

  8. A research model for relating job characteristics to job satisfaction of university foodservice employees.

    PubMed

    Duke, K M; Sneed, J

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between demographic variables and job satisfaction for university foodservice employees. A three-part survey was developed which included the 30-item Job Characteristics Inventory, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items. Separate written questionnaires were administered to 32 managerial and 147 non-managerial employees of a large state university foodservice department. The response rate was 98% (32 managers and 143 non-managers). The reliability for the instrument, as determined by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.88 for employees and 0.91 for supervisors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test research hypotheses at a significance level of p less than or equal to .05. There was a positive relationship between job characteristics (autonomy, task identity, feedback, variety, dealing with others, and friendship opportunities) and job satisfaction for both employees and supervisors. Feedback and dealing with others were the individual job characteristics that were significant. Only one job characteristic, dealing with others, was rated higher by managerial than by non-managerial employees. There was no difference in job satisfaction by role (managerial vs. non-managerial) or demographic variables, except age for non-managerial employees. Older, non-managerial employees tended to be more satisfied with their jobs than did younger employees. Dietitians and foodservice managers can use the findings for implementing job design strategies, such as job enrichment and job rotation, to improve employee satisfaction.

  9. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  10. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  11. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient.

  12. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č.

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism. PMID:28197113

  13. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    PubMed

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism.

  14. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Heaney, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  15. Growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as it relates to biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.D.; Chubey, B.B.; Dorrell, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has shown excellent potential as a carbohydrate-rich crop. Initial investigations determined inulin and tuber yields; however, when additional studies showed that good quality pulp remained after inulin extraction and high forage yields per hectare were obtainable, the scope of investigation was broadened to assess utilization of the total plant. Plant growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as they relate to biomass production will be reported.

  16. The characteristics of 78 related airfoil sections from tests in the variable-density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Ward, Kenneth E; Pinkerton, Robert M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of a large group of related airfoils was made in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a large value of the Reynolds number. The tests were made to provide data that may be directly employed for a rational choice of the most suitable airfoil section for a given application. The variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with variations in thickness and mean-line form were systematically studied. (author)

  17. Winter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Guan, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Ferraro, R. D.; Case, J. L.; Iguchi, T.; Kemp, E.; Putman, W.; Wang, W.; Wu, D.; Tian, B.

    2017-03-01

    Winter precipitation (PR) characteristics in western United States (WUS) related to atmospheric river (AR) landfalls are examined using the observation-based PRISM data. The observed AR-related precipitation characteristics are in turn used to evaluate model precipitation data from the NASA MERRA2 reanalysis and from seven dynamical downscaling simulations driven by the MERRA2. Multiple metrics including mean bias, Taylor diagram, and two skill scores are used to measure model performance for three climatological sub-regions in WUS, Pacific Northwest (PNW), Pacific Southwest (PSW) and Great Basin (GB). All model data well represent the winter-mean PR with spatial pattern correlations of 0.8 or higher with PRISM for the three sub-regions. Higher spatial resolutions and/or the use of spectral nudging generally yield higher skill scores in simulating the geographical distribution of PR for the entire winter. The PRISM data shows that the AR-related fraction of winter PR and associated daily PR PDFs in each region vary strongly for landfall locations; AR landfalls in the northern WUS coast (NC) affect mostly PNW while those in the southern WUS coast (SC) affect both PSW and GB. NC (SC) landfalls increase the frequency of heavy PR in PNW (PSW and GB) but reduce it in PSW (PNW). All model data reasonably represent these observed variations in the AR-related winter PR fractions and the daily PR PDFs according to AR landfall locations. However, unlike for the entire winter period, no systematic effects of resolution and/or spectral nudging are identified in these AR-related PR characteristics. Dynamical downscaling in this study generally yield positive added values to the MERRA2 PR in the AR-related PR fraction for most sub-regions and landfall locations, most noticeably for PSW by NU-WRF. The downscaling also generate positive added value in p95 for PNW, but negative values for PSW and GB due to overestimation of heavy precipitation events.

  18. Relation Between Circulating Inflammatory Chemokines and Vascular Characteristics in Healthy, Young Children.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Evelein, Annemieke M V; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Visseren, Frank L J; Bots, Michiel L; Hoefer, Imo E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dalmeijer, Geertje W

    2015-12-16

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood with the occurrence of inflammatory vascular wall alterations that are detectable with B-mode ultrasound. Chemokines appear to be involved in the development of these alterations given that they occur early in the atherosclerotic pathway as mediators of vascular inflammation. However, this has not extensively been investigated. Therefore, we studied in healthy young children whether chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM and ICAM) related to vascular characteristics of the carotid artery. We obtained demography, anthropometry, and overnight fasting plasma of 139 eight-year-old children of the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn birth cohort. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), distensibility, and Young's Elastic Modulus (YEM) of the common carotid artery were measured sonographically. Chemokine plasma levels were assessed using a multiplex assay. We studied the relation between the chemokines and vascular characteristics using multivariable linear regression analyses with adjustments for sex, systolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Of the studied chemokines, RANTES related to common carotid distensibility and YEM. One standard deviation increase in RANTES level related to a 5.45-MPA(-1) (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.43, -1.39; P=0.01) decrease in distensibility and to a 5.55-kPa increase in YEM (95% CI, 0.40, 10.85; P=0.03). RANTES did not relate to CIMT. MCP-1, VCAM, and ICAM did not relate to any of the studied vascular characteristics. RANTES appears to be involved in the development of preatherosclerotic inflammatory vascular alterations already in healthy, young children. This may provide further insight into the early-life origins of atherosclerosis. © 2015

  19. Relational and Item-Specific Encoding (RISE): task development and psychometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ragland, John D; Ranganath, Charan; Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M; Haley, Brittaney; MacDonald, Angus W; Silverstein, Steven M; Strauss, Milton E; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Carter, Cameron S

    2012-01-01

    The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding task (RISE) was designed to assess contributions of specific encoding and retrieval processes to episodic memory in schizophrenia. This manuscript describes how a cognitive neuroscience functional imaging paradigm was translated for clinical research. The RISE manipulates encoding by requiring participants to decide whether stimuli are "living/nonliving" (item-specific) or whether one stimulus fits inside the other (relational) and estimates familiarity (F) and recollection (R) by examining receiver operator characteristics (ROC) and assessing item and associative recognition. Two studies examined psychometric characteristics and tested the hypothesis that patients have differential deficits in relational vs item-specific encoding and disproportionate impairments in recollection vs familiarity. Study 1, using visual objects, provided support for the encoding hypotheses and revealed good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability, with small differences between test forms. ROC analysis revealed R and F deficits, with F deficits most prominent following relational encoding. Study 2 used word stimuli, which lowered item recognition, but patients had difficulty understanding task demands, and words were less desirable for non-English speaking clinical trials, leading to the decision to proceed with the original task. The RISE is a valid and reliable measure of item-specific and relational memory that is well tolerated, with good psychometric characteristics and equivalent forms to facilitate treatment studies. Results indicate that episodic memory in schizophrenia is most preserved under conditions promoting item-specific encoding that is supported by familiarity-based recognition and is most impaired under relational encoding and recollection-based retrieval conditions.

  20. Relational and Item-Specific Encoding (RISE): Task Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ragland, John D.; Ranganath, Charan; Barch, Deanna M.; Gold, James M.; Haley, Brittaney; MacDonald, Angus W.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Strauss, Milton E.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding task (RISE) was designed to assess contributions of specific encoding and retrieval processes to episodic memory in schizophrenia. This manuscript describes how a cognitive neuroscience functional imaging paradigm was translated for clinical research. Methods: The RISE manipulates encoding by requiring participants to decide whether stimuli are “living/nonliving” (item-specific) or whether one stimulus fits inside the other (relational) and estimates familiarity (F) and recollection (R) by examining receiver operator characteristics (ROC) and assessing item and associative recognition. Two studies examined psychometric characteristics and tested the hypothesis that patients have differential deficits in relational vs item-specific encoding and disproportionate impairments in recollection vs familiarity. Results: Study 1, using visual objects, provided support for the encoding hypotheses and revealed good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability, with small differences between test forms. ROC analysis revealed R and F deficits, with F deficits most prominent following relational encoding. Study 2 used word stimuli, which lowered item recognition, but patients had difficulty understanding task demands, and words were less desirable for non-English speaking clinical trials, leading to the decision to proceed with the original task. Conclusions: The RISE is a valid and reliable measure of item-specific and relational memory that is well tolerated, with good psychometric characteristics and equivalent forms to facilitate treatment studies. Results indicate that episodic memory in schizophrenia is most preserved under conditions promoting item-specific encoding that is supported by familiarity-based recognition and is most impaired under relational encoding and recollection-based retrieval conditions. PMID:22124089

  1. Relation Between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Depressive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Sayeda Ahmed; Hussien, El-Sayed Saleh; Hamed, Warda Elshahat; Zoromba, Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to assess the emotional intelligence in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders. A descriptive correlational study was utilized with a sample of (106) depressed patients who were diagnosed by a psychiatrist with depressive disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics in Mansoura University Hospital. Data were collected through assessing socio demographic and clinical characteristics, assessing level of depression using Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II, and assessing emotional intelligence using Barchard emotional intelligence scales. Results revealed that emotional intelligence not related significantly to socio demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with depressive disorders, there is a highly significant relationship between emotional intelligence in relation to level of depression and other practices used to alleviate depression. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct a periodical workshops and training programs for adolescents and young in the universities, schools, social clubs, camps and youth organizations to enhance their emotional intelligence in order to prevent depression. In addition, assessing the effect of emotional intelligence programs on preventing and managing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Grazing bifurcation analysis of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  3. Methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of prosthodontic-related systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Aziz, T; Compton, S; Nassar, U; Matthews, D; Ansari, K; Flores-Mir, C

    2013-04-01

    Ideally, healthcare systematic reviews (SRs) should be beneficial to practicing professionals in making evidence-based clinical decisions. However, the conclusions drawn from SRs are directly related to the quality of the SR and of the included studies. The aim was to investigate the methodological quality and key descriptive characteristics of SRs published in prosthodontics. Methodological quality was analysed using the Assessment of Multiple Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Several electronic resources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and American Dental Association's Evidence-based Dentistry website) were searched. In total 106 SRs were located. Key descriptive characteristics and methodological quality features were gathered and assessed, and descriptive and inferential statistical testing performed. Most SRs in this sample originated from the European continent followed by North America. Two to five authors conducted most SRs; the majority was affiliated with academic institutions and had prior experience publishing SRs. The majority of SRs were published in specialty dentistry journals, with implant or implant-related topics, the primary topics of interest for most. According to AMSTAR, most quality aspects were adequately fulfilled by less than half of the reviews. Publication bias and grey literature searches were the most poorly adhered components. Overall, the methodological quality of the prosthodontic-related systematic was deemed limited. Future recommendations would include authors to have prior training in conducting SRs and for journals to include a universal checklist that should be adhered to address all key characteristics of an unbiased SR process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Influences of Rhythm- and Timbre-Related Musical Features on Characteristics of Music-Induced Movement

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R.; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics. PMID:23641220

  5. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    PubMed

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  6. Transfer of energy in Camassa-Holm and related models by use of nonunique characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    We study the propagation of energy density in finite-energy weak solutions of the Camassa-Holm and related equations. Developing the methods based on generalized nonunique characteristics, we show that the parts of energy related to positive and negative slopes are one-sided weakly continuous and of bounded variation, which allows us to define certain measures of dissipation of both parts of energy. The result is a step towards the open problem of uniqueness of dissipative solutions of the Camassa-Holm equation.

  7. Differential Associations between Components of Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking-Related Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Casey R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)—the tendency to fear anxiety-related experiences—is a risk factor for anxiety disorders and may contribute to smoking motivation and maintenance. Few studies have examined relations between conceptually distinct components of AS and smoking behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations between AS components—Physical Concerns, Mental Concerns, and Social Concerns—and an array of smoking-related characteristics. In a cross-sectional design, we administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and self-report measures of tobacco dependence, smoking abstinence behavior, and smoking outcome and abstinence expectancies to 314 smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day, 32% female, M age = 44 years). ASI Mental Concerns was most clearly associated with greater difficulty maintaining abstinence and stronger expectations of smoking-related negative reinforcement and withdrawal (βs = .21-31, ps≤ .005); ASI Social Concerns was most clearly associated with stronger positive reinforcement smoking expectancies (β = .20, p = .0009); and ASI Physical Concerns was most clearly associated with stronger tobacco withdrawal symptoms experienced in prior quit attempts (β = .20, p = .002). Based on these findings of patterns of associations with smoking-related characteristics across distinct components of AS, we speculate that: (1) mindfulness training may be useful for treating tobacco addiction in smokers high in ASI Mental Concerns; and (2) smokers high in ASI Physical and Social Concerns may benefit from smoking cessation treatment that incorporates interoceptive exposure and cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety, respectively. PMID:25218070

  8. Not All Selfies Took Alike: Distinct Selfie Motivations Are Related to Different Personality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Etgar, Shir; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Selfies have become a frequent and commonplace occurrence, though the reasons which lead people to take selfies remain unclear. This research explores what motivates selfie taking, and suggests that this is not a uniform phenomenon and varying motivations may be found among selfie takers. In addition, the connection between these distinct selfie motivations and personality characteristics, including the big five, narcissism, and self-esteem, as well as types of selfie behaviors are examined. At the first stage of the research, 117 participants filled out a questionnaire dealing with their reasons for taking selfies. An explanatory factor analysis revealed three distinct selfie motivations: self-approval, belonging, and documentation. At the second stage, 191 different participants answered both the same questionnaire, and personality traits questionnaires. A confirmatory factor analysis verified that the three selfie motivations model has a good fit. Our results suggested that each selfie motivator is differently related to personality characteristics: self-approval was negatively related to: conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experiences, and self-esteem, and positively correlated to frequent checking for "likes." Belonging was related to openness to experiences. Documentation was related to agreeableness and extroversion. Unlike previous studies, none of the selfie motivating factors was found to relate to narcissism. The reasons for these differences, as well as the need to refer to selfie taking as a multidimensional phenomenon, are discussed.

  9. Not All Selfies Took Alike: Distinct Selfie Motivations Are Related to Different Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Etgar, Shir; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Selfies have become a frequent and commonplace occurrence, though the reasons which lead people to take selfies remain unclear. This research explores what motivates selfie taking, and suggests that this is not a uniform phenomenon and varying motivations may be found among selfie takers. In addition, the connection between these distinct selfie motivations and personality characteristics, including the big five, narcissism, and self-esteem, as well as types of selfie behaviors are examined. At the first stage of the research, 117 participants filled out a questionnaire dealing with their reasons for taking selfies. An explanatory factor analysis revealed three distinct selfie motivations: self-approval, belonging, and documentation. At the second stage, 191 different participants answered both the same questionnaire, and personality traits questionnaires. A confirmatory factor analysis verified that the three selfie motivations model has a good fit. Our results suggested that each selfie motivator is differently related to personality characteristics: self-approval was negatively related to: conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experiences, and self-esteem, and positively correlated to frequent checking for “likes.” Belonging was related to openness to experiences. Documentation was related to agreeableness and extroversion. Unlike previous studies, none of the selfie motivating factors was found to relate to narcissism. The reasons for these differences, as well as the need to refer to selfie taking as a multidimensional phenomenon, are discussed. PMID:28603508

  10. Optimization of multiple quality characteristics in bone drilling using grey relational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Drilling of bone is common during bone fracture treatment to fix the fractured parts with screws wires or plates. Minimally invasive drilling of the bone has a great demand as it helps in better fixation and quick healing of the broken bones. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the optimum cutting condition for the minimization of the temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Method In this study, drilling experiments have been performed on bovine bone with different conditions of feed rate and drill rotational speed using full factorial design. Optimal level of the drilling parameters is determined by the grey relational grade (GRG) obtained from the GRA as the performance index of multiple quality characteristics. The effect of each drilling parameter on GRG is determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained are validated by confirmation experiment. Results Grey relational analysis showed that the investigation with feed rate of 40 mm/min and spindle speed of 500 rpm has the highest grey relational grade and is recommended setting for minimum temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Feed rate has the highest contribution (59.49%) on the multiple performance characteristics followed by the spindle speed (37.69%) as obtained from ANOVA analysis. Conclusions The use of grey relational analysis will simplify the complex process of optimization of the multi response characteristics in bone drilling by converting them into a single grey relational grade. The use of the above suggested methodology can greatly minimize the bone tissue injury during drilling. PMID:25829751

  11. Optimization of multiple quality characteristics in bone drilling using grey relational analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2015-03-01

    Drilling of bone is common during bone fracture treatment to fix the fractured parts with screws wires or plates. Minimally invasive drilling of the bone has a great demand as it helps in better fixation and quick healing of the broken bones. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the optimum cutting condition for the minimization of the temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. In this study, drilling experiments have been performed on bovine bone with different conditions of feed rate and drill rotational speed using full factorial design. Optimal level of the drilling parameters is determined by the grey relational grade (GRG) obtained from the GRA as the performance index of multiple quality characteristics. The effect of each drilling parameter on GRG is determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained are validated by confirmation experiment. Grey relational analysis showed that the investigation with feed rate of 40 mm/min and spindle speed of 500 rpm has the highest grey relational grade and is recommended setting for minimum temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Feed rate has the highest contribution (59.49%) on the multiple performance characteristics followed by the spindle speed (37.69%) as obtained from ANOVA analysis. The use of grey relational analysis will simplify the complex process of optimization of the multi response characteristics in bone drilling by converting them into a single grey relational grade. The use of the above suggested methodology can greatly minimize the bone tissue injury during drilling.

  12. Parental evaluation of processes of care in relation to the child, parent and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Groleger Sršen, Katja; Vidmar, Gaj; Sočan, Gregor; Zupan, Anton

    2014-09-01

    The Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC) is a questionnaire for parents used to evaluate the behaviours of healthcare providers. We applied its 20-item version (MPOC-20) to explore the associations between parental evaluation of processes of care and child, parent and family characteristics in Slovenia. A novelty of our approach was the emphasis on the role of a key person. Parents of 235 children who were admitted as inpatients or outpatients of six institutions (hospitals and health centres) because of chronic illness or disability participated in the study. Parents were asked to fill in a general questionnaire on several characteristics of the child, child's health problems, the family and the therapy programmes, and MPOC-20. Univariate associations of the five MPOC-20 scale scores with child, parent and family characteristics were tested first. Multiple linear regression was used for modelling scale scores in relation to child, parent and family characteristics. The analyses singled out availability of a key person as the factor most consistently and unequivocally influencing parental satisfaction. We also found a general positive effect of male sex of the child on the MPOC-20 scores. Neither the present age of children nor age at the onset of health problems was found to be associated with MPOC-20 scores. We found no notable association of the number of health problems with the MPOC-20 scores, but observed clear differences when comparing parental satisfaction with processes of care between different participating institutions.

  13. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Merrill S.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and “off-line” processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  14. Drinking Group Characteristics Related to Willingness to Engage in Protective Behaviors with the Group at Nightclubs

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electronic Music Dance Events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol/drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engaged in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives are to: 1) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group; and 2) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Method Nightclub patrons (N=215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Results : Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members’ drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Conclusions Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  15. The relation between sexual interest and personality characteristics in men: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, A; Miyagawa, Y; Takada, S; Nagahara, A; Matsuoka, Y; Takao, T; Nakayama, J; Matsushita, M; Nonomura, N; Okuyama, A

    2010-01-01

    There is a large individual deviation for men, which may be caused by a difference in personality characteristics, in sexual interest in response to sexual stimuli. In this study, we investigate whether attention to the sexual region in a video depends on the personality characteristics of men, assessing this with an eye-tracking system. The study included 30 healthy males with a normal psychological state, who viewed a sexual video in which the sexual region had been designated. Visual attention was measured across the designated region according to gaze duration. Ten types of personality characteristics were evaluated as a T-score by a questionnaire. By Pearson's correlation coefficient, the relations between gaze duration at the sexual region and T-scores of paranoia, psychasthenia and social introversion were found to be statistically significant. By multivariate stepwise regression analysis, only social introversion was negatively associated with the sexual region. Even normal variation of personality characteristics can affect the viewing period of the sexual region. This is the first report showing that subjects with a high degree of paranoia, psychasthenia and particularly social introversion have a tendency to view the sexual region for a shorter duration.

  16. Are Men’s Perceptions of Sexually Dimorphic Vocal Characteristics Related to Their Testosterone Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Amanda C.; Wincenciak, Joanna; Fisher, Claire I.; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.

    2016-01-01

    Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men’s judgments of women’s facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women’s faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men’s preferences for feminine characteristics in women’s voices. Men’s preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women’s and men’s voices were assessed in five weekly test sessions and saliva samples were collected in each test session. Analyses showed no relationship between men’s voice preferences and their testosterone levels. Men’s tendency to perceive masculinized men’s and women’s voices as more dominant was also unrelated to their testosterone levels. Together, the results of the current study suggest that testosterone-linked changes in responses to sexually dimorphic characteristics previously reported for men's perceptions of faces do not occur for men's perceptions of voices. PMID:27875569

  17. Relation of algal biomass to characteristics of selected streams in the Lower Susquehanna River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven small tributary streams with drainage areas ranging from 12.6 to 71.9 square miles, representative of both limestone and freestone settings, in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin were sampled for algae, nutrients, water quality, habitat, land use, hydrology, fish, and invertebrates. Nutrients, site characteristics, and selected characteristics of the invertebrate and fish communities known to influence algal growth were compared to chlorophyll aconcentrations. Nitrogen was not found limiting in these streams; however, phosphorus may have been limiting in five of the seven streams. Concentrations of chlorophyll ain riffles increased with the degree of open canopy and as bottom substrate reached the gravel/cobble size fraction. These increased chlorophyll aconcentrations and the substrate size in turn raised the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams. Freestone streams had increased chlorophyll aconcentrations associated with increases in percentage of omnivorous fish and in pH and decreases in percentage of collector/gatherer invertebrates. Concentrations of chlorophyll a in limestone riffles decreased as the percentage of omnivorous fish increased. Depositional chlorophyll a concentrations increased as the Bank Stability Index decreased and as the riffle velocity increased. Depositional chlorophyll a concentrations increased in limestone streams as collector/gatherer invertebrates increased and as phosphorus concentrations decreased. No relations were seen between chlorophyll aconcentrations and land-use characteristics of the basin. In this study, there were too few sampling sites to establish statistically based relations between algal biomass and nutrient concentrations. Further study is needed to generate data suitable for statistical interpretation.

  18. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Explaining fish guidance characteristics of mesh and bar screens: The relative pressure signature hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Davidson, R.

    1995-12-31

    Hydropower dams on the Columbia River block migration of anadromous fishes. Extensive bypass facilities have been installed to guide migrating fishes around the dams. The first component of such systems encountered by out-migrating smolts is submerged bypass screens of one of two major design alternatives. Screens are constructed of either relatively fine woven mesh (traveling screens) or closely spaced bars (bar screens). Using underwater videoimaging, we quantified the relative fish impingement characteristics of each screen design at McNary Dam and The Dalles Dam. Each design was operated under a variety of deployment alternatives and turbine discharges. Video images of the screen surface were obtained from 5-6 cameras distributed on the screen centerline from the screen top (nearest the deck or intake) to the screen bottom. Over 4000 smolt-screen interactions were imaged, processed, and analyzed. A selection of hydraulic and behavioral variables was collected from each recorded image. Screen type had a significant effect on fish impingement and near-screen flow fields. These findings, in conjunction with the known influence of background noise levels on ability of fish to detect specific underwater signals, suggest that guidance effectiveness of a specific screen design may be partially determined by characteristics of the pressure field that the screen generates relative to background turbulence patterns - the Relative Pressure Signature Hypothesis.

  20. Perennial-streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry and sediment in Missouri River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Hedman, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geometry, channel-sediment, and discharge data were collected and compiled from 252 streamflow-gaging stations in the Missouri River basin. The sites represent the complete ranges of hydrologic and geologic conditions found in the basin. The data were analyzed by computer to yield equations relating various discharge characteristics to variables of channel geometry and bed and bank material. The equations provide discharge as the dependent variable for the purpose of making estimates of discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Results show that channel width is best related to variables of discharge, but that reduction of standard errors can be achieved by considering channel-sediment properties, channel gradient, and discharge variability. The channel-material variables do not exert uniform effects on width-discharge relations and, therefore, are considered as sediment-data groups, or stream types, rather than as terms in multiple power-function equations. Relative to streamflow, narrowest channels occur when streams of steady discharge transport sufficient silt and clay to form stable, cohesive banks but have a small tractive load of sand and coarser sizes. Stable channels also are associated with high channel gradients, which cause high channel roughness and bed and bank armouring by coarse particle sizes. The widest, most unstable channels are found with streams that apparently transport of large tractive load of sand sizes. The downstream rates of change of width with discharge reflect these trends, suggesting that a given bed-material load necessitates a minimum width over which the tractive material can be moved. (USGS)

  1. Trend of relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Jalsić, Damjan; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    Measurements of eight anthropometric characteristics and a battery of seven motor tests were applied in a large sample of 1170 children, 565 boys and 605 girls aged 4 to 7.5 decimal years from preschool institutions in three towns in Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Sombor, and Bacha Palanka). Children were selected according to 0.5 decimal years in the mentioned age range. The status of boys and girls according to seven age categories, age-related differences between boys and girls, as well as the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities were analyzed by use of intercorrelation matrices and canonical correlation analysis. Generally, significant sex differences were found in anthropometric characteristics, i.e., the values of bone growth in length were higher in boys, while the values of voluminosity and subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in girls. Concerning the space of motor variables, there were significant differences in functioning of the mechanism of movement structuring, the mechanism of synergetic regulation, and the mechanism of excitation duration control, which reached higher values in boys, whereas the functioning of the mechanism of tonus regulation showed higher values in girls. These differences generated morphological and motor structures in boys and girls according to age groups analyzed whose relations showed variable level of statistical significance. The youngest and oldest ages showed generalness of the canonical factor structure, as well as the highest significance of participation in the common variance of the two spaces of the variables applied. Between the above ages, i.e., between 4 and 7 years, the relation between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in children decreased, followed by gradual increase. It was monitored by the coefficient of determination between the first pairs of canonical factors in each age category, in boys and girls alike. This relation tended to be higher in boys in all analyzed

  2. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  3. Relations of latitudinal characteristics of sunspot groups to the 11-year cycle amplitude at different phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletskii, E. V.; Ivanov, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    Using sunspot data for cycles 12 to 23, we have investigated relations of some latitude characteristics of sunspot groups to the 11-year cycle amplitude at different phases. We have revealed a high correlation (with correlation coefficients >0.9) between the middle latitude of sunspot groups at phases of rise, maximum, and decay, on the one hand, and the amplitude of the corresponding cycle, on the other hand. We have shown that the maxima of the velocity of the motion of the sunspot formation zone to the equator have a special physical meaning: the rise phase of the 11-year cycle is characterized by significant correlations between the cycle amplitude and the maximum for the lowest boundary, and the cycle decay phase is characterized by the same maximum for the highest boundary. We have built equations allowing one to determine the amplitude of the 11-year cycle on the basis of data on the given latitudinal characteristics of sunspots groups.

  4. Rape-related pregnancy: estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M M; Resnick, H S; Kilpatrick, D G; Best, C L

    1996-08-01

    We attempted to determine the national rape-related pregnancy rate and provide descriptive characteristics of pregnancies that result from rape. A national probability sample of 4008 adult American women took part in a 3-year longitudinal survey that assessed the prevalence and incidence of rape and related physical and mental health outcomes. The national rape-related pregnancy rate is 5.0% per rape among victims of reproductive age (aged 12 to 45); among adult women an estimated 32,101 pregnancies result from rape each year. Among 34 cases of rape-related pregnancy, the majority occurred among adolescents and resulted from assault by a known, often related perpetrator. Only 11.7% of these victims received immediate medical attention after the assault, and 47.1% received no medical attention related to the rape. A total 32.4% of these victims did not discover they were pregnant until they had already entered the second trimester; 32.2% opted to keep the infant whereas 50% underwent abortion and 5.9% placed the infant for adoption; an additional 11.8% had spontaneous abortion. Rape-related pregnancy occurs with significant frequency. It is a cause of many unwanted pregnancies and is closely linked with family and domestic violence. As we address the epidemic of unintended pregnancies in the United States, greater attention and effort should be aimed at preventing and identifying unwanted pregnancies that result from sexual victimization.

  5. Characteristics of Alcohol-related Injuries in Adolescents Visiting the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Hyun; Park, Hye Sook; Cheon, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently a factor affecting emergency department patients, and alcohol consumption is more common among those who are injured. In Korea, the socioeconomic impact of alcohol has been enormous because of traditional permissive attitudes toward alcohol. Juvenile drinking has increased recently; consequently, an increase in alcohol-related injuries is likely in this population. Therefore, we compared the characteristics and severity of alcohol-related injuries in adolescents and adults. All injured patients seen at six EDs throughout 2007 were included. We obtained data from the 'Development of a model for an in-depth injury surveillance system based on the emergency department' surveillance. The proportion of adolescents who drank was 5.0%. No significant alcohol-related difference in injuries was found between male and female adolescents (P = 0.14), whereas in adults, being male was strongly related to alcohol consumption (P < 0.001). Among traffic accidents, motorcycle-related injuries were strongly associated with alcohol use in adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-5.83). Results also indicated that alcohol-related injuries in adolescents showed poor outcomes (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.47-3.81) as compared with those in adults (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.59). Preventive strategy on alcohol-related injuries in adolescents should focus on reducing motorcycle accidents. PMID:21394314

  6. Relative Amplitude based Features of characteristic ECG-Peaks for Identification of Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohel, Bakul; Tiwary, U. S.; Lahiri, T.

    Coronary artery disease or Myocardial Infarction is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. ECG is widely used as a cheap diagnostic tool for diagnosis of coronary artery disease but has low sensitivity with the present criteria based on ST-segment, T wave and Q wave changes. So to increase the sensitivity of the ECG we have introduced relative amplitude based new features of characteristic ‘R’ and ‘S’ ECG-peaks between two leads. Relative amplitude based features shows remarkable capability in discriminating Myocardial Infarction and Healthy pattern using backpropogation neural network classifier yield results with 81.82% sensitivity and 81.82% specificity. Also relative amplitude might be an efficient method in minimizing the effect of body composition on ECG amplitude based features without use of any information from other than ECG

  7. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  8. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance.

    PubMed

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance.

  9. [Distribution characteristics of basic syndromes of chronic functional constipation and its related factors analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Liao, Xiu-jun; Yang, Guan-gen; Mao, Wei-ming; Zhang, Xiu-feng; Deng, Qun; Wu, Wen-jing

    2014-10-01

    To explore the distribution characteristics of basic syndromes and its related factors in patients with chronic functional constipation (CFC). The complete data of 538 patients with CFC were collected and initial database was established with Epidata 3. 0. TCM syndrome typing was performed. The distribution characteristics of basic syndromes were analyzed using SPSS 17. 0 Software. The univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed with SPSS 17. 0 Software to determine basic syndrome related factors such as age, engaged professionals, sleep quality, depression, mental stress, interpersonal relations, work fatigue, stimulating beverage, exercise conditions, Western medicine type of constipation, and so on. The TCM syndrome frequency of CFC patients was sequenced from high to low as qi deficiency syndrome (380 cases, 70.6%), qi stagnation syndrome (337 cases, 62.6%), blood deficiency syndrome (234 cases, 43.5%), yin deficiency syndrome (220 cases, 40.9%), yang deficiency syndrome (197 cases, 36.6%), and others(58 cases, 10. 8%) . Most patients were complicated with complex syndromes, and the most common complex syndromes were qi deficiency complicated qi stagnation syndrome (275 cases, 51.1%) and qi deficiency complicated blood deficiency syndrome (222 cases, 41.3%). Aging, work fatigue, and exercise conditions were main related factors for qi deficiency syndrome (P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Poor emotional (depression and anxiety tendencies), mental stress, interpersonal relations, defecation barriers constipation were main related factors for qi stagnation syndrome (P <0.01). Sleep quality and poor emotional (depression and anxiety tendencies) were main related factors for blood deficiency syndrome (P <0. 01, P < 0.05). Stimulating beverages were main related factor for yin deficiency syndrome (P <0.05). Engaged in mental work and slow transit constipation were main related factors for yang deficiency syndrome (P < 0. 01, P <0. 05). CFC is featured

  10. Characteristics of work-related fatal and hospitalised injuries not captured in workers’ compensation data

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, M; Tamburic, L; Xu, F; Alamgir, H; Demers, P A; McLeod, C B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To identify work-related fatal and non-fatal hospitalised injuries using multiple data sources, (2) to compare case-ascertainment from external data sources with accepted workers’ compensation claims and (3) to investigate the characteristics of work-related fatal and hospitalised injuries not captured by workers’ compensation. Methods Work-related fatal injuries were ascertained from vital statistics, coroners and hospital discharge databases using payment and diagnosis codes and injury and work descriptions; and work-related (non-fatal) injuries were ascertained from the hospital discharge database using admission, diagnosis and payment codes. Injuries for British Columbia residents aged 15–64 years from 1991 to 2009 ascertained from the above external data sources were compared to accepted workers’ compensation claims using per cent captured, validity analyses and logistic regression. Results The majority of work-related fatal injuries identified in the coroners data (83%) and the majority of work-related hospitalised injuries (95%) were captured as an accepted workers’ compensation claim. A work-related coroner report was a positive predictor (88%), and the responsibility of payment field in the hospital discharge record a sensitive indicator (94%), for a workers’ compensation claim. Injuries not captured by workers’ compensation were associated with female gender, type of work (natural resources and other unspecified work) and injury diagnosis (eg, airway-related, dislocations and undetermined/unknown injury). Conclusions Some work-related injuries captured by external data sources were not found in workers’ compensation data in British Columbia. This may be the result of capturing injuries or workers that are ineligible for workers’ compensation, or the result of injuries that go unreported to the compensation system. Hospital discharge records and coroner reports may provide opportunities to identify workers (or family

  11. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Job stress and behavioral characteristics in relation to coronary heart disease risk among Japanese police officers

    PubMed Central

    SHIOZAKI, Maki; MIYAI, Nobuyuki; MORIOKA, Ikuharu; UTSUMI, Miyoko; HATTORI, Sonomi; KOIKE, Hiroaki; ARITA, Mikio; MIYASHITA, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association between job-related behavioral characteristics and the risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in Japanese male police officers. Compared to office clerks, police officers exhibited greater age-related increases of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, and a clustering number of CHD risk factors was significantly higher in the group of those over 45 yr of age. Among the police officers, coronary-prone behavior was more frequent than that seen in office clerks. The police officers with coronary-prone behavior tended to engage in shift work and to work overtime more; yet they were less likely to perceive job stress and to express the relevant physical and psychological symptoms than those without coronary-prone behavior. The subjects with such behavioral characteristics had a significantly greater number of CHD risk factors. In a multiple regression analysis, coronary-prone behavior together with age, social support, walking hours per day, and amount of alcohol consumption were selected as significant determinants of a cluster of CHD risk factors. These results suggest that coronary-prone behavior may contribute to the higher prevalence of CHD risk factors in police officers via leading the long working hours and the work-related unfavorable lifestyles, such as alcohol drinking and physical inactivity. PMID:28428501

  13. The biomedical and epidemiological characteristics of asbestos-related diseases: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Huncharek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an overview of the biomedical and epidemiological characteristics of asbestos-related disease based upon currently available information. Epidemiological and experimental data developed over the past 20 years have greatly added to our knowledge of the biological effects of asbestos, particularly in relation to clinical disease. This information has substantially strengthened the evidence linking asbestos to specific health effects. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are clearly the most important asbestos-related causes of death among exposed individuals, although the accumulated data is suggestive of the existence of an excess risk of gastrointestinal and a variety of other neoplasms. Animal studies confirm the human epidemiological results and indicate that all commercially available fiber types are capable of producing lung cancer and mesothelioma. Experimental implantation and injection studies also show that the carcinogenicity of mineral fibers (including asbestos) is directly related to their dimensionality and not their chemical composition. Although the asbestos-related medical and scientific literature is voluminous, many issues related to the biological activity of asbestos fibers are as yet unresolved. Due to experimental and analytical limitations, questions concerning risk at low-level exposure, dose-response relationships, and individual susceptibility remain problematic. PMID:3532578

  14. Background and Personality Characteristics Related to Student Satisfaction and Performance in Field Medical Service School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    BERRY REPORT NO. 76-19 Best Available Copy NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DI[GO, CAL IFORNIA 921,52 NAV/L MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND...34 acceptied for tNvy paramedical training. Research _e4e- 1s n pr Report No. 75-75. San Diego. Naval Health Research Center , 1975. "K ~Catalog ow Navy...0 AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS "RELATED TO STUDENT SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE IN FIELD MEDICAL SERVICE SCHOOL R. F. BOOTH, M. S. McNALLY, & N. H

  15. [The characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease Units in relation to neuropsychological tests].

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Caffari, Bruno; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The Cronos Project is a post-marketing surveillance study implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health whose main objectives are to characterise the population of Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and monitor effectiveness and drug safety in the field practice. In this project 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated located throughout the country. The characteristics of these Alzheimer's disease units are presented for setting (territorial, university, hospital, extra-hospital), health personnel employed, examinations offered (CT and MRI scans and laboratory tests), counselling activities and relationship with caregiver associations in relation to neuropsychological tests.

  16. Differential associations between components of anxiety sensitivity and smoking-related characteristics.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Casey R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the tendency to fear anxiety-related experiences-is a risk factor for anxiety disorders and may contribute to smoking motivation and maintenance. Few studies have examined the relations between conceptually distinct components of AS and smoking behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between AS components-physical concerns, mental concerns, and social concerns-and an array of smoking-related characteristics. In a cross-sectional design, we administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and self-report measures of tobacco dependence, smoking abstinence behavior, and smoking outcome and abstinence expectancies to 314 smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes/day, 32% female, M age=44 years). The ASI Mental Concerns subscale was most clearly associated with greater difficulty maintaining abstinence and stronger expectations of smoking-related negative reinforcement and withdrawal (βs=.21-.31, ps ≤ .005); the ASI Social Concerns was most clearly associated with stronger positive reinforcement smoking expectancies (β=.20, p=.0009); and ASI Physical Concerns subscale was most clearly associated with stronger tobacco withdrawal symptoms experienced in prior quit attempts (β=.20, p=.002). Based on these findings of patterns of associations with smoking-related characteristics across distinct components of AS, we speculate that (1) mindfulness training may be useful for treating tobacco addiction in smokers high in AS mental concerns, and (2) smokers high in AS physical and social concerns may benefit from smoking cessation treatment that incorporates interoceptive exposure and cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Paterson, J Michael; van den Brink, Wim

    2017-10-01

    While it is well known that patients receiving opioids should refrain from alcohol consumption, little is known about the involvement of alcohol in opioid-related deaths. We conducted a population-based analysis of opioid-related deaths in Ontario with and without alcohol involvement between 1993 and 2013, and reported rates overall and stratified by manner of death. We compared the characteristics of individuals who died of an opioid overdose based on the presence or absence of alcohol involvement. The rate of opioid-related deaths increased 288% from 11.9 per million (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.8-13.9 per million) in 1993-46.2 per million (95% CI 42.6-49.8 per million) in 2013. The rate of opioid-related deaths without alcohol involvement increased 388% from 7.4 per million to 36.1 per million, while deaths involving alcohol increased by 125% from 4.5 per million to 10.1 per million. Therefore, although the annual number of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol rose, the proportion of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol declined from 37.8% in 1993-21.9% by 2013. Generally, opioid-related deaths involving alcohol were less likely to involve other central nervous system depressants, and more likely to occur among men and those with a history of alcohol use disorder. Although the relative contribution of alcohol in opioid-related deaths has declined, 1 in 5 fatal opioid overdoses still involved alcohol in 2013. Our findings highlight the ongoing need for targeted messaging around risks of opioids alone, and in combination with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heparins: process-related physico-chemical and compositional characteristics, fingerprints and impurities.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Lino; Mascellani, Giuseppe; Spelta, Franco

    2009-11-01

    During the past 25 years, heparin extraction and purification processes have changed. The results of these changes are reflected by the continuous increase in potency of the International Standard for heparin. This increase is due not only to a higher purity, but also to a number of changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of heparin. For long time, all these changes have been disregarded as non-critical by regulatory authorities. Heparin marketing authorisation was reviewed only two years ago and Pharmacopoeia monographs were reviewed just for the addition of new tests, mainly aimed at tackling the oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) crisis. Currently, heparin monographs are again under revision. Such changes, different for each manufacturer, have caused a further increase in the heterogeneity of individual batches of heparin. This review aims at showing that chemical, physical and biological characteristics of heparin (such as disaccharide composition, amount of low sulfated and high sulfated sequences, molecular weight profiles [MW], activities, structural artifacts, fingerprints and glycosaminoglycans impurities) are all process-dependent and may significantly vary when different processes are used to minimise the content of dermatan sulfate. The wide heterogeneity of the physico-chemical characteristics of currently marketed heparin and the lack of suitable and shareable reference standards for the identification/quantification of process-related impurities caused, and are still causing, heated debates among scientific institutions, companies and authorities.

  19. Feeding habits of juvenile flatfish in relation to habitat characteristics in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Lavados, Gaston

    2010-03-01

    To investigate feeding habits of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima) in relation to habitat characteristics a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in nursery areas with different ecological characteristics in the northern Baltic proper. Sampling sites were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from flatfishes and epifauna, samples of macrofauna, meiofauna and hyperbenthic planktons were collected from each site together with data on vegetation, depth, salinity, temperature and turbidity. The diet differed between species where flounder diet was dominated by chironomids, copepods and oligochaetes while turbot apart from chironomids had a high incidence of amphipods, gobies and mysids. In both species there was a shift in diet with size, although this shift was influenced by the habitat. Among the environmental variables investigated, wave exposure was found to significantly influence flounder diet. Food preference in the most exposed areas was dominated by oligochaetes and copepods instead of chironomids, which dominated in sheltered areas. This study shows that habitat characteristics can have a major influence on feeding habits of juvenile flatfish.

  20. Variations in climatic characteristics as related to evapotranspiration in South Park, central Park County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Data collected from May through September in 1977, 1978, and 1979 at three stations were analyzed using an analysis of variance technique to determine variations in climatic characteristics in South Park, Colo. Knowledge of these climatic characteristics will aid in determining the amount of water that may be transferred from agricultural use in South Park to municipal use in the Denver metropolitan area. Daily minimum air temperature, daily average air temperature, cumulative wind, daily relative humidity, and daily solar radiation were statistically different between the three stations at the 1-percent level of significance. Daily maximum air temperature and daily pan evaporation were not significantly different between some stations. Daily precipitation was not significantly different between the three stations. Estimates of potential evapotranspiration made using the Penman equation were not significantly different between the three stations. The lack of spatial variations in the estimated potential evapotranspiration shows that no one climatic characteristic can be used as an indicator of spatial variation of potential evapotranspiration. Large variations in solar radiation between the three stations indicate that solar radiation needs to be measured at sites where evapotranspiration is being determined. (USGS)

  1. Relations of microbiome characteristics to edaphic properties of tropical soils from Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Bekele, Isaac; Hickey, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi varies as a function of edaphic characteristics is key to elucidating associations between soil ecosystem function and the microbiome that sustains it. In this study, non-managed tropical soils were examined that represented a range of edaphic characteristics, and a comprehensive soil microbiome analysis was done by Illumina sequencing of amplicon libraries that targeted Bacteria (universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene primers), Archaea (primers selective for archaeal 16S rRNA genes), or Fungi (internal transcribed spacer region). Microbiome diversity decreased in the order: Bacteria > Archaea > Fungi. Bacterial community composition had a strong relationship to edaphic factors while that of Archaea and Fungi was comparatively weak. Bacterial communities were 70–80% alike, while communities of Fungi and Archaea had 40–50% similarity. While each of the three component communities differed in species turnover patterns, soils having relatively similar bacterial communities also housed similar archaeal communities. In contrast, the composition of fungal communities had no correlation to bacterial or archaeal communities. Bacterial and archaeal diversity had significant (negative) correlations to pH, whereas fungal diversity was not correlated to pH. Edaphic characteristics that best explained variation between soils in bacterial community structure were: total carbon, sodium, magnesium, and zinc. For fungi, the best variables were: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, and C/N. Archaeal communities had two sets of edaphic factors of equal strength, one contained sulfur, sodium, and ammonium-N and the other was composed of clay, potassium, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N. Collectively, the data indicate that Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi did not closely parallel one another in community structure development, and thus microbiomes in each soil acquired unique identities. This divergence could in part reflect

  2. The Relation between Hamstring Strain Injury and Physical Characteristics of Japanese Collegiate Sepak Takraw Players.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Y; Nakazato, K; Koyama, K; Tahara, Y; Funaki, A; Hiranuma, K

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injuries in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. We primarily focused on hamstring strain injury (HSI), and investigated the associated physical characteristics. The study included 77 Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players who were interviewed; data were collected regarding injuries sustained by them during the game within the past year. The hip range of motion (ROM) was measured. The total number of injuries was 48 in a year. The rate of HSI was the highest (31.3%) among all the injuries. All HSIs occurred in the dominant leg because of the sunback spike. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, significant differences in age and sport-related experience were observed between the injured group and uninjured group. Upon using logistic regression analysis, the presence of a HSI was found to be associated with the sport-related experience (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.77) and the hip extension ROM (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) after adjusting for sex, sport-related experience, and the hip ROM. HSI is the most common injury in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. Short sport-related experience and small hip extension ROM are related with the occurrence of HSI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Child and context characteristics in trajectories of physical and relational victimization among early elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Macdonald, Stuart W S

    2011-02-01

    Transactional models suggest that peer victimization results from both individual and context differences, and understanding these differences may point to important targets for prevention and interventions that reduce victimization. Multilevel modeling was used to examine within-person (aggression and emotional dysregulation), between-person (sex and age), and between-school (participation in a victimization prevention program) factors that influence changes in physical and relational victimization over the first three years of elementary school. Children (n = 423) reported their experiences of peer victimization at entry into Grade 1 and at the end of Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3. On average, trajectories of both physical and relational victimization declined. However, for individual children, teacher-rated aggression was associated with increases in physical and relational victimization, while emotional dysregulation was associated with attenuation of longitudinal declines in physical victimization and increases in relational victimization. Individual differences in sex and age at entry into Grade 1 did not significantly influence victimization trajectories over Grades 1 to 3. Children who participated in the WITS® victimization prevention program showed significant declines in physical and relational victimization. Levels of victimization among nonparticipants remained stable. Implications of child and context characteristics for preventing peer victimization in elementary school are discussed.

  4. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  5. Characteristics of the Built Environment in Relation to Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodrigo S.; Stein, Areyh D.; Rivera, Juan; Martorell, Reynaldo; Pratt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The built environment correlates of physical activity are documented in high-income countries but have yet to be studied among Mexican adults. Our objectives were to assess the associations between characteristics of the built environment and physical activity among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and to examine potential moderation by perceived park and neighborhood safety. Methods We conducted a population-based study of adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, in 2011 (N = 677). Participants wore Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for 7 days. We used geographic information systems (GIS) to generate 500-m- and 1-km-buffer–based measures of net residential density, proportion of commercial land use, land-use mix, connectivity, walkability, and number of parks and transit routes. We also obtained data on distance to the nearest park with GIS. Perceived neighborhood and park safety were self-reported. We created quartile-based categories for all built environment characteristics and ran linear regression models to estimate the association between each characteristic and total weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA within 10-minute bouts. Results Walkability was inversely related to total weekly minutes of MVPA (1-km buffer, −46.9 [standard error, 20.0]; P = .03) and weekly minutes of MVPA within bouts (500-m buffer, −31.5 [12.9]; P = .02). The number of transit routes in the 500-m buffer was inversely related to total weekly minutes of MVPA (−23.8 [10.6]; P = .04). Perception of park safety moderated the association between physical activity and having a park intersect the 500-m buffer. Conclusion Our findings contrast with those from high-income countries, suggesting that environmental programs and policies to increase physical activity in Mexican cities cannot be adapted from high-income countries without considering the local context. PMID:25167092

  6. Effects of Offspring-Related Characteristics on Depressive Disorder among Cancer Patients and Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Yeom, Hyungseon; Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of offspring-related characteristics on the prevalence of depressive disorders among cancer patients and those who survived cancer for at least 45 years. Data were obtained from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). To investigate the association between offspring and depressive disorder among cancer patients and survivors, we analyzed data from 292 cancer patients and survivors drawn from a total subject pool of 16,613 individuals at baseline. According to our results, the odds ratio (OR) for subjects with five or more offspring developing depressive disorder was -0.794 (p-value: 0.039, SE: 0.329) compared with that of those with two offspring. In addition, the adjusted effect of the number of male and female offspring on the presence of depressive disorder showed that the OR for those with three or more female offspring for developing depressive disorder was -0.958 lower (SE: 0.305, p-value: 0.012) than it was for those with no female offspring. This article provides evidence for an association between offspring-related characteristics and depressive disorders among cancer patients and survivors. Therefore, offspring may be important contributors to the emotional status of cancer patients and survivors. Further study should precisely need to measure depressive disorders because of self-reported data.

  7. Neighborhood characteristics in relation to diet, physical activity and overweight of Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Veugelers, Paul; Sithole, Fortune; Zhang, Sharon; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2008-01-01

    Neighborhood infrastructure may provide an important opportunity to prevent overweight among children. In the present study we investigated whether access to shops for modestly priced fresh produce, access to parks and playgrounds, access to recreational facilities and neighborhood safety are related to children's diet, physical and sedentary activities, and body weights. Data were obtained from the Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study, a survey including 5,471 grade five students and their parents in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Students completed the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire and had their height and weight measured. Parents completed questions on socio-economic background and how they perceived their neighborhood. We applied multilevel regression methods to relate these neighborhood characteristics with children's fruit and vegetable consumption, dietary fat intake, diet quality, frequency of engaging in sports with and without a coach, screen time, overweight and obesity. Children in neighborhoods with greater perceived access to shops had healthier diets and were less likely to be overweight or obese. Children in neighborhoods with good access to playgrounds, parks and recreational facilities were reportedly more active and were less likely to be overweight or obese, whereas children in safe neighborhoods engaged more in unsupervised sports. The study demonstrated associations between neighborhood characteristics, health behaviors and childhood overweight. This contributes to the knowledge base that is still too narrow to justify informed preventative public health policy. We advocate the evaluation of natural experiments created by new policy that affect neighborhood infrastructures as the optimal opportunity to enlarge this knowledge base.

  8. Patterns of daily energy management at work: relations to employee well-being and job characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; de Bloom, Jessica; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed at identifying subgroups of employees with similar daily energy management strategies at work and finding out whether well-being indicators and job characteristics differ between these subgroups. The study was conducted by electronic questionnaire among 1122 Finnish employees. First, subgroups of employees with unique and distinctive patterns of energy management strategies were identified using latent profile analysis. Second, differences in well-being indicators and job characteristics between the subgroups were investigated by means of ANCOVA. Four subgroups (i.e., patterns) were identified and named: Passives (n = 371), Averages (n = 390), Casuals (n = 272) and Actives (n = 89). Passives used all three (i.e., work-related, private micro-break and physical micro-break) strategies less frequently than other subgroups, whereas Actives used work-related and physical energy management strategies more frequently than other subgroups. Averages used all strategies on an average level. Casuals' use of all strategies came close to that of Actives, notably in a shared low use of private micro-break strategies. Active and Casual patterns maintained vigor and vitality. Autonomy and social support at work played a significant role in providing opportunities for the use of beneficial energy management strategies. Autonomy and support at work seem to support active and casual use of daily energy management, which is important in staying energized throughout the working day.

  9. Analysis of HIV medication adherence in relation to person and treatment characteristics using hierarchical linear modeling.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry; Palamar, Joseph; Mukherjee, Preetika

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to consider person characteristics, treatment level variables, and illicit drug use to help explain the HIV antiviral adherence patterns of a community-based, non-drug-treatment-seeking sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Adherence data were gathered for 300 MSM eight times over the course of 1 year using electronic monitoring. Treatment and person level characteristics were assessed at baseline assessment using computer-administered surveys, and drug usage was established via a diagnostic inventory. These longitudinal data were analyzed via Hierarchical Linear Modeling. The sample was diverse in terms of age and race/ethnicity. Across the span of the year in which the participants were assessed, adherence rates were relatively stable and high (means: 82% to 90%) at each time point and remained relatively stable across the yearlong investigation. Lower adherence rates were evident among those who were drug users, black identified (in terms of race), older, and by pill burden. Individuals on HIV antiretroviral therapy demonstrated consistent although not optimal adherence rates when assessed during the course of a year. The significance of numerous person level factors such as age, race, and drug use suggest that adherence to treatment may in part be impacted by the circumstances that the individual brings to the treatment behavior, and suggests interventions that delve beyond the behavioral to consider and address life social and intrapersonal circumstances that may interfere with adherence behaviors.

  10. Research on relation between bending stress and characteristic frequency of H-shaped beam by free vibration deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2014-05-27

    In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.

  11. Characteristics of migraine attacks and responses to almotriptan treatment: a comparison of menstrually related and nonmenstrually related migraines.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Merle L; Cady, Roger K; Mao, Lian; Biondi, David M; Finlayson, Gary; Greenberg, Steven J; Wright, Pamela

    2008-02-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics of menstrually related migraines (MRMs) and nonmenstrually related migraines (nonMRMs) and to investigate the efficacy of almotriptan in the treatment of these migraine subtypes. These are post hoc analyses of data from the AXERT Early miGraine Intervention Study (AEGIS), a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group trial that evaluated adults with IHS-defined migraine with and without aura. Patients were randomized 1:1 to treat 3 consecutive headaches with almotriptan 12.5 mg or matching placebo at the first sign of headache typical of their usual migraine, at any level of pain intensity but within 1 hour of onset. MRMs were defined as those occurring +/-2 days of the first day of menstrual flow. Post hoc analyses to describe headache characteristics pooled all migraine attacks experienced by patients who reported > or = 1 menses during the study regardless of assigned treatment group. The post hoc efficacy analyses included outcomes of almotriptan treatment compared with placebo treatment for all migraines in patients with a menstrual record. Of the 275 women in the AEGIS intent-to-treat population, 190 (69.1%; 97 almotriptan, 93 placebo; aged 18-54 years) reported > or = 1 menses during the trial. Of the 506 migraines reported by these patients, 95 (18.8%) occurred +/-2 days of the first day of menstrual flow and were defined as MRM. Aura was associated with 11.7% of MRM and 15.0% of nonMRM. Allodynia-associated symptoms were present with 62.8% of MRM and 57.0% of nonMRM. Prior to treatment, 19.1% of MRM were associated with normal functional ability, 68.1% with disturbed functional ability, and 12.8% required bed rest compared with 18.9%, 68.8%, and 12.3%, respectively, of nonMRM. Pretreatment pain intensity was mild in 40.0%, moderate in 47.4%, and severe in 12.6% of MRM compared with 43.6%, 47.2%, and 9.2%, respectively, of nonMRM. Almotriptan treatment efficacy outcomes for MRM vs nonMRM, respectively, were: 2-hour pain

  12. Vertical PM10 Characteristics and their Relation with Tropospheric Meteorology over Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2016-04-01

    Small particulates or PM10, those with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mm, can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Hong Kong receives significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates but at the same time produce domestic pollutants which altogether contribute to the total pollution problem. Recent research interest is paying more attention on the vertical characteristic of PM in the lower atmosphere as possible correlations exist along different altitude. Besides, there exists potential relationship between PM concentration aloft and the high-level weather condition. Yet, most studies focus only up to around 200 meters above sea level due to the proposed significance and the lack of technology. Undoubtedly, this is not enough in investigating the relation between vertical atmospheric profile and PM vertical characteristics. New technology development has allowed measuring PM concentration along the vertical atmospheric profile up to tropopause. This measurement relies on the Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols. The research involves (1) study of the seasonal vertical PM10 characteristics in five studying site of Hong Kong covering urban, suburban and rural area; (2) the relationship of the PM10 characteristics with meteorological parameters; (3) the vertical PM10 characteristics under the approach of tropical cyclones. A portable Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is adopted to collect PM data aloft while surface PM data is collected from ground stations. High-level meteorology data is received from Hong Kong Observatory. Statistical analyses are operated to investigate the correlation between weather conditions and PM concentration along the vertical profile. The research study is divided in phrases. The ultimate goal of the study is to develop models

  13. Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    FUNDED RESEARCH ON FOG OIL SMOKE CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO CLEAN AIR ACT ISSUES Nancy A. Chester RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE March 1998...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues 6. AUTHOR(S...distribution). The fate of fog oil is reported in relation to its deposition and persistence. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fog oil Clean Air Act Environmental

  14. Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Fisher, K; Brownson, R.; Bosworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample. Design, setting, participants: A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and senior residents as the secondary unit. Five hundred and seventy seven residents (mean age = 74 years, SD = 6.3 years) participated in the survey, which was conducted among 56 city defined neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon, USA. Neighbourhood level variables were constructed using geographical information systems. Resident level variables consisted of a mix of self reports and geocoded data on the built environment. Main outcome measure: Self reported neighbourhood walking. Main results: A positive relation was found between built environment factors (density of places of employment, household density, green and open spaces for recreation, number of street intersections) and walking activity at the neighbourhood level. At the resident level, perceptions of safety for walking and number of nearby recreational facilities were positively related to high levels of walking activity. A significant interaction was observed between number of street intersections and perceptions of safety from traffic. Conclusions: Certain neighbourhood built environment characteristics related to urban form were positively associated with walking activity in the neighbourhoods of senior residents. Public health promotion of walking activity/urban mobility and the design of interventions need to consider the contribution of neighbourhood level built environment influences. PMID:15965138

  15. Bankfull characteristics of Ohio streams and their relation to peak streamflows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.

    2005-01-01

    Regional curves, simple-regression equations, and multiple-regression equations were developed to estimate bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, bankfull cross-sectional area, and bankfull discharge of rural, unregulated streams in Ohio. The methods are based on geomorphic, basin, and flood-frequency data collected at 50 study sites on unregulated natural alluvial streams in Ohio, of which 40 sites are near streamflow-gaging stations. The regional curves and simple-regression equations relate the bankfull characteristics to drainage area. The multiple-regression equations relate the bankfull characteristics to drainage area, main-channel slope, main-channel elevation index, median bed-material particle size, bankfull cross-sectional area, and local-channel slope. Average standard errors of prediction for bankfull width equations range from 20.6 to 24.8 percent; for bankfull mean depth, 18.8 to 20.6 percent; for bankfull cross-sectional area, 25.4 to 30.6 percent; and for bankfull discharge, 27.0 to 78.7 percent. The simple-regression (drainage-area only) equations have the highest average standard errors of prediction. The multiple-regression equations in which the explanatory variables included drainage area, main-channel slope, main-channel elevation index, median bed-material particle size, bankfull cross-sectional area, and local-channel slope have the lowest average standard errors of prediction. Field surveys were done at each of the 50 study sites to collect the geomorphic data. Bankfull indicators were identified and evaluated, cross-section and longitudinal profiles were surveyed, and bed- and bank-material were sampled. Field data were analyzed to determine various geomorphic characteristics such as bankfull width, bankfull mean depth, bankfull cross-sectional area, bankfull discharge, streambed slope, and bed- and bank-material particle-size distribution. The various geomorphic characteristics were analyzed by means of a combination of graphical and

  16. Indicators of Walking Speed in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relative Influence of Articular, Psychosocial, and Body Composition Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Amanda L; Amigues, Isabelle; Kramer, Henry R; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Giles, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the contributions from and interactions between articular swelling and damage, psychosocial factors, and body composition characteristics on walking speed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods RA patients underwent the timed 400 meter long-corridor walk. Demographics, self-reported levels of depressive symptoms and fatigue, RA characteristics, and body composition [using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal and thigh computed tomography (CT)] were assessed and their associations with walking speed explored. Results A total of 132 RA patients had data for the 400 meter walk, among whom 107 (81%) completed the full 400 meters. Significant multivariable indicators of slower walking speed were older age, higher depression scores, higher reported pain and fatigue, higher swollen and replaced joint counts, higher cumulative prednisone exposure, non-treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and worse body composition. These features accounted for 60% of the modeled variability in walking speed. Among specific articular features, slower walking speed was primarily correlated with large/medium lower-extremity joint involvement. However, these articular features accounted for only 21% of the explainable variability in walking speed. Having any relevant articular characteristics was associated with a 20% lower walking speed among those with worse body composition (p<0.001) compared with only a 6% lower speed among those with better body composition (p-value for interaction=0.010). Conclusions Psychosocial factors and body composition are potentially reversible contributors to walking speed in RA. Relative to articular disease activity and damage, non-articular indicators were collectively more potent indicators of an individual's mobility limitations. PMID:25155859

  17. The Relation between Diverse Phenotypes of PCOS with Clinical Manifestations, Anthropometric Indices and Metabolic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shahrami, Seyedeh Hajar; Abbasi Ranjbar, Zahra; Milani, Forozan; Kezem-Nejad, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Dalil Heirat, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Critical issue regarding to variation of findings based on different phenotypes led investigators to define whether they are distinct features or overlapping ones. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between diverse phenotypes of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) with clinical manifestations, anthropometric indices, and metabolic characteristics. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 15-39 years old women with PCOS referred to infertility clinics in the north part of Iran, Rasht during 2010-2011. Data were gathered through an interview by a form consisted of demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, ovarian volume and anthropometric indices. A total of 214 patients consisted of 161 PCOS (cases) and 53 normal women (controls) participated in this study. The most prevalent phenotype in PCOS population was IM/PCO/HA (54%), followed by IM/HA (28%) and IM/PCO (13%). PCO/HA was present only in 6 PCOS patients (5%). PCOS patients were significantly younger than controls (P=0.07). Results showed that increased ovarian volume were higher in PCOS group in comparison with controls and IM/PCO/HA, and IM/PCO had respectively the largest ovarian volumes. Also, a significant relation was observed based on Cholesterol, 17OHP, LH, TG, 2hpp, and LH/FSH between patients with PCOS and control groups. There were significant differences in demographic, anthropometric, hormonal and ultrasound findings between PCOS and controls. Therefore, it seems that classification of the characteristics of each phenotype could offer an appropriate guide for screening risks of PCOS and may facilitate performing most favorable treatment for these complications.

  18. Age-related effects of job characteristics on burnout and work engagement.

    PubMed

    Ramos, R; Jenny, G; Bauer, G

    2016-04-01

    In light of an ageing and age-diverse workforce, it is imperative to understand how psychosocial aspects of work might influence health throughout working life. Recently, there has been an implicit call to differentiate job characteristics beyond the two factors of job demands and job resources. As needs, abilities and motivation fluctuate with age, different job characteristics might yield differential benefits. Additionally, markers beyond chronological age should be considered. To explore systematically interactions between different job characteristics, age and age covariates (i.e. job tenure and position type) and their relationship with work-related health outcomes. An online survey of workers in Switzerland, Austria and Germany, recruited through a panel data service provider. We excluded participants working fewer than 30 hours a week, trainees, self-employed people and senior managers. We assessed seven areas of psychosocial risks at work, burnout, work engagement and demographics. Of the 6000 workers contacted, 1916 responded (31%). After applying exclusion criteria, we analysed data from 1417 respondents. We found that age barely had a moderating effect between psychosocial factors and health outcomes, but its three-way interaction with age covariates had more explanatory potential. Young workers with high job tenure showed particular vulnerability to job demands and the lack of certain job resources. Older workers with managerial positions were more resilient. Age and its covariates, such as job tenure and position type, should be considered in developing age-sensitive occupational health models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Participant and site characteristics related to participant retention in a diabetes prevention translational project.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Dill, Edward J; Beals, Janette; Johnson, Ann; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel analysis, this study investigated participant and site characteristics associated with participant retention in a multisite diabetes prevention translational project among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPI-DP), a lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes implemented in 36 AI/AN grantee sites. A total of 2,553 participants were recruited and started the intervention between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the first 16-24 weeks of intervention. Generalized estimating equation models and proportional hazards models with robust standard error estimates were used to evaluate the relationships of participant and site characteristics with retention. As of July 31, 2009, about 50 % of SDPI-DP participants were lost to follow-up. Those who were younger, male, with lower household income, no family support person, and more baseline chronic pain were at higher risk for both short-term and long-term retention failure (i.e., not completing all 16 DPP sessions and loss to follow-up, respectively). Sites with large user populations and younger staff had lower likelihood of retaining participants successfully. Other site characteristics related to higher risk for retention failure included staff rating of participant disinterest in SDPI-DP and barriers to participant transportation and child/elder care. Future translational initiatives need to pay attention to both participant- and site-level factors in order to maximize participant retention.

  20. Clinical characteristics of drug-induced liver injury and related risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Feng-Lei; Zheng, Zhong-Wei; Fan, Zheng-Da; Zhu, Shan-Mei; Qian, Xian-Feng; Liu, Na-Na

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed clinically because of diagnostic difficulties caused by lack of laboratory-specific serological markers. In this study, we comprehensively assessed the clinical characteristics, laboratory indices, hepatotoxic drugs, risk factors and outcomes concerning DILI, and explored the similarities in mechanisms between Chinese and Western drug-induced DILI. Patients with a first diagnosis of DILI and a Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score >3 points were enrolled for systematic retrospective study. Their clinical characteristics, clinical classification, risk factors, laboratory indices, hepatotoxic drugs and outcomes were analyzed. Cholestatic patients had the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and prothrombin time activity (PTA) levels (P<0.05). Patients with medication time ≥30 days had significantly higher positive rate of autoantibodies than those with medication time <30 days. Odds ratio values for DILI-related factors such as hepatobiliary diseases, immune dysfunction, diabetes, hypertension, chronic alcohol consumption and age ≥45 years were 6.552, 6.130, 3.774, 2.801, 2.002 and 1.838, respectively. Pathogeneses of Chinese and Western drug-induced DILI may be substantially the same. DILI accompanied with autoantibody positivity may indicate severe liver injury outcome. Hepatobiliary diseases, diabetes and hypertension are likely to increase drug susceptibility, and more prone to cause liver injury. PMID:27703513

  1. Proteolytic Characteristics of Cathepsin D Related to the Recognition and Cleavage of Its Target Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huiying; Lou, Xiaomin; Shan, Qiang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Yang; Xie, Yingying; Xu, Ningzhi; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin D (CD) plays an important role in both biological and pathological processes, although the cleavage characteristics and substrate selection of CD have yet to be fully explored. We employed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the CD cleavage sites in bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the hydrophobic residues at P1 were not only a preferential factor for CD cleavage but that the hydrophobicity at P1’ also contributed to CD recognition. The concept of hydrophobic scores of neighbors (HSN) was proposed to describe the hydrophobic microenvironment of CD recognition sites. The survey of CD cleavage characteristics in several proteins suggested that the HSN was a sensitive indicator for judging the favorable sites in peptides for CD cleavage, with HSN values of 0.5–1.0 representing a likely threshold. Ovalbumin (OVA), a protein resistant to CD cleavage in its native state, was easily cleaved by CD after denaturation, and the features of the cleaved peptides were quite similar to those found in BSA, where a higher HSN value indicated greater cleavability. We further conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to find more proteins that were insensitive to CD cleavage in CD-knockdown cells. Based on an analysis of secondary and three-dimensional structures, we postulated that intact proteins with a structure consisting of all α-helices would be relatively accessible to CD cleavage. PMID:23840360

  2. Characteristics of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea and Their Work-relatedness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Day Sung; Jang, Sun Je; Hong, Ki Hun; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can be compensated through the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. We looked at the characteristics of WMSDs in worker's compensation records and the epidemiological investigation reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). Based on the records of compensation, the number of cases for WMSDs decreased from 4,532 in 2003 to 1,954 in 2007. However the proportion of WMSDs among the total approved occupational diseases increased from 49.6% in 2003 to 76.5% in 2007, and the total cost of WMSDs increased from 105.3 billion won in 2004 to 163.3 billion won in 2007. The approval rate of WMSDs by the OSHRI accounted for 65.6%. Ergonomic and clinical characteristics were associated with the approval rate; however, the degenerative changes had a minimal affect. This result was in discordance between OSHRI and the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service. We presumed that there were perceptional gaps in work-relatedness interpretation that resulted from the inequality of information in ergonomic analyses. We propose to introduce ergonomic analysis to unapproved WMSDs cases and discuss those results among experts that will be helpful to form a consensus among diverse groups. PMID:21258595

  3. Douching patterns in women related to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Megan; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Salsberry, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether socioeconomic and racial/ethnic characteristics contribute independently and in combination to influence douching behavior. A cross-sectional design. United States. Women between 14 and 49 years of age who were both interviewed and examined as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collection process. Douching rates in women categorized on socioeconomic and racial and ethnic characteristics. Based on data from 3,522 women, 21% reported recent douching. Separated by race, Black women douche at much higher percentage (47%) than non-Hispanic White (17%), Mexico-born Mexican American women (12.5%), or U.S.-born Mexican American women (19%). Although increasing age and low socioeconomic status are both associated with increased douching, the effects of socioeconomic status on douching vary by race/ethnicity. Low income and minority racial status contribute both independently and together to influence douching behavior in women. These findings suggest cultural contributions to douching may be especially prevalent in the Black population while Mexican American women born in Mexico may be relatively immune to U.S. cultural influences.

  4. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices.

  5. Effects on birthweights of maternal education, socio-economic status, and work-related characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nordström, M L; Cnattingius, S

    1996-03-01

    Birthweights of 3,451 infants of women registered for antenatal care in Uppsala County, Sweden, were analyzed using three different maternal socio-economic indicators; education, socio-economic status and work environment exposure characteristics. Other explanatory variables were maternal age, parity, height, smoking habits, and length of gestation. Mean birthweights increase with longer education and higher socio-economic status. No general pattern was seen for work environment characteristics. When smoking habits are controlled for, social differences in birthweight decrease to non-significant values. A regression model with a socio-economic indicator alone explains only a minor part, less than 1%, of the variation in birthweight. When smoking is included, adding a socio-economic indicator does not significantly improve the model. Practically all social differences in birthweight are related to the differences in maternal age, parity, height, and smoking habits. If a socio-economic indicator is to be included in the analysis of birthweights (for other reasons like international comparisons), we recommend education.

  6. Relations between Housing Characteristics and the Well-Being of Low-Income Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing, but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N = 2,437, ages 2 through 21 years) from the Three-City Study, this study assessed housing quality, stability, type (i.e., ownership status and subsidy status), and cost simultaneously to delineate their unique associations with children's development. Hierarchical linear models found that poor housing quality was most consistently associated with children's and adolescents’ development, including worse emotional and behavioral functioning and lower cognitive skills. These associations operated in part through mothers’ psychological functioning. Residential instability showed mixed links with functioning, whereas housing cost and type were not consistently predictive. Results suggest that housing contexts are associated with functioning across the developmental span from early childhood through late adolescence, with some differences in patterns by child age. PMID:23244408

  7. Crash characteristics of older pedestrian fatalities: dementia pathology may be related to 'at risk' traffic situations.

    PubMed

    Gorrie, Catherine A; Brown, Julie; Waite, Phil M E

    2008-05-01

    Older people are over represented among pedestrian casualties, and cognitive decline is an often cited possible contributory factor. Cognitive decline and dementia are intimately associated, however the role dementia might play in older pedestrian crashes has received little attention. This study describes crash characteristics for 52 fatally injured older pedestrians in the Sydney metropolitan area. It investigates the relationship between the extent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease in the brain, and particular crash situations. The results demonstrate crash characteristics that are similar to that reported in other studies of older pedestrians. Furthermore, the results suggest that cognitive decline associated with dementia related neuropathology may be associated with specific crash situations. Compared to older pedestrians with no, or low NFT, those with moderate to high NFT were more likely to be: at least partially responsible for the incident; injured while in low complexity situations; involved in impacts with reversing vehicles; impacted in near lanes of traffic; and struck by a vehicle off road. While described as trends only (p<0.2), these findings highlight areas of concern for older pedestrians and suggest potential targets for engineering and behaviour-based countermeasures aimed at reducing casualty numbers among older pedestrians.

  8. Relations between housing characteristics and the well-being of low-income children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N = 2,437, ages 2-21 years) from the Three-City Study, this study assessed housing quality, stability, type (i.e., ownership status and subsidy status), and cost simultaneously to delineate their unique associations with children's development. Hierarchical linear models found that poor housing quality was most consistently associated with children's and adolescents' development, including worse emotional and behavioral functioning and lower cognitive skills. These associations operated in part through mothers' psychological functioning. Residential instability showed mixed links with functioning, whereas housing cost and type were not consistently predictive. Results suggest that housing contexts are associated with functioning across the developmental span from early childhood through late adolescence, with some differences in patterns by child age.

  9. Clinical characteristics of drug-induced liver injury and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Feng-Lei; Zheng, Zhong-Wei; Fan, Zheng-Da; Zhu, Shan-Mei; Qian, Xian-Feng; Liu, Na-Na

    2016-10-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed clinically because of diagnostic difficulties caused by lack of laboratory-specific serological markers. In this study, we comprehensively assessed the clinical characteristics, laboratory indices, hepatotoxic drugs, risk factors and outcomes concerning DILI, and explored the similarities in mechanisms between Chinese and Western drug-induced DILI. Patients with a first diagnosis of DILI and a Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score >3 points were enrolled for systematic retrospective study. Their clinical characteristics, clinical classification, risk factors, laboratory indices, hepatotoxic drugs and outcomes were analyzed. Cholestatic patients had the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and prothrombin time activity (PTA) levels (P<0.05). Patients with medication time ≥30 days had significantly higher positive rate of autoantibodies than those with medication time <30 days. Odds ratio values for DILI-related factors such as hepatobiliary diseases, immune dysfunction, diabetes, hypertension, chronic alcohol consumption and age ≥45 years were 6.552, 6.130, 3.774, 2.801, 2.002 and 1.838, respectively. Pathogeneses of Chinese and Western drug-induced DILI may be substantially the same. DILI accompanied with autoantibody positivity may indicate severe liver injury outcome. Hepatobiliary diseases, diabetes and hypertension are likely to increase drug susceptibility, and more prone to cause liver injury.

  10. Employment and residential characteristics in relation to automated external defibrillator locations

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Heather M.; Band, Roger A; Ruther, Matthew; Harhay, Michael; Asch, David A.; Hershey, John C.; Hill, Shawndra; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Kilaru, Austin; Branas, Charles C.; Shofer, Frances; Nichol, Graham; Becker, Lance B.; Merchant, Raina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is generally poor and varies by geography. Variability in automated external defibrillator (AED) locations may be a contributing factor. To inform optimal placement of AEDs, we investigated AED access in a major US city relative to demographic and employment characteristics. Methods and Results This was a retrospective analysis of a Philadelphia AED registry (2,559 total AEDs). The 2010 US Census and the Local Employment Dynamics (LED) database by ZIP code was used. AED access was calculated as the weighted areal percentage of each ZIP code covered by a 400 meter radius around each AED. Of 47 ZIP codes, only 9%(4) were high AED service areas. In 26%(12) of ZIP codes, less than 35% of the area was covered by AED service areas. Higher AED access ZIP codes were more likely to have a moderately populated residential area (p=0.032), higher median household income (p=0.006), and higher paying jobs (p=008). Conclusions The locations of AEDs vary across specific ZIP codes; select residential and employment characteristics explain some variation. Further work on evaluating OHCA locations, AED use and availability, and OHCA outcomes could inform AED placement policies. Optimizing the placement of AEDs through this work may help to increase survival. PMID:26856232

  11. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  12. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  13. [Evaluation of the German new back school: pain-related and psychological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Borys, C; Nodop, S; Tutzschke, R; Anders, C; Scholle, H C; Strauß, B

    2013-12-01

    Results related to the outcome of the classical back schools are inconsistent. Accordingly, a reformulation of the program integrating psychological and social aspects was performed as a necessary step for the development of the new back school in Germany. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of the new back school in subjects with non-specific back pain in the prevention setting. In a modified waiting design, individuals were investigated with respect to demographical, pain-related and psychological characteristics 3 months before the start, at the start and at the end of the back school and as well as 12 months after completion. In addition, predictors for a successful participation were analyzed. A total of 88 subjects with back pain initially participated in the study. In the short and long-term course, low to moderate effects were detected; however, during follow-up a reduction of pain showed high effects. Depression as assessed by the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and passive coping strategies assessed using the coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) were identified as predictors for response to the intervention. On the basis of the sample studied, the new back school proved to be an effective treatment for short and long-term reduction of pain-related stress and associated psychological aspects. Maladaptive, passive coping strategies and higher depression scores were associated with a higher probability of success in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement.

  14. Relation between in-game role and service characteristics in elite women's volleyball.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Miriam E; García-Manso, Juan M; Rodríguez-Ruiz, David; Sarmiento, Samuel; De Saa, Yves; Moreno, M Perla

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the in-game role of players (setter, outside, middle, or opposite player) in elite women's volleyball is significantly related to the characteristics of their service. The sample consisted of 1,300 service deliveries (total serves for all matches) made by players in the 8 teams participating in 2 Final 4 stages of the Indesit European Champions League. The variables recorded were in-game role of the server, service type, speed of delivery, service area, target zone, and effectiveness of delivery. Results showed a significant relation between the server's in-game role and service type (p relation observed was with the service area, primarily because of the server having to make a quick transition to the defense zone. Setters and opposite players most commonly served from behind zone 1 (100 and 80% of serves, respectively), which they defended after serving. Similarly, middle players served most frequently from behind zone 5 (47% of serves), the zone they subsequently defended.

  15. The impact of tinnitus characteristics and associated variables on tinnitus-related handicap.

    PubMed

    Degeest, S; Corthals, P; Dhooge, I; Keppler, H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the characteristics of tinnitus and tinnitus-related variables and explore their possible relationship with tinnitus-related handicap. Eighty-one patients with chronic tinnitus were included. The study protocol measured hearing status, tinnitus pitch, loudness, maskability and loudness discomfort levels. All patients filled in the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The relationship of each variable with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Five univariables were associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score: loudness discomfort level, subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus awareness, noise intolerance and Hyperacusis Questionnaire score. Multiple regression analysis showed that the Hyperacusis Questionnaire score and tinnitus awareness were independently associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score. Hyperacusis and tinnitus awareness were independently associated with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score. Questionnaires on tinnitus and hyperacusis are especially suited to providing additional insight into tinnitus-related handicap and are therefore useful for evaluating tinnitus patients.

  16. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  17. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  18. Characteristics of Helicopter-Generated and Volcano-Related Seismic Tremor Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher J.; Akerlie, Eggert; Vogfjörd, Kristin S.

    2017-04-01

    In volcanic environments it is crucial to distinguish between man-made seismic signals and signals created by the volcano. We compare volcanic, seismic signals with helicopter generated, seismic signals recorded in the last 2.5 years in Iceland. In both cases a long-lasting, emergent seismic signal, that can be referred to as seismic tremor, was generated. In the case of a helicopter, the rotating blades generate pressure pulses that travel through the air and excite Rayleigh waves at up to 40 km distance depending on wind speed, wind direction and topographic features. The longest helicopter related seismic signal we recorded was at the order of 40 minutes long. The tremor usually has a fundamental frequency of more than 10 Hz and overtones at integers of the fundamental frequency. Changes in distance lead to either increases or decreases of the frequency due to the Doppler Effect and are strongest for small source-receiver distances. The volcanic tremor signal was recorded during the Bardarbunga eruption at Holuhraun in 2014/15. For volcano-related seismic signals it is usually more difficult to determine the source process that generated the tremor. The pre-eruptive tremor persists for 2 weeks, while the co-eruptive tremor lasted for 6 months. We observed no frequency changes, most energy between 1 and 2 Hz and no or very little energy above 5 Hz. We compare the different characteristics of helicopter-related and volcano-related seismic signals and discuss how they can be distinguished. In addition we discuss how we can determine if a frequency change is related to a moving source or change in repeat time or a change in the geometry of the resonating body.

  19. OUTER RETINAL TUBULATION: Characteristics in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iaculli, Cristiana; Barone, Antonio; Scudieri, Marilisa; Giovanna Palumbo, Maria; Delle Noci, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    To assess the incidence, characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and retinal sensitivity correlations in patients with and without outer retinal tubulation (ORT) affected by subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Prospective case series including 78 eyes of 78 consecutive patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Baseline and follow-up visits included BCVA, intraocular pressure, ophthalmoscopic examination, CMT as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and retinal sensitivity tested with fundus-related perimetry (MP-1). Fluorescent angiography was performed at baseline. At the end of the follow-up period, the mean BCVA and CMT of patients with ORT were statistically different from those without ORT (BCVA: 0.61 ± 0.13 vs. 0.37 ± 1.59, P < 0.0001; CMT: 290 ± 26.7 vs. 215.2 ± 33.5 μm; P < 0.0001). Patients with ORT showed a decreased mean retinal sensitivity compared with patients without ORT (6.31 ± 2.5 dB vs. 9.89 ± 5.43 dB; P < 0.0001). The results of this study investigating the BCVA, CMT, and retinal sensitivity detected by MP-1 between patients with and without ORT in neovascular age-related macular degeneration suggest that these parameters are statistically different in patients with ORT; this may be due to the pathogenesis of ORT formation, secondary to retinal pigment epithelial tears or photoreceptor damage. MP-1 microperimeter is a noninvasive instrument that provides useful information to better characterize the functional aspect of ORT in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

  20. A study of event-related potential-P3 characteristics in children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Malhotra, S; Raghunathan, M; Malhotra, A

    1997-10-01

    Auditory P3 characteristics were studied in children (aged 8-14 years) of male alcoholics without psychiatric problems and children of normal parents employing an oddball auditory paradigm. All the children of alcoholics were from families with multiple cases of alcoholism (each child had an average of 4.3 first- and second-degree relatives including the father, meeting criteria for alcoholism). Subjects were presented with high and low pitched tones with global probabilities of 25% and 75% of total trials, respectively. The amplitude of P3 component was significantly reduced in high-risk children (p < 0.001). Implications of the findings, including the role of P3 as biologi cal marker of risk for alcoholism, are discussed.

  1. Mercury accumulation in yellow perch in Wisconsin seepage lakes: Relation to lake characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Rada, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied relations between lacustrine characteristics and the total mercury (Hg) content of calendar age- 2 yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) in 10 seepage lakes in north-central Wisconsin. Mean concentrations and burdens (masses) of Hg in whole perch varied widely among lakes, were negatively correlated with lake pH and were positively correlated with total Hg concentration in surficial profundal sediment. Approximately 80 to 90% of the variation in Hg concentration and burden in whole perch was explained with multiple regressions containing two independent variables: either lake pH or alkalinity, and Hg concentration in surficial sediment. The mean concentration of Hg in axial muscle tissue of age-5 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) from five of the study lakes was highly correlated with the mean concentration in whole age-2 perch in the same lakes.

  2. An exploration of adolescent emotional intelligence in relation to demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Nicholas R; Scheer, Scott D

    2005-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) was measured in 200 youth ages 16-19. EI scores were compared to demographic characteristics of the individuals (age, sex, household income, parents' level of education, and location of residence). Findings indicate that EI levels were positively related to females, parents' education, and household income. The study did not show significant relationships between adolescent EI and location of residence or age. EI scores were significantly different between females and males, with females reporting higher EI levels. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between EI scores and age, location of residence, and household income. Significant differences were found based upon EI scores for parents' education; as they increased, so did EI levels. In a linear regression model, with demograpics as the independent variables and EI as the dependent variable, father's education and sex were both predictors. The results will guide future studies to determine the factors behind adolescent El formation and development.

  3. Hospital- and patient-related characteristics determining maternity length of stay: a hierarchical linear model approach.

    PubMed

    Leung, K M; Elashoff, R M; Rees, K S; Hasan, M M; Legorreta, A P

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to pregnancy and childbirth that might be predictive of a patient's length of stay after delivery and to model variations in length of stay. California hospital discharge data on maternity patients (n = 499,912) were analyzed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to adjust for patient case mix and hospital characteristics and to account for the dependence of outcome variables within hospitals. Substantial variation in length of stay among patients was observed. The variation was mainly attributed to delivery type (vaginal or cesarean section), the patient's clinical risk factors, and severity of complications (if any). Furthermore, hospitals differed significantly in maternity lengths of stay even after adjustment for patient case mix. Developing risk-adjusted models for length of stay is a complex process but is essential for understanding variation. The hierarchical linear model approach described here represents a more efficient and appropriate way of studying interhospital variations than the traditional regression approach.

  4. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air.

  5. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2) x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment.

  6. Effect of oil on an electrowetting lenticular lens and related optical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dooseub; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Koo, Gyo Hyun; Sim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Junsik; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-03-01

    While there are many ways to realize autostereoscopic 2D/3D switchable displays, the electrowetting lenticular lens is superior due to the high optical efficiency and short response time. In this paper, we propose a more stable electrowetting lenticular lens by controlling the quantity of oil. With a large amount of oil, the oil layer was broken and the lenticular lens was damaged at relatively low voltage. Therefore, controlling the amount of oil is crucial to obtain the required dioptric power with stability. We proposed a new structure to evenly adjust the volume of oil and the dioptric power was measured by varying the volume of oil. Furthermore, the optical characteristics were finally analyzed in the electrowetting lenticular lens array with a proper amount of oil.

  7. Relation Between Discharge Length and Laser Pulse Characteristics in Longitudinally Excited CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Dobashi, Kazuma; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinally excited CO2 laser pumped by a fast discharge emits a short laser pulse, similarly to TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. We investigated the relation between the discharge length and the laser pulse characteristics to develop a longitudinally excited CO2 laser producing a high spike laser pulse. We examined discharge lengths of 30, 45, and 60 cm, using the same mirrors and the same excitation circuit with the same input energy. A longer discharge length increased the discharge volume and improved the laser output energy. However, the longer discharge length caused a long discharge formation time (a slow fall time of the discharge voltage) due to the higher discharge impedance, which resulted in a long laser pulse tail. Therefore, the longitudinally excited CO2 laser had optimum conditions for obtaining a high spike laser pulse effectively.

  8. Microbiome Profiles in Periodontitis in Relation to Host and Disease Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bo-Young; Furtado Araujo, Michel V.; Strausbaugh, Linda D.; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Diaz, Patricia I.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the supporting tissues surrounding teeth. The occurrence of periodontitis is associated with shifts in the structure of the communities that inhabit the gingival sulcus. Although great inter-subject variability in the subgingival microbiome has been observed in subjects with periodontitis, it is unclear whether distinct community types exist and if differences in microbial signatures correlate with host characteristics or with the variable clinical presentations of periodontitis. Therefore, in this study we explored the existence of different community types in periodontitis and their relationship with host demographic, medical and disease-related clinical characteristics. Clustering analyses of microbial abundance profiles suggested two types of communities (A and B) existed in the 34 subjects with periodontitis evaluated. Type B communities harbored greater proportions of certain periodontitis-associated taxa, including species historically associated with the disease, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, and taxa recently linked to periodontitis. In contrast, subjects with type A communities had increased proportions of different periodontitis-associated species, and were also enriched for health-associated species and core taxa (those equally prevalent in health and periodontitis). Periodontitis subgingival clusters were not associated with demographic, medical or disease-specific clinical parameters other than periodontitis extent (proportion of sites affected), which positively correlated with the total proportion of cluster B signature taxa. In conclusion, two types of microbial communities were detected in subjects with periodontitis. Host demographics and underlying medical conditions did not correlate with these profiles, which instead appeared to be related to periodontitis extent, with type B communities present in more widespread disease cases. The two

  9. Characteristics of choroidal neovascularization in the complications of age-related macular degeneration prevention trial.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Maureen G; Alexander, Judith; Fine, Stuart L

    2008-09-01

    To describe the characteristics of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in observed and treated eyes in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Cross-sectional descriptive study within a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients who developed CNV during CAPT follow-up. Inclusion criteria for CAPT specified bilateral large drusen (>or=10 drusen at least 125 micro), visual acuity >or=20/40 in each eye, and age >or=50. Exclusion criteria included CNV and geographic atrophy >1 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) disc area or within 500 micro of the foveal center. One eye of each person was selected randomly for low-intensity laser treatment and the contralateral eye was observed. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline, annually for >or=5 years, and whenever there were symptoms of CNV. Trained readers at the CAPT Photograph Reading Center assessed color stereo photographs and angiogram negatives to identify CNV. Choroidal neovascularization was classified by type (predominantly classic CNV, minimally classic CNV, occult only CNV, or scar), location, and area. Visual acuity was measured by certified examiners. Symmetry of characteristics between eyes of bilaterally affected patients was examined. Choroidal neovascularization developed in 282 eyes of 225 patients. At the time of detection, 192 (68%) of the lesions were occult only, 153 (54%) were subfoveal, and 157 (56%) were or=20/40 in 123 (69%) of 179 eyes with visual acuity measured at the time of detection. Choroidal neovascularization developed in both eyes in 57 patients (25%) during CAPT follow-up. Lesions in eyes of bilaterally affected patients were no more similar to each other than affected eyes in 2 different patients. When patients are monitored closely, many CNV lesions can be detected outside of the fovea and when they are relatively small. Early detection may lead to improved long-term visual acuity.

  10. Prevalence and Related Characteristics of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Orchardists in the Gyeongsangnam-do Region.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Kong, Min Sik; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Chang Han; Oh, Min-Kyun; Lee, Eun Shin; Shin, Heesuk; Yoon, Chul Ho

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and related characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in orchardists and to investigate the association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations. Between July 2013 and September 2014, 377 subjects (174 men and 203 women) visited the Gyeongsang National University Hospital's Center for Farmer's Safety and Health. All the subjects underwent electrodiagnostic tests and physical examination, including Phalen's test, Tinel's sign, and Durkan's carpal compression test (CCT). The subjects were classified into 2 groups, the normal group and the CTS group, according to electrodiagnostic test results. To determine the related characteristics of CTS, potential variables, including age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, and total work time, were compared between the 2 groups. The association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations was analyzed. CTS was diagnosed in 194 subjects based only on electrodiagnostic test results, corresponding to a prevalence of 51.5%. Among the variables, mean age (p=0.001) and total work time (p=0.007) were significantly correlated with CTS. With respect to the physical examinations, low specificities were observed for Tinel's sign, Phalen's test, and Durkan's CCT (38.4%, 36.1%, and 40.9%, respectively) in the subjects aged ≥65 years. In addition, Phalen's test (p=0.003) and Tinel's sign (p=0.032) in men and Durkan's CCT (p=0.047) in women showed statistically significant differences with increasing CTS severity. The odds ratio was 2.066 for Durkan's CCT in women according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. CTS prevalence among orchardists was high, and Durkan's CCT result was significantly quantitatively correlated with the electrodiagnostic test results. Therefore, Durkan's CCT is another reliable examination method for CTS.

  11. Host phenotype characteristics and MC1R in relation to early-onset basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence is increasing, particularly among adults under age 40. Pigment-related characteristics are associated with BCC in older populations, but epidemiologic studies among younger individuals and analyses of phenotype-genotype interactions are limited. We examined self-reported phenotypes and melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) variants in relation to early-onset BCC. BCC cases (n=377) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale’s Dermatopathology database. Factors most strongly associated with early-onset BCC were skin reaction to first summer sun for one hour [severe sunburn vs. tan odds ratio (OR)=12.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.08–36.94] and skin color (very fair vs. olive OR=11.06, 95% CI=5.90–20.74). Individuals with two or more MC1R non-synonymous variants were 3.59 times (95% CI=2.37–5.43) more likely to have BCC than those without non-synonymous variants. All host characteristics and MC1R were more strongly associated with multiple BCC cases status (37% of cases) than single BCC case status. MC1R, number of moles, skin reaction to first summer sun for one hour, and hair and skin color were independently associated with BCC. BCC risk conferred by MC1R tended to be stronger among those with darker pigment phenotypes, traditionally considered to be at low-risk of skin cancer. PMID:22158557

  12. Prevalence and Related Characteristics of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Orchardists in the Gyeongsangnam-do Region

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and related characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in orchardists and to investigate the association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations. Methods Between July 2013 and September 2014, 377 subjects (174 men and 203 women) visited the Gyeongsang National University Hospital's Center for Farmer's Safety and Health. All the subjects underwent electrodiagnostic tests and physical examination, including Phalen's test, Tinel's sign, and Durkan's carpal compression test (CCT). The subjects were classified into 2 groups, the normal group and the CTS group, according to electrodiagnostic test results. To determine the related characteristics of CTS, potential variables, including age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, and total work time, were compared between the 2 groups. The association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations was analyzed. Results CTS was diagnosed in 194 subjects based only on electrodiagnostic test results, corresponding to a prevalence of 51.5%. Among the variables, mean age (p=0.001) and total work time (p=0.007) were significantly correlated with CTS. With respect to the physical examinations, low specificities were observed for Tinel's sign, Phalen's test, and Durkan's CCT (38.4%, 36.1%, and 40.9%, respectively) in the subjects aged ≥65 years. In addition, Phalen's test (p=0.003) and Tinel's sign (p=0.032) in men and Durkan's CCT (p=0.047) in women showed statistically significant differences with increasing CTS severity. The odds ratio was 2.066 for Durkan's CCT in women according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion CTS prevalence among orchardists was high, and Durkan's CCT result was significantly quantitatively correlated with the electrodiagnostic test results. Therefore, Durkan's CCT is another reliable examination method for CTS. PMID:27847721

  13. Tool Use and Performance: Relationships between Tool- and Learner-Related Characteristics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez-Collazo, Norma A.; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    It is still unclear on what and how tool and learner characteristics influence tool use and consequently performance in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). This study examines the relationships between tool-related characteristics (tool presentation: non-/embedded tool and instructional cues: non-/explained tool functionality) and…

  14. Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banis, S.; Suurmeijer, Th. P. B. M.; van Peer, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to child-rearing practices towards children with hemophilia. Results indicate that mother's emotional reactions appear to have a stronger influence on child-rearing uncertainty and overprotection than clinical characteristics of the child.…

  15. Relationship Characteristics Associated with the Experience of Hurt in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2009-01-01

    We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…

  16. Examination of Student, Program, and Institutional Support Characteristics That Relate to PGA Golf Management Students' Intent to Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The examination of student (entry characteristics, academic performance, career goals, and interaction with peers and faculty), program (programmatic interventions, academic major, and learning communities), and institutional support characteristics (financial aid and residence) that relate to cohort intent to persist are studied among 490 PGA…

  17. Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banis, S.; Suurmeijer, Th. P. B. M.; van Peer, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to child-rearing practices towards children with hemophilia. Results indicate that mother's emotional reactions appear to have a stronger influence on child-rearing uncertainty and overprotection than clinical characteristics of the child.…

  18. The relations among upper-extremity loading characteristics and bone mineral density changes in young women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Salem, George J

    2004-06-01

    The relations among the reaction forces engendered during an upper-extremity dynamic impact-loading exercise (DILE) program and bone mineral density adaptations (DeltaBMD) in the radius were investigated in 24 healthy premenopausal women (mean age = 29 +/- 6 years). Subjects performed DILE 36 cycles/day, 3 days/week for 24 weeks. The exercised arm was allocated randomly to either the dominant or the nondominant limb. In addition, subjects were assigned randomly into either damped or nondamped treatment arms to examine the effects of both higher- and lower-magnitude loading prescriptions. Measurements including anthropometrics, self-reported physical activity levels, hand-grip strength, radial BMD (DEXA, Hologic QDR1500, MA) at the ultradistal radius (UD), distal 1/3 radius (DR), and total distal radius (TOTAL), and exercise-related loading characteristics (impact load, loading rate, and impulse) were recorded at baseline and at 6 months. Simple linear regression models were used to fit the regional BMD changes to the reaction force, changes in hand-grip strength (DeltaGRIP), and changes in body weight (DeltaBW). Findings demonstrated that the damping condition utilized during DILE influenced the relations between loading events and BMD changes. Specifically, none of the reaction-force characteristics significantly predicted changes in BMD in participants performing DILE using the damped condition, whereas, in the nondamped condition, impact load accounted for 58% of the variance in BMD change at DR and 66% of the variance in BMD change at TOTAL. Thresholds of 345 and 285 N of impact force to promote BMD increases at DR and TOTAL, respectively, were obtained from the regression models in the nondamped group. Impulse was also an independent predictor of BMD changes at TOTAL, accounting for 56% of the variance. Neither DeltaGRIP nor DeltaBW significantly predicted DeltaBMD at any radial site. These findings, in young adult women, parallel previous reports identifying

  19. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 years period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, p<0.001) and males were injured more often than females (70.5% vs 29.5%, OR=2.8, p<0.001). Service and office workers represented 52% of the sample and construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi2 p<0.01). Crown fracture was recorded in 34.5% of cases, subluxation/luxation in 10.7%, avulsion in 9%, root fracture in 3.8% and concussion in 3.5%. Thirty-two subjects (28.6%, 133 teeth, OR=4.3, p<0.001) presented at least 1 traumatized tooth with previous dental treatment. Among 212 (61.4%) traumatized teeth, 67.5% were upper incisors, 17.5% were lower incisors, 3.3% were upper canines, 1.9% were lower canines and 9.9% were bicuspids and molars. Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender and pre-exiting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. This article

  20. Physician characteristics and prescribing for elderly people in New Brunswick: relation to patient outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, W; Molloy, D W; Bédard, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between physician characteristics, prescribing behaviour and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study linking four provincial databases. SETTING: New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS: All 366 general practitioners (GPs) (accounting for 40% of all physicians with a general licence in New Brunswick) who ordered at least 200 prescriptions for elderly beneficiaries of the New Brunswick Prescription Drug Program and saw at least 20 elderly patients in an office setting between Apr. 1, 1990, and Mar. 31, 1991. Physicians with palliative care practices were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' personal, professional and practice characteristics, their prescribing patterns, and mortality, morbidity (number of days in hospital per patient) and hip-fracture rates among their elderly patients. RESULTS: Compared with the GPs who had a lower mortality rate, those with a higher mortality rate prescribed more drugs overall (p < 0.001), specifically antidepressants, bronchodilators, cholesterol-lowering agents, gastrointestinal drugs, neuroleptics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They also were more likely to be male (p < 0.01), had larger practices (p < 0.001), saw more patients per day (p < 0.05) and billed more per year (p < 0.001). Compared with the GPs who had a lower morbidity rate, those with a higher morbidity rate prescribed more drugs overall (p < 0.005), specifically bronchodilators, gastrointestinal drugs and NSAIDs. They also were more likely to be younger (p < 0.005) and male (p < 0.01), had fewer years in practice (p < 0.001), saw more patients per day (p < 0.05) and billed more per patient (p < 0.01). The GPs who had a higher hip-fracture rate prescribed more drugs overall (p < 0.001), notably antihypertensives, bronchodilators, cholesterol-lowering agents, gastrointestinal drugs and NSAIDs, than those who had a lower hip-fracture rate. They also had a larger practice (p < 0.001), practised more days per year (p < 0

  1. Characteristics of gender-related circadian arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Driziene, Zaneta; Jakutiene, Eitaute; Stakisaitis, Donatas; Pundziene, Birute; Sveikata, Audrius

    2008-01-01

    To define 24-h characteristics of arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescent girls and boys; to determine gender-related differences of blood pressure, its circadian pattern. The 24-h blood pressure was monitored hourly in healthy girls (n=22, without no account for the menstrual cycle phase) and boys (n=22). Additionally, blood pressure of adolescent girls (n=15) was examined during different phases of their menstrual cycle (follicular, ovulation, and luteal). Blood pressure was monitored with an auto-cuff automatic outpatient blood pressure monitor. Investigation showed gender-related differences in 24-h blood pressure. Study results revealed the circadian blood pressure rhythm characterized by a period of low values during nighttime and an early morning increase in both adolescent groups. Nocturnal systolic blood pressure was higher (P<0.05) in boys than in girls in all phases of their menstrual cycle. Diurnal systolic blood pressure in boys was higher than in girls in their follicular phase (P<0.05). The day and night blood pressure differed between boys and girls (P<0.05). A dipping blood pressure pattern as a decrease in mean nighttime blood pressure as compared with mean daytime blood pressure was defined: 10.02+/-6.7% in girls (n=22) and 13+/-6.3% in boys (n=22), without gender-related differences (P>0.05). There were no differences in blood pressure dipping among girls' groups in different menstrual cycle phases (P>0.05). Adolescent boys showed a significant positive correlation between their mean diurnal blood pressure and height (P<0.05). The study proved gender-related arterial blood pressure differences in healthy adolescents. The results demonstrate the gender-specific circadian blood pressure rhythm pattern in both gender groups.

  2. Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Haro-Mora, Juan Jesus; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Porras, Nuria; Alcazar, Dolores; Gaztambide, Joaquin; Ruiz-Orpez, Antonio; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan M.; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Lopez-Siguero, Juan P; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology. Objectives The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood. Patients and Methods The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR). Results The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPARγ, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight. Conclusions It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression. PMID:23825978

  3. Characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimmy Tse-Jen; Li, Joe-Sharg; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shin-Da; Yu, Wen-Yu; Liao, Chien-Chang; Choy, Cheuk-Sing

    2009-12-01

    Bicycle-related head injury is an important public health issue. A paucity of statistical data on bicycle accidents exists in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to report the characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei, Taiwan. Between 2001 and 2002, basic patient information of those with bicycle-related head injuries was collected from the Trauma Data Registry in 5 hospitals of the Taipei area. Telephone interviews were conducted to collect specific information surrounding bicycle accidents. Of 324 patients with bicycle-related head injuries, 90 (27.8%) had severe head injuries. Boys compared with girls had a higher proportion of severe head injuries (34.1% vs 23.4%; P = .048). Children aged 5 to 9 years had a higher proportion of severe head injuries compared with ages 10 to 14 years (65.2% vs 6.4%; P = .043). Bicycles without reflectors had a higher proportion of severe head injuries compared to bicycles with reflectors (69.0% vs 5.7%; P = .004). Bicyclists carrying goods (such as backpacks or weighted toward the road) and speeding were associated with severe head injury (P < .05). Collisions with vehicles of a larger size resulted in a higher rate of severe head injury compared with collisions with pedestrians (76.9% vs 3.6%; P = .043). For children whose main mode of transport is bicycles, the enforcement of helmet legislation, educational programs in bicycling safety and equipment, and improving the infrastructure for bicycling in urban areas are needed in Taiwan to reduce potentially debilitating or life-threatening injuries.

  4. Incidence and characteristics of motor vehicle collision-related blunt thoracic aortic injury according to age.

    PubMed

    McGwin, Gerald; Reiff, Donald A; Moran, Stephan G; Rue, Loring W

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicle collision-related blunt thoracic aorta injury (BAI) is rare and highly lethal. Vascular disease as related to advancing age potentially subjects older adults to increased risk of BAI; the mechanisms associated with such injuries may be different as compared with younger adults. The goal of the present study is to test this hypothesis using population-based data. The 1995 to 1999 National Automotive Sampling System data files were used. The National Automotive Sampling System is a national probability sample of passenger vehicles involved in police-reported tow-away crashes. BAI was defined according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale codes. Among those with BAI, information on occupant (age, seating position, restraint use), collision (collision type, delta-V, vehicle intrusion), and outcome characteristics were obtained and compared according to age. The overall incidence of BAI was 6.8 per 10,000 occupants and there was a steady increase in the BAI rate for advancing decades of life. The proportion of occupants with BAI who die at the scene of the collision is relatively consistent across all age groups ( approximately 85%). Among those who survive to receive medical care, ultimate survival is lowest among those aged 60 and older. Near-side collisions were responsible for more BAI among older adults than other age groups (50% vs. 20.6%, p < or = 0.05). Older adults sustained BAI in collisions with lower delta-V values compared with younger persons (p < or = 0.05). Older adults have the highest rate of motor vehicle collision-related BAI, and their injuries tend to occur in less severe collisions. A high level of suspicion for BAI among older adults should not be reserved for high-energy collisions only.

  5. Nonfatal sport-related craniofacial fractures: characteristics, mechanisms, and demographic data in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    MacIsaac, Zoe M; Berhane, Hebist; Cray, James; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Losee, Joseph E; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J

    2013-06-01

    Few reports exist on sport-related craniofacial fracture injuries in the pediatric population. Most patients with craniofacial injuries are adults, and most studies on pediatric sport injuries do not focus specifically on craniofacial fractures. The authors' goal was to provide a retrospective, descriptive review of the common mechanisms of sport-related craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population, identifying the characteristics of these injuries and providing a description of the demographics of this population. The study population included children between the ages of 0 and 18 years who were seen in the emergency department at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2000 and 2005. Of the 1508 patients identified, 167 had injuries caused by sport-related trauma (10.6 percent). After evaluation in the emergency department, 45.5 percent were hospitalized, and 15.0 percent of these were admitted to the intensive care unit. The peak incidence of sport-related injuries occurred between the ages of 13 and 15 years (40.7 percent). Nasal (35.9 percent), orbital (33.5 percent), and skull fractures (30.5 percent) were most common, whereas fractures of the maxilla (12.6 percent), mandible (7.2 percent), zygomaticomaxillary complex (4.2 percent), and naso-orbitoethmoid complex (1.2 percent) were observed less frequently. Baseball and softball were most frequently associated with the craniofacial injuries (44.3 percent), whereas basketball (7.2 percent) and football (3.0 percent) were associated with fewer injuries. The most common mechanisms of injury were throwing, catching, or hitting a ball (34.1 percent) and collision with other players (24.5 percent). These data may allow targeted or sport-specific craniofacial fracture injury prevention strategies.

  6. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods:  Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer out of bed, dressing, and/or incontinence care and were able to respond to structured interview questions about their morning care preferences. Trained research staff conducted standardized observations during 4 consecutive morning hours once per week per participant for 3 consecutive months during usual LTC conditions and interviewed participants about their morning care preferences using a structured interview protocol once per month during this same time period. Results:  Overall, 40% of the observations showed a lack of morning care provision, including any staff-resident communication about care, during the 4-hr observation period. Participants rated by staff as more physically dependent and requiring 2 staff for transfer were more likely to not receive morning care. Even when care in a particular area was absent, the majority of participants expressed a stable preference for care to remain the “same” (range of proportions was .75 to .87 for the 3 targeted care areas) and infrequently made requests for care. Implications:  Efforts to promote resident-directed care should consider staffing issues related to missed care occurrences and resident issues related to level of dependency on staff as well as reduced expectations for care, which can lead to resident acceptance of low care frequencies. PMID:22565494

  7. Characteristics and Spontaneous Recovery of Tinnitus Related to Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mühlmeier, Guido; Baguley, David; Cox, Tony; Suckfüll, Markus; Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and spontaneous recovery of tinnitus related to idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Study Design: Retrospective analysis from two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of ISSNHL within 48 hours from onset (Study A), or of tinnitus related to ISSNHL within 3 months from onset (Study B). Setting: Forty-eight European sites (academic tertiary referral centers, private ENT practices). Patients: One hundred thirteen adult patients of which 65 with hearing loss ≥30 dB (Study A) and 48 with persistent acute tinnitus (Study B) at baseline. Interventions: Intratympanic (i.t.) injection of placebo gel in single dose or in triple dose during 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Frequency of tinnitus, subjective tinnitus loudness, rates of complete tinnitus remission, and complete hearing recovery during 3 months follow-up. Results: In acute ISSNHL, tinnitus loudness decreased rapidly in cases of mild-moderate hearing loss, and tinnitus had completely resolved in two-thirds of patients after 3 months. Hearing recovery preceded tinnitus resolution. When associated with severe-profound hearing loss, tinnitus improved significantly less. Complete hearing recovery and full tinnitus remission were both about three times more frequent in mild-moderate hearing loss patients than in severe-profound cases. Improvement in tinnitus loudness over time can be approximated by a negative exponential function. Conclusions: Prognosis for ISSNHL-related tinnitus is relatively poor in case of severe-profound hearing loss and the longer it has persisted. Alleviation or management of tinnitus should be a key therapeutic objective especially in pronounced ISSNHL cases. PMID:27228021

  8. Characteristics of intermediate state related to anti-Stokes luminescence of ZnO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Katsushi; Goto, Takenari; Yao, Takafumi

    2014-06-21

    Anti-Stokes luminescence from ZnO is supposed to be a two-step two-photon absorption process with an intermediate state. The intermediate state is assumed to be a localized state with two different excited and relaxed states. One of the localized states is believed to be the well-known 2.4 eV green luminescence; the other is difficult to observe experimentally. We found an interesting 2.25 eV deep luminescence from ZnO, which has been shown to relate to anti-Stokes luminescence. The 2.25 eV yellow luminescence was observable only below the band gap excitation and through a time-resolved observation after the excitation light was turned off. The intermediate states were found to be a photo-excited donor-acceptor pair and its lattice relaxation state. The characteristics and the role of the intermediate state of ZnO related to the anti-Stokes luminescence are discussed.

  9. Craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Gavric, Anja; Mirceta, Dubravka; Jakobovic, Mario; Pavlic, Andrej; Zrinski, Magda Trinajstic; Spalj, Stjepan

    2015-06-01

    Self-esteem is a psychological trait that may develop in interaction with craniodentofacial esthetics. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem in adolescents and young adults. The study was cross-sectional; the sample included 200 pupils and university students (58% female) aged 13 to 33 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire were used. Craniodentofacial features were estimated by the method of Martin and Saller, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need. When malocclusion severity increases, dental esthetics-related quality of life decreases. The multiple linear regression showed that with the control of all other predictors in the model, the social impact of dental esthetics, borderline dental self-confidence, and facial type contribute the most to explain the variability of self-esteem, accounting for 3.2%, 1.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, of the variability values. The whole model accounts for 24.2% of the variability of self-esteem. In adolescents and young adults, self-esteem appears to be more influenced by the self-perceived psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics than the normative level of malocclusion, craniofacial typology, sex, or age. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cutaneous wart-associated HPV types: prevalence and relation with patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C; de Koning, Maurits N C; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Egberts, Paulette F; Ter Schegget, Jan; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Quint, Wim G V; Assendelft, Willem J J; Eekhof, Just A H

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data on cutaneous wart-associated HPV types are rare. To examine the prevalence of cutaneous wart-associated HPV types and their relation with patient characteristics. Swabs were taken from all 744 warts of 246 consecutive immunocompetent participants and analysed by a broad spectrum HSL-PCR/MPG assay. Patient details including location, duration, and number of warts were recorded. No HPV DNA was detected in 49 (7%) swabs, a single HPV type in 577 (78%) swabs, and multiple HPV types in 118 (16%) swabs. HPV 2, 27 and 57 (alpha genus), HPV 4 (gamma genus) and HPV 1 (mu genus) were the most frequently detected HPV types, and HPV 63 (mu genus) was only frequently detected together with other HPV types. Less frequently detected HPV types were HPV 3, 7, 10 and 28 (alpha genus), 65, 88 and 95 (gamma genus) and 41 (nu genus). Warts containing HPV 1 showed the most distinct clinical profile, being related to children aged <12 years, plantar location, duration <6 months, and to patients with <4 warts. HPV 27, 57, 2 and 1 are the most prevalent HPV types in cutaneous warts in general population. Warts infected with HPV 1 have a distinct clinical profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical and pathological characteristics of Chinese patients with BRCA related breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Wong, L P; Wong, H N; Law, F B F; Ng, E K O; Tang, Y H; Chan, W K; Suen, D T K; Choi, C; Ho, L S; Kwan, K H; Poon, M; Wong, T T; Chan, K; Chan, S W W; Ying, M W L; Chan, W C; Ma, E S K; Ford, J M; West, D W

    2009-12-01

    Breast cancers related to BRCA mutations are associated with particular biological features. Here we report the clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in Chinese women with and without BRCA mutations and of carriers of BRCA1 mutations compared to BRCA2 mutations. Two hundred and 26 high-risk Hong Kong Chinese women were tested for BRCA mutations, medical information was obtained from medical records, and risk and demographic information was obtained from personal interviews. In this cohort, 28 (12.4%) women were BRCA mutation carriers and among these carriers, 39.3% were BRCA1 and 60.7% were BRCA2 mutations. Mutation carriers were more likely to have a familial history of breast and ovarian cancer, high-grade cancers, and triple negative (TN) cancers. Prevalence of TN was 48.3% in BRCA carriers and 25.6% in non-carriers and was 67.7% in BRCA1 and 35.3% in BRCA2 carriers. Estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancer was significantly associated with BRCA1 mutations, especially in those under 40 years of age. BRCA-related breast cancer in this Chinese population is associated with family history and adverse pathological/prognostic features, with BRCA2 mutations being more prevalent but BRCA1 carriers having more aggressive and TN cancers. Compared to Caucasian populations, prevalence of BRCA2 mutations and TN cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers in Chinese population are elevated.

  12. Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Érika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário dos Santos, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8–34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer. PMID:24764635

  13. Characteristics of intermediate state related to anti-Stokes luminescence of ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Katsushi; Goto, Takenari; Yao, Takafumi

    2014-06-01

    Anti-Stokes luminescence from ZnO is supposed to be a two-step two-photon absorption process with an intermediate state. The intermediate state is assumed to be a localized state with two different excited and relaxed states. One of the localized states is believed to be the well-known 2.4 eV green luminescence; the other is difficult to observe experimentally. We found an interesting 2.25 eV deep luminescence from ZnO, which has been shown to relate to anti-Stokes luminescence. The 2.25 eV yellow luminescence was observable only below the band gap excitation and through a time-resolved observation after the excitation light was turned off. The intermediate states were found to be a photo-excited donor-acceptor pair and its lattice relaxation state. The characteristics and the role of the intermediate state of ZnO related to the anti-Stokes luminescence are discussed.

  14. Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds.

  15. Age-related changes in the rate of muscle activation and rapid force characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brennan J; Ryan, Eric D; Herda, Trent J; Costa, Pablo B; Herda, Ashley A; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-04-01

    Declines in muscle size and strength are commonly reported as a consequence of aging; however, few studies have investigated the influence of aging on the rate of muscle activation and rapid force characteristics across the lifespan. This study aims to investigate the effects of aging on the rate of muscle activation and rapid force characteristics of the plantar flexors. Plantar flexion peak force (PF), absolute (peak, 50, and 100-200 ms), and relative (10 %, 30 %, and 50 %) rate of force development (RFD), the rapid to maximal force ratio (RFD/PF), and the rate of electromyography rise (RER) were examined during an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in young (age = 22 ± 2 years), middle-aged (43 ± 2 years), and old (69 ± 5 years) men. The old men exhibited lower PF (30.7 % and 27.6 % lower, respectively) and absolute (24.4-55.1 %) and relative (16.4-28.9 %) RFD values compared to the young and middle-aged men (P ≤ 0.03). RER values were similar between the young and old men (P ≥ 0.30); however, RER values were greater for the middle-aged men when compared to the young and old men for the soleus (P < 0.01) and the old men for the medial gastrocnemius (P ≤ 0.02). Likewise, RFD/PF ratios were similar between young and old men (P ≥ 0.26); however, these ratios were greater for the middle-aged men at early (P ≤ 0.03), but not later (P ≥ 0.10), time intervals. The lower PF and absolute and relative RFD values for the old men may contribute to the increased functional limitations often observed in older adults. Interestingly, higher rates of muscle activation and greater early RFD/PF ratios in middle-aged men may be a reflection of physiological alterations in the neuromuscular system occurring in the fifth decade.

  16. Modification of ENSO and ENSO-related atmospheric characteristics due to future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Tatiana; Gushchina, Daria

    2017-04-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the strongest natural climate interannual fluctuation in Tropical Pacific, it affects regional and global climate. There are two types of this phenomenon: East Pacific (EP) El Niño characterized by maximum of SST anomalies centered over the eastern tropical Pacific and Central Pacific (CP) El Niño with SST warming in the center of the Pacific Ocean [Ashok et al., 2007; Kug et al., 2009]. The ability of CMIP5 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) to simulate two flavors of El Niño correctly was estimated using EOF-analysis technique of SST anomalies [Takahashi et al., 2011] in the recent studies [Matveeva and Gushchina, 2016]. It was shown that only several CGCMs were able to reproduce two types of ENSO. The ENSO-related characteristics can alter due to global climate change. However, scientific community can't be sure whether ENSO activity will be enhanced or damped under global warming. In this study, we choose the 6 "best" CGCMs (BNU-ESM, CCSM4, CNRM-CM5, FIO-ESM, INM-CM4, MIROC5) which simulated spatial and temporal features of the two types of El Niño the most realistic way. To obtain a complete result we analyzed anomalies of complex ENSO-related characteristics (SST, rainfall, vertical movement, atmospheric circulation in the upper and lower troposphere) during two types of El Niño events. We compared the spatial distribution of these anomalies depending future climate scenarios (we took two scenarios with significant differences - RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 [Taylor et al., 2012]). It was shown the large difference in model's estimates ENSO-related anomalies' changes for future climate. The main aspect of this study is the analysis of the ENSO characteristics' modification (frequency, amplitude, the ratio between EP and CP El Niño) under different scenarios of warming. We didn't expect any significant change of frequency for two types of El Nino. It was shown that there was no well

  17. Understanding Structural and Cultural School Characteristics in Relation to Educational Change: The Case of ICT Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondeur, Jo; Devos, Geert; van Houtte, Mieke; van Braak, Johan; Valcke, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on the idea that school characteristics affect educational change, such as ICT integration. The goal of this inquiry is to explore both structural school characteristics (i.e. infrastructure, planning and support) and cultural school characteristics (i.e. leadership, goal orientedness and innovativeness) and how they contribute…

  18. Relations between lower body isometric muscle force characteristics and start performance in elite male sprint swimmers.

    PubMed

    Beretić, Igor; Durović, Marko; Okičić, Tomislav; Dopsaj, Milivoj

    2013-01-01

    exten-sors relative value of maximum muscle voluntary force, leg extensors specific rate of force develop-ment and leg extensors relative value of specific rate of force development positively associated with the start time measured on 10m-mark.Time at 10m-mark was not associated with legs ex-tensors basic level of rate of force development at absolute and relative level.Obtained multi-regressional model is defined by variables which measure the development of maxi-mum voluntary isometric leg extensor muscle force on the absolute and relative level, as well as vari-ables which measure the development of specific explosive force of the same muscle group on abso-lute and relative level, this could use as a tool for swimming coaches to control the direction and ex-tent of development of a given force characteristics for providing conditions for start improvement in highly trained elite male sprint swimmers.

  19. The clinicopathologic characteristics of kidney diseases related to monotypic IgA deposits.

    PubMed

    Vignon, Marguerite; Cohen, Camille; Faguer, Stanislas; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Guilbeau, Celine; Rabant, Marion; Higgins, Sarah; Hummel, Aurélie; Hertig, Alexandre; Francois, Hélène; Lequintrec, Moglie; Vilaine, Eve; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Pourrat, Jacques; Chauveau, Dominique; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Javaugue, Vincent; Touchard, Guy; El Karoui, Khalil; Bridoux, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) regroups renal disorders caused by a monoclonal immunoglobulin without overt hematological malignancy. MGRS includes tubular disorders, glomerular disorders with organized deposits, and glomerular disorders with non-organized deposits, such as proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits. Since glomerular involvement related to monotypic IgA deposits is poorly described we performed retrospective analysis and defined clinico-biological characteristics, renal pathology, and outcome in 19 referred patients. This analysis allowed distinction between 2 types of glomerulopathies, α-heavy chain deposition disease (5 patients) and glomerulonephritis with monotypic IgA deposits (14 patients) suggestive of IgA-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits in 12 cases. Clinicopathologic characteristics of α-heavy chain deposition disease resemble those of the γ-heavy chain disease, except for a higher frequency of extra-capillary proliferation and extra-renal involvement. IgA-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits should be differentiated from diseases with polytypic IgA deposits, given distinct clinical, histological, and pathophysiological features. Similarly to IgG-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits, overt hematological malignancy was infrequent, but sensitive serum and bone marrow studies revealed a subtle plasma cell proliferation in most patients with IgA-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits. Anti-myeloma agents appeared to favorably influence renal prognosis. Thus, potential progression towards symptomatic IgA multiple myeloma suggests that careful hematological follow-up is mandatory. This series expands the spectrum of renal disease in MGRS.

  20. Lifestyle-related characteristics of young low-meat consumers and omnivores in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel L; Klock, Kristin S; Nordrehaug Astrøm, Anne; Haugejorden, Ola; Johansson, Gunnar

    2002-08-01

    To compare the lifestyle-related characteristics of low-meat consumer and omnivore adolescents in Sweden and Norway. A total of 2041 students (578 from Umeå, Sweden; 504 from Stockholm, Sweden; and 959 from Bergen, Norway), with a mean age of 15.5 years, completed a questionnaire. Information was collected about physical characteristics, and health, family situation, social, exercise, alcohol, and tobacco habits. The response rate was 95% in Umeå, 91% in Stockholm, and 83% in Bergen. Statistical analyses included Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no reported difference between low-meat consumers and omnivores with respect to alcohol use, smoking, weight, or amount of exercise. Female low-meat consumers more frequently used smokeless tobacco, reported having more sick days during the last year, attached less importance to "being healthy," and had been depressed more often than female omnivores. Male low-meat consumers reported, to a greater extent than male omnivores, having been tired without reason, having often had headaches and having been depressed. Female low-meat consumers had parents with a higher average level of education than did female omnivores and more often spent time with friends after school. Vegetarianism or low-meat consumption is mainly a female phenomenon among adolescents in this study. The study indicates that the lifestyle of young low-meat consumers differs from the lifestyle found in previous studies of vegetarians with respect to the respondents' exercise habits, their perception of their own health, and their use of alcohol and tobacco. Contrary to findings from other studies, adherence to a low-meat diet may not correlate with other health promotion practices among adolescents in Sweden and Norway.

  1. Quantifying the Relative Impact of Continental Shelf and Storm Characteristics on Nearshore Waves during Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalyander, S.; Birchler, J. J.; Stockdon, H. F.; Thompson, D.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between storm characteristics (such as the size and velocity distribution of the wind field) and the waves they generate is well-understood, as is the dissipation and spectral transformation that occurs to swell and wind waves propagating over broad areas of the continental shelf. However, predicting differences in shallow water storm-wave climate between locations with varying shelf slope and width are more challenging. As a result, quantifying the spatial variability in coastal vulnerability to hurricanes, which along the US East Coast is done for Saffir-Simpson scale categories of hurricanes using the Stockdon run-up model and a simple method for modeling nearshore (20-m) wave height based on a uniform wind field, yields inaccurate results. Understanding differing storm-shelf interactions is also necessary to determine how vulnerability in different areas of the coast will be altered by potential climate-change impacts to storm frequency and intensity. In this study, simple, category-based wave model predictions were compared with deterministic SWAN model runs and observational data for Hurricane Earl (2010) offshore of Puerto Rico (PR) and Hurricane Bonnie (2010) offshore of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Wave height overestimation by the simple model is exacerbated at PR, where the continental shelf is steep and narrow. Over the wider shelf in the SAB, unrealistically high energy, long period waves are filtered from the spectrum, and the simple model compares relatively well to observations. To examine this effect, wave transformation over different simple shelf configurations was modeled for a suite of idealized storms to develop relationships between nearshore wave parameters and storm and shelf characteristics. These results will be used to improve estimations of coastal vulnerability based on hurricane category, and to determine the spatial variability in nearshore wave response with potential changes in hurricane climatology.

  2. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-07-31

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  3. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  4. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community.

  5. Reported characteristics of participants in physical therapy-related clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chevan, Julia; Haskvitz, Esther M

    2015-06-01

    The inclusion of sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in published clinical trials enables physical therapists to determine the applicability of trial results to patients in their clinics. The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of participant sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics in published physical therapy-related clinical trials. This was a retrospective review of clinical trials from 2 samples drawn from literature applicable to physical therapy. Two reviewers independently extracted data from a random sample of 152 clinical trials from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and a purposive sample of 85 clinical trials published in the journal Physical Therapy (PTJ). A database containing the occurrence of sociodemographic (age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of education, marital status) and anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index) in each article was created to generate descriptive statistics about both samples. Among the sociodemographic variables, at least 90% of articles reported the sex and age of trial participants. Additional sociodemographic characteristics that were reported in 20% to 26% of articles were participant level of education and participant race/ethnicity. The reporting of anthropometric data differed between the 2 samples, with body mass index being most commonly reported in the PEDro sample (48.0%) and weight being most commonly reported in the PTJ sample (38.8%). Articles reviewed were limited by year of publication (from 2008 to 2012 for PTJ articles and 2010 for clinical trials from PEDro) and to English-language-only literature. The physical therapy literature would benefit from enhanced reporting requirements for both sociodemographic and anthropometric data about participants. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  6. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  7. Relation of macroinvertebrate community impairment to catchment characteristics in New Jersey streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The level of macroinvertebrate community impairment was statistically related to selected basin and water-quality characteristics in New Jersey streams. More than 700 ambient biomonitoring stations were chosen to evaluate potential and known anthropogenic effects. Macroinvertebrate communities were assessed with a modified rapid-bioassessment approach using three impairment ratings (nonimpaired, moderately impaired, and severely impaired). Maximum-likelihood multiple logistic-regression analysis was used to develop equations defining the probability of community impairment above predetermined impairment levels. Seven of the original 140 explanatory variables were highly related to the level of community impairment. Explanatory variables found to be most useful for predicting severe macroinvertebrate community impairment were the amount of urban land and total flow of municipal effluent. Area underlain by the Reading Prong physiographic region and amount of forested land were inversely related to severe impairment. Nonparametric analysis of variance on rank-transformed bioassessment scores was used to evaluate differences in level of impairment among physiographic regions and major drainage areas simultaneously. Rejection of the null hypothesis indicated that the levels of impairment among all six physiographic regions and five major drainage areas were not equal. Physiographic regions located in the less urbanized northwest portion of New Jersey were not significantly different from each other and had the lowest occurrence of severely impaired macroinvertebrate communities. Physiographic regions containing urban centers had a higher probability of exhibiting a severely impaired macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of major drainage areas indicates that levels of impairment in the Atlantic Coastal Rivers drainage area differed significantly from those in the Lower Delaware River drainage area.

  8. Anaphylaxis to Iodinated Contrast Media: Clinical Characteristics Related with Development of Anaphylactic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Yang, Min-Suk; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of radiocontrast media (RCM) induced hypersensitivity and can be life-threatening if profound hypotension is combined. With increased use of iodine based RCM, related hypersensitivity is rapidly growing. However, the clinical characteristics and risk factors of RCM induced anaphylaxis accompanied by hypotension (anaphylactic shock) are not clearly defined. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors of RCM induced anaphylactic shock and the clinical value of RCM skin testing to identify causative agents in affected patients. Methods We analyzed the data of RCM induced anaphylaxis monitored by an inhospital pharmacovigilance center at a tertiary teaching hospital from January 2005 to December 2012 and compared the clinical features and skin test results according to the accompanying hypotension. Results Among total of 104 cases of RCM induced anaphylaxis, 34.6% of patients, developed anaphylaxis on their first exposure to RCM. Anaphylactic patients presenting with shock were older (57.4 vs. 50.1 years, p = 0.026) and had a history of more frequently exposure to RCM (5.1±7.8 vs. 1.9±3.3, p = 0.004) compared to those without hypotension. Among RCMs, hypotension was more frequent in anaphylaxis related to iopromide compared to other agents (85.0% vs. 61.4%, p = 0.011). Skin tests were performed in 51 patients after development of RCM induced anaphylaxis. Overall skin test positivity to RCM was 64.7% and 81.8% in patients with anaphylactic shock. Conclusion RCM induced anaphylactic shock is related to multiple exposures to RCM and most patients showed skin test positivity to RCM. PMID:24932635

  9. Anaphylaxis to iodinated contrast media: clinical characteristics related with development of anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Yang, Min-Suk; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of radiocontrast media (RCM) induced hypersensitivity and can be life-threatening if profound hypotension is combined. With increased use of iodine based RCM, related hypersensitivity is rapidly growing. However, the clinical characteristics and risk factors of RCM induced anaphylaxis accompanied by hypotension (anaphylactic shock) are not clearly defined. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors of RCM induced anaphylactic shock and the clinical value of RCM skin testing to identify causative agents in affected patients. We analyzed the data of RCM induced anaphylaxis monitored by an inhospital pharmacovigilance center at a tertiary teaching hospital from January 2005 to December 2012 and compared the clinical features and skin test results according to the accompanying hypotension. Among total of 104 cases of RCM induced anaphylaxis, 34.6% of patients, developed anaphylaxis on their first exposure to RCM. Anaphylactic patients presenting with shock were older (57.4 vs. 50.1 years, p = 0.026) and had a history of more frequently exposure to RCM (5.1±7.8 vs. 1.9±3.3, p = 0.004) compared to those without hypotension. Among RCMs, hypotension was more frequent in anaphylaxis related to iopromide compared to other agents (85.0% vs. 61.4%, p = 0.011). Skin tests were performed in 51 patients after development of RCM induced anaphylaxis. Overall skin test positivity to RCM was 64.7% and 81.8% in patients with anaphylactic shock. RCM induced anaphylactic shock is related to multiple exposures to RCM and most patients showed skin test positivity to RCM.

  10. Demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dantao; Shi, Zhihong; Xu, Jun; Shen, Lu; Xiao, Shifu; Zhang, Nan; Li, Yi; Jiao, Jinsong; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuling; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Xiao; Gu, Xiao-hua; Yang, Ce-ce; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Bin; Tang, Beisha; Wang, Jinhuan; Yu, Tao; Ji, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. AD diagnosis, progression, and treatment have not been analyzed nationwide in China. The primary aim of this study was to analyze demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in AD patients treated at outpatient clinics in China. We performed a retrospective study of 1993 AD patients at 10 cognitive centers across 8 cities in China from March 2011 to October 2014. Of these, 891 patients were followed for more than 1 year. The mean age at diagnosis was 72.0 ± 10.0 years (range 38–96 years), and the mean age at onset of AD was 69.8 ± 9.5 years. Most patients (65.1%) had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and mean Mini-Mental State Examination at diagnosis was 15.7 ± 7.7. AD patients showed significant cognitive decline at 12 months after diagnosis. Having more than 9 years of formal education was an independent risk factor related to rapid cognitive decline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.11–2.91]. Early-onset AD patients experienced more rapid cognitive decline than late-onset patients (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.09–3.06). Most AD patients in China had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis and experienced significant cognitive decline within 1 year. Rapid cognitive decline in AD was related to having a higher educational level and younger age of onset. PMID:27367978

  11. Estimating the Single-Trial Characteristics of Event-Related Responses: Evaluation of the MCERP Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Korsmey, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Single-trial event-related responses collected during the course of an experiment are typically averaged before analysis resulting in a rather crude picture of event-related brain dynamics. It has been quite clear for some time that these responses exhibit trial-to-trial variability: however, the computational techniques necessary to deal with such responses in noisy conditions have not been available. To this end we have developed the multiple-component, event-related potential model (mcERP), which assumes that the each event-related response consists of a sum of multiple evoked components each described by a stereotypical waveshape. These waveshapes are allowed to vary in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial, which allows us to capture, to first-order, the trial-dependent variations in event-related brain dynamics. We have constructed many sets of synthetic data designed to simulate intracortical recordings from a 15 channel, linear-array multielectrode implanted acutely in V1 of an awake-behaving macaque undergoing visual stimulation with a red light flash. This synthetic data was used to characterize the performance of the mcERP algorithm. First we quantified the degree to which such trial-to-trial variability aids in the identification of multiple components, and we demonstrate that amplitude variability is a more important factor in component separation than latency variability. Second, we quantified the behavior of the algorithm under two distinct signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: Gaussian noise independently present in each channel, and highly correlated (1/f distributed), far-field noise presented identically in each channel of the array. The mcERP algorithm was found to be robust to noise accurately identifying all component waveshapes and their associated single-trial characteristics down to SNR levels of -20dB for Gaussian noise and -7dB for 1/f far-field noise. Comparisons of the performance of this algorithm with factor analysis (FA

  12. Estimating the Single-Trial Characteristics of Event-Related Responses: Evaluation of the MCERP Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Korsmey, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Single-trial event-related responses collected during the course of an experiment are typically averaged before analysis resulting in a rather crude picture of event-related brain dynamics. It has been quite clear for some time that these responses exhibit trial-to-trial variability: however, the computational techniques necessary to deal with such responses in noisy conditions have not been available. To this end we have developed the multiple-component, event-related potential model (mcERP), which assumes that the each event-related response consists of a sum of multiple evoked components each described by a stereotypical waveshape. These waveshapes are allowed to vary in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial, which allows us to capture, to first-order, the trial-dependent variations in event-related brain dynamics. We have constructed many sets of synthetic data designed to simulate intracortical recordings from a 15 channel, linear-array multielectrode implanted acutely in V1 of an awake-behaving macaque undergoing visual stimulation with a red light flash. This synthetic data was used to characterize the performance of the mcERP algorithm. First we quantified the degree to which such trial-to-trial variability aids in the identification of multiple components, and we demonstrate that amplitude variability is a more important factor in component separation than latency variability. Second, we quantified the behavior of the algorithm under two distinct signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: Gaussian noise independently present in each channel, and highly correlated (1/f distributed), far-field noise presented identically in each channel of the array. The mcERP algorithm was found to be robust to noise accurately identifying all component waveshapes and their associated single-trial characteristics down to SNR levels of -20dB for Gaussian noise and -7dB for 1/f far-field noise. Comparisons of the performance of this algorithm with factor analysis (FA

  13. Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Kelly M; Reeves, Gordon H; Miller, Daniel J; Clarke, Sharon; Vance-Borland, Ken; Christiansen, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The geographic distribution of stream reaches with potential to support high-quality habitat for salmonids has bearing on the actual status of habitats and populations over broad spatial extents. As part of the Coastal Landscape Analysis and Modeling Study (CLAMS), we examined how salmon-habitat potential was distributed relative to current and future (+100 years) landscape characteristics in the Coastal Province of Oregon, USA. The intrinsic potential to provide high-quality rearing habitat was modeled for juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) based on stream flow, valley constraint, and stream gradient. Land ownership, use, and cover were summarized for 100-m analysis buffers on either side of stream reaches with high intrinsic potential and in the overall area encompassing the buffers. Past management seems to have concentrated nonindustrial private ownership, agriculture, and developed uses adjacent to reaches with high intrinsic potential for coho salmon. Thus, of the area in coho salmon buffers, 45% is either nonforested or recently logged, but only 10% is in larger-diameter forests. For the area in steelhead buffers, 21% is either non-forested or recently logged while 20% is in larger-diameter forests. Older forests are most extensive on federal lands but are rare on private lands, highlighting the critical role for public lands in near-term salmon conservation. Agriculture and development are projected to remain focused near high-intrinsic-potential reaches for coho salmon, increasing the importance of effectively addressing nonpoint source pollution from these uses. Percentages of larger-diameter forests are expected to increase throughout the province, but the increase will be only half as much in coho salmon buffers as in steelhead buffers. Most of the increase is projected for public lands, where policies emphasize biodiversity protection. Results suggest that widespread recovery of coho salmon is unlikely unless

  14. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-xiao; Yan, Chong-huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Zhang, Li-na; Liao, Xiang-peng; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Feng-xiu; Zhang, Jin-song; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2012-12-22

    Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young's Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated

  15. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  16. Young Children's Food Neophobia Characteristics and Sensory Behaviors Are Related to Their Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L; Davies, Patricia L; Boles, Richard E; Gavin, William J; Bellows, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Food neophobia in children has been associated with poor dietary variety and nutrient intakes. Underlying characteristics that may predispose a child to neophobia have not been widely studied. We investigated the associations between children's food neophobia, sensory sensitivity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of typically developing preschoolers. Caregiver reports of children's food neophobia and sensory behaviors (SBs) as measured by the Food Neophobia Scale and the Sensory Profile, children's observed weight outcome [body mass index z score (BMIz)], and children's food intake as estimated from the Block Kids Food Screener were collected at baseline in the Colorado LEAP (Longitudinal Eating and Physical Activity Study) study of childhood obesity. Preschool-aged children (n = 249; 136 girls, 113 boys; aged 55.6 ± 4.7 mo; BMIz = 0.54 ± 1.14) and caregivers [n = 180; 57 Hispanic, 119 non-Hispanic white (NHW), 4 unknown] participated. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlations and multivariate hierarchical linear regression analyses. Lower scores for children's oral sensory characteristics (i.e., more atypical) were related to higher neophobia ratings (r = -0.53, P < 0.001), and neophobia was negatively associated with reported vegetable intake (r = -0.31, P = 0.001) and dietary variety (r = -0.22, P < 0.001). Hispanic caregivers reported more atypical child SB scores (46.2 ± 8.8) than did NHW caregivers (50.5 ± 7.6; P = 0.006); however, no differences were noted for neophobia and SB scores by parent income and education or child sex. Neophobia was negatively associated with vegetable intake and dietary variety (P < 0.001 for both). SBs were associated with children's energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages in bivariate analyses (r = -0.18, P < 0.05); however, in regression models, only ethnicity was significantly associated with energy from sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.001). Hispanic ethnicity was positively associated with sugar

  17. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound

  18. Characteristics of Sternberg-Reed, and related cells in Hodgkin's disease: an immunohistological study.

    PubMed Central

    Dorreen, M. S.; Habeshaw, J. A.; Stansfeld, A. G.; Wrigley, P. F.; Lister, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antileucocyte antibodies was used in a study of Hodgkin's disease (HD) to explore the phenotypic characteristics of Sternberg-Reed and related cells (collectively termed HD cells). Cryostat preparations of 31 lymph nodes and 2 spleens were obtained from 30 patients with active HD. The histological diagnoses were: lymphocyte predominance (LP), 4 patients; nodular sclerosis (NS), 22; mixed cellularity (MC), 2; lymphocyte depletion (LD), 2. The monoclonal antibodies used were: OKT3, T11, Leu-1 (pan T cell specific); Leu-3A (T "helper" specific); Leu-2A, OKT8 (T "suppressor" specific); immunoglobulin (Ig) antibodies: anti kappa and lambda light chains, anti mu and delta heavy chains; B1 (anti B lymphocyte); CA2-11 (anti HLA-DR); OKM1, Mo-2 (anti myeloid/monocyte); OKT9 (anti transferrin receptor); Leu-7 (anti "NK" cell) and J5 (anti common ALL antigen). Reactions with peanut lectin (PNL) were also studied. The reactions were developed using a modified "ABC" immunoperoxidase technique. Specific attention was paid to the cell surface phenotype and anatomical localisation of HD cells in relation to surrounding T and B lymphocytes. HD cells formed distinct "rosettes" with T cells of "helper" phenotype although in 3 cases (1: LP, 2: NS) Leu-7 positive cells formed a prominent component of these interactions. In partially involved lymph node and spleen, HD cells were prominently distributed in a perifollicular distribution. In addition follicular mantle zones were frequently infiltrated by HD cells, the degree of ensuing destruction being related to the extent of lymph node effacement by HD. In 2 cases (1: NS, 1: LD) HD cells expressed clear, positive reactions with B1 although in neither of these cases nor in any other instance, was surface Ig expressed on the HD cell surface. The great majority of HD cells reacted positively with both OKT9 and, as previously reported, with anti HLA-DR antibody. In addition, HD cells demonstrated intense surface and

  19. Differences in health-related socioeconomic characteristics among Pacific populations living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sundborn, Gerhard; Metcalf, Patricia; Schaaf, David; Dyall, Lorna; Gentles, Dudley; Jackson, Rodney

    2006-01-27

    To describe, compare and contrast the health-related socioeconomic characteristics of the different Pacific ethnic groups surveyed in the Auckland Diabetes, Heart and Health Survey (DHHS). The DHHS was carried out in Auckland in 2002-2003. Electoral roll based sampling and cluster sampling strategies were used to recruit a representative sample of Auckland Pacific populations. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire about their demographic and socioeconomic position. The study surveyed 1011 Pacific people aged between 35-74 years of age. Of the 1011 Pacific participants, 484 were of Samoan, 255 Tongan, 116 Cook Island, 109 Niuean, 26 Fijian, and 21 were of 'Other Pacific' ethnic groups. Samoans were least likely to have no children, and most likely to hold a certificate qualification. Tongans were least likely to be born in New Zealand (NZ) and had the shortest residence time in NZ. Tongans were most likely to be married and had the largest families. Cook Islanders were most likely to be NZ-born and had the highest household income. Niueans were most likely to be in paid employment, to hold a diploma qualification, to own their own homes, and have the smallest families. In conclusion, a distinct pattern (continuum) emerged from the results. The Cook Island and Niuean ethnic groups generally had a similar and more favourable socioeconomic profile compared to the Samoan and Tongan ethnic groups. These differences are most likely to be related to the length of residence in NZ. As differences existed, each Pacific ethnic group should be investigated separately when there are sufficient numbers.

  20. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

  1. Monthly analysis of PM ratio characteristics and its relation to AOD.

    PubMed

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Broday, David M; Chatfield, Robert; Esswein, Robert; Stafoggia, Massimo; Lepeule, Johanna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Kloog, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is derived from diverse sources-natural and anthropogenic. Climate change processes and remote sensing measurements are affected by the PM properties, which are often lumped into homogeneous size fractions that show spatiotemporal variation. Since different sources are attributed to different geographic locations and show specific spatial and temporal PM patterns, we explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of the PM2.5/PM10 ratio in different areas. Furthermore, we examined the statistical relationships between AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) products, satellite-based AOD, and the PM ratio, as well as the specific PM size fractions. PM data from the northeastern United States, from San Joaquin Valley, CA, and from Italy, Israel, and France were analyzed, as well as the spatial and temporal co-measured AOD products obtained from the MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. Our results suggest that when both the AERONET AOD and the AERONET fine-mode AOD are available, the AERONET AOD ratio can be a fair proxy for the ground PM ratio. Therefore, we recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in the calibration of MAIAC. Along with a relatively large variation in the observed PM ratio (especially in the northeastern United States), this shows the need to revisit MAIAC assumptions on aerosol microphysical properties, and perhaps their seasonal variability, which are used to generate the look-up tables and conduct aerosol retrievals. Our results call for further scrutiny of satellite-borne AOD, in particular its errors, limitations, and relation to the vertical aerosol profile and the particle size, shape, and composition distribution. This work is one step of the required analyses to gain better understanding of what the satellite-based AOD represents.

  2. Toward prevention of alcohol exposed pregnancies: characteristics that relate to ineffective contraception and risky drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Stefania; Farrell, Leah V.; Penberthy, J. Kim; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancy is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the United States. This paper describes the motivational patterns that relate to risky drinking and ineffective contraception, two behaviors that can result in alcohol-exposed pregnancy. As part of an intervention study aimed at reducing alcohol-exposed pregnancy 124 women were recruited and reported demographic characteristics, readiness to change, stages of change, drinking, contraception, and sexual behavior history. Our results showed the following. Drinking: A significant positive correlation was found between the number of drinks consumed in 90 days and the Importance to reduce drinking (r = .23, p = .008). A significant negative correlation between number of drinks and confidence to reduce drinking (r = −.39, p = .000) was found as well. Significant differences were found in the total number of drinks consumed in 90 days between the five stages of change (F = (4,118), 3.12, p = .01). Women in Preparation reported drinking a significantly higher number of drinks than women in other stages of change. Contraception: There were significant negative correlations between ineffective contraception and Importance (r = −.38, p = .00), confidence (r = −.20, p = .02) and Readiness (r = −.43, p = .00) to use contraception effectively. Significant differences in contraception ineffectiveness were found for women in different stages of change (F = (4,115) 8.58, p = .000). Women in Precontemplation reported significantly higher levels of contraception ineffectiveness compared to women in other stages of change. Results show a clear relationship between higher alcohol consumption and higher levels of motivation to reduce drinking. In contrast, higher levels of ineffective contraception were related to lower levels of motivation to use contraception effectively. This suggests risky drinking may be better targeted with brief skills building interventions and ineffective contraception may

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Characteristics in Obese Adolescents with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Brooke; Sukalich, Sara; Droz, Jennifer; Griffin, Adam; Cook, Stephen; Blumkin, Aaron; Guzick, David S.; Hoeger, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Adults with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MBS) and related cardiovascular disease. It is not clear whether PCOS diagnosed in adolescence increases the risk of MBS in this age group. Objective: The aim was to compare the prevalence and related characteristics of MBS in obese adolescents with and without PCOS. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study of overweight and obese PCOS adolescents and BMI matched controls. Patients and Participants: A total of 74 subjects, 43 with PCOS and 31 controls, participated in the study. Interventions: Each subject underwent a physical examination and laboratory evaluation for a diagnosis of MBS. Regional fat distribution was determined by computerized tomography scan in the PCOS adolescents. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the prevalence of MBS and its components in adolescent subjects and controls. Results: The PCOS group had larger ovarian volume and higher measures of total testosterone and free androgen index than controls, but there were no differences in waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, or lipids. PCOS adolescents demonstrated more glucose abnormalities and higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. By pediatric criteria, 53% of the PCOS and 55% of the control adolescents had MBS. By adult criteria, 26% of PCOS and 29% of controls met diagnostic criteria for MBS. Conclusions: Obese adolescent women have a high prevalence of MBS, and PCOS does not add additional risk for MBS. There appears to be an association between MBS and visceral adiposity. PCOS is associated with increased incidence of glucose intolerance and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Our results reinforce the importance of obesity counseling in adolescents to recognize the possible risk of future cardiovascular disease in these young women. PMID:18812482

  4. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk.

  5. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  6. Age-related leaf characteristics of surface features and ultrastructure of Dendropanax morbifera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Young Kuk; Yoon, Chul Jong

    2012-02-01

    Age-related morphological and anatomical changes were investigated by light and electron microscopy with juvenile and adult leaves of Dendropanax morbifera. Most juvenile leaves were glossy and palmate with five deep and narrow lobes divided nearly to two-thirds of the leaf base. Adult leaves were thick and possessed three lobes divided nearly to half of the leaf base. Stomata were ovoid and found on the abaxial surface. The epicuticular waxes of the plant included platelets, angular rodlets and threads. Platelets were attached to the surface at various angles. Distinct angular rodlets could be found on either the adaxial or the abaxial surface. Platelets on surface undulations occurred exclusively on the abaxial surface of adult leaves. Juvenile leaves were ca. 150 μm thick and had few intercellular spaces. Adult leaves were nearly two times thicker than juvenile leaves, and showed highly vacuolated cells and large intercellular spaces. The cuticle proper was apparent on the epidermis and showed distinctly alternating lamellate structures in juvenile leaves. The epidermal cell wall of adult leaves was covered with a cuticle layer for which a lamellate structure was not found. These results suggest that the species is heteroblastic in leaf characteristics with increasing leaf age.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Stoma-Related Obstruction after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yoshiki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Satoru; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshiyama, Shigeyuki; Hiro, Junichiro; Inoue, Mikihiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2017-03-01

    We defined small bowel obstruction occurring around the limbs of the ileostomy as stoma-related obstruction (SRO) and investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors of SRO. From January 2002 to March 2016, 309 consecutive patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis were enrolled. Two-stage IPAA with diverting ileostomy was analyzed. We assessed the possible associations between SRO and clinical factors. A total of 205 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-three (25.8%) patients with SRO before ileostomy closure were identified for review. All patients with SRO were at least transiently resolved by intubation though orifice of ileostomy (98.1%) or nasally (3.7%). In 18 (33.9%) patients, the ileostomy was taken down ahead of schedule and the small bowel obstruction improved in all cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that age at surgery <16 years old and body mass index <21 were significant predictive factors for SRO (P = 0.013 and 0.0012, respectively). Younger age at surgery and low body mass index may be significant predictive factors for SRO after IPAA with diverting ileostomy in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  8. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  9. Optical characteristics of prostate tissues and the key chromophores and fluorophores within tissues related to carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Tissues are an impressive complex creation comprised of a vast of assortment of molecules, structures and functional units. Despite this overwhelming complexity, we may still discuss average optical properties as long as we realize the limitations involved. There are five independent macroscopic parameters that are believed to characterize light propagation in tissue: the index of refraction (n), the absorption coefficient (μa), the scattering coefficient (μs), the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's), and the scattering anisotropy (g). This paper summarizes the Optical characteristics of tissue of prostate tissues ex vivo and the key fluorophores related to carcinogenesis. The absorption coefficient (μa) describes the effectiveness of light absorbed by certain chromophore. The key spectra fingerprints of water were introduced to distinguish different water contents in normal and cancerous prostate tissues. Fluorescence occurs when a molecule, atom or nanostructure relaxes to its ground state after being electrically excited. There are three fluorescence parameters of interest we may concern in tissue optics: the fluorescence lifetime (τf), the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) and the fluorescence emission peak (λmax). The key wavelengths which can be used for cancer detection were reviewed. Scattering of light occurs in media which contains fluctuations in the refractive index n. Tissue ultrastructure extends from membranes to membrane aggregates to collagen fibers to nuclei to cells, which may be an alternative way to detect cancer in tissues.

  10. Hospital- and patient-related characteristics determining maternity length of stay: a hierarchical linear model approach.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, K M; Elashoff, R M; Rees, K S; Hasan, M M; Legorreta, A P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to pregnancy and childbirth that might be predictive of a patient's length of stay after delivery and to model variations in length of stay. METHODS: California hospital discharge data on maternity patients (n = 499,912) were analyzed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to adjust for patient case mix and hospital characteristics and to account for the dependence of outcome variables within hospitals. RESULTS: Substantial variation in length of stay among patients was observed. The variation was mainly attributed to delivery type (vaginal or cesarean section), the patient's clinical risk factors, and severity of complications (if any). Furthermore, hospitals differed significantly in maternity lengths of stay even after adjustment for patient case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Developing risk-adjusted models for length of stay is a complex process but is essential for understanding variation. The hierarchical linear model approach described here represents a more efficient and appropriate way of studying interhospital variations than the traditional regression approach. PMID:9518967

  11. Do state characteristics matter? State level factors related to tobacco cessation quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Paula A; Koss, Kalsea J; Baker, Timothy B; Bailey, Linda A; Fiore, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Background Quitline services are an effective population‐wide tobacco cessation strategy adopted widely in the United States as part of state comprehensive tobacco control efforts. Despite widespread evidence supporting quitlines' effectiveness, many states lack sufficient financial resources to adequately fund and promote this service. Efforts to augment state tobacco control efforts might be fostered by greater knowledge of state level factors associated with the funding and implementation of those efforts. Methods We analysed data from the 2004 North American Quitline Consortium survey and from publicly available sources to identify state level factors related to quitline implementation and funding. Factors included in the analyses were state demographic characteristics, tobacco use variables, state tobacco control spending, and economic and political climate variables. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Results The best fitting multivariate model that significantly predicted the presence or absence of a state quitline included only cigarette excise tax rate (p = 0.020). In terms of funding levels, states with high rates of cigarette consumption (p = 0.047) and with higher per capita expenditures for tobacco control programmes (p = 0 .0.004) were most likely to spend more on per capita operations budget for quitlines. Conclusion State level factors appear to play a part in whether states had established quitlines by mid‐2004 and the amount of per capita quitline funding. PMID:18048637

  12. Decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate in Chinese loess soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fei; Bento, Célia P M; Meng, Lei; van Dam, Ruud; Mol, Hans; Liu, Guobin; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-10-15

    The decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were monitored for 35 d at different slope gradients and rates of application in plots with loess soil on the Loess Plateau, China. The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5d) in the upper 2 cm of soil following a first-order rate of decay. AMPA content in the 0-2 cm soil layer correspondingly peaked 3d after glyphosate application and then gradually decreased. The residues of glyphosate and AMPA decreased significantly with soil depth (p<0.05) independently of the slope inclination and application rate. About 0.36% of the glyphosate initially applied was transported from plots after one erosive rain 2d after the application. Glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in runoff were low while the contents in the sediment were much higher than in the upper 2 cm of the soil. Although the rate of glyphosate decay is rapid in Chinese loess soil, the risks of glyphosate and AMPA need to be taken into account especially in the area with highly erosive rainfall. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence relative to large-scale edge and habitat characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Bosworth, S.B.; Dettmers, R.

    2006-02-15

    We examined Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) abundance and occurrence in southwestern West Virginia, where the coal-mining technique of mountaintop removal mining-valley fill converts large contiguous tracts of deciduous forest to forest patches surrounded by early successional habitats. Our study objectives were to quantify abundance and occurrence of Cerulean Warblers relative to (1) distance from the edge of extensive reclaimed grasslands and (2) habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Cerulean Warbler abundance increased with distance from the edge and edge effects extended 340 m into the forest. Percent occurrence did not vary with distance from mine edge, suggesting a degree of tolerance to the extensive edge occurring at the interface of forest and reclaimed lands. Abundance and occurrence were greater on ridges and midslopes than in bottomlands; consequently, disturbances such as mountaintop mining in which ridges are removed may have a greater impact on populations compared to other sources of fragmentation where ridges are not disturbed. It was found that, in addition to outright loss of forested habitat, mountaintop mining-valley fill alters the spatial configuration of forested habitats, creating edge and area effects that negatively affect Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence in the reclaimed mine landscape.

  14. The prevalence of fibromyalgia and its relation with headache characteristics in episodic migraine.

    PubMed

    Küçükşen, Sami; Genç, Emine; Yılmaz, Halim; Sallı, Ali; Gezer, İlknur Albayrak; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Salbaş, Ender; Cingöz, Havva Turaç; Nas, Ömer; Uğurlu, Hatice

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with episodic migraine and to evaluate the relationship between migraine characteristics and FM. One hundred and eighteen consecutive patients (mean age = 38 years, 75% women) fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria for migraine with (n = 22) and without (n = 96) aura from an outpatient headache clinic of a university hospital were evaluated. The diagnosis of FM was made based on the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Participants completed some self-administered questionnaires ascertaining sociodemographics, headache severity, frequency and duration, headache-related disability (Headache Impact Test [HIT-6]) and Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, widespread musculoskeletal pain (visual analog scale), depression (Beck depression inventory), anxiety (Beck anxiety inventory), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue), and quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey [SF-36]). In patients with FM, the tender point count and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were employed. FM was diagnosed in 37 (31.4%) of the patients. FM comorbidity was equally distributed across patients with and without aura. Severity of migraine headache, HIT-6, and anxiety were especially associated with FM comorbidity. Patients suffering from migraine plus FM reported lower scores on all items of the SF-36. This study indicates that the assessment and management of coexisting FM should be taken into account in the assessment and management of migraine, particularly when headache is severe or patients suffer from widespread musculoskeletal pain.

  15. The characteristics and impact of source of infection on sepsis-related ICU outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Niranjan; Yau, Stephen; Ahuja, Neha; Otu, Dara; Stein, Brian; Fogg, Louis; Balk, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Source of infection is an independent predictor of sepsis-related mortality. To date, studies have failed to evaluate differences in septic patients based on the source of infection. Retrospective study of all patients with sepsis admitted to the ICU of a university hospital within a 12month time period. Sepsis due to intravascular device and multiple sources had the highest number of positive blood cultures and microbiology whereas lung and abdominal sepsis had the least. The observed hospital mortality was highest for sepsis due to multiple sources and unknown cause, and was lowest when due to abdominal, genitourinary (GU) or skin/soft tissue. Patients with sepsis due to lungs, unknown and multiple sources had the highest rates of multi-organ failure, whereas those with sepsis due to GU and skin/soft tissue had the lowest rates. Those with multisource sepsis had a significantly higher median ICU length of stay and hospital cost. There are significant differences in patient characteristics, microbiology positivity, organs affected, mortality, length of stay and cost based on the source of sepsis. These differences should be considered in future studies to be able to deliver personalized care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of critical functionality-related characteristics of HPMC for sustained-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Košir, Darjan; Ojsteršek, Tadej; Baumgartner, Saša; Vrečer, Franc

    2016-12-23

    The drug release profile from hydrophilic matrix tablets can be crucially affected by the variability of physicochemical properties of the controlled release agent. This study investigates and seeks to understand the functionality-related characteristics (FRCs) of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) type 2208, K4M grade, that influence the release rate of the model drug carvedilol from hydrophilic matrix tablets during the entire dissolution profile. The following FRCs were examined: particle size distribution, degree of substitution, and viscosity. Eight different HPMC samples were used to create a suitable design space. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyses were used to create models for each time point. The PLSR results show that the first part of the drug release profiles is mainly regulated by the HPMC particle size. Apparent viscosity and hydroxypropoxy content (%HP) become important in later stages of the drug release profile, when the influence of particle size distribution decreases. These findings make it possible to better understand the importance of FRCs. Larger HPMC particles increase drug release in the first part of the drug release profile, whereas decreased apparent viscosity and a higher degree of %HP increase the drug release rate in the later part of the drug release profile.

  17. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) study: treatment-related characteristics of the population.

    PubMed

    Nugent, D; Kalnins, W; Querol, F; Gregory, M; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2015-01-01

    The HERO (Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities) quantitative surveys collected information on characteristics and perceptions of adult persons with haemophilia (PWH) and parents of children with haemophilia. The aim of this article is to describe the perceptions of PWH and parents on psychosocial aspects related to treatment. Two online surveys (one for PWH, one for parents) were conducted in 10 countries. Among 675 PWH respondents, 77% reported having responsibility for their own care; 72% of 561 parent respondents had the main responsibility for their son. PWH were most commonly treated on demand (45% of 648 adults using factor concentrate), with 32% on regular prophylaxis and 23% treated on demand with short-term prophylaxis (e.g. for sports/physiotherapy). Children were most often treated with prophylaxis (65% of 549 children using factor concentrate), with 26% treated on demand and 8% treated on demand with short-term prophylaxis. Factor was generally used as instructed at home. Some respondents (41% PWH; 30% parents) had difficulties/concerns with factor availability/affordability. PWH reported more bleeds in the last 12 months than parents reporting their son's bleeds (mean 17.8 vs. 8.7). Both PWH and parents generally perceived that overall, their (their son's) haemophilia was well controlled. Results differed by country. The HERO study captured new, patient-based data regarding many facets of life relevant to PWH, including treatment. The information conveyed in this article largely represents new insights regarding perceptions of treatment and provides initial benchmark statistics for further research.

  18. Family and infant characteristics in relation to age at walking in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Tezel, Başak; Ozbaş, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the onset of independent ambulation relative to possible relationships with maternal and infant characteristics. In a cross-sectional study, the health files of 1,553 Turkish children aged 12-23 months were selected by the multistage sampling method in the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions coded as low, medium and high malnutrition levels in Turkey. Children were selected from health centers by systematic sampling technique in each region. Kaplan-Meier analysis and estimated mean values were used for data description; log-rank test and the Cox multivariable regression analysis were applied for data analysis. Maternal education level, occupation, region of residence, gestational iron supplementation, child's gender, child's nutritional status, and presence of anemia in the infant during the survey period demonstrated significant relationships with walking unassisted in the univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed that high maternal education, absence of parental consanguinity and appropriate weight-for-age Z score were positively associated with earlier age of walking. These findings showed the importance of improvement in girls' education, prevention of postnatal growth retardation and improvement in diet quality for children's gross motor development. In addition, counseling programs should be given to decrease the rate of parental consanguinity.

  19. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder symptomatology and related behavioural characteristics in individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%, respectively. We then evaluated the behavioural profile of individuals with DS who scored above cut-off for ASD (DS+ASD; N = 17) compared with those with DS-only (N = 17) and individuals with idiopathic ASD (N = 17), matched for adaptive behaviour skills and ASD symptom severity (ASD group only). Individuals in the DS+ASD and ASD-only groups showed more stereotyped behaviour, repetitive language, overactivity and self-injury than the DS-only group (p < .001). Individuals in the DS+ASD and DS-only groups appeared less withdrawn from their surroundings than those with ASD (p < .004). These findings indicate differences in the behavioural and cognitive profile of individuals with DS+ASD compared with those with DS-only, when controlling for adaptive behaviour skills. Individuals with DS+ASD show broad similarities with individuals with idiopathic ASD with regard to ASD and behavioural characteristics but may also show some areas of subtle difference from this group.

  20. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark: Is Survival Related to Family Characteristics?

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Zeeb, Hajo; Simony, Sofie Bay; Deltour, Isabelle; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Due to diverse findings as to the role of family factors for childhood cancer survival even within Europe, we explored a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children with hematological malignancies. All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a hematological malignancy before the age of 20 years (N = 1,819) were followed until 10 years from diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models estimating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the impact of family characteristics on overall survival in children with hematological malignancies. Having siblings and increasing birth order were associated with reduced survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Associations with AML were strongest and statistically significant. HRs of 1.62 (CI 0.85; 3.09) and 5.76 (CI 2.01; 16.51) were observed for the fourth or later born children with ALL (N = 41) and AML (N = 9), respectively. Children with older parents showed a tendency toward inferior ALL survival, while for AML young maternal age was related to poorer survival. Based on small numbers, a trend toward poorer survival from non-Hodgkin lymphoma was observed for children having siblings and for children of younger parents. Further research is warranted to gain further knowledge on the impact of family factors on childhood cancer survival in other populations and to elaborate potential underlying mechanisms and pathways of those survival inequalities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characteristic analysis of diaphragm-type transducer that is thick relative to its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Yuya; Zhu, Jing; Tagawa, Norio; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Okubo, Kan

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, high-performance piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) have been fabricated by micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. For high-resolution imaging, it is important to broaden the frequency bandwidth. By reducing the diaphragm size to increase the resonance frequency, the film thickness becomes relatively larger and hence the transmitting and receiving characteristics may different from those of a usual thin diaphragm. In this study, we examine the performance of a square-diaphragm-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer through simulations. To realize the desired resonance frequency of 20 MHz, firstly, the diaphragm size and the thickness of the layers of PZT and Si constituting a PMUT are examined, and then, three PZT/Si models with different thicknesses are selected. Subsequently, using the models, we analyze the transmitting efficiency, transmitting bandwidth, receiving sensitivity (piezoelectric voltage/electric charge), and receiving bandwidth using an FEM simulator. It is found that the proposed models can transmit ultrasound independently of the diaphragm vibration and have wide bandwidth of the receiving frequency as compared with that of a typical PMUT.

  2. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  3. Interpretation of the characteristics of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagoria, P. S.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Wastewater sludge characteristics in general, and characteristics of wastewater sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia in particular, were addressed. The types and sources of wastewater sludges, a description of sludge treatment and disposal processes, examination of sludge generation and management for the City of Philadelphia, and definition of characteristics for typical east coast sludges undergoing ocean disposal were discussed. Specific differences exist between the characteristics of primary and secondary wastewater sludges, especially with the nature and size distribution of the solids particles. The sludges from the City of Philadelphia monitored during remote sensing experiments were mixtures of various sludge types and lacked distinguishing characteristics. In particular, the anaerobic digestion process exerted the most significant influence on sludge characteristics for the City of Philadelphia. The sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia were found to be typical and harbor no unique features.

  4. Public Relations Efforts and News-Value Characteristics of Organizations: An Exploratory Study of Their Relative Influence on Media Visibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, S. Holly

    To explore the relative roles played by news views and public relations efforts in determining amount of news coverage, a study assessed the independent roles of public relations efforts, research productivity, and school prestige in securing science news coverage for American medical schools. Data consisted of archival and survey data obtained…

  5. Levels of maternal serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at midpregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yumin; Holzman, Claudia; Chung, Hwan; Senagore, Patricia; Talge, Nicole M; Siler-Khodr, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in maternal blood originates primarily from gestational tissues and elevated levels in midpregnancy have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigators have hypothesized that high levels of maternal stress might lead to elevated CRH levels in pregnancy. Yet a few studies have measured maternal CRH levels among subgroups of women who experience disproportionate socioeconomic disadvantage, such as African-American and Hispanic women, and found that these groups have lower CRH levels in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify maternal characteristics related to CRH levels in midpregnancy and examine which if any of these factors help to explain race differences in CRH levels. METHODS The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study prospectively enrolled women at 15–27 weeks’ gestation from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (1998–2004). Data from the POUCH Study were used to examine maternal demographics, anthropometrics, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors (independent variables) in relation to midpregnancy blood CRH levels modeled as log CRH pg/ml (dependent variable). Analyses were conducted within a subcohort from the POUCH Study (671 non-Hispanic Whites, 545 African Americans) and repeated in the subcohort subset with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=746). Blood levels of CRH and independent variables were ascertained at the time of enrollment. All regression models included week of enrollment as a covariate. In addition, final multivariable regression models alternately incorporated different psychosocial measures along with maternal demographics and weight. Psychosocial variables included measures of current depressive symptoms, perceived stress, coping style, hostility, mastery, anomie, and a chronic stressor (history of abuse as a child and adult). RESULTS In subcohort models, the adjusted mean CRH level was significantly lower in African Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites

  6. Disentangling nutritional factors and household characteristics related to child stunting and maternal overweight in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify nutritional factors and households characteristics associated with child stunting, maternal overweight and the familial coexistence of both types of malnutrition. In Guatemala, 2000, with nationally representative data, we selected 2261 households with at least one child aged 12-60 months and his/her mother. Nutritional status was assessed in children (e.g., stunting as height-for-age Z-score<-2) and mothers (e.g., overweight as body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) and identified the presence of both, child stunting and maternal overweight in the same household (SCOM). With logistic regression models we assessed the association of the malnutrition indicators with individual and household socio-economic and health characteristics. SCOM was identified in 18% of households. Socio-economic status (SES) of SCOM households was significantly lower than SES of households with non-stunted children. SCOM households, compared to those with normal-stature children and normal weight mothers, were more likely to have mothers of short stature (adjusted odds ratio-OR+/-95% CI=3.1 (2.1-4.7)), higher parity (1.2 (1.1-1.3)), currently working (1.7 (1.1-2.6), and self-identified as indigenous (2.0 (1.3-3.1)). Factors associated with stunting in children such as poverty, maternal short stature and indigenousness, were predictors of SCOM. These findings support the notion that SCOM is an extension of the malnutrition spectrum in the most disadvantaged population groups in countries that are in the middle of their nutrition transitions such as Guatemala. At the same time it revealed that these populations are already in the stage of chronic, nutrition related diseases associated with less physical activity and more access to highly processed foods of low cost, high dietary energy and low nutrient density in important population groups. The challenge for the decision makers and service deliverers is to guide SCOM households to deal equally with both

  7. Gender-related differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Barski, Leonid; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Nevzorov, Roman; Rabaev, Elena; Zektser, Miri; Jotkowitz, Alan B; Zeller, Lior; Shleyfer, Elena; Almog, Yaniv

    2011-12-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is 1 of the most common and serious complications of diabetes, and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of data regarding gender-related differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for DKA. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender plays a role in clinical characteristics and outcome of DKA. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with DKA between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2010. The outcomes of male and female patients were compared. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were 30-day all-cause mortality and rate of complications: sepsis, respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Eighty-nine men and 131 women with DKA were included in the study. Male patients had higher rates of chronic renal failure compared with women (16.9% vs 3.1%; P = 0.001), whereas more women than men received oral hypoglycemic therapy (19.8% vs 9.0%; P = 0.046); women also had higher glycosated hemoglobin levels before admission (11.9% [1.7%] vs 9.9% [2.2%]; P = 0.025). The in-hospital mortality rate was not significantly different for both genders (4.5% in the male group vs 3.8% in the female group; P = 1.0). We did not find significant differences between the 2 groups in the 30-day mortality rate (4.5% vs 6.1%; P = 0.7) or the rate of complications (5.6% vs 6.9%; P = 0.9). Advanced age, mechanical ventilation, and bedridden state were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. In our study we did not find statistically significant differences in the in-hospital mortality, 30-day all-cause mortality, or rate of complications between men and women hospitalized with DKA. However, women with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving oral hypoglycemic therapy required particular attention and might benefit from earlier introduction and intensification of insulin

  8. [The clinical characteristics of 346 patients with IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, P P; Zhao, J Z; Wang, M; Feng, R E; Liu, X W; Lai, X M; Li, X J; Zeng, J G; Shi, H J; Zhu, H D; Xue, W; Zhang, H; Chen, Y Y; Fei, L Y; Peng, X F; Zeng, F C; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, W

    2017-09-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD)so as to improve the understanding of IgG4-RD in China. Methods: IgG4-RD patients were recruited from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2011 and January 2016. All patients were followed-up for more than 6 months. The demographic characteristics, symptoms, organ involvements, laboratory examinations and treatment efficacy were evaluated and analyzed. Results: A total of 346 patients were finally enrolled, including 230 males (66.5%) and 116 females (33.5%). The mean age of disease onset was (53.8±14.2) years old. The mostly common involved organs were lymph nodes (56.4%) and submandibular glands (52.6%). Other affected organs and manifestations included: swelling of the lacrimal glands (46.5%), autoimmune pancreatitis (38.4%), pulmonary involvement (28.0%), sclerosing cholangitis (25.4%), naso-sinusitis (23.4%), parotid gland swelling (21.7%), retroperitoneal fibrosis (19.9%), large arteries involvement (9.5%), kidney involvement (obstructive nephropathy caused by retroperitoneal fibrosis was excluded) (6.9%), skin lesions (6.4%). Rare features consisted of thyroid glands, pituitary glands, gastrointestinal tract, pachymeningitis, pericardium, sclerosing mediastinitis and orchitis. The majority of patients had multi-organ involvement, such as 74.3% patients with 3 and more, 18.2% and 7.5% patients with 2 and single organ involvement respectively. The average IgG4-RD responder index (IgG4-RD RI) was 13.21±5.70. History of allergy was found in 172 (49.7%) patients. As to the laboratory tests, elevated serum IgG4 levels were confirmed in 285 (94.1%) patients, which was positively correlated with IgG4-RD RI. There were 33.5% patients receiving monotherapy of glucocorticoid, 52.6% treated with glucocorticoids combined with immunosuppressive agents, 4.9% patients with immunosuppressant only, and 9.0% patients with mild disease not receiving medication. The majority

  9. A program for computing the prediction probability and the related receiver operating characteristic graph.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Denis; Steiner, Marcel; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    Prediction probability (P(K)) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) are statistical measures to assess the performance of anesthetic depth indicators, to more precisely quantify the correlation between observed anesthetic depth and corresponding values of a monitor or indicator. In contrast to many other statistical tests, they offer several advantages. First, P(K) and AUC are independent from scale units and assumptions on underlying distributions. Second, the calculation can be performed without any knowledge about particular indicator threshold values, which makes the test more independent from specific test data. Third, recent approaches using resampling methods allow a reliable comparison of P(K) or AUC of different indicators of anesthetic depth. Furthermore, both tests allow simple interpretation, whereby results between 0 and 1 are related to the probability, how good an indicator separates the observed levels of anesthesia. For these reasons, P(K) and AUC have become popular in medical decision making. P(K) is intended for polytomous patient states (i.e., >2 anesthetic levels) and can be considered as a generalization of the AUC, which was basically introduced to assess a predictor of dichotomous classes (e.g., consciousness and unconsciousness in anesthesia). Dichotomous paradigms provide equal values of P(K) and AUC test statistics. In the present investigation, we introduce a user-friendly computer program for computing P(K) and estimating reliable bootstrap confidence intervals. It is designed for multiple comparisons of the performance of depth of anesthesia indicators. Additionally, for dichotomous classes, the program plots the receiver operating characteristic graph completing information obtained from P(K) or AUC, respectively. In clinical investigations, both measures are applied for indicator assessment, where ambiguous usage and interpretation may be a consequence. Therefore, a summary of the concepts of P(K) and

  10. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  11. Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Japanese Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Pseudodrusen.

    PubMed

    Elfandi, Sufian; Ooto, Sotaro; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Takahashi, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Nakanishi, Hideo; Tamura, Hiroshi; Oishi, Akio; Yamashiro, Kenji; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-10-01

    To investigate differences in clinical characteristics and genotype distribution in Japanese patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pseudodrusen using multimodal imaging. Retrospective, observational case series. A total of 101 patients (101 eyes) with AMD and pseudodrusen. Patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including color fundus photography, infrared reflectance (IR) imaging, fundus autofluorescence, confocal blue reflectance, fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Pseudodrusen subtype was identified with multiple imaging techniques. Patients were genotyped to identify major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with AMD (CFH Y402, CFH I62V, and ARMS2 A69S). Clinical characteristics and genetic distributions of patients with pseudodrusen. At least 1 imaging technique identified dot pseudodrusen in all 101 eyes and ribbon pseudodrusen in 53 eyes (52.5%). Forty-eight eyes (47.5%) had only dot pseudodrusen, but no eyes had only ribbon pseudodrusen or midperipheral drusen. Forty-five of 49 bilateral cases (91.8%) had the same pseudodrusen subtype in both eyes. Pseudodrusen subtype did not change during the observation period in 100 eyes (99.0%), but dot-dominant type changed to dot-ribbon type in 1 eye (1.0%). The dot and ribbon subtypes were detected in 84 (83.1%) and 51 (96.2%) eyes, respectively, using color fundus photographs. Detection sensitivity of dot pseudodrusen was high for IR (97.0%), confocal blue reflectance (95.1%), fundus autofluorescence (93.1%), and ICG (100%) imaging. Detection sensitivity for ribbon pseudodrusen was high for color fundus photography (96.2%), confocal blue reflectance (94.3%), and fundus autofluorescence (90.6%), but not for IR imaging and ICG angiography. Risk allele frequency of the CFH I62V polymorphism was 79.8% and 67.0% in patients with dot-dominant and dot-ribbon pseudodrusen, respectively (P = 0.053). The

  12. Dementia-related restlessness: relationship to characteristics of persons with dementia and family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Regier, Natalie G; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-03-23

    Dementia-related restlessness is commonly endorsed by caregivers but not well understood. This study examines differences in characteristics (demographics, cognitive status, physical function, pain, and mood) of persons with dementia whose caregivers endorse restlessness versus those who do not. We also examine the relationship of restlessness to caregiver well-being including burden, upset with behaviors, mastery, and depressive symptomatology. We combined baseline data from three caregiver intervention studies of community-dwelling persons with dementia who exhibited neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 569) as measured by the Agitated Behaviors in Dementia Scale. We conducted bivariate correlations and independent t-tests by using the Agitated Behaviors in Dementia Scale restlessness item. Nearly 65% (n = 367) of dementia caregivers reported restlessness. There were no significant differences between those with and without (n = 202) reported restlessness concerning functional status (physical or cognitive). However, persons with restlessness had significantly higher pain scores (p < 0.01), were more likely to be on behavioral medications (p < 0.001), and had more neuropsychiatric symptoms as compared with persons without restlessness (M = 11.11, nonrestless; M = 6.61, restless) (p < 0.001). Caregivers of persons with dementia-related restlessness reported greater burden (p < 0.001), behavioral upset (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), and lower mastery providing care (p < 0.01) compared with caregivers of persons without dementia-related restlessness. Restlessness is a common neuropsychiatric symptom that appears to be associated with poorer functioning in persons with dementia and greater distress in their caregivers. Further research is needed to understand the unique contributions of restlessness to care burden and quality of life of persons with dementia, as well as ways to address this distressing symptom. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  13. Infant Sleep-Wake Characteristics: Relation to Neurological Status and the Prediction of Developmental Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Leslie F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the development of normative sleep-wake state characteristics in full-term infants, and atypical state characteristics as presented in several clinical populations including preterm and autistic children. Reviews and critiques the literature on the usefulness of infant state parameters in predicting developmental outcomes of infants at…

  14. BEYOND THE INDICES: RELATIONS OF HABITAT AND FISH CHARACTERISTICS IN THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Department of Natural Resources has conducted biological sampling at 180 stream sites in the Georgia Piedmont (1998-99) and recorded several trophic and abundance characteristics of the fish assemblages and habitat at each site. These characteristics were combined to ...

  15. Musicians' and Nonmusicians' Preferences for World Musics: Relation to Musical Characteristics and Familiarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, C. Victor

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the results of an experiment involving 449 undergraduate students (180 music majors and 269 nonmusic majors). They completed a preference-rating scale concerning musical characteristics from world music excerpts. Delineates the various characteristics preferred by both. In general, musicians had higher preference means. (MJP)

  16. Research on Teachers' Characteristics in Relation to a Cognitive-Learning Based Interactive Videodisc System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Martha B.; Cambre, Marjorie A.

    This pilot study explored teacher characteristics as they influenced the use of "Exploring Nepal," a cognitive learning-based interactive video system for middle school students. Specifically, the study sought to narrow down a variety of teacher characteristics that may influence the quality of their interaction with the videodisk. The…

  17. Nurse health-related quality of life: associations with patient and ward characteristics in Japanese general acute care wards.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Yumiko; Yonekura, Yuki; Fukahori, Hiroki

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the factors affecting nurse health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by considering the patient characteristics and ward characteristics. Nurse health-related quality of life is an important health outcome, and should be promoted for quality nursing care. This cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses who work in general acute care wards in three university hospitals in metropolitan Japan. Multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate possible factors related to nurse health-related quality of life. Nurses who worked at a ward had a significantly lower physical health score (β = -0.13, P < 0.01). These nurses had a higher ratio of patients who could not understand medical instructions, had cognitive disabilities, or required assistance with activities of daily living (ADL). The number of beds was the only factor significantly related to mental health status of nurses (β = 0.19, P < 0.05). Work conditions that sustain nurse health should take into account not only the number of nurses, but also patient characteristics. Further large-scale studies are needed in order to investigate the effect of hospital characteristics on nurse health-related quality of life. Increasing the number of nurses' aides and delegating assistance with ADL to them could support nurse health-related quality of life in the acute care setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Phosphorous Saturation Characteristics in Relation to Land-Use Practice for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River Watershed, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    ERDC WQTN-PD-17 August 2005 Phosphorus Saturation Characteristics in Relation to Land-Use Practice for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River...relationships between phosphorus saturation characteristics and extractable phosphorus forms in soils from differing land-use practices in an agriculturally ...applications that use an index of soils to predict phosphorus loss during runoff. BACKGROUND: Excessive phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural watersheds

  19. Phosphorus Saturation Characteristics in Relation to Land-Use Practice for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River Watershed, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    ERDC WQTN-PD-17 August 2005 Phosphorus Saturation Characteristics in Relation to Land-Use Practice for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River Watershed...phosphorus saturation characteristics and extractable phosphorus forms in soils from differing land-use practices in an agriculturally dominated...index of soils to predict phosphorus loss during runoff. BACKGROUND: Excessive phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural watersheds is a leading cause of

  20. How Intervention and Implementation Characteristics Relate to Community Therapists' Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practices: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Miya; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Regan, Jennifer; Saifan, Dana; Stadnick, Nicole; Lau, Anna

    2017-02-24

    Therapists' perceptions toward evidence-based practices (EBPs) are important in implementation efforts, however little is known about characteristics of EBPs associated with more positive attitudes. This mixed-methods study examined how intervention and implementation characteristics of six EBPs related to therapist attitudes. Quantitative analysis of 793 cross-sectional surveys revealed that therapists endorsed more positive attitudes toward EBPs with (1) prescribed session content and order and (2) required consultation. Associations between these intervention and implementation characteristics and attitudes were not moderated by therapist experience or emotional exhaustion. Qualitative analyses complemented quantitative findings, indicating that "structure" was appealing for interventions and that therapists felt supported by consultation.

  1. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  2. Clinical characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Maruko, Ichiro; Iida, Tomohiro; Saito, Masaaki; Nagayama, Dai; Saito, Kuniharu

    2007-07-01

    To clarify the clinical characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japanese patients. Retrospective, observational, consecutive case series. Two hundred and eighty-nine patients with neovascular AMD were examined. The authors classified the patients into three subtypes of neovascular AMD: polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and typical AMD. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (54.7%) were diagnosed with PCV and 102 patients (35.3%) with typical AMD. RAP was observed in 13 patients (4.5%). In 16 patients (5.5%), one eye had PCV and the other eye had typical AMD. Most patients with PCV and typical AMD had unilateral disease (81.6% and 94.1%, respectively) with a male preponderance (77.8% and 71.6%, respectively). Nine of 13 patients with RAP were female (69.2%). Patients with RAP were older (mean, 80.3 years for men and 75.3 years for women) than patients with other subtypes. Serous and hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment developed in 69 patients (43.7%) with PCV, 22 patients (21.6%) with typical AMD, and nine patients (69.2%) with RAP. In the patients with unilateral disease in each subtype, large drusen in the unaffected eye were seen in 24.0% with PCV, 30.2% with typical AMD, and 77.8% with RAP. Neovascular AMD in Japanese patients has different demographic features compared with that in White patients. In Japanese patients, there is a preponderance of PCV, male gender, unilaterality, and absence of drusen in the second eye, with the exception of RAP.

  3. Implications of process characteristics on quality-related event reporting in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Todd A; Scobie, Andrea C; MacKinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a single pharmacy regulator in Canada has led to a wide variety of processes for reporting and learning from medication errors and near misses, collectively known as quality-related events (QREs). These processes range from completely informal processes, through to primarily manual processes that rely on paper forms and incident reports stored in a binder, all the way to fully computerized processes such as anonymous online reporting to a national database. The objective of the study was to develop and test a model of the influence of various QRE reporting process characteristics on levels of QRE reporting process support and QRE reporting in Canadian community pharmacies. A questionnaire was administered to 427 pharmacy managers, pharmacists, and technicians in Nova Scotia, Canada, in 2010, with 210 questionnaires returned. Partial least squares was performed on a subgroup of the data set (N=121) to test and refine the model. Content analysis of the open-ended data provided additional support for model variables. The final model retained all proposed variables except for anonymous reporting. The model highlights that process ease and learning capability both greatly influence the overall support for the QRE process; with these 2 variables explaining 62% of the variance in QRE process support and QRE process support explaining 34% of the variance in overall levels of QRE reporting. The findings have implications for the creation and implementation of successful QRE reporting processes in community pharmacies. Implementing effective QRE reporting tools is paramount to ensuring that pharmacies report and learn from QREs. Dynamic QRE reporting tools that are modern, up to date, integrated into workflow, easy to use, and quick have been shown to be the most effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Sprites and Sprite-related VHF Signals Measured by JEM-GLIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Adachi, T.; Mihara, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    JEM-GLIMS conducts the first comprehensive nadir observations of lightning and TLEs using optical instruments and electromagnetic wave receivers. JEM-GLIMS started continuous orbital observations from November 2012 and has succeeded in detecting thousands of lightning events including TLEs. The global distribution of the detected lightning events clearly shows that most of the events were detected over continental regions. In addition, the global distributions of these lightning events show clear seasonal variations and were centered in the local summer hemisphere. To identify the sprite occurrences, it is necessary to perform the following data analysis: (1) a subtraction of the appropriately scaled wideband camera (LSI-1) image from the narrowband camera (LSI-2) image; (2) a calculation of intensity ratio between different spectrophotometer channels; and (3) an estimation of the polarization and charge moment changes for the parent CG discharges of the event using ground-based ELF measurement data. From a synthetic comparison of these results, we confirmed that JEM-GLISM succeeded in detecting sprite events. The VHF receiver onboard JEM-GLIMS uses two patch-type antennas separated by a 1.6-m interval and can detect VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges in the 70-100 MHz frequency range. Using an interferometric technique, we successfully identified the source locations of VHF pulses excited by lightning discharges. At the presentation, we will show detailed spatiotemporal characteristics of sprite events detected by JEM-GLIMS optical instruments and the relation between the spatial distribution of sprites and source locations of VHF pulses excited by the parent lightning discharges of sprites.

  5. Sleep-related crash characteristics: Implications for applying a fatigue definition to crash reports.

    PubMed

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Sleep-related (SR) crashes are an endemic problem the world over. However, police officers report difficulties in identifying sleepiness as a crash contributing factor. One approach to improving the sensitivity of SR crash identification is by applying a proxy definition post hoc to crash reports. To identify the prominent characteristics of SR crashes and highlight the influence of proxy definitions, ten years of Queensland (Australia) police reports of crashes occurring in ≥100km/h speed zones were analysed. In Queensland, two approaches are routinely taken to identifying SR crashes. First, attending police officers identify crash causal factors; one possible option is 'fatigue/fell asleep'. Second, a proxy definition is applied to all crash reports. Those meeting the definition are considered SR and added to the police-reported SR crashes. Of the 65,204 vehicle operators involved in crashes 3449 were police-reported as SR. Analyses of these data found that male drivers aged 16-24 years within the first two years of unsupervised driving were most likely to have a SR crash. Collision with a stationary object was more likely in SR than in not-SR crashes. Using the proxy definition 9739 (14.9%) crashes were classified as SR. Using the proxy definition removes the findings that SR crashes are more likely to involve males and be of high severity. Additionally, proxy defined SR crashes are no less likely at intersections than not-SR crashes. When interpreting crash data it is important to understand the implications of SR identification because strategies aimed at reducing the road toll are informed by such data. Without the correct interpretation, funding could be misdirected. Improving sleepiness identification should be a priority in terms of both improvement to police and proxy reporting.

  6. Trigger factors for rupture of intracranial aneurysms in relation to patient and aneurysm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vlak, Monique H M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Greebe, Paut; van der Bom, Johanna G; Algra, Ale

    2012-07-01

    Female gender, age above 60 years, and an aneurysm larger than 5 mm or location on the posterior circulation are associated with a higher rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms. We hypothesized that this association is explained by a higher susceptibility to (one of) the eight trigger factors that were recently identified. We included 250 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of aneurysmal rupture for trigger factors according to sex, age, site, and size of the aneurysms by means of the case-crossover design. None of the triggers except for physical exercise differed according to patient and aneurysm characteristics. In the hour after exposure to physical exercise: (1) patients over the age of 60 have a six-times-higher risk of rupture (RR 13; 95% CI 6.3-26) than those of 60 years of age and under (RR 2.3; 1.3-4.1); (2) aneurysms at the internal carotid artery have a higher risk than those at other locations (RR 17; 7.8-37), but this was only statistically significant when compared to anterior communicating artery aneurysms (RR 3.2; 1.6-6.1); (3) aneurysms 5 mm or smaller had a higher risk of rupture (RR 9.5; 4.6-19) than larger aneurysms (RR 2.4; 1.3-4.3); and (4) women and men had similar risks. A higher susceptibility to exercise might explain part of the higher risk of rupture in older patients. Why women and patients with aneurysms larger than 5 mm or posterior circulation aneurysms have a higher risk of rupture remains to be settled.

  7. [Regeneration characteristics and related affecting factors of Pinus tabulaeformis secondary forests in Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bing; Wang, De-xiang; Cui, Hong-an; Di, Wei-zhi; Du, Yan-ling

    2011-07-01

    The study with sampling plot method showed that in Pinus tabulaeformis secondary forests in Qinling Mountains, there were 36 tree species in regeneration layer, occupying 51.4% of the total. The dominant species were Quercus glandulifera, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata, and Corylus heterophylla. The seedling bank was abundant, and with lower height class and age class. The main regeneration type was seedling, showing the forest being at its middle succession period. Stand density had significant effects on sapling and seedling densities (P<0.01). The sapling and seedling densities increased when the stand density increased from 580 trees x hm(-2) up to 1500 trees x hm(-2), but decreased with the further increase of stand density. Slope aspect also had significant effects on the seedling and sapling densities (P<0.05). The sapling density decreased gradually when the slope aspect changed from SW10 degrees to SW40 degrees, but increased with the slope aspect changed to shady slope (NE10 degrees). The forest regeneration characteristics differed at different slope positions, with the sapling and seedling densities being relatively higher in flat stand. From foot to top, the seedling density decreased, while the sapling density increased. The sapling density increased from the altitude 1159 m up to 1449 m but decreased from 1449 m up to 1658 m, while the seedling density all along had an increasing trend from lower altitude to higher altitude. It was suggested that the medium stand density on shady slope had the best natural regeneration. To rationally regulate stand density could be an effective way to accelerate the regeneration process of P. tabulaeformis forest.

  8. Variation in Stem Anatomical Characteristics of Campanuloideae Species in Relation to Evolutionary History and Ecological Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Schweingruber, Fritz Hans; Říha, Pavel; Doležal, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Background The detailed knowledge of plant anatomical characters and their variation among closely related taxa is key to understanding their evolution and function. We examined anatomical variation in 46 herbaceous taxa from the subfamily Campanuloideae (Campanulaceae) to link this information with their phylogeny, ecology and comparative material of 56 woody tropical taxa from the subfamily Lobelioideae. The species studied covered major environmental gradients from Mediterranean to Arctic zones, allowing us to test hypotheses on the evolution of anatomical structure in relation to plant competitive ability and ecological preferences. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the evolution of anatomical diversity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of studied species from nucleotide sequences and examined the distribution of anatomical characters on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Redundancy analysis, with phylogenetic corrections, was used to separate the evolutionary inertia from the adaptation to the environment. A large anatomical diversity exists within the Campanuloideae. Traits connected with the quality of fibres were the most congruent with phylogeny, and the Rapunculus 2 (“phyteumoid”) clade was especially distinguished by a number of characters (absence of fibres, pervasive parenchyma, type of rays) from two other clades (Campanula s. str. and Rapunculus 1) characterized by the dominance of fibres and the absence of parenchyma. Septate fibres are an exclusive trait in the Lobelioideae, separating it clearly from the Campanuloideae where annual rings, pervasive parenchyma and crystals in the phellem are characteristic features. Conclusions/Significance Despite clear phylogenetic inertia in the anatomical features studied, the ecological attributes and plant height had a significant effect on anatomical divergence. From all three evolutionary clades, the taller species converged towards similar anatomical structure, characterized by a smaller number

  9. Characteristics of Incident Geographic Atrophy in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Hilary Smolen; Ying, Gui-shuang; Martin, E. Revell; Maguire, Maureen G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the size, location, conformation, and features of incident geographic atrophy (GA) as detected by annual stereoscopic color photographs and fluorescein angiograms (FAs). Design Retrospective cohort study within a larger clinical trial Participants Patients with bilateral large drusen who developed GA during the course of the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Methods Annual stereoscopic color photographs and FAs were reviewed from 114 CAPT patients who developed GA in the untreated eye during 5-6 years of follow-up. Geographic atrophy was defined according to the Revised GA Criteria for identifying early GA23. Color-optimized fundus photographs were viewed concurrently with the FAs during grading. Main Outcome Measures Size and distance from the fovea of individual GA lesions, number of areas of atrophy, and change in visual acuity (VA) when GA first developed in an eye. Results At presentation, the median total GA area was 0.26mm2 (0.1 Disc area). GA presented as a single lesion in 89 (78%) of eyes. The median distance from the fovea was 395μm. Twenty percent of incident GA lesions were subfoveal and an additional 18% were within 250μm of the foveal center. Development of GA was associated with a mean decrease of 7 letters from the baseline visual acuity level compared to 1 letter among matched early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes without GA. GA that formed in areas previously occupied by drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (DPED) were on average larger (0.53 vs. 0.20 mm2; p=0.0001), more central (50 vs. 500 microns from the center of the fovea; p<0.0001), and associated with significantly worse visual outcome (20/50 vs. 20/25; p=0.0003) than GA with other drusen types as precursors. Conclusions Incident geographic atrophy most often appears on color fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms as a small, singular, parafoveal lesion, though a large minority of lesions are

  10. Variants in autophagy-related genes and clinical characteristics in melanoma: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    White, Kirsten A M; Luo, Li; Thompson, Todd A; Torres, Salina; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Thomas, Nancy E; Lilyquist, Jenna; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A; Marrett, Loraine D; Gallagher, Richard P; Sacchetto, Lidia; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Cust, Anne E; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Autophagy has been linked with melanoma risk and survival, but no polymorphisms in autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been investigated in relation to melanoma progression. We examined five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three ATG genes (ATG5; ATG10; and ATG16L) with known or suspected impact on autophagic flux in an international population-based case-control study of melanoma. DNA from 911 melanoma patients was genotyped. An association was identified between (GG) (rs2241880) and earlier stage at diagnosis (OR 0.47; 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 0.27-0.81, P = 0.02) and a decrease in Breslow thickness (P = 0.03). The ATG16L heterozygous genotype (AG) (rs2241880) was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P = 0.02). Two SNPs in ATG5 were found to be associated with increased stage (rs2245214 CG, OR 1.47; 95% CI = 1.11-1.94, P = 0.03; rs510432 CC, OR 1.84; 95% CI = 1.12-3.02, P = 0.05). Finally, we identified inverse associations between ATG5 (GG rs2245214) and melanomas on the scalp or neck (OR 0.20, 95% CI = 0.05-0.86, P = 0.03); ATG10 (CC) (rs1864182) and brisk tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (OR 0.42; 95% CI = 0.21-0.88, P = 0.02), and ATG5 (CC) (rs510432) with nonbrisk TILs (OR 0.55; 95% CI = 0.34-0.87, P = 0.01). Our data suggest that ATG SNPs might be differentially associated with specific host and tumor characteristics including age at diagnosis, TILs, and stage. These associations may be critical to understanding the role of autophagy in cancer, and further investigation will help characterize the contribution of these variants to melanoma progression.

  11. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  12. The Relationship Between Subjective Falls-Risk Assessment Tools and Functional, Health-Related, and Body Composition Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smee, Disa J; Berry, Helen L; Anson, Judith M; Waddington, Gordon S

    2017-02-01

    We sought to explore the relationship between two subjective falls-risk assessment tools (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I] and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence [ABC] Scale) and functional, health-related, and body composition characteristics. A total of 245 community-dwelling people aged 60 to 88 years underwent assessments for subjective falls risk (using the FES-I and ABC Scale), health-related (cognitive; Short-Form Health Survey [SF-12]), functional (physical activity and physical function), and body composition characteristics (measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry). The FES-I and ABC Scale are strongly correlated with each other for females and males ( r = -.70, p < .001; r = -.65, p < .001), respectively. There are substantial differences between males and females when they self-assess their risk of falling as well as what characteristics contribute to explaining these self-assessments. Females are potentially more self-aware of their functional, body composition and health-related characteristics to better estimate their own risk of falling. FES-I correlates better with functional, body composition, and health-related characteristics, and thus may be more appropriate for use than the ABC in community-dwelling older adults.

  13. The Effect of Student-Related and Text-Related Characteristics on Student's Reading Behaviour and Text Comprehension: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present study was on the mediation and moderation effects of reading processes as evidenced from eye movements on the relation between cognitive and linguistic student characteristics (word decoding, vocabulary, comprehension skill, short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal intelligence) and text comprehension. Forty 4th…

  14. The Effect of Student-Related and Text-Related Characteristics on Student's Reading Behaviour and Text Comprehension: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present study was on the mediation and moderation effects of reading processes as evidenced from eye movements on the relation between cognitive and linguistic student characteristics (word decoding, vocabulary, comprehension skill, short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal intelligence) and text comprehension. Forty 4th…

  15. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Donáth, Judit; Gálos, Miklós; Varga, Péter; Fornet, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Objective To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT), densitometry, age, and sex. Methods Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD) 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77) was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/ lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined. Results Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. Ultimate energy absorption capacity was 10%–20% higher in men; the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, mainly in central regions (ultimate load, male: r = −0.66, p < 0.01, female: r = −0.52, p

  16. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000–2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R’s nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site

  17. The effect of cryopreservation on goat semen characteristics related to sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Hidalgo, M

    2010-08-01

    Seminal quality parameters were used to evaluate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on goat sperm characteristics, and to relate possible changes in sperm parameters to cryopreservation success. Semen samples (n=110) were frozen with TRIS and milk-based extenders and thawed. Sperm quality parameters (motility, morphology and acrosome) were compared between fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Sperm freezability was judged by classifying the semen samples as "suitable" or "not suitable" according to the sperm quality parameters assessed before and after thawing. Fertility data was obtained after cervical insemination with frozen semen doses. The ejaculates were grouped into two categories according to their fertility results. In experiment 1, significant differences were found between semen extenders (P<0.001), bucks (P<0.05) and ejaculates within the same male (P<0.05) in terms of sperm quality. There was no seasonal effect (P>0.05) on the majority of the sperm parameters assessed after thawing. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.001) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of the freeze-thawing procedure on sperm quality parameters was also different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. The number of sperm quality parameters that had changed after cryopreservation was lower in "suitable" semen samples before and after thawing. In experiment 2, no differences (P>0.05) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of freezing and thawing on sperm quality parameters were different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. Only mean beat cross frequency (BCF) values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TRIS diluted samples that led to successful pregnancies after artificial insemination. In conclusion, CASA-derived motility parameters, together with traditional semen assessment methods, give valuable information on

  18. Early Life Characteristics Associated with Appetite-Related Eating Behaviors in 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  20. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Sheel Bansal; Constance A. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii ) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear...

  1. Teacher and Classroom Characteristics and Their Relations to Mathematics Achievement of the Students in the TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyuz, Gozde; Berberoglu, Giray

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teacher-related factors such as gender, experience, conceptions related to mathematics, instructional practices have effects with various magnitudes on students' mathematics achievement. Classroom related factors such as class size, class climate and limitations to teaching and their relation to mathematics achievement have also been…

  2. Autoradiographic Distribution and Applied Pharmacological Characteristics of Dextromethorphan and Related Antitissue/Anticonvulsant Drugs and Novel Analogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF DEXTROMETHORPHAN AND RELATED ANTITISSUE/ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS AND NOVEL ANALOGS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Norman G. Bowery, Ph.D., DSc CONTRACTING...Characteristics of Dextromethorphan and DAMD17-90-C-0124 Related Anti ti ssue/ Anticonvul sant Drugs and Novel 6. AUTHOR(S) Analogs 61102A...13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Binding of dextromethorphan and its analogues to the dextromethorphan binding site and to the PCP and glycine binding

  3. RELATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad river basin in North Carolina were related to environmental characteristics at the landscape scale, the scale at which management activities and decisions are most likely to occur. Indirect gradient analysis and subsequent re...

  4. Impact of Pacemaker Lead Characteristics on Pacemaker Related Infection and Heart Perforation: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Hung, Sheng-Ping; Chen, Dong Yi; Mao, Chun-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Chang, Shih-Tai; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chen, Mien-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Several risk factors for pacemaker (PM) related complications have been reported. However, no study has investigated the impact of lead characteristics on pacemaker-related complications. Patients who received a new pacemaker implant from January 1997 to December 2011 were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. This population was grouped according to the pacemaker lead characteristics in terms of fixation and insulation. The impact of the characteristics of leads on early heart perforation was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression analysis, while the impact of the lead characteristics on early and late infection and late heart perforation over a three-year period were analyzed using Cox regression. This study included 36,104 patients with a mean age of 73.4±12.5 years. In terms of both early and late heart perforations, there were no significant differences between groups across the different types of fixation and insulations. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, the pacemaker-related infection rate was significantly lower in the active fixation only group compared to either the both fixation (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07-0.80; P = 0.020) or the passive fixation group (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83; P = 0.023). There was no difference in heart perforation between active and passive fixation leads. Active fixation leads were associated with reduced risk of pacemaker-related infection.

  5. RELATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad river basin in North Carolina were related to environmental characteristics at the landscape scale, the scale at which management activities and decisions are most likely to occur. Indirect gradient analysis and subsequent re...

  6. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  7. Crown characteristics of several coniferous tree species: relations between weight of crown, branchwood and foliage and stem diameter

    Treesearch

    Theodore G Storey; Wallace L. Fons; F.M. Sauer

    1955-01-01

    Prediction of wind breakage and uprooting in tree stands requires information on weight of dry crown, branchwood, and foliage. This information has not been published. An experimental program started in 1951 has led to a number of generalized relations by which these crown characteristics can be determined with good accuracy over a wide range of tree diameters, species...

  8. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  9. Teachers' Perceptions Related to Characteristics of a Professional Environment for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; White, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pre-service and in-service science and mathematics teachers' perceptions of the characteristics of a professional teaching environment. The study further investigated the relationships of field placement contexts and grade levels on pre-service teachers' perceptions of importance and availability of…

  10. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  11. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  12. Characteristics of School Districts Related to Implementation of Year-Round Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Walter A.

    In this speech, the author discusses a study made that attempted to determine if there are differences in characteristics among school districts that implement full-scale models of year-round schools, districts that implement restricted models of year-round schools, and districts that do not implement any year-round model. Concurrently, he…

  13. An Analysis of Student Characteristics and Behaviour in Relation to Absence from Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawon, Krystyna; Pembroke, Michael; Wille, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Concern has been expressed in the literature that student absenteeism from lectures is undesirable as it may have adverse consequences for academic performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are identifiable groups of low-attendance students who display characteristic behaviours that are more typical than any other group.…

  14. Nurse managers' perspectives of structural and process characteristics related to residents' advance directives in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Krok, Jessica; Dobbs, Debra; Hyer, Kathryn; Polivka-West, LuMarie

    2011-11-01

    This article examines associations between nursing home structural and process characteristics and presence of advance directives and trends over 5 years of advance directives in Florida nursing homes. Our results underscore the importance of nursing homes' processes in facilitating discussions of nursing home residents' end-of-life care preferences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood irritable bowel syndrome characteristics are related to both sex and pubertal development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the relationship of both pubertal development and sex to childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical characteristics including gastrointestinal symptoms (eg, abdominal pain) and psychological factors. Cross-sectional study with children ages 7-17 years (n'='143) with a pediatric R...

  16. Preschoolers' Social Competence: Relations to Family Characteristics, Teacher Behaviors and Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Lee, Robert E.; Nievar, M. Angela; Stollak, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated family and classroom characteristics associated with parents' and teachers' ratings of 183 preschool children's social competence. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that teachers' negative ratings of the children were predicted by negative teacher behaviors and less optimal classroom climate. Children with higher…

  17. Investigating Grade Nine Textbook Problems for Characteristics Related to Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatabi, Abolfazl Rafiepour; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well…

  18. Individual Characteristics of Adolescent Methamphetamine Users in Relation to Self-Reported Trouble with the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman, Ruth; Nowicke, Carole E.; Jun, Mi Kung

    2010-01-01

    Survey responses by nonexperimental drug users in grades 6-12 were examined to determine whether MA users and nonusers with shared individual characteristics experience differential rates of police trouble, and whether specific factors place some users at greater risk than others. Findings showed that police trouble is pronounced for MA users,…

  19. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions Related to Characteristics of a Professional Environment for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; White, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pre-service and in-service science and mathematics teachers' perceptions of the characteristics of a professional teaching environment. The study further investigated the relationships of field placement contexts and grade levels on pre-service teachers' perceptions of importance and availability of…

  1. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  2. Parent/Child Concordance about Bullying Involvement and Family Characteristics Related to Bullying and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…

  3. Individual Characteristics of Adolescent Methamphetamine Users in Relation to Self-Reported Trouble with the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman, Ruth; Nowicke, Carole E.; Jun, Mi Kung

    2010-01-01

    Survey responses by nonexperimental drug users in grades 6-12 were examined to determine whether MA users and nonusers with shared individual characteristics experience differential rates of police trouble, and whether specific factors place some users at greater risk than others. Findings showed that police trouble is pronounced for MA users,…

  4. Hospital Characteristics Related to the Intention to Apply for Meaningful Use Incentive Payments

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Mark L; Kazley, Abby Swanson; Ford, Eric W; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 provides incentives for hospitals to fully adopt and use electronic health records (EHRs). We used data from the 2009 American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey Information Technology Supplement and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 2008 Hospital Cost Reports to examine how various hospital characteristics are associated with the intention to pursue meaningful use incentives. Overall, 86 percent of hospitals indicated an intent to pursue HITECH incentives. However, hospitals that already have an EHR system, are larger, and are located in urban areas are more likely to indicate an intention to pursue incentives. Despite a high interest in HITECH incentives, certain hospital characteristics, including current EHR use, increase the proclivity for some hospitals to pursue meaningful use. Given these differences, there is the potential for the HITECH Act to inadvertently increase the digital divide between hospitals with certain characteristics and their counterparts without those characteristics. Policy makers should consider ways to alleviate barriers, especially for nonusers of EHRs, to realize the maximum benefits of the HITECH Act. PMID:22737100

  5. Characteristic brain MRI findings in ataxia-neuropathy spectrum related to POLG mutation

    PubMed Central

    Henao, Adriana I; Pira, Sonia; Vargas, Sergio A; Montoya, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Patients with mutations in the polymerase gamma gene (POLG) may present with progressive ataxia and in such situations neuroimaging findings may suggest the diagnosis. Herein we report a patient with a POLG gene W748S homozygous mutation and characteristic lesions in the thalamus, cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus seen on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26755490

  6. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  7. Age related effects of transitional floor surfaces and obstruction of view on gait characteristics related to slips and falls

    PubMed Central

    Bunterngchit, Yuthachai; Lockhart, Thurmon; Woldstad, Jeffrey C.; Smith, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine gait changes between younger and older subjects as they walked across different floor surfaces. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment (five each of older and younger males and females). For half of the trials, subjects carried light loads that blocked their view of the floor surface immediately in front of them. Subjects walked on slippery (soapy water on vinyl) and stable (outdoor carpet) floor surfaces, as well as transitioning from one surface to another. Responses studied included: required coefficient of friction (RCOF), stride length (SL), and minimum toe clearance (MTC). Significant effects were found for the floor surface, load versus no load condition, and some interactions involving age (older versus younger subjects). Not all expected differences due to age were found in this experiment. The lack of significant differences between younger and older subjects could be due to the older subjects that participated in the experiment. They were volunteers at a local medical center, were in good physical shape, and were probably not typical of the population of people over 65 years of age. Relevance to industry Slips and falls in industry are costly safety issues in terms of human suffering as well as financial compensation. In many facilities and at home, people make transitions from one floor surface to another many times each day, while carrying loads or just walking. A better understanding of characteristics of people as they walk on slippery floor surfaces and the changes that might occur with age, will allow engineers to design better floor surfaces to reduce the incidence of slips and falls. PMID:20607122

  8. Age related effects of transitional floor surfaces and obstruction of view on gait characteristics related to slips and falls.

    PubMed

    Bunterngchit, Yuthachai; Lockhart, Thurmon; Woldstad, Jeffrey C; Smith, James L

    2000-02-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine gait changes between younger and older subjects as they walked across different floor surfaces. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment (five each of older and younger males and females). For half of the trials, subjects carried light loads that blocked their view of the floor surface immediately in front of them. Subjects walked on slippery (soapy water on vinyl) and stable (outdoor carpet) floor surfaces, as well as transitioning from one surface to another. Responses studied included: required coefficient of friction (RCOF), stride length (SL), and minimum toe clearance (MTC). Significant effects were found for the floor surface, load versus no load condition, and some interactions involving age (older versus younger subjects). Not all expected differences due to age were found in this experiment. The lack of significant differences between younger and older subjects could be due to the older subjects that participated in the experiment. They were volunteers at a local medical center, were in good physical shape, and were probably not typical of the population of people over 65 years of age. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY: Slips and falls in industry are costly safety issues in terms of human suffering as well as financial compensation. In many facilities and at home, people make transitions from one floor surface to another many times each day, while carrying loads or just walking. A better understanding of characteristics of people as they walk on slippery floor surfaces and the changes that might occur with age, will allow engineers to design better floor surfaces to reduce the incidence of slips and falls.

  9. The relative importance of worker, firm, and market characteristics for racial/ethnic disparities in employer-sponsored health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jennifer; Swartz, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of an individual, the local labor market, and the firm where an individual is employed each may be associated with racial and ethnic disparities in employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). This study estimates two models to determine the relative effects of each of these three sets of characteristics on the likelihood a worker has a job with ESI. One model has two outcomes: the job comes with ESI or not. The other model has five possible outcomes: the individual is not offered ESI and is uninsured, the individual is not offered ESI and is insured; the individual is offered ESI but turns it down and is uninsured; the individual is offered ESI but turns it down and is insured; and the individual is offered ESI and accepts. Findings indicate that individual characteristics and firm characteristics are more likely to have significant and substantial effects on the probability that a person has ESI, while the effects of market characteristics appear to be conveyed through firm characteristics. Being African American or Hispanic is not significantly associated with having ESI in the two-outcomes model, but in the five-outcomes model each is associated significantly with being uninsured, either because the person has not been offered ESI or has declined offered coverage. Clearly, examining more nuanced outcomes is more informative about the role of race and ethnicity in why working people are uninsured.

  10. Sedimentological and Geochemical Characteristics of Turbidites Related to Earthquake Activity in the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagatay, M.; Belucci, L.; Polonia, A.; Sancar, U.; Eris, K.; Gasperini, L.; Gorur, N.; Henry, P.; Zitter, T. A.; Geli, L.; Tryon, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Sea of Marmara (SoM) is a tectonically active basin being located on a major continental transform fault boundary between the Eurasian and Anatolian plates. It consists of three transtensional major subbasins in excess of -1250 m and smaller ones with -100 to -200 m forming the E-W elongated gulfs and bays. The major subbasins have steep slopes, especially in the north, with slope angles greater than 18°. The sedimentary infill sequence in the deep basins consists of about 75% turbidite-homogenite units (THU) and 25% hemiplagic sediments, deposited at sedimentation rates of 1 to 3 m/ka. Deposition of most of the THU has been triggered by seismo-tectonic activity that constitute a serious geohazard in the densely populated coastal areas. Identification and dating of the THUs are therefore important in the repeat-time determination of the earthquakes on different fault segments, and thus, for the probabilistic earthquake risk assessment in the region. We studied the sedimentological, physical and chemical characteristics of THUs in several cores recovered from different Marmara basins, and identified the record of the devastating (Mw=7.4) 1999 Izmit earthquake, using digital X-Ray Radiography, XRF Core Scanner, MSCL, stable isotope and grain-size analyses. The units were dated using AMS C-14 and radionuclide methods. THUs are characterized by a relatively thin (commonly mm to several cm thick) sand-silt unit at the base and thick (commonly several tens of cm) homogeneous mud at the top. Digital X-ray radiography indicates that the THUs have multiple sand-silt laminae in the basal unit showing bidirectional foresets and a sharp and often erosional basal contact. These features indicates deposition by a single turbidity current reflecting or deflecting from the opposite slopes. The XRF Core Scanner analysis indicates two specific geochemical anomalies associated with the turbiditites sampled over the active faults: Ca enrichment in the basal coarse part, and Mn

  11. A 210Pb sediment budget and granulometric record of sediment fluxes in a subarctic deltaic system: The Great Whale River, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hülse, Peter; Bentley, Samuel J.

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate how modern river discharge conditions of the Great Whale River (GWR) are represented in the marine sedimentary record, eight box and gravity cores were examined in terms of 210Pb and 137Cs radiochemistry, granulometry and physical sedimentary structures. These data were analyzed to provide insights into sedimentary processes and patterns at the study site. Sediment accumulation in the study area appears to be a relatively steady process over time-scales of 50-100 yr, allowing biological activity to overprint the primary depositional fabric. Subtle differences between 137Cs and 210Pb sediment accumulation rates (SARs) suggest an offshore shift in the locus of fine sediment deposition during the past ˜150 yr, which may be a result of ongoing climatic warming leading to decreasing sea-ice coverage and a more energetic marine environment. Under present day conditions 23% (40,000 t/yr) of the discharged sediment appear to accumulate in a 25 km2 area off the river mouth. The remaining 77% (136,000 t/yr) are either deposited further offshore, possibly along the northeastern shore as a result of Hudson Bay's counterclockwise circulation, or dispersed into the Hudson Bay system. Grain diameter frequency analyses suggest that environmental processes controlling sediment transport and deposition vary over decadal time scales. Although, we cannot define an exact cause for this pattern, these shifts may be related to variations in river discharge, wave climate, possibly due to windier conditions or less sea-ice dampening, bioturbation or a combination of all. This suggests that also longer term river discharge signals are preserved in the marine sedimentary record offshore the Great Whale River. In summary, no major change in sediment discharge over the past ˜150 yr was observed. However, the offshore shift in the locus of sediment deposition suggests, that a warming climate will lead to more energetic marine conditions, less sea-ice coverage, and an increased

  12. Characteristics of Disorder-Related Autobiographical Memory in Acute Anorexia Nervosa Patients.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julia; Salatsch, Carmen; Ingenerf, Katrin; Schmid, Carolin; Maatouk, Imad; Weisbrod, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    First studies revealed overgeneral autobiographical memories in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate frequency, generalization and valence of autobiographical memories in AN patients in response to eating disorder-related cue words. Autobiographical memory was examined in 21 AN patients and 21 healthy controls (HC) using a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, incorporating body-related, food-related, perfectionism-related, depression-related and neutral cues. Anorexia nervosa patients recalled fewer and more general autobiographical memories compared with HC. For eating disorder-related cues as against neutral ones, AN patients compared with HC showed fewer memories for food-related and body-related cues, an elevated overgeneralization for food-related cues, while the valence of the retrieved memories was more negative in response to body-related cues. This study detects disorder-related autobiographical memory alterations in AN, which are intensified in response to symptom-related cues. The findings are discussed with regard to their maladaptive function in emotion regulation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  14. Changes in streamflow characteristics in Wisconsin as related to precipitation and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.

    2016-01-19

    Streamflow characteristics were determined for 15 longterm streamflow-gaging stations for the periods 1915–2008, 1915–68, and 1969–2008 to identify trends. Stations selected represent flow characteristics for the major river basins in Wisconsin. Trends were statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level at 13 of the 15 streamflow-gaging stations for various streamflow characteristics for 1915–2008. Most trends indicated increases in low flows for streams with agriculture as the dominant land use. The three most important findings are: increases in low flows and average flows in agricultural watersheds, decreases in flood peak discharge for many streams in both agricultural and forested watersheds, and climatic change occurred with increasing annual precipitation and changes in monthly occurrence of precipitation. When the 1915–68 period is compared to the 1969–2008 period, the annual 7-day low flow increased an average of 60 percent for nine streams in agricultural areas as compared to a 15 percent increase for the five forested streams. Average annual flow for the same periods increased 23 percent for the agriculture streams and 0.6 percent for the forested streams. The annual flood peak discharge for the same periods decreased 15 percent for agriculture streams and 8 percent for forested streams. The largest increase in the annual 7-day low flow was 117 percent, the largest increase in annual average flow was 41 percent, and the largest decrease in annual peak discharge was 51 percent. The trends in streamflow characteristics affect frequency characteristics, which are used for a variety of design and compliance purposes. The frequencies for the 1969–2008 period were compared to frequencies for the 1915–68 period. The 7-day, 10-year (Q7, 10) low flow increased 91 percent for nine agricultural streams, while the five forested streams had an increase of 18 percent. The 100-year flood peak discharge decreased an average of 15 percent

  15. Staff's person-centredness in dementia care in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being: a cross-sectional survey in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Bernadette M; De Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Visser, Quirijn; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2015-02-01

    To explore the role of nursing staff's person-centredness caring for people with dementia in relation to their work environment and job-related well-being. Given the development towards person-centred care and labour force issues, research has recently focused on the effect of person-centredness on nursing staff's well-being. Findings from occupational stress research suggest that employees' personal characteristics, such as person-centredness, can moderate the impact particular job characteristics have on their job-related well-being. Cross-sectional survey. A national survey was conducted among healthcare staff (n = 1147) in 136 living arrangements for people with dementia in the Netherlands (2008-2009). Hierarchical regression analyses were used. Person-centredness moderates the relationship between coworker support and three outcomes of job-related well-being and between supervisor support and two of these outcomes. For highly person-centred nursing staff, coworker support was found to have a weaker impact and supervisor support to have a stronger impact on their job-related well-being. In addition, direct effects showed that person-centredness was weakly associated with more job satisfaction, more emotional exhaustion and more strongly with more personal accomplishment. Nursing staff's person-centredness does play a modest role in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being. Findings indicate that person-centredness is not only beneficial to residents with dementia as found earlier, but also for nursing staff themselves; specifically, in case nursing staff members feel supported by their supervisor. Since a more person-centred workforce feels more competent, further implementation of person-centred care might have a positive impact on the attractiveness of the profession. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Illness and treatment perceptions of patients with chronic low back pain: characteristics and relation to individual, disease and interaction variables.

    PubMed

    Heyduck, Katja; Meffert, Cornelia; Glattacker, Manuela

    2014-09-01

    The significance of various cognitive and psychosocial factors in the development, progression and persistence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) is well demonstrated. However, only a few studies have addressed CLBP patients' cognitive representations or beliefs about their disease and its treatment. The present study aimed to: (1) describe the illness and treatment beliefs of patients with CLBP, e.g., expected timeline, controllability or treatment related concerns; and (2) explore the relation of these illness and treatment beliefs to individual-, disease- and interaction-related variables. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with N = 201 patients at four inpatient rehabilitation centers. The characteristics of illness and treatment perceptions were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the associations with disease-related, individual-related and interaction-related variables. The results demonstrated large inter-individual variability in the illness and treatment perceptions among patients with CLBP and pointed to several associations with disease-related variables, patients' personal characteristics and interaction experiences. The variables most strongly related to individuals' perceptions were those reflecting disease severity and individual disease experience. Further research is needed on CLBP patients' illness and treatment perceptions, and these personal disease experiences should be considered when designing new treatment approaches.

  17. Characteristics analysis of a high speed permanent magnet synchronous generator using the transfer relations theorem and equivalent circuit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seok-Myeong; Ko, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Han-Wook; Hong, Jung-Pyo

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents analytical methods to predict the magnetic field distribution, electrical parameters, and output characteristics of a high speed synchronous generator equipped with surface-mounted permanent magnet. In order to analyze the magnetic field distribution and to estimate the electrical parameters, electromagnetic transfer relation (TR) theorem is employed. Moreover, output characteristics for variable resistive load and the operating speed are also obtained by solving the permanent magnet machine's equivalent circuit equation. The analytical results are validated extensively by nonlinear finite element analysis and experimental results.

  18. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement.

  19. Granulometric characterization and evaluation of annually banded mid-Holocene estuarine silts, Welsh Severn Estuary (UK): coastal change, sea level and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. R. L.; Haslett, S. K.

    2006-07-01

    Holocene silts (salt marshes) and highest intertidal-supratidal peats are superbly exposed on a 15 km coastal transect which reveals two laterally extensive units of annually banded silts (Beds 3, 7) associated with three transgressive-regressive silt-peat cycles (early sixth-early fourth millennium BC). Bed 3 in places is concordantly and gradationally related to peats above and below, but in others transgresses older strata. Bed 7 also grades up into peat, but everywhere overlies a discordance. The banding in Bed 3 at three main and two minor sites was resolved and characterized texturally at high-resolution (2.5/5 mm contiguous slices) using laser granulometry (LS230 with PIDS) and a comprehensive scheme of data-assessment. Most of Bed 3 formed very rapidly, at peak values of several tens of millimetres annually, in accordance with modelled effects of sea-level fluctuations on mature marshes (bed concordant and gradational) and on marshes growing up after coastal erosion and retreat (bed with discordant base). Using data from the modern Severn Estuary, the textural contrast within bands, and its variation between bands, points to a variable but overall milder mid-Holocene climate than today. The inter-annual variability affected marsh dynamics, as shown by the behaviour of the finely divided plant tissues present. Given local calibration, the methodology is applicable to other tidal systems with banded silts in Britain and mainland northwest Europe.

  20. How task characteristics and social support relate to managerial learning: empirical evidence from Dutch home care.

    PubMed

    Ouweneel, A P Else; Taris, Toon W; Van Zolingen, Simone J; Schreurs, Paul J G

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have revealed that managers profit most from informal and on-the-job learning. Moreover, research has shown that task characteristics and social support affect informal learning. On the basis of these insights, the authors examined the effects of task characteristics (psychological job demands, job control) and social support from the supervisor and colleagues on informal on-the-job learning among 1588 managers in the Dutch home-care sector. A regression analysis revealed that high demands, high control, and high colleague and supervisor support were each associated with high levels of informal learning. The authors found no evidence for statistical interactions among the effects of these concepts. They concluded that to promote managers' informal workplace learning, employers should especially increase job control.

  1. On the relation between seasonal synoptic circulation types and spatial air quality characteristics in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Sindosi, Ourania A; Lolis, Christos J; Chaloulakou, Arhontoula

    2003-03-01

    The impact of weather on air pollution was examined and evaluated for the city of Athens, Greece. We used an objectively defined synoptic classification scheme consisting of six summer and eight winter circulation types. This scheme was established using a combination of both factor and cluster analysis during 1954-1999. Surface and isobaric levels of 850 hPa data were used. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used to derive circulation types based on surface meteorological data for the period 1954-1999 in Athens and on surface pressure grid data. The city was divided into three sectors according to the financial and social activities of the residents. To examine the spatial characteristics of pollutant concentrations over Athens for each synoptic type, the synoptic circulation types were then correlated with both gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations measured in each sector between 1983 and 1999. Finally, extreme and severe episodic events were studied in terms of their meteorological and synoptic characteristics.

  2. Statistical and numerical study of the relation between weather and sonic boom characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Lixin; Bass, Henry E.; Raspet, Richard; Mcbride, Walton E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA measured sonic boom characteristics near Edwards Air Force Base from 11/66 to 1/67. Thirty four flights by an F-104 were recorded at an altitude of about 31,000 feet and flying speed of Mach 1.3. Forty two microphones were placed on the ground directly under the fight track. Each microphone recorded boom shape, rise time, peak overpressure, total boom duration, positive duration, and positive impulse.

  3. Biogeochemical characteristics of Siberia's Kolyma River watershed in relation to climate warming and permafrost degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. S.; Abbott, K. R.; Bulygina, E.; Frey, K. E.; Holmes, R. M.; Schade, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Kolyma River in northeast Siberia, one of the six largest rivers entering the Arctic Ocean, is draining a region experiencing significant climate warming and is expected to undergo ever further warming over the coming century. The Kolyma River watershed is underlain with vast deposits of Pleistocene-aged loess known as Yedoma, which is associated with ice-rich continuous permafrost and organic carbon-rich soils. When these Yedoma permafrost soils thaw under warming conditions, carbon can be released to the atmosphere as CH4 and CO2, but also to nearby lakes, streams, and rivers as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In July 2008, we conducted a survey of the Kolyma watershed to describe biogeochemical characteristics of water in streams and rivers draining a diverse set of subwatersheds, as well as longitudinal patterns in the Kolyma mainstem itself. Forty-two water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and UV light absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254; a proxy for DOC concentrations and characteristics). We focus here primarily on UV-254, as the processing and transport of DOC in streams and rivers under a warming climate in this region may have globally significant implications for carbon cycling. GIS analyses show that UV-254 is dependent upon watershed area and land cover type (e.g., tundra, forested upland, or wetland), where UV-254 (and thereby DOC concentration) is higher in smaller, wetland- dominated watersheds. Overall, we find clear spatial variation in UV-254 of waters throughout the Kolyma River watershed, indicating that variability in watershed characteristics and location in the landscape strongly impact DOC concentrations and characteristics. Establishing these relationships is critical for predicting how future climate warming may ultimately impact the flux of DOC to the Arctic Ocean. This study is the result of an undergraduate field experience called The Polaris Project (www.thepolarisproject.org), which will continue

  4. Quality of refiner groundwood pulp as related to handsheet properties and gross wood characteristics

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    Pulp quality, in terms of a fiber shape factor S and a fiber length factor L, was determiend for 96 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying characteristics. S was evaluated in terms of the Canadian Standard Freeness of the 48/100 fiber length fraction and is a parameter inversely proportional to specific surface. L is the percentage, by weight, of pulp retained on a...

  5. Impact of role-, job- and organizational characteristics on Nursing Unit Managers' work related stress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Seasonally related effects on natural organic matter characteristics from source to tap in Korea.

    PubMed

    So, S H; Choi, I H; Kim, H C; Maeng, S K

    2017-03-17

    In this study, natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics were investigated over three years of monthly monitoring to determine the effect of seasonal variations on NOM levels from source to tap. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine NOM characteristics and the level of reduction of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). The average dissolved organic matter concentration in the source water (Lake Paldang, Korea) was not significantly different between summer and winter. However, the distribution of NOM components, such as biopolymers, building blocks, low molecular weight (MW) neutrals and acids, identified by LC-OCD, varied seasonally. While high MW NOM was preferentially removed by coagulation/sedimentation/rapid sand filtration (CSR), no seasonal effects were observed on the removal of high MW NOM. CSR and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration showed a better efficiency of BDOC removal in winter and summer, respectively. High concentrations of chlorine used in the treatment plants in summer resulted in 10% higher DOC concentrations during disinfection. Overall NOM removal efficiencies from source to tap were 45% and 35% for summer and winter, respectively. Principal component analysis also indicated that seasonal variations (principal component 1) showed the strongest positive correlation with the overall performance of water treatment. The long-term monitoring of drinking water treatment processes showed that seasonal variations were important factors affecting NOM characteristics during water treatment.

  7. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803

  8. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  9. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  10. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  11. Spatial comparability of drought characteristics and related return periods in mainland China over 1961-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayantobo, Olusola O.; Li, Yi; Song, Songbai; Yao, Ning

    2017-07-01

    The proper understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of multi-year droughts and return periods is important for drought risk assessment. This study evaluated and compared the spatiotemporal variations of drought characteristics and return periods within mainland China between 1961 and 2013. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Composite Index (CI) were calculated at multiple timescales, the run theory was used for objective identification and characterization of drought events while Kendall's τ method was used to analyze their dependencies. Within the univariate framework, marginal distributions of duration, severity, and peak were derived by fitting Exponential, Weibull and GDP distributions respectively and the drought return periods was investigated and mapped. Comparison of drought indices showed that SPEI and CI performed better than SPI in delineating spatial patterns of drought characteristics. This might be attributed to the temperature effect on evapotranspiration and therefore on drought index. Considering the increasing trend in reference evapotranspiration in the 21st century, the importance of utilizing temperature-based drought index is imperative. Severe and extreme droughts occurred in the late 1990s in many places in China while persistent multi-year severe droughts occurred more frequently over North China, Northeast China, Northwest China and Southwest China. The spatial patterns showed that regions characterized by higher drought severity were associated with higher drought duration. The North China, Northwest China, and Southwest China had much longer drought durations during the 1990s and 2000s. As droughts normally cover large areas, regional drought return periods has been showed to be more effective in providing support for drought management than station based drought return periods. Studies on the spatial comparability of drought return periods across mainland

  12. Western spruce budworm as related to stand characteristics in the bitterroot national forest

    Treesearch

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Gerald S. Walton

    1971-01-01

    Relation of population density to certain stand conditions and damage indicators was analyzed in four drainages on the Bitterroot National Forest of Montana. Western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations were strongly related to plot basal area, tree species, and tree crown levels, and also to current and past levels of tree defoliation....

  13. Educational and Demographic Characteristics of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Bain, Trevor

    Presented is an analysis of the education, training, and age distribution of experienced scientists, engineers, energy-related scientists, and energy-related engineers. Data are from the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, which is one of a series of longitudinal studies of 50,000 scientists in the labor force at…

  14. Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents these results.

  15. Relations between macropore network characteristics and the degree of preferential solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsbo, M.; Koestel, J.; Jarvis, N.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of the soil macropore network determine the potential for fast transport of agrochemicals and contaminants through the soil. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between macropore network characteristics, hydraulic properties and state variables and measures of preferential transport. Experiments were carried out under near-saturated conditions on undisturbed columns sampled from four agricultural topsoils of contrasting texture and structure. Macropore network characteristics were computed from 3-D X-ray tomography images of the soil pore system. Non-reactive solute transport experiments were carried out at five steady-state water flow rates from 2 to 12 mm h-1. The degree of preferential transport was evaluated by the normalised 5% solute arrival time and the apparent dispersivity calculated from the resulting breakthrough curves. Near-saturated hydraulic conductivities were measured on the same samples using a tension disc infiltrometer placed on top of the columns. Results showed that many of the macropore network characteristics were inter-correlated. For example, large macroporosities were associated with larger specific macropore surface areas and better local connectivity of the macropore network. Generally, an increased flow rate resulted in earlier solute breakthrough and a shifting of the arrival of peak concentration towards smaller drained volumes. Columns with smaller macroporosities, poorer local connectivity of the macropore network and smaller near-saturated hydraulic conductivities exhibited a greater degree of preferential transport. This can be explained by the fact that, with only two exceptions, global (i.e. sample scale) continuity of the macropore network was still preserved at low macroporosities. Thus, for any given flow rate, pores of larger diameter were actively conducting solute in soils of smaller near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This was associated with larger local transport

  16. Urban crash-related child pedestrian injury incidence and characteristics associated with injury severity.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Joy M; Friedman, Lee; Kwon, Soyang; Sheehan, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Describe age-based urban pedestrian versus auto crash characteristics and identify crash characteristics associated with injury severity. Secondary analysis of the 2004-2010 National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration database for Illinois. All persons in Chicago crashes with age data who were listed as pedestrians (n=7175 child age ≤19 yo, n=16,398 adult age ≥20 yo) were included. Incidence and crash characteristics were analyzed by age groups and year. Main outcome measures were incidence, crash setting, and injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate injury severity by crash characteristics. Overall incidence was higher for child (146.6 per 100,000) versus adult (117.3 per 100,000) pedestrians but case fatality rate was lower (0.7% for children, 1.7% for adults). Child but not adult pedestrian injury incidence declined over time (trend test p<0.0001 for <5 yo, 5-9 yo, and 10-14 yo; p<0.05 for 15-19 yo, p=0.96 for ≥20 yo). Most crashes for both children and adults took place during optimal driving conditions. Injuries were more frequent during warmer months for younger age groups compared to older (χ(2)p<0.001). Midblock crashes increased as age decreased (p<0.0001 for trend). Most crashes occurred at sites with sub-optimal traffic controls but varied by age (p<0.0001 for trend). Crashes were more likely to be during daylight on dry roads in clear weather conditions for younger age groups compared to older (χ(2)p<0.001). Daylight was associated with less severe injury (child OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.98; adult OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.93). The incidence of urban pedestrian crashes declined over time for child subgroups but not for adults. The setting of pedestrian crashes in Chicago today varies by age but is similar to that seen in other urban locales previously. Injuries for all age groups tend to be less severe during daylight conditions. Age-based prevention efforts may prove beneficial. Copyright © 2015

  17. Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.

  18. Maternal cardiovascular function at 35-37 weeks' gestation: relation to maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Guy, G P; Ling, H Z; Garcia, P; Poon, L C; Nicolaides, K H

    2017-01-01

    To examine the possible effects of maternal characteristics and obstetric and medical history on maternal cardiovascular parameters at 35-37 weeks' gestation. In 3013 singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks, maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded; uterine artery pulsatility index, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and maternal cardiovascular parameters were measured. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine significant predictors of the cardiovascular parameters among gestational age (GA), maternal characteristics and medical history. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that significant independent prediction of log10 cardiac output and log10 cardiac power was provided by GA, maternal age, weight, weight gain from the first trimester, height, racial origin, smoking, assisted conception and previous neonatal birth-weight Z-score in parous women. For log10 total peripheral resistance, significant prediction was provided by GA, maternal age, height, racial origin, chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, assisted conception, previous neonatal birth-weight Z-score and prior pre-eclampsia (PE) in parous women. For log10 stroke volume, significant prediction was provided by maternal age, height, racial origin, smoking, chronic hypertension and diabetes mellitus. For heart rate, significant prediction was provided by GA, weight, weight gain, height, racial origin, chronic hypertension, previous neonatal birth-weight Z-score and prior PE in parous women. For log10 MAP, significant prediction was provided by maternal weight, racial origin, family history of PE, chronic hypertension and diabetes mellitus. For log10 thoracic fluid capacity, significant prediction was provided by GA, maternal age, weight, height, racial origin and systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome. For log10 ventricular ejection time, significant prediction was provided by GA, weight, height and racial origin. Maternal cardiovascular parameters are

  19. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  20. Appearance-related cyberbullying: a qualitative investigation of characteristics, content, reasons, and effects.

    PubMed

    Berne, Sofia; Frisén, Ann; Kling, Johanna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore 15-year-old adolescents' experiences of appearance-related cyberbullying. Twenty-seven adolescents participated in four focus groups. The adolescents in this study perceived that it is common to be targeted in appearance-related cyberbullying, especially for girls, and that appearance-related cyberbullying is considered to be a potent strategy when attempting to hurt girls. Girls often received comments about being fat, while among boys, it was common to receive comments about looking or seeming "gay." According to the adolescents, an important reason for engaging in appearance-related cyberbullying was to attain higher social status in the peer group. The girls and boys reacted differently to appearance-related cyberbullying. Boys tended to act out or take no offence, while girls experienced lower self-esteem and feelings of depression. Findings in this study contribute to research on cyberbullying as well as to research on girls' body esteem development.

  1. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Baugh, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area. ?? 1986.

  2. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Baugh, James W.

    1986-10-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area.

  3. Seed morphology characteristics in relation to seed loss by water erosion in the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juying; Han, Luyan; Jia, Yanfeng; Lei, Dong; Wang, Ning; Li, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    The role of water erosion on seed loss and on plant establishment and distribution is unknown on the Chinese Loess Plateau, which suffers serious soil erosion. The seed susceptibility of 16 local species to removal by water erosion from loess slopes was determined by rainfall simulation experiments. The experiments were performed on slopes with gradients of 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° for a 60-min duration at an intensity of 50 mm/h, 100 mm/h and 150 mm/h, respectively. The total seed removal rate obviously increased with rainfall intensity but did not obviously change with slope gradient, and the responses were varied among the species. The morphological characteristics affecting seed loss of the various species are quite different. Our experiments showed that the seed removal from some species are mainly due to seed weight, some species are mainly affected by seed shape, some are affected by appendage, some by surface structure, some by the comprehensive effects of the different morphological characteristics, while seeds having mucilage secretion are not easily moved by water erosion. We argued that the seed removal during water erosion can clearly effect seed redistribution and deposition, and consequently, species composition and vegetation spatial distribution.

  4. Epidemiological Characteristics of Renal Colic and Climate-Related Causes in a Continental Area in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cepeda Delgado, Marcos; López Izquierdo, Raúl; Amón Sesmero, José Heriberto; Del Pozo Vegas, Carlos; Álvarez Manzanares, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of renal colic (RC) in a northwestern area of Spain and its relationship with seasonal and meteorological characteristics. We examined 700,257 cases that presented at the emergency room (ER) between 2005 and 2013. We reviewed data such as age, gender, arrival at ER, tests performed and destination after ER. Monthly data regarding temperature, humidity and hours of daylight were taken into account. The Student t-test, the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis. RC visits were correlated with meteorological characteristics using the Pearson correlation coefficients. A total of 9,330 cases were diagnosed as RC episodes (1.41% of total cases presented). The age range was 14-100 years and mean age was 47 years. Prevalence in men was higher (55.6%) than in women (44.4%). After the seasonal decomposition analysis by month, a significant increase in RC incidence was observed in the months of June, July, August and December (107-114%). There is a statistically significant correlation between mean monthly temperature and RC visit rate (R 0.33, p < 0.001). The incidence of RC in our region is slightly higher than the one described in the literature. A significant increase in RCs is observed in the summer months, as well as a significant correlation between incidence and temperature. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Neighborhood, family and individual characteristics related to adolescent park-based physical activity.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Tan, Diane; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2015-07-01

    Local parks are an important community resource that may influence levels of physical activity among youth. However, few population-based studies have investigated park-based physical activity among youth. This study examines sociodemographic, family, and neighborhood characteristics associated with park-based physical activity among adolescents. Data were from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a population-based survey of California households, and were analyzed in 2012-2013 and 2015. This study examined individual (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and nativity), family (household income, parental education, and nativity), and neighborhood characteristics (urbanicity, perceived park availability, perceived park safety, neighborhood income, and racial composition) associated with engaging in park-based physical activity among adolescents. In California, 71% of adolescents reported being physically active the last time they visited a park. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses, older adolescents and females were less likely to be physically active in parks. Adolescents with a park within walking distance of home and those with a safe park nearby were more likely to be physically active during a park visit. Park availability and perceptions of park safety are important predictors of engaging in park-based physical activity among adolescents. These findings provide information that can help inform interventions intended to increase physical activity among youth. Strategies that increase availability and safety of parks and other recreation spaces may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of user characteristics related to drop-off detection with long cane

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how user characteristics affect drop-off detection with the long cane. A mixed-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 32 visually impaired adults attempted to detect the drop-offs using different cane techniques. Younger cane users detected drop-offs significantly more reliably (mean +/− standard deviation = 74.2% +/− 11.2% of the time) than older cane users (60.9% +/− 10.8%), p = 0.009. The drop-off detection threshold of the younger participants (5.2 +/− 2.1 cm) was also statistically significantly smaller than that of the older participants (7.9 +/− 2.2 cm), p = 0.007. Those with early-onset visual impairment (78.0% +/− 9.0%) also detected drop-offs significantly more reliably than those with later-onset visual impairment (67.3% +/− 12.4%), p = 0.01. No interaction occurred between examined user characteristics (age and age at onset of visual impairment) and the type of cane technique used in drop-off detection. The findings of the study may help orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques in accordance with the cane user’s age and onset of visual impairment. PMID:20665349

  7. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), and the proportion of sperm cell morphological abnormalities was greater in animals with higher coefficients of inbreeding (P < 0.001), particularly for older animals (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean coefficient of inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations.

  8. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  9. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  10. Socioeconomic characteristics of the population living in Roma settlements and their association with health and health-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid; Bobáková, Daniela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová; Bosáková, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Halánová, Monika

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare socioeconomic characteristics of the Roma population living in Roma settlements with the majority population. Moreover, it was aimed to assess socioeconomic differences in health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. Data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. Roma in selected settlements were recruited by local Roma community workers. Respondents from the major population were randomly selected from a list of patients from general practitioners. Data were collected via questionnaire, anthropometric measures and analysed blood samples. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were tested using the chi-square test. The contribution of selected socioeconomic characteristics on health and health-related behaviour of the population living in Roma settlements was assessed by logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. The population living in Roma settlements is characterised by significantly lower socioeconomic standards, and the living conditions are significantly worse compared with the majority. With few exceptions, the study did not confirm any significant association between socioeconomic indicators and health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. The deteriorating effect of living in Roma settlement on health and health-related behaviour seems to be immense regardless differences in socioeconomic characteristics or living condition within the settlement population.

  11. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes.

  12. Discussion on Ubeid, K.A., 2016. Quaternary alluvial deposits of Wadi Gaza in the middle of the Gaza Strip (Palestine): Facies, granulometric characteristics, and their paleoflow direction. JAES 118: 274-283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel

    2017-10-01

    The location of the Gaza Strip at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea along a transition zone between Mediterranean and arid climate zones at the meeting point between fluvial, coastal, and aeolian sediments makes the Strip an important region for Quaternary, hydrogeologic, geomorphic, and palaeoclimatic studies (Aish, 2004). Wadi Gaza, the only water course that fully crosses the Gaza Strip into the southeastern Mediterranean Sea is an important water source for the proliferating and dense population of the Gaza Strip (Zaineldeen and Aish, 2012), is an indispensable part of natural life in Gaza and has an interesting history and rich vegetation (Abd Rabou et al., 2016). As such, the hydrogeologic conditions of Wadi Gaza need to be fully resolved. This includes the study of the wadi's palaeohydrology and the current anthropogenic impact upon flow and deposition along the watercourse.

  13. Linking Family Characteristics with Poor Peer Relations: The Mediating Role of Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Smoot, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Parent, teacher, and peer ratings were collected for 75 grade school boys to test the hypothesis that certain family interaction patterns would be associated with poor peer relations. Path analyses provided support for a mediational model, in which punitive and ineffective discipline was related to child conduct problems in home and school settings which, in turn, predicted poor peer relations. Further analyses suggested that distinct subgroups of boys could be identified who exhibited conduct problems at home only, at school only, in both settings, or in neither setting. Boys who exhibited cross-situational conduct problems were more likely to experience multiple concurrent problems (e.g., in both home and school settings) and were more likely than any other group to experience poor peer relations. However, only about one-third of the boys with poor peer relations in this sample exhibited problem profiles consistent with the proposed model (e.g., experienced high rates of punitive/ineffective home discipline and exhibited conduct problems in home and school settings), suggesting that the proposed model reflects one common (but not exclusive) pathway to poor peer relations. PMID:1865049

  14. Changes in protein characteristics during soybean storage under adverse conditions as related to tofu making.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanbin; Chang, Sam K C

    2013-01-16

    Soybeans stored under adverse conditions decrease in protein recovery (content) in the soymilk and tofu yield. This study investigated how protein structural changes contributed to the decrease in tofu yield. Soymilks were produced from original soybeans (Proto and IA2032 cultivars) and adversely stored soybeans, respectively, and soymilk protein contents were adjusted to the same level before making into tofu. Tofu yield was compared with that made from soybeans without protein content adjustment. For understanding protein structural changes, soy proteins were extracted from Proto soybean by using different solvents, including distilled water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 2-mercaptoethanol. The proteins in the extracts were analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Results showed that tofu yield was more significantly affected by protein structural characteristics than the protein content in soymilk. Different levels of aggregations among 7S and 11S proteins during adverse storage were responsible for decreasing protein recovery in the soymilk.

  15. Maternal characteristics in relation to income in a semi-rural community in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A R

    2007-01-01

    Women's health and socioeconomic status is fundamental to development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of monthly household income with demographic, nutritional and social characteristics in women living in a semi-rural location near Karachi. Thus 1111 mothers with at least 1 child under 5 years of age were interviewed. Self-reported monthly income was positively associated with gravidity, mid upper-arm circumference, cooking frequency per day and self and spousal literacy; it was negatively associated with number of occupants per room, wood used as cooking fuel, and spouse in a skilled occupation. Income is dependent on non-income factors such as literacy, and the nutritional and reproductive health status of women.

  16. Methods and apparatus for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P; Christiansen, Richard L.

    2007-05-29

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  17. Methods for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P; Christiansen, Richard L.

    2007-10-23

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  18. Biochemical characteristics of Enterobacter agglomerans and related strains found in buckwheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Iimura, K; Hosono, A

    1996-07-01

    Thirty strains of bacteria were randomly isolated and identified from buckwheat seeds. The phenotypic characteristics of these strains agree well with those of the Enterobacter agglomerans-Erwinia herbicola complex. On the basis of the difference in indole production and gas production from D-glucose, the isolates were divided into 3 phenotypic groups, viz. I, II and III. Twenty two strains were in phenotypic group 1, which is negative for indole production and gas production from D-glucose, and resembles Pantoea agglomerans. All six strains in phenotypic group II, which is positive for indole production and negative for gas production from D-glucose, were identified as Erwinia ananas. Two strains in phenotypic group III, which is negative for indole production and positive for gas production from D-glucose, were identified as Rahnella aquatilis.

  19. Three-dimensional Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in characteristic numerical relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, W.; Silva, A. da; Lehner, L.; Gomez, R.; Rosales, L.; Winicour, J.

    2005-03-15

    We incorporate a massless scalar field into a three-dimensional code for the characteristic evolution of the gravitational field. The extended three-dimensional code for the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system is calibrated to be second-order convergent. It provides an accurate calculation of the gravitational and scalar radiation at infinity. As an application, we simulate the fully nonlinear evolution of an asymmetric scalar pulse of ingoing radiation propagating toward an interior Schwarzschild black hole and compute the backscattered scalar and gravitational outgoing radiation patterns. The amplitudes of the scalar and gravitational outgoing radiation modes exhibit the predicted power law scaling with respect to the amplitude of the initial data. For the scattering of an axisymmetric scalar field, the final ring down matches the complex frequency calculated perturbatively for the l=2 quasinormal mode.

  20. Muscle characteristics and plasma lactate and ammonia response after racing in Standardbred trotters: relation to performance.

    PubMed

    Ronéus, N; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A; Persson, S

    1999-03-01

    Blood samples from the jugular vein and muscle biopsies (gluteus medius) in 25 Standardbred trotters were obtained 5-10 min after racing. The biopsies were analysed for fibre type composition and enzymatic profile and blood samples for plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations. Muscle characteristics, plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations after racing were compared with each horse's individual performance index (IPI). The IPI is calculated annually from the individual horse's racing performance (% placing 1, 2 or 3, total annual earnings, average earning per start, and best racing record), respectively, converted to and expressed as a percentage deviation from the average record of the same sex and age group. The IPI values were 100-116. Plasma lactate concentrations were 15.0-42.7 mmol/l (mean 31.3 mmol/l) and ammonia concentrations 65-210 micromol/l (mean 141 micromol/l) after racing. Fibre type composition varied among horses (range 9-27% for Type I, 32-54% for Type IIA, and 27-46% for Type IIB). Fibre type composition, enzyme activities, plasma lactate and ammonia responses to racing were not correlated to IPI. Ten of the horses also performed a submaximal test on the track, consisting of 5 incremental 1000 m heats at approximate speeds of 9.1, 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, and 11.1 m/s. Immediately after each heat a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein for plasma lactate analysis. Plasma lactate response to exercise differed between horses, but no correlation was seen with IPI. Muscle characteristics, plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations after racing and lactate response to a submaximal track test did not correlate with current race performance expressed as IPI in a group of horses with average or better performance capacity at the time of testing. Analysis of lactate and ammonia in blood after racing is not a valuable tool to predict an individual performance index.

  1. The relation between children's pain behaviour and developmental characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Breau, Lynn M; Camfield, Carol S

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether children with developmental disabilities show responses to pain that vary according to developmental level. Factor analytical methods were used to explore whether pain behaviour is independent of developmental characteristics. As part of a longitudinal study, caregivers of 123 children (67 males, 56 females; age range 40 mo-21 y 6 mo) completed the Non-communicating Children's Pain Checklist-Revised (NCCPC-R), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (VABS-II), and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Deviation intelligence quotients (DIQs) were also generated. Two varimax rotated principal components analyses (PCAs) included the NCCPC-R subscales, DIQs, and age. One also included VABS-II subdomain scores and the other, PEDI scores, to allow examination of whether pain and developmental scores produced distinct components to evaluate the independence of pain behaviour from developmental factors. Children's mean age equivalents on the VABS-II were: Communication (36.4 mo, SD 34.8), Daily Living Skills (31.8 mo, SD 35.9), Socialization (43.2 mo, SD 49.9), and Motor Skills (21.6 mo, SD 20.3). Pain behaviour was distinct from developmental characteristics. The PCA including the VABS-II accounted for 78.4% of variance, with four components: Developmental Level, Pain Behaviour, Motor Development, and Chronological Age. The PCA that included the PEDI accounted for 69.4% of variance, with three corresponding components: Pain Behaviour, Developmental Level, and Chronological Age. Pain behaviour was distinct from developmental factors in two separate analyses using two functional measures. Clinicians can be confident that pain assessment with the NCCPC-R is not affected by children's developmental level. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  2. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma.We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern.Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones.Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions.

  3. Characteristics of Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Risk Factors Related to Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and risk factors of dysphagia with the Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS) using a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in patients with ruptured aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods Data of 64 patients presenting with first-ever ruptured aSAH were analyzed. Characteristics of dysphagia were evaluated using VFSS and all subjects were divided into a high (>47) and low risk group (≤47) by the VDS score. Clinical and functional parameters were assessed by medical records including demographics, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM), the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Hunt and Hess scale, endotracheal intubation, acute management modalities, as well as Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). Radiologic factors identified the amount of hemorrhage, ventricular rupture, and aneurysmal location. Results About a half of the subjects showed oral phase abnormalities and the oral transit time was delayed in 46.8% of the patients. The pharyngeal transit time was also prolonged in 39.0% of the subjects and the proportion of penetration and aspiration observed was 46.8%. The parameters-GCS score (p=0.048), hemorrhagic volume (p=0.028), presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.038), and K-MMSE (p=0.007)-were predisposing factors for dysphagia in patients with aSAH. Conclusion Abnormalities in the oral phase were more prominent in patients with aSAH than in those with other types of stroke. The risk factors associated with dysphagia persisting over 6 months after stroke onset were the initial GCS, hemorrhage volume, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, and cognitive status as measured by the K-MMSE. PMID:28119832

  4. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma. We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern. Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones. Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:27631225

  5. Characteristics of chronic arthritis and other rheumatic condition-related ambulatory care visits, united states, 1997.

    PubMed

    Hootman; Helmick; Schappert

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize ambulatory medical care visits among persons with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, the leading cause of disability.METHODS: The 1997 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) collect annual data on the utilization of ambulatory medical services provided by non-federal office-based physicians and hospital outpatient and emergency departments. Arthritis-related visits were defined using a predetermined set of ICD9-CM diagnostic codes developed by an expert panel and designed to include all potential diagnoses for arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Visits related to acute conditions such as injuries were not included. National estimates and rates of arthritis-related ambulatory care visits were calculated by age, race, and sex groups.RESULTS: In 1997, there were an estimated 959.3 million ambulatory care visits, of which over 38 million (4.0%) were related to arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Arthritis-related visits were more likely to be made by females (65.4%), white persons (82.2%), non-Hispanic persons (72.7%) and persons aged 25-64 years (61.9%). More than one-third of arthritis-related visits were for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and unspecified myalgia/myositis. About half (50.2%) of the office visits for arthritis were made to general/family physicians or internists, while an additional 16.2% were to rheumatologists. Counseling or education related to exercise, diet/nutrition and injury prevention were provided at 18.9%, 9.2% and 2.2% of office and outpatient department visits respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are common conditions associated with ambulatory medical care. These results suggest missed opportunities for counseling patients regarding public health prevention messages for arthritis, including increasing moderate physical activity, weight management and injury prevention.

  6. Which Intervention Characteristics are Related to More Exposure to Internet-Delivered Healthy Lifestyle Promotion Interventions? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet has become a popular medium for the delivery of tailored healthy lifestyle promoting interventions. The actual reach of Internet-delivered interventions seems, however, lower than expected, and attrition from interventions is generally high. Characteristics of an intervention, such as personally tailored feedback and goal setting, are thought to be among the important factors related to of use of and exposure to interventions. However, there is no systematic overview of which characteristics of Internet-delivered interventions may be related to more exposure. Objective The present study aims to identify (1) which potentially exposure-promoting methods and strategies are used in existing Internet interventions, (2) which objective outcome measures are used to measure exposure to Internet interventions, and (3) which potentially exposure-promoting methods and strategies are associated with better exposure. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Cochrane guidelines. Papers published between 1995 and 2009 were searched in the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases. In total, 64 studies were included that reported objective exposure measures such as completion of an initial visit, number of log-ins, and time spent on the website. Information about intervention-related characteristics (ie, interactive behavior change strategies, interactive elements for fun, peer or counsel support, email/phone contact, and regular updates of the website) that could potentially contribute to better exposure and objective exposure outcomes were abstracted from the studies and qualitative systematic descriptive analyses were performed. Results The results showed that a large variety of behavior change techniques and other exposure-promoting elements were used in the interventions and that these methods and strategies varied for the various lifestyle behaviors. Feedback, interactive elements, and email/phone contact were used

  7. Using remote sensing to define environmental characteristics related to physical activity and dietary behaviours: a systematic review (the SPOTLIGHT project).

    PubMed

    Charreire, H; Mackenbach, J D; Ouasti, M; Lakerveld, J; Compernolle, S; Ben-Rebah, M; McKee, M; Brug, J; Rutter, H; Oppert, J-M

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review on the use of free geospatial services as potential tools to assess built environmental characteristics related to dietary behaviour and physical activity. We included 13 studies, all published since 2010 and conducted in urban contexts, with Google Earth and Google Street View as the two main free geospatial services used. The agreement between virtual and field audit was higher for items related to objectively verifiable measures (e.g. presence of infrastructure and equipment) and lower for subjectively assessed items (e.g. aesthetics, street atmosphere, etc.). Free geospatial services appear as promising alternatives to field audit for assessment of objective dimensions of the built environment.

  8. Associations of work and health-related characteristics with intention to continue working after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; de Graaf, Ron

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the association of work and health-related characteristics with the intention to continue working after the age of 65 years. Data were from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative population survey, including 1854 employees aged 45-64 years; 29.0% reported the intention to continue working after 65 years. Lower education, more adverse psychosocial working conditions and any physical disorder were negatively associated with this intention. Mental disorders were not associated. These findings highlight the importance of favourable working conditions and good physical health in relation to employees' intention to continue working after 65 years.

  9. Characteristics of genetics-related news content in Black weekly newspapers.

    PubMed

    Caburnay, C A; Babb, P; Kaphingst, K A; Roberts, J; Rath, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The media are an important source of health information, especially for those with less access to regular health care. Black news outlets such as Black newspapers are a source of health information for African Americans. This study characterized media coverage of genetics-related information in Black weekly newspapers and general audience newspapers from the same communities. All health stories in a sample of 24 Black weekly newspapers and 12 general audience newspapers from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for genetics-related stories. These stories were further coded for both journalistic and public health variables. Of all health-related stories identified, only 2% (n = 357) were considered genetics related. Genetics-related stories in Black newspapers - compared to those in general audience newspapers - were larger, more locally and racially relevant, and more likely to contain recommendations or action steps to improve health or reduce disease risks and to mention the importance of knowing one's family history. Stories in general audience newspapers were more likely to discuss causes of disease, mention genetic testing or therapy, and suggest a high/moderate degree of genetic determinism. Black newspapers are a viable communication channel to disseminate findings and implications of human genome research to African American audiences.

  10. Characteristics of genetics-related news content in Black weekly newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Caburnay, Charlene A.; Babb, Patricia; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Roberts, Jessica; Rath, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims/Objectives The media are an important source of health information, especially for those with less access to regular health care. Black news outlets such as Black newspapers are a source of health information for African Americans. This study characterized media coverage of genetics-related information in Black weekly newspapers and general audience newspapers from the same communities. Methods All health stories in a sample of 24 Black weekly newspapers and 12 general audience newspapers from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for genetics-related stories. These stories were further coded for both journalistic and public health variables. Results Of all health-related stories identified, only 2% (n=357) were considered genetics-related. Genetics-related stories in Black newspapers–compared to those in general audience newspapers–were larger, more locally- and racially-relevant, and more likely to contain recommendations or action steps to improve health or reduce disease risks and to mention the importance of knowing one's family history. Stories in general audience newspapers were more likely to discuss causes of disease, mention genetic testing or therapy, and suggest a high/moderate degree of genetic determinism. Conclusions Black newspapers are a viable communication channel to disseminate findings and implications of human genome research to African American audiences. PMID:24080971

  11. The Influence of Work-Related Fatigue, Work Conditions, and Personal Characteristics on Intent to Leave Among New Nurses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Li-Min; Chou, Pi-Ling; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Yang, Li-Chien; Hsu, Hsin-Tien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) test the fit of the hypothesized model for new nurses' intent to leave and (b) determine the extent to which personal characteristics, work conditions, and work-related fatigue predict intent to leave among new nurses. This study was a cross-sectional survey study. A total of 162 new nurses were recruited. A hypothesized model was proposed for model testing. Structural equation modelling was used for data analysis. Work conditions only had an effect through work-related fatigue on new nurses' intent to leave. Personal characteristics did not have a significant effect on new nurses' intent to leave. The final model showed a good fit. Work-related fatigue, work conditions, and health explained 65% of the variance in new nurses' intent to leave. Work-related fatigue was a major determinant of new nurses' intent to leave. More attention should be paid to fatigue reduction strategies among new nurses. Work-related fatigue should be monitored, particularly for new nurses who work more than 10 hr per day and who have greater workloads. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Graduate students' social and emotional functioning relative to characteristics of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Grabarek, Christina; Cooper, Stewart

    2008-10-01

    The authors explored gender-based patterns of relations between social and emotional functioning and the behaviors empirically supported as being highly potent for eating disorders: drive to be thin and body dissatisfaction. Graduate students between 20 and 25 years of age served as participants. Correlation analyses revealed that for women, personal adjustment and internalizing behaviors had significant relations to drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Using hierarchical regression analysis, the authors found that self-esteem contributed to the most variation in the prediction of both outcome variables. A differing pattern emerged for men as drive for muscularity and hyperactivity were most strongly predictive of drive for thinness, but not body dissatisfaction. The authors discuss implications relative to T. L. Tylka and L. M. Subich's (2004) model.

  13. Mercury concentrations in lentic fish populations related to ecosystem and watershed characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rypel, Andrew L

    2010-02-01

    Predicting mercury (Hg) concentrations of fishes at large spatial scales is a fundamental environmental challenge with the potential to improve human health. In this study, mercury concentrations were examined for five species across 161 lakes and ecosystem, and watershed parameters were investigated as explanatory variables in statistical models. For all species, Hg concentrations were significantly, positively related to wetland coverage. For three species (largemouth bass, pike, and walleye), Hg concentrations were significantly, negatively related to lake trophic state index (TSI), suggestive of growth biodilution. There were no significant relationships between ecosystem size and mercury concentrations. However, Hg concentrations were strongly, positively related to ecosystem size across species. Scores of small or remote lakes that have never been tested could be prioritized for testing using models akin to those presented in this article. Such an approach could also be useful for exploring how Hg concentrations of fishes might respond to natural or anthropogenic changes to ecosystems over time.

  14. "Let's get Wasted!" and Other Apps: Characteristics, Acceptability, and Use of Alcohol-Related Smartphone Applications.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Emma R; Horyniak, Danielle R; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul; Lim, Megan Sc

    2013-06-25

    Smartphone applications ("apps") offer a number of possibilities for health promotion activities. However, young people may also be exposed to apps with incorrect or poor quality information, since, like the Internet, apps are mostly unregulated. Little is known about the quality of alcohol-related apps or what influence they may have on young people's behavior. To critically review popular alcohol-related smartphone apps and to explore young people's opinions of these apps, their acceptability, and use for alcohol-related health promotion. First, a content analysis of 500 smartphone apps available via Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores was conducted. Second, all available blood alcohol concentration (BAC) apps were tested against four individual case profiles of known BAC from a previous study. Third, two focus group discussions explored how young people use alcohol-related apps, particularly BAC apps. 384 apps were included; 50% (192) were entertainment apps, 39% (148) were BAC apps, and 11% (44) were health promotion and/or stop drinking-related apps. When testing the BAC apps, there was wide variation in results, with apps tending to overestimate BAC scores compared with recorded scores. Participants were skeptical of the accuracy of BAC apps, and there was an overall concern that these apps would be used as a form of entertainment, further encouraging young people to drink, rather than reduce their drinking and risk taking. The majority of popular alcohol-related apps encouraged alcohol consumption. Apps estimating blood alcohol concentration were widely available but were highly unreliable. Health departments and prominent health organizations need to endorse alcohol smartphone apps that are accurate and evidence-based to give specific apps credibility in the ever-expanding market of unregulated apps.

  15. Facilitating police recording of the alcohol‐related characteristics of assault incidents: A stepped wedge implementation trial

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Andrew; Kingsland, Melanie; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Tindall, Jennifer; Bowman, Jennifer A.; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Enforcement of liquor licensing laws is limited by inadequate police information systems. This study aimed to: (i) determine the effectiveness of an intervention in facilitating police recording of the alcohol consumption characteristics of people involved in assaults; and (ii) describe such characteristics by geographic area and setting of alcohol consumption. Design and Methods A stepped wedge trial was conducted across New South Wales, Australia. An intervention to facilitate police recording of alcohol consumption information for people involved in incidents was implemented. For people involved in an assault the proportion for which alcohol consumption information was recorded was assessed. The proportion of assaults that were alcohol related, the proportions of people that consumed alcohol prior to the assault, were intoxicated, and had consumed alcohol in various settings, are described. Results Post‐intervention, alcohol consumption information was recorded for 85–100% of people involved in an assault incident. The proportion of incidents recorded as alcohol‐related increased significantly (26–44.5%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of assaults classified as alcohol related was significantly greater in regional/rural areas (50–47%) than in metropolitan areas (38%). More people in metropolitan areas (54%) consumed alcohol on licensed premises prior to an assault than in regional/rural areas (39–42%), with approximately 70% of persons intoxicated regardless of setting of alcohol consumption. Twenty per cent of premises accounted for 60% of assaults linked to licensed premises. Discussion and Conclusions The intervention was effective in enhancing the recording of alcohol‐related information for assault incidents. Such information could enhance targeted policing of liquor licensing laws. [Wiggers JH, Hacker A, Kingsland M, Lecathelinais C, Tindall J, Bowman JA, Wolfenden L. Facilitating police recording of the

  16. Families of Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Stress-Support and Relations to Child Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined stress-support in 42 families of 3- to 18-year-old children with Prader-Willi Syndrome. While children's age, intelligence quotient, and degree of obesity were not related to familial stress, families experienced greater stress when children showed more behavior problems overall, more externalizing and internalizing problems,…

  17. Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation.

    Treesearch

    K.M. Burnett; G.H. Reeves; D.J. Miller; S. Clarke; K. Vance-Borland; K. Christiansen

    2007-01-01

    The geographic distribution of stream reaches with potential to support high-quality habitat for salmonids has bearing on the actual status of habitats and populations over broad spatial extents. As part of the Coastal Landscape Analysis and Modeling Study, we examined how salmon-habitat potential was distributed relative to current and future (+100 years) landscape...

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies of the nature and characteristics of space related plasma resonance phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of space related plasma wave propagation and resonance phenomena cover whistler emissions and instabilities, low frequency plasma instabilities, nonlinear wave interactions and scattering from plasma column, and the resonance come of dipole antenna immersed in cold overdense magnetoplasma.

  19. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  20. [Biofilm--short characteristic of microbial growth related to drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Szczotko, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    General information about drinking water biofilms containing few steps biofilm forming process, microorganisms' short characterization and potential risk related to microbial presence in water installations has been presented. A part of review concerns European Acceptance Scheme (EAS) basis and current methods applied for assessment of susceptibility of materials contacting with drinking water to microbial growth.

  1. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  2. Characteristics and Institutional Factors Related to Young Alumni Donors and Non-Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDearmon, J. Travis; Shirley, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the results of an institutional survey conducted by the Annual Giving Office at a large public university in the Midwest. Overall, 2,273 young alumni participated in an online survey that assessed personal and institutional factors related to an alumna's willingness to make donations to the university. The results of the study…

  3. Effects of a yoga lifestyle intervention on performance-related characteristics of musicians: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Cope, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that yoga and meditation practices are effective in stress management, alleviating anxiety and musculoskeletal problems and improving mood and cognitive and physical performance. Musicians experience a number of challenges in their profession including high levels of stress, performance anxiety and performance-related musculoskeletal conditions. Yoga and meditation techniques are therefore potentially useful practices for professional musicians. Musicians enrolled in a prestigious 2-month summer fellowship program were invited to participate in a regular yoga and meditation program at a yoga center during the course of the program. The 10 participants in the yoga program completed baseline and end-program questionnaires evaluating performance-related musculoskeletal conditions, performance anxiety, mood and flow experience. Fellows not participating in the yoga program were recruited to serve as controls and completed the same assessments (N=8). The yoga participants showed some improvements relative to control subjects on most measures, with the relative improvement in performance anxiety being the greatest. The results from this preliminary study suggest that yoga and meditation may be beneficial as a routine practice to reduce performance anxiety in musicians.

  4. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  5. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  7. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  8. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  9. Characteristics of differential inhibition during selection between food-related and aversive responses.

    PubMed

    Chilingaryan, L I; Preobrazhenskaya, L A

    2007-09-01

    The same stimulus (a flash of light at a frequency of 6 Hz) was used in dogs to develop a food-related conditioned reflex reinforced by attractive food and an aversive conditioned reflex (avoidance/escape from paw stimulation) and differential inhibition to it (unavoidable series). This was followed by alternate experiments with selection of reinforcement and use of a differential stimulus (at a frequency of 0.6 Hz). In both series of experiments, dogs showed changes in food-related excitability (hunger, saturation). The numbers of investigative responses arising in response to the differential and positive conditioned stimuli and their latent periods were recorded. In conditions allowing selection (with electrodes on the paw and a pedal before the animal), dogs were found to differ in the extent to which one of these motivations dominated. Differential inhibition was less complete in those no-choice series in which the dominant motivation was used. In conditions allowing selection between the food-related and aversive reactions, responses to the differential stimulus depended on the balance between these motivations: the food-related motivation dominated after two days of starvation, while the aversive motivation dominated after satiation.

  10. Landscape distribution and characteristics of large hurricane-related canopy gaps in a southern Appalachian watershed

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Erik C. Berg

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane-related winds are a major source of disturbance in coastal ecosystems of the southern United States, but their effects on forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, >400 km inland, have seldom been documented. In October 1995, remnant winds of Hurricane Opal caused windthrow of individual and patches of trees throughout the mountainous region of...

  11. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  12. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  13. General and Special Education Teachers' Relations within Teamwork in Inclusive Education: Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…

  14. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  15. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  16. Substantive (Content-Related) Characteristics of Deviant Behavior as a Social and Psychological Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakhova, Valentina B.; Bulgakov, Aleksandr V.; Sokolovskaya, Irina E.; Khammatova, Rina S.; Mikhaylovsky, Mikhail N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is dedicated to an important social problem of contemporary Russian society--to deviant behavior in the system of social relations. Deviant manifestations are not unique and new, however their study becomes especially important now, during a critical period of the Russian society development. In contemporary society the interaction of…

  17. Characteristics and Institutional Factors Related to Young Alumni Donors and Non-Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDearmon, J. Travis; Shirley, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the results of an institutional survey conducted by the Annual Giving Office at a large public university in the Midwest. Overall, 2,273 young alumni participated in an online survey that assessed personal and institutional factors related to an alumna's willingness to make donations to the university. The results of the study…

  18. Rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials before mixing and during setting related to handling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyang-Ok; Lee, In-Bog

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the handling and rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression pastes before mixing and during setting, and to investigate the effect of its constituents on the properties of the materials. Five polyvinylsiloxane impression materials (Examixfine, Extrude, Honigum, Imprint II, and Express) were used. A flow test and a drip test were performed to determine the handling characteristics. The rheological properties of each impression material prior to mixing (shear stress, viscosity) and during setting (storage modulus G'), loss modulus G″), loss tangent tanδ) were measured with a stress-controlled rheometer at 25°C and 32°C, respectively. Inorganic filler content of each impression material was measured and observed with a SEM. The molecular weight distribution of polymer matrix was determined with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Express and Honigum display lower flow compared to the other materials, due to their high yield-stress values. Examixfine exhibits the greatest flow. All materials display pseudoplastic behavior, excluding the Examixfine catalyst. The viscosities at low shear rate are greatest for Express and Honigum; however, under high shear conditions, the viscosities of Extrude and Honigum are the lowest. Following mixing, each material show an increase in G', finally reaching a plateau, and the tanδ rapidly decreases with time. Imprint II shows the highest final G' as well as the most rapid decrease in tanδ. Express and Imprint II present the highest filler content and rough filler surface, while Honigum shows the lowest filler content and small filler particles. Most products are composed of polymers over 30 kDa and oligomers less than 1 kDa. Each impression material possesses different rheological properties, which significantly affect the handling characteristics. The yield stress of the impression material minimizes unnecessary flow prior to and after seating. Viscoelastic

  19. Exploring binding characteristics and the related competition of different protein-bound uremic toxins.

    PubMed

    Deltombe, Olivier; de Loor, Henriette; Glorieux, Griet; Dhondt, Annemieke; Van Biesen, Wim; Meijers, Björn; Eloot, Sunny

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about potential differences in binding characteristics of protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) versus healthy controls. The question arises whether eventual differences are attributed to (i) the elevated levels of competing uremic toxins, and/or (ii) post-translational modifications of albumin. We evaluated the binding characteristics of hippuric acid (HA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresylsulfate (pCS) by deriving a binding curve in three distinct conditions: (i) serum from healthy controls (healthy serum), (ii) blank serum from hemodialysis patients (blank HD serum; i.e. cleared from uremic toxins), and (iii) non-treated serum from HD patients (HD serum). Additionally, the mutual binding competition of these uremic toxins was studied in blank HD in pairs. In both experiments, equilibrium dialysis (37 °C, 5 h) was used to separate the free and bound fractions of each PBUT. Free and total PBUT concentrations were quantified by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometer detection and the percentage protein binding (%PB) of each PBUT was calculated. For all four compounds, the binding capacity of healthy serum was higher than blank HD serum, which was comparable to non-treated HD serum, except for HA. The competition experiments revealed that at high uremic concentrations, mutual competition was observed for the strongly bound PBUTs IS and pCS. The %PB of the weakly bound HA and IAA was lower (trend) only for the addition to blank HD serum containing the strongly bound IS or pCS. There is an intrinsic impact on protein binding in uremia, revealing a lower binding capacity, as compared to healthy controls. Competitive binding is only relevant for the strongly bound PBUTs at high uremic concentrations. In addition, at least part of the effect on binding capacity can be attributed to post-translational modifications of albumin. Copyright

  20. Characteristics of Sudden Bath-Related Death Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Methods Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Results Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). Conclusions The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced. PMID:25503827

  1. Characteristics of sudden bath-related death investigated by medical examiners in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

  2. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level.

  3. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ≤ 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ≤ 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ≥ 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme.

  4. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences in characteristics, infection control practices, knowledge and attitudes related to HIV among Ontario dentists.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, G M; MacDonald, J K

    1996-12-01

    We surveyed 5,997 dentists in Ontario to investigate gender differences in the characteristics, infection control practices, knowledge and attitudes regarding the treatment of HIV-infected patients. The response rate was 70.3%. Reports indicated that female dentists are younger and more likely to work in larger urban centres (P < 0.00001), and in general practice (P < 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that many significant gender differences in the univariate analyses could be explained by the confounding influence of age, practice location, and specialty; however, some differences remain significant: Women were more likely than men to report attending continuing education dealing with HIV/AIDS in the past two years (P < 0.001), and to use masks and eye protection (P < 0.00001). Men reported more economic concerns than women: they were more concerned about the financial burden of infection control costs (P < 0.00001), and losing patients from their practice if it is known that they treat patients with HIV (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in willingness to provide treatment for patients with HIV. We conclude that there is little evidence to show that access to oral care for patients with HIV is affected by gender differences.

  6. Characteristics of the BDS Carrier Phase Multipath and Its Mitigation Methods in Relative Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wujiao; Shi, Qiang; Cai, Changsheng

    2017-01-01

    The carrier phase multipath effect is one of the most significant error sources in the precise positioning of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). We analyzed the characteristics of BDS multipath, and found the multipath errors of geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite signals are systematic, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) or medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites are both systematic and random. The modified multipath mitigation methods, including sidereal filtering algorithm and multipath hemispherical map (MHM) model, were used to improve BDS dynamic deformation monitoring. The results indicate that the sidereal filtering methods can reduce the root mean square (RMS) of positioning errors in the east, north and vertical coordinate directions by 15%, 37%, 25% and 18%, 51%, 27% in the coordinate and observation domains, respectively. By contrast, the MHM method can reduce the RMS by 22%, 52% and 27% on average. In addition, the BDS multipath errors in static baseline solutions are a few centimeters in multipath-rich environments, which is different from that of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath. Therefore, we add a parameter representing the GEO multipath error in observation equation to the adjustment model to improve the precision of BDS static baseline solutions. And the results show that the modified model can achieve an average precision improvement of 82%, 54% and 68% in the east, north and up coordinate directions, respectively. PMID:28387744

  7. [Characteristics of non-point source pollution in Tiaoxi watershed and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing-liang; Wang, Fei-er; Dai, Lu-ying; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-jian

    2011-08-01

    By using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model, this paper simulated the surface runoff intensity and the export loadings of sediment particulates and nutrients via non-point source hydrological pathway in Tiaoxi watershed, and integrated with the simulation results, analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed in 2008. In the study area, the per unit area non-point source pollution was stronger in northern region than in southern region and in eastern region than in western region, and the weakest in central region. Among the land utilization types, farmland had the biggest contribution to the sediment loading. There were significantly positive correlations between the loadings of surface runoff and associated sediment particulates and the rainfall intensity. The export loadings of nutrients through surface runoff were higher in rainy season (from June to September) than in dry season (from December to next March), and there existed significant correlations between the surface runoff loadings of sediment particulates, organic nitrogen, and nitrate and the average gradient of lands.

  8. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed.

  9. Cause-Effect Relations with Regard to Functional and Morphological Humus Characteristics in Mixed Forest Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schua, K.; Feger, K.-H.; Wagner, S.; Eisenhauer, D.-R.; Raben, G.

    2009-04-01

    A major argument brought forward when giving reasons for the admixture of deciduous tree species into coniferous forest stands is the amelioration and stabilization of biogeochemical cycles. An ecologically oriented silviculture relies on detailed knowledge about the ecosystem effects of practical measures. Thus, it focuses on the ‘amelioration potential' of a specific tree species with respect to changes of topsoil characteristics in typical monocultural situations. Up-to-now, few data is available concerning the percentages of deciduous species (degree of admixture) or type of admixture (single-tree, small or large groups) required to achieve desired effects, e.g. faster decomposition and incorporation of organic matter in the mineral soil. Thus, the objective of this study is (1) to analyze the impact of admixtures on topsoil properties and processes, and (2) to establish spatial models of such effects. The experiments are conducted in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] KARST.) stands with a variable admixture of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, SE Germany). The approach starts with explanation of single-tree-effects and approves in a next step the enlargement to forest stand ("from-point-to-area-approach"). This attempt is expected to provide models with few paramete