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Sample records for granulosa cell tumor

  1. [Precocious pseudopuberty secondary to granulosa cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Jordán, J; Carmona, M; Oliver, A; Gracia, R; González, M; Peralta, A

    1984-12-01

    A case report of pseudoprecocity secondary to a unilateral ovarian tumor of granulosa cells is presented in a 13 month old female. Clinical manifestations appeared at two months of age as unilateral enlargement of the breast, development of pubic hair and vaginal discharge. Plasma estrogen levels were elevated, whereas there was no response of FSH and LH to LH-RH stimulation. The absence of a palpable abdominal mass and a normal ultrasound examination of the abdomen must be pointed out in our case. The suspected clinical and laboratory diagnosis was later confirmed by surgical abdominal examination and ovarian histopathology study. With the exception of a minimal breast enlargement which persists at two years of age, all other signs of pseudoprecocity have disappeared after the surgical removal of the neoplasm. The importance of surgical abdominal examination must be pointed out as a diagnostic method when clinical and laboratory findings suggest an ovarian tumor inspite of normal abdominal palpation, ultrasound and roentgenology.

  2. Rare virilizing granulosa cell tumor in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Bús, Dorottya; Buzogány, Mária; Nagy, Gyöngyi; Vajda, György

    2017-01-01

    Hormone-producing malignancies are rare in children or adolescent patients: Only 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and 4–5% of granulosa cell tumors occur in the sexually non-active ages. Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary, representing 7–8% of all ovarian neoplasms. A total of 95% of all GCTs are adult-type, and only 5% are diagnosed as juvenile-type GCT. A majority of children with juvenile-type GCT present with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty due to excessive estrogen production, although virilizing, testosterone-producing, juvenile-type GCTs are rare, occurring only in 2–3% of cases. The present case study reports on a case of a virilizing, juvenile-type GCT in a 14-year-old girl, along with a review of the literature. PMID:28123736

  3. FOXL2 Mutation Status in Granulosa Theca Cell Tumors of the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Amber; Joseph, Nancy M; Sangoi, Ankur R; Rabban, Joseph; Zaloudek, Charles; Garg, Karuna

    2017-03-17

    Ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors that have between 10% and 50% granulosa cells in a prominent fibrothecomatous background have been referred to as granulosa theca cell tumors or mixed granulosa theca cell tumors. The classification and prognosis of these tumors is not clear. Most adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary harbor a mutation in the FOXL2 gene, whereas fibromas and thecomas lack this mutation. The aim of our study was to assess the FOXL2 mutation status of ovarian granulosa theca cell tumors and to correlate the mutation status with morphologic and clinical characteristics. A FOXL2 mutation was detected in 6 of 12 (50%) granulosa theca cell tumors. Tumors with higher cellularity of granulosa cells were more likely to harbor a FOXL2 mutation as were tumors in which the granulosa cells formed large lobules. No conclusions could be drawn regarding the clinical and prognostic significance of the presence of a mutation given the small number of cases and limited clinical follow-up. Our study shows that half of granulosa theca cell tumors harbor the same FOXL2 mutation that characterizes adult granulosa cell tumors but there is no outcome evidence to guide whether mutation status should alter the classification of the tumor or the management of the patient.

  4. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor associated with Ollier disease

    PubMed Central

    Sampagar, Abhilasha Ashok; Jahagirdar, Rahul R.; Bafna, Vibha Sanjay; Bartakke, Sandip P.

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare neoplasm of childhood. Interestingly, it is known to be associated with Ollier disease, which is a rare bone disease characterized by multiple enchondromatosis. There is paucity of literature about the co-occurence of these two conditions. However, this association is noteworthy because these two conditions share a common pathogenesis. We report a case of JGCT in a 2.5-year-old female child in which multiple enchondromas mimicking bony metastasis were an incidental finding during routine workup for tumor staging, thus leading to a diagnosis of Ollier disease. PMID:28144098

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in two horses with granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Ragle, C A; Southwood, L L; Hopper, S A; Buote, P L

    1996-09-15

    Two mares were admitted for ovariectomy of unilateral granulosa cell tumors. Both mares were ovariectomized (1 unilateral and 1 bilateral) by use of a ventral abdominal laparoscopic technique. This approach required tilting the operative table 30 degrees to elevate the pelvis and to allow observation of the ovaries. Using a single laparoscopic portal and 3 to 4 instrument portals, a triangulation technique was used. The ovarian pedicles were isolated and secured via loop ligation. The ovaries then were divided from the ligated pedicle and placed within specimen bags for extraction. The specimen bags then were removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Using this technique, it was determined that granulosa cell tumors or ovaries of up to 20 cm in diameter can be removed. Laparoscopic ovariectomy provided a means to provide tension-free dissection and ligation of the ovarian pedicle. In comparison to conventional techniques, this may improve suture security and reduce complications related to excessive pedicle tension. Improved observation during surgery, less pedicle tension, and minimal invasiveness made laparoscopic ovariectomy of these 2 mares advantageous.

  6. Molecular pathogenesis in granulosa cell tumor is not only due to somatic FOXL2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2014-09-06

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable late recurrent and malignant behavior. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C > G mutation in adult-type granulosa cell tumor. In this study, we report an 80-year-old woman with a granulosa cell tumor arising from ovary. She presented with a huge pelvic mass with postmenopausal bleeding. No obvious intraperitoneal tumor implants were observed during operation. Final diagnosis was granulosa-theca cell tumor without capsule invasion. No recurrent disease was noted during 3-year post-operation follow-up period. Molecular studies showed a heterozygous FOXL2 402C > G mutation in the tumor by direct gene sequencing. In addition, DNA replication error, on analysis of the lengths of CAG repeats in androgen receptor gene, revealed defective DNA mismatch repair system in the granulosa cell tumor. We propose that the 402C > G mutation in FOXL2 is critical to the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. However, the malignant behavior of this tumor is driven by DNA mismatch repair deficiency. Unequal DNA copy numbers were noted on array comparative genomic hybridization. This implies that there is malignant potential even in the early stage of the granulosa cell tumor. Late malignant recurrence may be a late event of DNA repair function disability, not directly related to pathognomonic FOXL2 mutation.

  7. A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Kaartinen, M Johanna; Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Paquet, Marilène; Huneault, Louis M; Boerboom, Derek

    2009-12-01

    We recently described a genetically engineered mouse model that develops ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) that mimic many aspects of the advanced human disease, including distant dissemination. However, because the primary tumors killed their hosts before metastases were able to form, the use of these mice to study metastatic disease required the development of a simple, reliable, and humane surgical protocol for the excision of large GCTs from debilitated mice. Here we describe a protocol involving multimodal anesthesia, tumor removal through ventral midline celiotomy and perioperative fluid therapy, and analgesia that led to the postoperative survival of more than 90% of mice, despite the removal of tumors representing as much as 10% of the animal's body weight. Intraabdominal recurrence of the GCT did not occur in surviving animals, but most developed pulmonary or adrenal metastases (or both) by 12 wk after surgery. We propose that this mouse model of metastatic GCT will serve as a useful preclinical model for the development of novel treatment modalities and diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, our results delineate anesthetic and surgical principles for the removal of large abdominal tumors from mice that will be applicable to other models of human cancers.

  8. Insights into granulosa cell tumors using spontaneous or genetically engineered mouse models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that have been studied for decades. However, their infrequency has delayed efforts to research their etiology. Recently, mutations in human GCTs have been discovered, which has led to further research aimed at determining the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. Mouse models have been important tools for studying GCTs, and have provided means to develop and improve diagnostics and therapeutics. Thus far, several genetically modified mouse models, along with one spontaneous mouse model, have been reported. This review summarizes the phenotypes of these mouse models and their applicability in elucidating the mechanisms of granulosa cell tumor development. PMID:27104151

  9. Insights into granulosa cell tumors using spontaneous or genetically engineered mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Youn

    2016-03-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that have been studied for decades. However, their infrequency has delayed efforts to research their etiology. Recently, mutations in human GCTs have been discovered, which has led to further research aimed at determining the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. Mouse models have been important tools for studying GCTs, and have provided means to develop and improve diagnostics and therapeutics. Thus far, several genetically modified mouse models, along with one spontaneous mouse model, have been reported. This review summarizes the phenotypes of these mouse models and their applicability in elucidating the mechanisms of granulosa cell tumor development.

  10. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Lisa M.; Gerard, Mathew P.; Pinto, Carlos R.F.; Gradil, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare. PMID:17542368

  11. Soy promotes juvenile granulosa cell tumor development in mice and in the human granulosa cell tumor-derived COV434 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; James, Rebecca; Ligon, Alysse; Li, Xiaohui; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2014-10-01

    Soy attracts attention for its health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol or preventing breast and colon cancer. Soybeans contain isoflavones, which act as phytoestrogens. Even though isoflavones have beneficial health effects, a role for isoflavones in the initiation and progression of diseases including cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. While data from rodent studies suggest that neonatal exposure to genistein (the predominant isoflavone in soy) disrupts normal reproductive function, its role in ovarian cancers, particularly granulosa cell tumors (GCT), is largely unknown. Our study aimed to define the contribution of a soy diet in GCT development using a genetically modified mouse model for juvenile GCTs (JGCT; Smad1 Smad5 conditional double knockout mice) as well as a human JGCT cell line (COV434). While dietary soy cannot initiate JGCT development in mice, we show that it has dramatic effects on GCT growth and tumor progression compared to a soy-free diet. Loss of Smad1 and Smad5 alters estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) expression in granulosa cells, perhaps sensitizing the cells to the effects of genistein. In addition, we found that genistein modulates estrogen receptor expression in the human JGCT cell line and positively promotes cell growth in part by suppressing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Combined, our work suggests that dietary soy consumption has deleterious effects on GCT development.

  12. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  13. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors: a retrospective study of 27 cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Granulosa tumors were described for the first time in 1855 by Rokitansky. These tumors are malignancies with a relatively favorable prognosis. They are characterized by a prolonged natural history and a tendency to late recurrences. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of granulosa cell tumors and to investigate the prognosis factor for recurrences. Methods The clinical data of patients who were treated in the period from January 2003 to December 2010 at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco for adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary were investigated retrospectively. Data for age, clinical manifestation, imaging, diagnosis and treatment of the patients were reviewed and analyzed. Post-operative histology was obtained for all patients. Results Twenty-seven cases were retrieved. The median patient age was 53 years. The most common clinical manifestations at diagnosis were abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Mean tumor size was 14 cm. The majority of patients had stage I (63%, n = 17), while (18,5%, n = 5) had stage III, (7.4%, n = 2) had stage IV, and (11%, n = 3) of patients had an unknown stage. In the follow-up period (median = 63.44 months), five (18.51%) patients relapsed. The median time to relapse was 41.8 months, (range: 18 to 62 months). Conclusions Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is an uncommon neoplasm. The adult form progresses slowly and often is diagnosed in an early stage of disease. Surgery is indicated. A prolonged post-therapeutic follow-up is necessary because of the risk of recurrences, late and exceptional for the adult form. PMID:23777285

  14. Impact of FOXL2 mutations on signaling in ovarian granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Leung, Dilys T H; Fuller, Peter J; Chu, Simon

    2016-03-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are unique sex-cord stromal tumors which account for ∼ 8% of all ovarian malignancies. They exhibit morphological, biochemical and hormonal features similar to proliferating granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, including estrogen and inhibin synthesis. A somatic missense mutation in the forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) gene (C134W) is unique to adult GCT, and absent in other ovarian cancers. FOXL2 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in ovarian function, in particular, proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of the mutant FOXL2 remain unresolved. Here we review the molecular alterations known to be associated with mutant FOXL2 and the potential signaling implications. Several studies suggest that dysregulated FOXL2 function may alter cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Further insights into the molecular mechanism of GCT pathophysiology may identify therapeutic targets for the treatment of these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Secondary amenorrhea and LH hypersecretion. An unusual report of a granulosa cell ovarian tumor].

    PubMed

    Arteaga, E; Campusano, C; Fernández, C

    1993-04-01

    Granulosa cell ovarian tumors are infrequent. Since they originate from the gonadal stroma, they retain a high secretory potential and some of their clinical manifestations may be secondary to the production of sexual steroids. A 36 year old woman with an ovarian tumor presenting as a secondary amenorrhea is reported. This patient had a positive progesterone test and her hormonal profile showed a maintained LH hypersecretion (> 75 mUl/ml) which, joined to the presence of a hypophyseal microadenoma lead to suspect the presence of a gonadotrophin secreting tumor. The absence of LH response to TRH and its adequate suppression using oral contraceptives discarded this diagnosis. The histopathology of the excised ovarian tumor demonstrated that it is was a granulosa cell tumor. The physiopathological explanation of the case is based on the maintained levels of estrogens produced by the tumor that, through a positive feed-back mechanism similar to that of the polycystic ovary syndrome, produced a tonic LH elevation and GnRH hyper response. After the tumor excision, ovulatory cycles resumed and the patient became pregnant, facts that confirm the postulated hypothesis.

  16. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C K

    2014-01-10

    Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C>G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ovarian cellular fibromas lack FOXL2 mutations: a useful diagnostic adjunct in the distinction from diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Singh, Naveena; Kommoss, Stefan; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cellular fibromas are uncommon neoplasms, which may result in considerable diagnostic confusion with diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor. This is an important distinction, as the former usually exhibits benign behavior, whereas the latter is a low-grade malignant neoplasm capable of recurrence and metastasis. FOXL2 mutation (402C→G) has been demonstrated in >95% of ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors, only rarely in other ovarian sex cord-stromal neoplasms, and never in ovarian fibromas. In this study, we evaluated a series of ovarian cellular fibromas or mitotically active cellular fibromas (n=22), 3 with minor sex cord elements, for FOXL2 mutation. These were mostly received in consultation, often with a differential diagnosis of diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor. Immunohistochemically, 10 of 10 cases tested exhibited nuclear staining with FOXL2. FOXL2 (402C→G) mutation was not demonstrated in any of the 22 cellular or mitotically active cellular fibromas. Three additional neoplasms composed of cellular nodules of epithelioid cells in a background fibrous stroma, raising the possibility of adult granulosa cell tumor with a prominent fibrothecomatous component, were also tested; 2 of these were mutation negative, and 1 contained a FOXL2 mutation. FOXL2 mutation analysis is a useful adjunct in distinguishing between diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor (mutation present) and cellular fibroma (mutation absent). Mutation testing should be considered in problematic cases, as this will provide prognostic information for the patient.

  18. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min; Figenshau, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase) and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery. PMID:27293952

  19. TLR4 activates NF-{kappa}B in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NF{kappa}B signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to I{kappa}B degradation and activation of NF-{kappa}B. NF-{kappa}B activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNF{alpha} plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  20. Ovarian granulosa cell tumor: An uncommon presentation with primary amenorrhea and virilization in a pubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Pani, Jaya Prakash; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2012-09-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and excess hair growth on her body and face for the last three years, along with pain and a mass in her lower abdomen for last one year. Examination revealed hirsutism and other virilizing features, with an irregular mass in the lower abdomen corresponding to 16 weeks'gestation. Serum testosterone was 320 ng / dl and ultrasonogram of the pelvis revealed a solid mass of 5 × 4 cm in the left adnexa. Suspecting it to be a virilizing tumor of the left ovary, the patient was subjected to staging laparotomy, which revealed stage 1a ovarian involvement amenable to surgical resection alone. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively the serum testosterone returned to 40 ng / dl and her menstrual cycle started after two months of surgery.

  1. Granulosa cell tumor mutant FOXL2C134W suppresses GDF-9 and activin A-induced follistatin transcription in primary granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Kirsten J.; Nonis, David; Hoang, Yvonne D.; Shimasaki, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    A single somatic FOXL2 mutation (FOXL2C134W) was identified in almost all granulosa cell tumor (GCT) patients. In the pituitary, FOXL2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate activin stimulation of follistatin transcription. We explored whether a similar regulation occurs in the ovary, and whether FOXL2C134W has altered activity. We show that in primary granulosa cells, GDF-9 and activin increase Smad3-mediated follistatin transcription. In contrast to findings in the pituitary, FOXL2 negatively regulates GDF-9 and activin-stimulated follistatin transcription in the ovary. Knockdown of endogenous FOXL2 confirmed this inhibitory role. FOXL2C134W displayed enhanced inhibitory activity, completely ablating GDF-9 and activin-induced follistatin transcription. GDF-9 and activin activity was lost when either the smad binding element or the forkhead binding element were mutated, indicating that both sites are required for Smad3 actions. This study highlights that FOXL2 negatively regulates follistatin expression within the ovary, and that the pathogenesis of FOXL2C134W may involve an altered interaction with Smad3. PMID:23567549

  2. Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Hauspy, Jan; Beiner, Mario E.; Harley, Ian; Rosen, Barry; Murphy, Joan; Chapman, William; Le, Lisa W.; Fyles, Anthony; Levin, Wilfred

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To review the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the outcome and recurrence patterns of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with GCTs referred to the Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network between 1961 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using disease-free survival (DFS) as the endpoint. Results: A total of 103 patients with histologically confirmed GCTs were included in the present study. The mean duration of follow-up was 100 months (range, 1-399). Of the 103 patients, 31 received adjuvant RT. A total of 39 patients developed tumor recurrence. The tumor size, incidence of intraoperative rupture, and presence of concurrent endometrial cancer were not significant risk factors for DFS. The median DFS was 251 months for patients who underwent adjuvant RT compared with 112 months for patients who did not (p = .02). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT remained a significant prognostic factor for DFS (p = .004). Of the 103 patients, 12 had died and 44 were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Ovarian GCTs can be indolent, with patients achieving long-term survival. In our series, adjuvant RT resulted in a significantly longer DFS. Ideally, randomized trials with long-term follow-up are needed to define the role of adjuvant RT for ovarian GCTs.

  3. Induction of ovarian granulosa cell tumors in SWXJ-9 mice with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Beamer, W G; Shultz, K L; Tennent, B J

    1988-05-15

    Spontaneous ovarian granulosa cell (GC) tumors develop in SWXJ-9 inbred mice at approximately the time of puberty. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid secreted by the adrenals and reported to have antitumor actions, was examined in this ovarian tumor model. In contrast with expectations, administration of diet supplemented with 0.4% DHEA or Silastic capsules containing 10 mg DHEA resulted in a significant multifold increase in GC tumor incidence. Similar studies with metabolites of DHEA, i.e., testosterone (TESTO), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E2), revealed that TESTO was as effective as DHEA in increasing GC tumor incidence. DHT was without effect, and E2 suppressed GC tumor incidence. Serum steroid levels and steroid target tissue responses were assessed to determine if a correlation between a change in level or response to specific steroids and GC tumorigenesis existed. In both tumor-free and GC tumor host mice, dietary or capsular treatment with DHEA, TESTO, or DHT resulted in substantial alteration in one or more of serum steroids, DHEA, androstenedione, TESTO, and DHT, in addition to the administered steroid. No consistent correlation was observed between changes in a single steroid or pattern of steroids and GC tumorigenesis. Although significant increases in serum estrogens could be detected in GC tumor hosts treated with DHEA but not TESTO, estrogens did not induce these tumors. Treatment with E2 increased only serum E2 levels. In tumor-free mice, DHEA and E2 treatments were associated with vaginal cytological evidence of estrogen action, whereas the androgens induced a leukocytic pattern. Eighty-eight % of GC tumor host mice, regardless of steroid treatment, showed a vaginal cytology pattern that included cornified cells. The evidence presented in this report leads us to hypothesize that (a) spontaneous and steroid-induced GC tumorigenesis in these mice have the same mechanism, and (b) subtle increases in DHEA or a

  4. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary with a pseudopapillary pattern: a study of 14 cases of an unusual morphologic variant emphasizing their distinction from transitional cell neoplasms and other papillary ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A; Young, Robert H

    2008-04-01

    Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary with a pseudopapillary pattern have received only passing mention in the literature. We have reviewed the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor and 4 cases of adult granulosa cell tumor with a pseudopapillary pattern. Twelve cases were received in consultation; the referring pathologist favored a diagnosis of a transitional cell neoplasm in 3 of these cases, and a retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in 2 cases; in most of the remainder, the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor was considered but uncertainty expressed because of the unusual papillarylike pattern. All 14 tumors were unilateral, and the majority were predominantly cystic, 3 unilocular, and 6 multilocular. Multiple papillary projections lining the cyst wall were noted grossly in 10 cases; these ranged in size from 0.1 to 1.5 cm and were typically soft, edematous, fleshy, or rubbery. Microscopically, pseudopapillae were formed by intracystic cellular projections with surrounding necrotic debris and/or undulating folds of neoplastic cells in the absence of appreciable necrosis. In all tumors, thorough sampling revealed areas with architectural patterns and cytomorphology typical of granulosa cell tumor. Granulosa cell tumors of adult and juvenile type may have a pseudopapillary pattern that can be confused with other ovarian tumors with a papillary architecture. Identification of areas that are more characteristic of granulosa cell tumor resolves most cases, although immunohistochemistry can be used in more problematic tumors. This phenomenon seems to be related to the cystic change that is a feature of many granulosa cell tumors.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of stage 1 versus advanced adult granulosa cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Dilys; Gould, Jodee A.; Jobling, Tom; Fuller, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are hormonally-active neoplasms characterized, in the adult-subtype, by a mutation in the FOXL2 gene (C134W). They exhibit an indolent course with an unexplained propensity for late recurrence; ∼80% of patients with aggressive, advanced stage tumors die from their disease; aside from surgery, therapeutic options are limited. To identify the molecular basis of advanced stage disease we have used whole transcriptome analysis of FOXL2 C134W mutation positive adult (a)GCT to identify genes that are differentially expressed between early (stage 1) and advanced (stage 3) aGCT. Transcriptome profiles for early (n = 6) and stage 3 (n = 6) aGCT, and for the aGCT-derived KGN, cell line identified 24 genes whose expression significantly differs between the early and stage 3 aGCT. Of these, 16 were more abundantly expressed in the stage 3 aGCT and 8 were higher in the stage 1 tumors. These changes were further examined for the genes which showed the greatest fold change: the cytokine CXCL14, microfibrillar-associated protein 5, insulin-like 3 and desmin. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified overexpression of genes on chromosome 7p15 which includes the homeobox A gene locus. The analysis therefore identifies a small number of genes with clearly discriminate patterns of expression arguing that the clinicopathological-derived distinction of the tumor stage is robust, whilst confirming the relative homogeneity of expression for many genes across the cohort and hence of aGCT. The expression profiles do however identify several overexpressed genes in both stage 1 and/or stage 3 aGCT which warrant further study as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26893359

  6. Two Case Reports of a Malignant Germ Cell Tumor of Ovary and a Granulosa Cell Tumor: Interest of Tumoral Immunochemistry in the Identification and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet de Jolinière, J.; Ben Ali, N.; Fadhlaoui, A.; Dubuisson, J. B.; Guillou, L.; Sutter, A.; Betticher, D.; Hoogewoud, H. M.; Feki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we present two case reports. The first case was a malignant germ cell tumor of the right ovary in a 23-year old woman and the second case was a bilateral undifferentiated granulosa cell tumor in a 71-year old woman. The aim of these reports is to illustrate the interest of the immunohistochemical analysis to define the correct diagnosis, to better classify these ovarian tumors and improve their management. Methods: In this study, we report two cases. The first case concerns a 23-year old woman (A) with a mixed germ cell tumor of the right ovary [dysgerminoma (75%), yolk sac tumor (20%), and a mature teratoma (5%)], and the second case concerns a 71-year old woman (B) with a bilateral non-differentiated and necrotic granulosa cell tumor of both ovaries. The staging system was used according to both the classifications: International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1987 for ovarian cancer and TNM code 2009. Results: The immunostaining establishes the malignancy and the immunochemistry contributes to confirm effectively the right diagnosis (Tables 2 and 3). Conclusion: An immunohistochemical analysis is mandatory for the choice of chemotherapy to obtain a better response of the disease and improve the survival prognosis. The efficiency of the chemotherapy authorizes a conservative surgery including a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy preserving fertility (A). Concerning the non-dysgerminoma tumor (B), and after a surgical staging and debulking, chemotherapy was recommended. The type of tumor and its histological feature conditioned the choice of treatment. The benefit of the immunohistological analysis in this case allowed the right adjuvant treatment. PMID:24982844

  7. Expression of betaglycan, an inhibin coreceptor, in normal human ovaries and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and its regulation in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianqi; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Bützow, Ralf; Vänttinen, Teemu; Hydén-Granskog, Christel; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2003-10-01

    Activins and inhibins are often antagonistic in the regulation of ovarian function. TGFbeta type III receptor, betaglycan, has been identified as a coreceptor to enhance the binding of inhibins to activin type II receptor and thus to prevent the binding of activins to their receptor. In this study we characterized the expression and regulation pattern of betaglycan gene in normal ovaries and sex cord-stromal tumors and in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Expression of betaglycan mRNA was detected by RT-PCR or Northern blotting in normal ovarian granulosa, thecal, and stroma cells as well as in granulosa-luteal cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for betaglycan in antral and preovulatory follicular granulosa and thecal cells and in corpora lutea of normal ovaries. Furthermore, betaglycan expression was detected in the vast majority of granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas, with weaker staining in granulosa cell tumors compared with fibrothecomas. In cultured granulosa-luteal cells, FSH and LH treatment increased dose-dependently the accumulation of betaglycan mRNA, as did the protein kinase A activator dibutyryl cAMP and the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. In contrast, the protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate had no significant effect on betaglycan mRNA levels. Treatment with prostaglandin E(2) and with its receptor EP2 subtype agonist butaprost increased betaglycan mRNA accumulation and progesterone secretion dose- and time-dependently. In summary, betaglycan gene is expressed in normal human ovarian steroidogenic cells and sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors. The accumulation of its mRNA in cultured granulosa-luteal cells is up-regulated by gonadotropins and prostaglandin E(2), probably via the protein kinase A pathway. The specific expression and regulation pattern of betaglycan gene may be related to the functional antagonism of inhibins to

  8. The role of systemic chemotherapy in the management of granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Jane L; Hyman, David M; Jotwani, Anjali; Zhou, Qin; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Iasonos, Alexia; Pike, Malcolm C; Aghajanian, Carol

    2015-03-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and the role of chemotherapy in their management is not clearly defined. We performed a retrospective cohort study of GCT patients diagnosed from January 1996 through June 2013 at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, comparing those who received adjuvant chemotherapy to those who did not. Differences between groups were assessed using the log-rank test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Of 118 patients, 10 (8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (1 [1%] of 103 stage I and 9 [60%] of 15 stage II-IV patients). Thirty-two patients (27%) experienced disease recurrence. Four patients had residual disease after initial surgery, and all received adjuvant chemotherapy; each recurred within 24.3 months (median PFS, 8.2 months). The time to first recurrence was longer in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. For patients with recurrent disease, receiving chemotherapy after surgery for first recurrence did not seem to improve time to second recurrence versus surgery alone (HR 0.98; p=0.965). Additionally, 12 patients (10%) had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer-an incidence rate 3.22 times higher than Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data predicts (p<0.001). Although the numbers were small, in this analysis chemotherapy was not found to improve the recurrence-free interval of patients with GCTs, a finding that requires prospective validation. Residual disease after surgery was associated with poor prognosis. Finally, there was a significantly higher than expected incidence of antecedent breast cancer in this population, an association that deserves further exploration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FOXL2 molecular status in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: A study of primary and metastatic cases.

    PubMed

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Improta, Giuseppina; Petrillo, Marco; Pettinato, Angela; Scambia, Giovanni; Fraggetta, Filippo

    2016-08-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are uncommon neoplasms, accounting for ~5% of all malignant ovarian tumors. GCTs are a relatively homogeneous group of tumors, categorized into two distinct subtypes, juvenile GCT and adult GCT (AGCT), likely arising from a limited set of molecular events usually involving the disruption of pathways that regulate granulosa cell proliferation. In the present study, the presence of forkheadbox L2 (FOXL2) c.402C>G mutation was investigated in a series of 42 samples of primary and metastatic AGCT of the ovary. The samples consisted of 37 primary and 5 metastatic ovarian AGCTs from 37 patients. FOXL2 mutational status was evaluated using a pyrosequencing approach on 2.5-µm sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation was found in 33/37 (89.2%) primary AGCTs and in 4/5 (80.0%) metastases, with the molecular status of the metastases recapitulating that of the primary tumors (4 mutated cases and 1 wild-type case). Overall, FOXL2 mutation is present in the majority of primary and metastatic AGCTs, and could be used as a valid tool in the diagnosis of the disease and in cases of metastatic lesions from an unknown primary origin. Moreover the concordance of FOXL2 molecular status in primary and associated metastases suggests its early appearance and genomic stability in AGCT tumorigenesis.

  10. HtrA3 Is Downregulated in Cancer Cell Lines and Significantly Reduced in Primary Serous and Granulosa Cell Ovarian Tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harmeet; Li, Ying; Fuller, Peter J; Harrison, Craig; Rao, Jyothsna; Stephens, Andrew N; Nie, Guiying

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The high temperature requirement factor A3 (HtrA3) is a serine protease homologous to bacterial HtrA. Four human HtrAs have been identified. HtrA1 and HtrA3 share a high degree of domain organization and are downregulated in a number of cancers, suggesting a widespread loss of these proteases in cancer. This study examined how extensively the HtrA (HtrA1-3) proteins are downregulated in commonly used cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors.Methods. RT-PCR was applied to various cancer cell lines (n=17) derived from the ovary, endometrium, testes, breast, prostate, and colon, and different subtypes of primary ovarian tumors [granulosa cell tumors (n=19), mucinous cystadenocarcinomas (n=6), serous cystadenocarcinomas (n=8)] and normal ovary (n = 9). HtrA3 protein was localized by immunohistochemistry.Results. HtrA3 was extensively downregulated in the cancer cell lines examined including the granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines. In primary ovarian tumors, the HtrA3 was significantly lower in serous cystadenocarcinoma and granulosa cell tumors. In contrast, HtrA1 and HtrA2 were expressed in all samples with no significant differences between the control and tumors. In normal postmenopausal ovary, HtrA3 protein was localized to lutenizing stromal cells and corpus albicans. In serous cystadenocarcinoma, HtrA3 protein was absent in the papillae but detected in the mesenchymal cyst wall.Conclusion. HtrA3 is more extensively downregulated than HtrA1-2 in cancer cell lines. HtrA3, but not HtrA1 or HtrA2, was decreased in primary ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and granulosa cell tumors. This study provides evidence that HtrA3 may be the most relevant HtrA associated with ovarian malignancy.

  11. Gene for ovarian granulosa cell tumor susceptibility, Gct, in SWXJ recombinant inbred strains of mice revealed by dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Beamer, W G; Tennent, B J; Shultz, K L; Nadeau, J H; Shultz, L D; Skow, L C

    1988-09-15

    Spontaneous, malignant ovarian granulosa cell (GC) tumors occur in pubertal SWR and specific SWXJ recombinant inbred strains of mice. Treatment of these mice with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal secretory steroid with anticancer actions against spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors of different tissues, gave unexpected results. Diet supplemented with 0.4% DHEA (a) induced significantly more GC tumors in spontaneous tumor-susceptible strains (SWR and SWXJ-1, -4, and -9), (b) induced the first GC tumors observed in five previously tumor-free strains (SWXJ-6, -7, -8, -10, and -12), and (c) failed to induce GC tumors in SJL and in the remaining six SWXJ strains (SWXJ-2, -3, -5, -11, -13, and -14). The strain distribution pattern of DHEA-induced GC tumor susceptibility versus resistance was compared with strain distribution patterns for 35 different loci known to distinguish SWR and SJL progenitor strains. A complete match of DHEA-induced GC tumors with pancreas-2 (Pan-2) on mouse chromosome 4 was found. We have named this new locus GC tumor susceptibility (Gct), with the Gcts (susceptible) allele found in SWR and the Gctr (resistant) allele found in SJL mice. The Gct locus is closely linked to pancreas-2, Pan-2, but the order of genes is not yet confirmed. In addition, data from F1 progeny of matings between SWR and selected inbred strains provide suggestive evidence for a second gene controlling GC tumor incidence that we hypothesize involves steroid metabolism. Differences in GC tumor incidence data from reciprocal F1 progeny of matings between SWR and SJL mice reveal a strong maternal effect that may represent yet a third gene. These data support a heritable basis for GC tumorigenesis in the SWR model involving a small number of genes.

  12. A Hot-spot of In-frame Duplications Activates the Oncoprotein AKT1 in Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bessière, Laurianne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Sarnacki, Sabine; Flatters, Delphine; Legois, Bérangère; Sultan, Charles; Kalfa, Nicolas; Galmiche, Louise; Veitia, Reiner A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are the most common sex-cord stromal tumors and have juvenile (JGCTs) and adult forms. In a previous study we reported the occurrence of activating somatic mutations of Gαs, which transduces mitogenic signals, in 30% of the analyzed JGCTs. Methods We have searched for alterations in other proteins involved in ovarian mitogenic signaling. We focused on the PI3K–AKT axis. As we found mutations in AKT1, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the mutated proteins and performed functional explorations using Western-blot and luciferase assays. Findings We detected in-frame duplications affecting the pleckstrin-homology domain of AKT1 in more than 60% of the tumors occurring in girls under 15 years of age. The somatic status of the mutations was confirmed when peritumoral DNA was available. The JGCTs without duplications carried point mutations affecting highly conserved residues. Several of these substitutions were somatic lesions. The mutated proteins carrying the duplications had a non-wild-type subcellular distribution, with a marked enrichment at the plasma membrane. This led to a striking degree of AKT1 activation demonstrated by a strong phosphorylation level and by reporter assays. Interpretation Our study incriminates somatic mutations of AKT1 as a major event in the pathogenesis of JGCTs. The existence of AKT inhibitors currently tested in clinical trials opens new perspectives for targeted therapies for these tumors, which are currently treated with standard non-specific chemotherapy protocols. PMID:26137586

  13. FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 co-operatively modulate gene expression, cell viability and apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cell tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Mikko; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Andersson, Noora; Georges, Adrien; L'hôte, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may lead to granulosa cell tumors (GCT), the pathogenesis of which involves transcription factors GATA4, FOXL2, and SMAD3. FOXL2 gene harbors a point mutation (C134W) in a vast majority of GCTs. GATA4 is abundantly expressed in GCTs and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. The TGF-β mediator SMAD3 promotes GCT cell survival through NF-κB activation, and interacts with FOXL2. Here, we find that the expression patterns of these factors overlap in the normal human ovary and 90 GCTs, and positively correlate with each other and with their mutual target gene CCND2, which is a key factor for granulosa cell proliferation. We have explored the molecular interactions of FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 and their roles in the regulation of CCND2 using co-immunoprecipitation, promoter transactivation, and cell viability assays in human GCT cells. We found that not only SMAD3, but also GATA4 physically interact with both wild type and C134W-mutated FOXL2. GATA4 and SMAD3 synergistically induce a 8-fold increase in CCND2 promoter transactivation, which is 50% reduced by both FOXL2 types. We confirmed that wild type FOXL2 significantly decreases cell viability. Interestingly, GATA4 and SMAD3 caused a marked reduction of GCT cell apoptosis induced by wild type FOXL2. Thus, the effects of GATA4 and SMAD3 on both cell viability and apoptosis are distinct from those of wild type FOXL2; a perturbation of this balance due to the oncogenic FOXL2 mutation is likely to contribute to GCT pathogenesis.

  14. FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 Co-Operatively Modulate Gene Expression, Cell Viability and Apoptosis in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anttonen, Mikko; L'Hôte, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may lead to granulosa cell tumors (GCT), the pathogenesis of which involves transcription factors GATA4, FOXL2, and SMAD3. FOXL2 gene harbors a point mutation (C134W) in a vast majority of GCTs. GATA4 is abundantly expressed in GCTs and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. The TGF-β mediator SMAD3 promotes GCT cell survival through NF-κB activation, and interacts with FOXL2. Here, we find that the expression patterns of these factors overlap in the normal human ovary and 90 GCTs, and positively correlate with each other and with their mutual target gene CCND2, which is a key factor for granulosa cell proliferation. We have explored the molecular interactions of FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 and their roles in the regulation of CCND2 using co-immunoprecipitation, promoter transactivation, and cell viability assays in human GCT cells. We found that not only SMAD3, but also GATA4 physically interact with both wild type and C134W-mutated FOXL2. GATA4 and SMAD3 synergistically induce a 8-fold increase in CCND2 promoter transactivation, which is 50% reduced by both FOXL2 types. We confirmed that wild type FOXL2 significantly decreases cell viability. Interestingly, GATA4 and SMAD3 caused a marked reduction of GCT cell apoptosis induced by wild type FOXL2. Thus, the effects of GATA4 and SMAD3 on both cell viability and apoptosis are distinct from those of wild type FOXL2; a perturbation of this balance due to the oncogenic FOXL2 mutation is likely to contribute to GCT pathogenesis. PMID:24416423

  15. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: fine-needle-aspiration cytology of 10 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sarfraz; Gattuso, Paolo; Howard, Allison; Mosunjac, Marina B; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2008-05-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is mostly diagnosed in postmenopausal women. They typically secrete estrogen, which stimulates the endometrium to proliferate and cause abnormal bleeding. This study reviews the cytologic features of adult GCT of the ovary diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We reviewed slides from ten cases diagnosed by CT guided FNA from 1995 to 2007 at our institutions. Smears were stained with Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stains. Patient's history and histologic diagnosis were also available and reviewed for all cases. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 83 yr. All 10 cases were hypercellular with both large and small overlapping cell clusters and individual cells. The cytologic features identified included: naked nuclei (10/10 cases), Call-Exner bodies (7/10 cases), blood vessels with prominent perivascular tumor cell growth (4/10 cases), spindle-shaped hyperchromatic stromal cells within cellular clusters (6/10 cases), mixed inflammation (3/10 cases), tumor cell necrosis (1/10 cases), and prominent metachromatic stroma seen in association with blood vessels (1/10 cases). Moderate to scant delicate cytoplasm was also seen (10/10 cases). Small, punctuate cytoplasmic vacuoles were also noted (7/10 cases) and were occasionally prominent (3/10 cases). In general nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios were high although lower than those typically seen in a lymphoma or small-cell carcinoma. Nuclei were generally centrally located although eccentrically located nuclei were consistently seen in a minority of cells. Nuclei were monotonous in size showing slightly convoluted (occasional rentiform and fetiform nuclei) to polygonal outlines. Prominent, central nucleoli were also seen (4/10 cases). Nuclear grooves were also seen (9/10 cases). No atypical mitotic activity was identified in any of the 10 cases (0/10 cases). In summary, the above cytologic features can also help in the cytologic diagnosis of adult GCTs.

  16. Effects of an inhibitor of the γ-secretase complex on proliferation and apoptotic parameters in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN).

    PubMed

    Irusta, Griselda; Pazos, Maria Camila; Maidana, Camila Pazos; Abramovich, Dalhia; De Zúñiga, Ignacio; Parborell, Fernanda; Tesone, Marta

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) represent 3%-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Treatments have limited proven efficacy and biologically targeted treatment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN) representative of the adult form of GCTs. When Notch signaling is initiated, the receptors expose a cleavage site in the extracellular domain to the metalloproteinase TACE and, following this cleavage, Notch undergoes another cleavage mediated by the presenilin-gamma-secretase complex. To achieve our goal, DAPT, an inhibitor of the gamma-secretase complex, was used to investigate the role of the Notch system in parameters associated with cell growth and death, using a human granulosa cell tumor line (KGN) as an experimental model. We observed that JAGGED1, DLL4, NOTCH1, and NOTCH4 were highly expressed in KGN cells as compared to granulosa-lutein cells obtained from assisted reproductive techniques patients. The proliferation and viability of KGN cells, as well as progesterone and estradiol production, decreased in the presence of 20 μM DAPT. Apoptotic parameters like PARP and caspase 8 cleavages, BAX, and BCLXs increased in KGN cells cultured with DAPT, whereas others such as BCL2, BCLXl, FAS, and FAS ligand did not change. AKT phosphorylation decreased and PTEN protein increased when Notch signaling was inhibited in KGN cells. We conclude that the Notch system acts as a survival pathway in KGN cells, and might be interacting with the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  17. Outcome of patients with recurrent adult-type granulosa cell tumors--a Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Hui; Sun, Hsu-Dong; Lin, Hao; Wang, Kung-Liahng; Liou, Wen-Shiung; Hung, Yao-Ching; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcome of ovarian recurrent granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) in a large series of patients treated in Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) centers and to define the prognostic parameters for survival. A retrospective multi-institutional review of patients with recurrent ovarian GCTs treated in TGOG centers was conducted. The clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with ovarian recurrent GCTs were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses to determine the predictors for survival. A total of 44 patients from 16 medical centers were identified between January 1994 and December 2010. The median disease-free survival (DFS), postrecurrence survival, and overall survival (OS) were 61.5 months (range, 3.7-219.3 months), 55.8 months (range, 4.6-193.7 months), and 115.3 months (range, 17.2-390.6 months), respectively. In multivariate analysis, DFS (> 61.5 months versus ≤ 61.5 months, hazard ratio (HR) 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.78, p = 0.024) at the initial operation after diagnosis of relapse was the only predictor that correlated with OS. DFS after the initial operation was the only important predictor for overall survival in patients with recurrent GCTs, regardless of treatment, suggesting that the natural behavior of the tumor is a critical factor for patients with recurrent GCTs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Adult ovarian granulosa cell tumor transcriptomics: prevalence of FOXL2 target genes misregulation gives insights into the pathogenic mechanism of the p.Cys134Trp somatic mutation.

    PubMed

    Benayoun, B A; Anttonen, M; L'Hôte, D; Bailly-Bechet, M; Andersson, N; Heikinheimo, M; Veitia, R A

    2013-05-30

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (OGCT) are the most frequent kind of sex cord-stromal tumors, and represent ∼2-5% of all ovarian malignancies. OGCTs exist as two entities, juvenile and adult types, with specific clinical and pathological characteristics. The molecular pathogenesis of these tumors has just begun to be unraveled. Indeed, recent studies have indicated that mutation and/or misregulation of the key ovarian transcription factor FOXL2 has a role in OGCT formation, although the mechanisms remain unclear. To better understand the molecular characteristics of OGCT, we studied the transcriptomic profiles of ten human adult-type OGCT samples, as well as ethnically matched granulosa cell (GC) controls. We find that the OGCT samples analyzed herein exhibit several hallmarks of cancer, including increased expression of genes linked to cell proliferation, but decreased expression of those conferring sensitivity to cell death. Moreover, genes differentially expressed in OGCTs are significantly enriched for known FOXL2 target genes, consistently with the prevalence of FOXL2 somatic mutation in these tumors. Expression of these targets is altered in a way expected to promote malignant transformation, for instance, through induction of genes associated with faster cell cycling and downregulation of genes associated with cell death. Over time, such defects may be responsible at least partly for the malignant transformation of healthy GCs into OGCT. These insights into the molecular pathogenesis of OGCTs may open the way to new efforts in the development of more targeted therapeutic strategies for OGCT patients.

  19. Anti-Müllerian hormone inhibits growth of AMH type II receptor-positive human ovarian granulosa cell tumor cells by activating apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Mikko; Färkkilä, Anniina; Tauriala, Hanna; Kauppinen, Marjut; Maclaughlin, David T; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Bützow, Ralf; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2011-11-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are sex cord stromal tumors that constitute 3-5% of all ovarian cancers. GCTs usually present with an indolent course but there is a high risk of recurrence, which associates with increased mortality, and targeted treatments would be desirable. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a key factor regulating sexual differentiation of the reproductive organs, has been implicated as a growth inhibitor in ovarian cancer. GCTs and normal granulosa cells produce AMH, but its expression in large GCTs is usually downregulated. Further, as the lack of specific AMH-signaling pathway components leads to GCT development in mice, we hypothesized that AMH inhibits growth of GCTs. Utilizing a large panel of human GCT tissue samples, we found that AMH type I receptors (ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6) and type II receptor (AMHRII), as well as their downstream effectors Smad1/5, are expressed and active in GCTs. AMHRII expression was detected in the vast majority (96%) of GCTs and correlated with AMH mRNA and protein expression. AMH mRNA level was low in large GCTs, confirming previous findings on low-AMH protein expression in large human as well as mouse GCTs. To study the functional role of AMH in this peculiar ovarian cancer, we utilized a human GCT cell line (KGN) and 10 primary GCT cell cultures. We found that the AMH-Smad1/5-signaling pathway was active in these cells, and that exogenous AMH further activated Smad1/5 in KGN cells. Furthermore, AMH treatment reduced the number of KGN cells and primary GCT cells, with increasing amounts of AMH leading to augmented activation of caspase-3 and subsequent apoptosis. All in all, these data support the premise that AMH is a growth inhibitor of GCTs.

  20. Chromosome X loci and spontaneous granulosa cell tumor development in SWR mice: epigenetics and epistasis at work for an ovarian phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dorward, Ann M; Yaskowiak, Edward S; Smith, Kerri N; Stanford, Kaitlyn R; Shultz, Kathryn L; Beamer, Wesley G

    2013-02-01

    Females of the SWR/Bm (SWR) inbred mouse strain possess a unique susceptibility to juvenile-onset tumors originating from the granulosa cells (GC) of the ovarian follicles. Tumor susceptibility is an inherited, polygenic trait in SWR females, minimally involving an oncogenic Granulosa cell tumor susceptibility (Gct) locus on chromosome (Chr) 4 (Gct1), and two GC tumor susceptibility modifier genes mapped to distinct regions of Chr X (Gct4 and Gct6). Shifts in the frequency of GC tumor initiation in the SWR female population from low penetrance to moderate penetrance, or phenotype switching between GC tumor-susceptible and GC tumor-resistant, is strongly influenced by the allelic contributions at Gct4 and Gct6. In addition to the allele-specific effects, GC tumor susceptibility is controlled by the mode of X-linked transmission with a dominant, paternal parent-of-origin effect. We took advantage of the robust paternal effect with a recombinant male progeny testing strategy to resolve the Gct4 locus interval to 1.345 million base (Mb) pairs. Based on the mapping resolution and the phenotype sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous androgen exposure, a promising candidate for Gct4 identity is the androgen receptor (Ar) gene. We explored the mechanism of allelic variation for Ar between SWR (low penetrance allele) and SJL/Bm (SJL) (moderate penetrance allele) using an SWR.SJL-X congenic strain resource and a quantitative gene expression method. We report the low GC tumor penetrance allele of the SWR strain correlates with significantly reduced Ar transcript levels in the female ovary at the pubertal transition.

  1. FOXL2 402C>G Mutation Can Be Identified in the Circulating Tumor DNA of Patients with Adult-Type Granulosa Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Anniina; McConechy, Melissa K; Yang, Winnie; Talhouk, Aline; Ng, Ying; Lum, Amy; Morin, Ryan D; Bushell, Kevin; Riska, Annika; McAlpine, Jessica N; Gilks, C Blake; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Anttonen, Mikko; Huntsman, David G

    2017-01-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) of the ovary are molecularly characterized by the pathognomonic FOXL2 402C>G (C134W) mutation. To improve diagnostics and follow-up, we developed a specific digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay to detect the FOXL2 mutation in the circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) of AGCT patients. Optimization of the ddPCR assay was performed using a TaqMan primer/probe with the RainDance RainDrop digital PCR system. The ddPCR assay was performed on circulating cell-free DNA extracted from 120 serial plasma samples collected prospectively from 35 AGCT patients. The ddPCR assay included a preamplification step that is sensitive and specific for detecting the FOXL2-mutated ctDNA at levels as low as 0.05%. FOXL2 ctDNA mutations were detected in the plasma of 12 of 33 AGCT patients (36%), with both primary (6 of 17, 35%) and recurrent (6 of 31, 19%) tumors. The median tumor size was significantly larger in ctDNA mutation-positive compared with mutation-negative samples (13.5 cm versus 7.5 cm; P = 0.003). The ctDNA FOXL2 mutation was detected in four patients without clinical disease, of which one relapsed during follow-up. As proof of concept, we established that specific molecular diagnosis of AGCT and detection of AGCT recurrence can be achieved noninvasively using ctDNA FOXL2 mutation testing. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical value of ctDNA mutation testing. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) regulates ovarian granulosa cell tumor progression via controlling AKT1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hua, G; He, C; Lv, X; Fan, L; Wang, C; Remmenga, S W; Rodabaugh, K J; Yang, L; Lele, S M; Yang, P; Karpf, A R; Davis, J S; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, motility and signal transduction in a cell type and tissue-dependent manner. However, the function of FHL2 in ovarian physiology and pathology is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role and functional mechanism of FHL2 in the progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs). Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that FHL2 was overexpressed in GCT tissues. Cellular localization of FHL2 in GCT cells was cell cycle dependent. Knockdown of FHL2 suppressed GCT cell growth, reduced cell viability and inhibited cell migration. Consistently, ectopic expression of FHL2 in GCT cells with very low endogenous FHL2 promoted cell growth, improved cell viability and enhance cell migration. Importantly, overexpression of FHL2 promoted GCT progression in vivo. Mechanistic studies indicated that FHL2 regulates AKT1 gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of FHL2 or AKT1 in GCT cell lines induced very similar phenotypes. Ectopic expression of constitutively active AKT1 rescued FHL2 knockdown-induced arrest of GCT cell growth and reduction of GCT cell viability, suggesting that FHL2 regulates GCT cell growth and viability through controlling AKT1 expression. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that FHL2 functions as a co-activator of NFκB and AP-1 to regulate AKT1 gene transcription. In conclusion, results from the present study indicate that FHL2 exerts its oncogenic action in GCT cells via controlling AKT1 gene expression. FHL2 is a promising target for the development of novel drugs against ovarian granulosa cell tumor. PMID:27415427

  3. The FOXL2 mutation (c.402C>G) in adult-type ovarian granulosa cell tumors of three Japanese patients: clinical report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akimasa; Kimura, Fuminori; Yamanaka, Akiyoshi; Takebayashi, Akie; Kita, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Kentaro; Murakami, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Adult-type granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a rare class of malignant ovarian tumor with unique features, characterized by slow growth, late recurrence, relatively good prognosis and unified cause in almost all patients. The forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) gene encodes an essential transcription factor in the ovary. FOXL2 is important in female sex determination, follicle recruitment, and granulosa cell development. About 70-97% of AGCTs were reported to carry a somatic mutation c.402C>G (C134W) in the FOXL2 gene. However, it is unknown whether AGCTs of Japanese patients harbor the FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation. Here, we report a mutational analysis of the FOXL2 gene in four Japanese patients with AGCTs, and we review the literature to determine the precise incidence of FOXL2 mutations in AGCTs. All four patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for FOXL2. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues, and was analyzed to detect the c.402C>G mutation in FOXL2 by direct sequencing. All tumors were stained with FOXL2. Three of the four tumors harbor the c.402C>G mutation. Based on the literature review, FOXL2 immunostaining is a highly specific marker for sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs), but it is not specific for AGCTs, one subtype of SCSTs. We identified 340 patients with the FOXL2 mutation (c.402C>G) and determined that the incidence of the mutation is 91.9% in AGCT patients. Therefore, this FOXL2 mutation is specific to AGCTs in the ovary and is useful for diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Congenital intra-abdominal bilateral juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the testis associated with constitutional loss of material from chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Yu, David C; Pathak, Bhavana; Vargas, Sara O; Javid, Patrick J; Hisama, Fuki M; Wilson, Jay M; Linden, Bradley C

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) is an uncommon gonadal stromal tumor that occurs rarely in the testis. We report a newborn boy with bilateral intra-abdominal JGCT presenting with abdominal distention and respiratory distress at birth. He was taken to the operating room emergently, and 2 large masses connected by gubernacula to the inguinal canals were resected. Associated abnormalities included a constitutional chromosome 4 abnormality, polymicrogyria, and renal cysts. This report describes a rare presentation of JGCT with abdominal compression and expands the literature to include bilateral testicular involvement. Additionally, it is the 1st report of JGCT associated with a chromosome 4 abnormality, highlighting a genetic region that may be important in JGCT development.

  5. Oocyte--granulosa cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Canipari, R

    2000-01-01

    In the past, different protocols of ovulation induction, aimed to overcome problems of anovulatory infertility in humans, have been developed during IVF programmes. However, administration of exogenous hormones may cause severe health problems, e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. To overcome this problem an attractive alternative is to develop in-vitro systems that allow follicle and oocyte growth and maturation. This paper reviews the current status of research on oocyte-granulosa cell interactions and on the autocrine and paracrine factors involved in follicle development. The ovarian follicle is a morphological and functional unit in which the somatic and germ cell components are intimately associated and interdependent. The co-ordinate development of follicle and oocyte leads to a number of modifications in the growing oocyte necessary for the acquisition of competence to mature correctly and to undergo fertilization and embryo development. The search for the optimal culture conditions and the correct balance of hormones necessary to obtain a fertilizable oocyte in vitro is extremely important for clinical and agricultural applications.

  6. Mutational analysis of FOXL2 p.C134W and expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 in Japanese patients with granulosa cell tumor of ovary.

    PubMed

    Oseto, Kumiko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Nishikawa, Ryutaro; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Asai, Hidekazu; Kawai, Michiyasu; Mizuno, Kimio; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Yamada-Namikawa, Chisato; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether FOXL2 p.C134W mutation may play a role in the development of human ovarian tumors in the Japanese, we investigated the FOXL2 codon 134 mutation and protein expression of inhibin-α, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and follistatin (FST) in Japanese patients with granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary and other ovarian tumors. We analyzed 114 tumor tissues from ovarian tumors, including 44 adult-type and two juvenile-type GCT of the ovary and 68 ovarian tumors by DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in the adult and juvenile GCT tissues by immunostaining inhibin-α, BMP2 and FST. We found the FOXL2 p.C134W mutation in 27 out of 44 (61.4%) adult-type GCT of the ovary, but none in other ovarian tumors. Histologically, all of the adult-type GCT sections were positive for inhibin-α, and the expression of BMP2 and FST was detected in 14 of 44 (31.8%) and zero of 47 (0%), respectively. No significant differences regarding the diagnosed age, preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen 125 levels, or BMP2 immunopositivity between the FOXL2 p.C134W mutation-positive and mutation-negative were found in the adult-type GCT patients. Our findings suggest that FOXL2 p.C134W mutation-positive adult-type GCT of the ovary may not be common in the Japanese as compared to the previous data. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a biomarker for bovine granulosa-theca cell tumors: comparison with immunoreactive inhibin and ovarian steroid concentrations.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kitahara, Go; Nibe, Kazumi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Horii, Yoichiro; Zaabel, Samy; Osawa, Takeshi

    2013-11-01

    Granulosa-theca cell tumors (GTCTs) are the most frequently reported ovarian tumors in cattle. Clinically, GTCTs could be confused with other ovarian abnormalities; therefore, the only definitive diagnosis for such tumors is histopathology of a biopsy from the affected ovary. However, this is an invasive technique and unsuitable for farm conditions. As a result, the key aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a glycoprotein hormone that is synthesized exclusively by ovarian granulosa cells, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosing GTCTs in cattle. To achieve this aim, we conducted two experiments. In experiment 1, four clinically healthy Japanese Black cows had blood samples taken daily over one estrous cycle to characterize their AMH profiles throughout the estrous cycle. Additionally, single blood samples were collected from 21 cyclic cows to clarify the physiological range of AMH. In experiment 2, cows with histologically confirmed GTCT (GTCT group, n = 9) and cows affected with cystic ovarian disease (COD group, n = 8) had one blood sample taken before extraction of the tumorous ovary or therapeutic treatment for the COD. Blood samples (n = 105) from cyclic cows (n = 25) in experiment 1 were assigned as a physiologically cyclic group (PC group). Plasma AMH, immunoreactive inhibin (ir-INH), estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P4) concentrations were assayed in all samples. In experiment 1, the mean plasma AMH concentration was 0.09 ± 0.003 ng/mL and did not show substantial fluctuation throughout the estrous cycle. In experiment 2, plasma AMH, ir-INH, and E2 concentrations were significantly elevated in the GTCT group in comparison with the PC group; among these parameters, only the AMH concentrations were significantly higher in the GTCT group than in the COD group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of AMH for diagnosis of GTCT was 0.99 and was

  8. Modulation of expression of 17-Hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (CYP17) and P450 aromatase (CYP19) by inhibition of MEK1 in a human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Jin, Jiewen; Shen, Shanmei; Xia, Yanjie; Xu, Pei; Zou, Xiang; Wang, Hongwei; Yi, Long; Wang, Yong; Gao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The differential steroid production in the theca and granulosa cells in ovary are resulted from unique enzyme expression profiles. Among them, c-fos, a downstream target of mitogen and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MEK/ERK) signaling, takes part in this compartment. In this study, we investigated the effect of c-fos on the steady-state levels of CYP17 and CYP19 in human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line (KGN) by inhibiting MEK/ERK pathway with PD98059. As a result, our finding demonstrated the distinct distribution patterns of CYP17 and CYP19 in KGN. Moreover, the MEK/ERK pathway functions to inhibit the production of CYP17, while enhance the production of CYP19 in granulosa cells, probably involving a c-fos-dependent mechanism. In conclusion, factors such as c-fos may play a crucial role in the down-regulation of CYP17 and up-regulation of CYP19 in granulosa cells, thereby suppressing androstenedione synthesis.

  9. Identification and Validation of Differential Phosphorylation Sites of the Nuclear FOXL2 Protein as Potential Novel Biomarkers for Adult-Type Granulosa Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dae-Shik; Oh, Hoon Kyu; Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Seeun; Shin, Eunkyoung; Lee, Kangseok; Kim, Yong-Hak; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2015-06-05

    Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare form of ovarian cancer classified as a sex cord-stromal tumor. The c.402C→G missense mutation in the FOXL2 gene that changes cysteine 134 to tryptophan (C134W) is found in more than 97% of adult-type GCTs, and the C134W FOXL2 mutant is hyperphosphorylated. We identified three differential phosphorylation sites, at serine 33 (S33), tyrosine 186 (Y186), and serine 238 (S238), of the C134W mutant by tandem mass spectrometry. Among these sites, antibodies were raised against the pS33 and pY186 epitopes using specific peptides, and they were tested by immunostaining tissue microarrays of archival adult-type GCT specimens, other tumors, and normal tissues. The pS33 antibody showed greater sensitivity and specificity for the detection of adult-type GCTs than that of the other phospho and nonphospho antibodies. The specificity of the pS33 antibody to the pS33 epitope was further confirmed by enriching the pS33 peptide by affinity chromatography using the immobilized antibody, followed by mass spectrometric and western blot analyses from whole cell lysates of the adult-type GCT cell line, KGN. pS33 FOXL2 immunostaining levels were significantly higher in adult-type GCTs than those in other tumors and tissues. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of pS33 FOXL2 showed high sensitivity (1.0) and specificity (0.76) to adult-type GCTs with a cutoff score of >30% positive cells, and the area under the curve was 0.96. This suggests the potential of pS33 FOXL2 to serve as a new biomarker for the diagnosis of adult-type GCT.

  10. Clinical and genetic analysis of recurrent adult-type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: Persistent preservation of heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Satoshi; Anglesio, Michael S; Nazeran, Tayyebeh M; Lum, Amy; Inoue, Momoko; Iida, Yasushi; Takano, Hirokuni; Nikaido, Takashi; Okamoto, Aikou; Huntsman, David G

    2017-01-01

    Adult-type granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (aGCTs) are rare tumors that represent 2-5% of ovarian malignancies. The prognosis of this tumor is favorable, and it is characterized by slow progression. 10-30% of these tumors recur after 4-7 years of the primary surgery and the 5-year survival rate from the first recurrence is 55%, for the incompletely resected patients. At this time, complete resection is the only prognostic factor for better outcome, and establishing a novel strategy for identification and/or treatment of recurrent tumors is crucial. After the discovery of heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutations in 97% of cases of aGCT, much effort has been made to find the role of the mutation on the pathogenesis of aGCT, however, little is known about the role of the mutation in disease progression. We analyzed the clinical data of 56 aGCT patients to find a marker of recurrence. In particular, we compared the FOXL2 status in 5 matched primary and recurrent samples by immunohistochemistry, and TaqMan allelic discrimination assay to address the role of FOXL2 in potential mechanisms of recurrence. The clinical data analysis was consistent with complete resection as an indicator of disease eradication, though the sample size was limited. The genetic analysis showed all the samples, including recurrent tumor samples up to 14 years after the primary surgery, expressed heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation and the FOXL2 protein expression. This report describes the preservation of heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation in recurrent aGCTs. This finding adds further credence to the concept that the c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation is oncogenic and integral to this disease.

  11. Clinical and genetic analysis of recurrent adult-type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: Persistent preservation of heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Anglesio, Michael S.; Nazeran, Tayyebeh M.; Lum, Amy; Inoue, Momoko; Iida, Yasushi; Takano, Hirokuni; Nikaido, Takashi; Okamoto, Aikou; Huntsman, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adult-type granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (aGCTs) are rare tumors that represent 2–5% of ovarian malignancies. The prognosis of this tumor is favorable, and it is characterized by slow progression. 10–30% of these tumors recur after 4–7 years of the primary surgery and the 5-year survival rate from the first recurrence is 55%, for the incompletely resected patients. At this time, complete resection is the only prognostic factor for better outcome, and establishing a novel strategy for identification and/or treatment of recurrent tumors is crucial. After the discovery of heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutations in 97% of cases of aGCT, much effort has been made to find the role of the mutation on the pathogenesis of aGCT, however, little is known about the role of the mutation in disease progression. Methods We analyzed the clinical data of 56 aGCT patients to find a marker of recurrence. In particular, we compared the FOXL2 status in 5 matched primary and recurrent samples by immunohistochemistry, and TaqMan allelic discrimination assay to address the role of FOXL2 in potential mechanisms of recurrence. Results The clinical data analysis was consistent with complete resection as an indicator of disease eradication, though the sample size was limited. The genetic analysis showed all the samples, including recurrent tumor samples up to 14 years after the primary surgery, expressed heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation and the FOXL2 protein expression. Conclusion This report describes the preservation of heterozygous c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation in recurrent aGCTs. This finding adds further credence to the concept that the c.402C>G FOXL2 mutation is oncogenic and integral to this disease. PMID:28594898

  12. OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong; He, Hui; Yi, Zhixin; Chen, Ziyu

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese. PMID:28362829

  13. Hypermethylation of CDH13, DKK3 and FOXL2 promoters and the expression of EZH2 in ovary granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanmei; Li, Xia; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Pengmu; Yan, Xun; Bai, Yu; Zhang, Tingguo

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modification is associated with the development and progression of cancer. Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters and cooperative histone modification have been considered to be the primary mechanisms of epigenetic modification. Ovary granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively rare, accounting for ~3% of all ovarian malignancies. The present study assessed hypermethylation of the cadherin 13 (CDH13), dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3) and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) promoters in 30 GCT tissues and 30 healthy control tissues using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. The data showed that the frequencies of CDH13, DKK3 and FOXL2 promoter methylation were significantly higher in the GCT tissues, compared with the healthy control tissues (86.67, vs. 23.33%; 80, vs. 26.67% and 66.67, vs. 20%, respectively; P<0.001). Immunostaining of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3K27 methyltransferase, showed that the EZH2 protein was expressed in 11 of the 30 GCT tissue samples, whereas no EZH2 protein was expressed in the 30 healthy control tissues (P<0.01). These data suggested that hypermethylation of the CDH13, DKK3 and FOXL2 gene promoters, and overexpression of the EZH2 protein were involved in the development of GCT.

  14. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors: immunoreactivity for CD99 and Fli-1 and EWSR1 translocation status: a study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, Elke A; Hirschowitz, Sharon L; Geiersbach, Katherine B; Wallander, Michelle L; Tripp, Sheryl R; Layfield, Lester J

    2014-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of a juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) can be challenging, as these neoplasms often exhibit morphologic features that overlap other ovarian neoplasms. In addition, the immunohistochemical profile exhibited by JGCT is fairly nonspecific and typically includes reactivity for CD99. Recently, we noted that JGCTs can show immunohistochemical expression of Fli-1, a transcription factor expressed by Ewing sarcoma, a neoplasm that is occasionally in the differential diagnosis of JGCT. We evaluated a series of JGCTs to determine whether Fli-1 is commonly expressed by these tumors and whether they demonstrate chromosomal arrangements in EWSR1. Cases diagnosed as JGCT (n=11) were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of Fli-1 and CD99. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on all cases to search for chromosomal rearrangements in EWSR1. All 11 of our cases exhibited positive immunohistochemical staining for Fli-1 and CD99. None of the cases demonstrated rearrangement in EWSR1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In cases of JGCT that cannot be reliably distinguished from Ewing sarcoma based on morphology and immunohistochemistry alone, fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for EWSR1 rearrangements seems to be a useful diagnostic adjunct for their separation.

  15. Opiate receptor blockade on human granulosa cells inhibits VEGF release.

    PubMed

    Lunger, Fabian; Vehmas, Anni P; Fürnrohr, Barbara G; Sopper, Sieghart; Wildt, Ludwig; Seeber, Beata

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the main opioid receptor (OPRM1) is present on human granulosa cells and if exogenous opiates and their antagonists can influence granulosa cell vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production via OPRM1. Granulosa cells were isolated from women undergoing oocyte retrieval for IVF. Complementary to the primary cells, experiments were conducted using COV434, a well-characterized human granulosa cell line. Identification and localization of opiate receptor subtypes was carried out using Western blot and flow cytometry. The effect of opiate antagonist on granulosa cell VEGF secretion was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For the first time, the presence of OPRM1 on human granulosa cells is reported. Blocking of opiate signalling using naloxone, a specific OPRM1 antagonist, significantly reduced granulosa cell-derived VEGF levels in both COV434 and granulosa-luteal cells (P < 0.01). The presence of opiate receptors and opiate signalling in granulosa cells suggest a possible role in VEGF production. Targeting this signalling pathway could prove promising as a new clinical option in the prevention and treatment of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  16. On the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. II. Identification of different morphological patterns of granulosa cells in evolutive follicles.

    PubMed

    Zecchi, S; Repice, F; Balboni, G C

    1981-03-15

    An attempt has been made for identifying different types of granulosa cells in the wall of cavitary ovarian follicles. Human, porcine and rat ovaries have been examined at the light and electron microscopes. Some smears of granulosa cells as well as human foetal ovaries have been also studied. These preliminary results seem to confirm that in the granulosa layer of evolutive follicles the cells may present some different morphological and histochemical features.

  17. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor arising from intra-abdominal testis in newborn: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Partalis, Nikolaos; Tzardi, Maria; Barbagadakis, Sophia; Sakellaris, George

    2012-05-01

    In the present case, the neonate presented with a left-sided abdominal mass and an empty left scrotum. Abdominal ultrasonography showed well-defined cystic formation, and laparotomy revealed a tumor arising from an intra-abdominal left testis. The carcinoembryonic antigen and neuron-specific enolase levels were within normal limits, and the serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin and α-fetoprotein levels were within age-related normal values. The findings from the immunochemistry tests confirmed the diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Paraptosis-like cell death in Wistar rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ramírez, Nayeli; Escobar, María L; Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H; Ortiz, Rosario; Echeverría, Olga M

    2016-10-01

    Follicular atresia, a common process present in all mammals, involves apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the participation of paraptosis, a type of caspase-independent cell death, during follicular atresia is unknown. This study found swollen endoplasmic reticulum in the granulosa cells of adult Wistar rats. Calnexin was used as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural and optical levels. The cells with swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum were negative to the TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 immunodetection, indicating that this swelling is not part of any apoptotic or autophagic process. Additionally, immunodetection of the CHOP protein was used as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and this confirmed the presence of the paraptosis process. These data suggest that paraptosis-like cell death is associated with the death of granulosa cells during follicular atresia in adult Wistar rats.

  19. Prohibitin( PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain (also known as the PHB domain) found in diverse species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed in a circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms complexes with the ATPases associated with proteases having diverse cellular activities. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulates transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Many functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear PHB complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood.

  20. Prohibitin (PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on the recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain [also known as the PHB domain] found in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed either in circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM), and form complexes with the ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (m-AAA) proteases. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulate transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Multiple functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear prohibitin complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintaining the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood. PMID:26496733

  1. A novel nonradioactive method for measuring aromatase activity using a human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line and an estrone ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ken; Araki, Naohiro; Yanase, Toshihiko; Nawata, Hajime; Iida, Mitsuru

    2004-12-01

    Aromatase is a key enzyme in steroidogenesis and plays an important role in sexual differentiation, fertility, and carcinogenesis. Importantly, a variety of chemicals in the environment may influence its activity and thereby disrupt endocrine function. In the current studies, we developed a novel nonradioactive method for measuring aromatase activity that uses a specific ELISA for estrone along with KGN human ovary granulosa-like carcinoma cells. This cell line has relatively high aromatase activity, and because it lacks 17alpha-hydroxylase, it secretes little or no androstenedione, 17beta-estradiol, or estrone. Therefore, aromatase activity can be assayed simply by measuring the production of estrone in the culture medium after addition of the substrate, androstenedione. Furthermore, by making a slight change in the commercial ELISA kit and optimizing the experimental conditions, we developed a sensitive aromatase assay that could measure a wide range of estrone concentrations with very low interference by androgens. We used this assay to investigate the effects of 23 chemicals that have been previously reported to affect aromatase activity in vitro. We confirmed that 17 of 23 test chemicals had inhibitory or inducible effects, although the specific effects of some were different than previously reported. In conclusion, we have developed a simple, sensitive, and nonradioactive assay that can be used for large-scale screening of compounds that can disrupt endocrine function by influencing aromatase activity.

  2. Ovarian follicle selection and granulosa cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L

    2015-04-01

    The reproductive strategy for avian species that produce a sequence (or clutch) of eggs is dependent upon the maintenance of a small cohort of viable, undifferentiated (prehierarchal) follicles. It is from this cohort that a single follicle is selected on an approximate daily basis to initiate rapid growth and final differentiation before ovulation. This review describes a working model in which follicles within this prehierarchal cohort are maintained in an undifferentiated state by inhibitory cell signaling until the time of selection. Ultimately, follicle selection represents a process in which a single undifferentiated follicle per day is predicted to escape such inhibitory mechanisms to begin rapid growth and final maturation before ovulation. Several processes initiated within the granulosa cell layer at selection are dependent upon G protein-coupled receptors signaling via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and several critical processes are described herein. Finally, reference is made to several practical outcomes that can result from understanding the process of selection, including applications within the poultry industry. Proximal factors and processes that mediate follicle selection can either extend or decrease the length of the laying sequence, and thus directly influence overall egg production. In particular, any aberration that results in the selection of more than one follicle per day will result in decreased egg production. More generally, in wild birds these processes are modified by prevailing environmental conditions and by social interactions to influence clutch size. The elucidation of cellular processes that regulate follicle selection can assist in the development of assisted reproductive technologies for application in threatened and endangered avian species. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  4. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6–8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  5. [Peripheral precocious puberty caused by a juvenile granulosa cell ovarian tumor, with iso and heterosexual manifestations in a six years old girl].

    PubMed

    Schulin-Zeuthen, Carolina; Yamamoto, Masami; Pires, Yumay; Mayerson, David; Cattani, Andreina

    2003-01-01

    A six years old girl consulted due to mammary development. On physical examination, clitoris enlargement and a tumor localized in the abdominal-pelvic region were observed. Hormonal study disclosed elevated testosterone and estradiol levels. On exploratory laparotomy, a right ovarian tumor was observed and a right salpingooophorectomy was performed. The contemporary biopsy informed a disgerminoma, leading to a surgical staging of the tumor. The definitive pathological diagnosis was a juvenile granular cell tumor, limited to the ovary. In the postoperative period, estradiol and testosterone levels returned to normal values and the pseudopuberty reverted. The patient did not receive adjuvant treatment and after three years of follow up, there is no evidence of tumor recidivism.

  6. Chicken granulosa cells show differential expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor messenger RNA and differential responsiveness to EGF and LH dependent upon location of granulosa cells to the germinal disc.

    PubMed

    Yao, H H; Bahr, J M

    2001-06-01

    Granulosa cells in the chicken follicle exhibit different phenotypes according to their location relative to the germinal disc (GD). Granulosa cells proximal to the GD (referred to as proximal granulosa cells) are more proliferative, whereas granulosa cells distal to the GD (referred to as distal granulosa cells) are more differentiated. We have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) derived from the GD stimulated proliferation of granulosa cells proximal to the GD, whereas extraovarian LH promoted differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that phenotypic differences of granulosa cells are the result of differential responsiveness of granulosa cells to EGF and LH. We found that both granulosa and theca layers of chicken preovulatory follicles expressed mRNA for EGF receptor (EGFr) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. However, only the granulosa layer showed differential expression of EGFr and LH receptor (LHr) mRNA. Competitive reverse transcription-PCR revealed that proximal granulosa cells expressed more EGFr mRNA but less LHr mRNA than distal granulosa cells. In addition, proximal granulosa cells proliferated more in response to EGF than their distal counterparts. We further demonstrated that EGF decreased LHr mRNA expression by granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas EGF and LH had no effect on EGFr mRNA expression except at one dose of LH (15 ng/ml) that stimulated EGFr mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that EGF derived from the GD influences the phenotypes of granulosa cells. Granulosa cells proximal to the GD exhibit a proliferative phenotype possibly because they are exposed to and are more responsive to GD-derived EGF. Furthermore, GD-derived EGF decreases LHr mRNA expression by proximal granulosa cells and therefore results in less differentiated granulosa cell phenotype. In contrast, granulosa cells distal to the GD are not under the influence of EGF and exhibit a more differentiated phenotype.

  7. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pöttler, Marina; Staicu, Andreas; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Weigel, Bianca; Schreiber, Eveline; Hofmann, Simone; Wiest, Irmi; Jeschke, Udo; Alexiou, Christoph; Janko, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5) were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA) only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA), or with dextran (SEONDEX). Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system. PMID:26540051

  8. Cumulus and granulosa cell markers of oocyte and embryo quality

    PubMed Central

    Uyar, Asli; Torrealday, Saioa; Seli, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Lack of an objective, accurate, and noninvasive embryo assessment strategy remains one of the major challenges encountered in in vitro fertilization. Cumulus and mural granulosa cells reflect the characteristics of the oocyte, providing a noninvasive means to assess oocyte quality. Specifically, transcriptomic profiling of follicular cells may help identify biomarkers of oocyte and embryo competence. Current transcriptomics technologies include quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for analysis of individual genes and microarrays and high-throughput deep sequencing for whole genome expression profiling. Recently, using qRT-PCR and microarray technologies, a multitude of studies correlated changes in cumulus or granulosa cell gene expression with clinically relevant outcome parameters, including in vitro embryo development and pregnancy. While the initial findings are promising, a clinical benefit from the use of identified biomarker genes remains to be demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:23498999

  9. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant.

  10. Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of sheep granulosa cells under thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; He, Chang-Jiu; Ji, Peng-Yun; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Wang, Feng; Tan, Dun-Xian; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-11-14

    The cross-talk between oocyte and somatic cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. As a result, granulosa cell apoptosis causes follicular atresia. In this study, sheep granulosa cells were cultured under thermal stress to induce apoptosis, and melatonin (MT) was examined to evaluate its potential effects on heat-induced granulosa cell injury. The results demonstrated that the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) of granulosa cells was significantly decreased (heat 19.70% ± 1.29% vs. control 26.96% ± 1.81%, p < 0.05) and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased (heat 56.16% ± 13.95% vs. control 22.80% ± 12.16%, p < 0.05) in granulosa cells with thermal stress compared with the control group. Melatonin (10⁻⁷ M) remarkably reduced the negative effects caused by thermal stress in the granulosa cells. This reduction was indicated by the improved CFE and decreased apoptotic rate of these cells. The beneficial effects of melatonin on thermal stressed granulosa cells were not inhibited by its membrane receptor antagonist luzindole. A mechanistic exploration indicated that melatonin (10⁻⁷ M) down-regulated p53 and up-regulated Bcl-2 and LHR gene expression of granulosa cells under thermal stress. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of melatonin on granulosa cells during thermal stress.

  11. Apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells: Intracellular pathways and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Carou, M C; Cruzans, P R; Maruri, A; Farina, M G; Fiorito, C D; Olea, G; Lombardo, D M

    2017-06-01

    Follicular atresia in granulosa and theca cells occurs by apoptosis through weak hormonal stimulation. We have previously proposed an in vitro model to study this process by inducing apoptosis in BGC-1, a bovine granulosa cell line, and in primary cultures from ovaries with or without corpus luteum (CPGB+ and CPGB-, respectively), with different doses of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs (leuprolide acetate (LA) as agonist and antide as antagonist). BGC-1 represent immature granulosa cells, whereas CPGB represent different degrees of luteinization. Our aim was to evaluate the intracellular pathways involved in the GnRH regulation of apoptosis in BGC-1. Treatment with LA 100nM but not with antide led to an increase in BAX over BCL-2 expression, showing antagonism of antide. All treatments inhibited phospholipase-D (PLD) activity compared to control, implying agonist behavior of antide. Progesterone in vitro production and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) expression revealed different degrees of luteinization: BGC-1 were immature, whereas CPGB+ were less differentiated than CPGB-. We concluded that LA-induced apoptosis in BGC-1 occurs by activation of the mitochondrial pathway and by inhibition of PLD activity and that antide might work both as an antagonist of the intrinsic pathway and as an agonist of the extrinsic protection pathway by inhibiting PLD activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptome profile of one-month-old lambs’ granulosa cells after superstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yangsheng; Lin, Jiapeng; Li, Xiaolin; Han, Bing; Wang, Liqin; Liu, Mingjun; Huang, Juncheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective Superstimulatory treatment of one-month-old lambs can achieve synchronous development of numerous growing follicles. However, these growing follicles cannot complete maturation and ovulation. Oocyte maturation and competence are acquired during follicular development, in which granulosa cells play an essential role. Methods In this study, we applied RNA sequencing to analyze and compare gene expression between prepubertal and adult superstimulated follicle granulosa cells in sheep. Results There were more than 300 genes that significantly differed in expression. Among these differently expressed genes, many extracellular matrix genes (EGF containing Fibulin Like Extracellular Matrix Protein 1, pentraxin 3, adrenomedullin, and osteopontin) were significantly down-regulated in the superstimulated follicles. Ingenuity pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that processes of axonal guidance, cell proliferation and DNA replication were expressed at higher levels in the prepubertal follicles. Epidermal growth factor, T-Box protein 2 and beta-estradiol upstream regulator were predicted to be active in prepubertal follicles. By comparison, tumor protein P53 and let-7 were most active in adult follicles. Conclusion These results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the development of granulosa cells in the growing follicle in prepubertal sheep. PMID:27189640

  13. Role of ovarian theca and granulosa cell interaction in hormone productionand cell growth during the bovine follicular maturation process.

    PubMed

    Yada, H; Hosokawa, K; Tajima, K; Hasegawa, Y; Kotsuji, F

    1999-12-01

    We have investigated the possible role of theca and granulosa cell interaction in the control of the hormone-producing activity and growth of granulosa and theca cells during bovine ovarian follicular development, using a coculture system in which granulosa and theca cells were grown on opposite sides of a collagen membrane. When follicular cells were isolated from small follicles (3-5 mm), theca cells reduced estradiol, progesterone, and inhibin production by granulosa cells to 14 +/- 5%, 64 +/- 6%, and 27 +/- 4%, respectively, of the production by granulosa cells cultured alone. On the other hand, when the cells were isolated from large follicles (15-18 mm), theca cells increased these levels to 253 +/- 34%, 156 +/- 24%, and 287 +/- 45%, respectively. Theca cells did not affect the growth of granulosa cells. Androstenedione production by theca cells was augmented by granulosa cells to 861 +/- 190% (in small follicles) and 1298 +/- 414% (in large follicles), respectively. The growth of theca cells was also augmented by granulosa cells (small follicle, 210 +/- 43%, and large follicle, 194 +/- 24%, respectively). These results indicate that theca cells secrete factor(s) inhibiting the differentiation of immature while promoting that of matured granulosa cells; they also suggest that granulosa cells secrete factor(s) promoting both the differentiation and growth of theca cells throughout the follicular maturation process.

  14. Regulation of granulosa cell cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) binding and effect of CART signaling inhibitor on granulosa cell estradiol production during dominant follicle selection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Folger, Joseph K; Jimenez-Krassel, Fermin; Ireland, James J; Lv, Lihua; Smith, George W

    2013-12-01

    We previously established a potential role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CARTPT) in dominant follicle selection in cattle. CARTPT expression is elevated in subordinate versus dominant follicles, and treatment with the mature form of the CARTPT peptide (CART) decreases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated granulosa cell estradiol production in vitro and follicular fluid estradiol and granulosa cell CYP19A1 mRNA in vivo. However, mechanisms that regulate granulosa cell CART responsiveness are not understood. In this study, we investigated hormonal regulation of granulosa cell CART-binding sites in vitro and temporal regulation of granulosa cell CART-binding sites in bovine follicles collected at specific stages of a follicular wave. We also determined the effect of inhibition of CART receptor signaling in vivo on estradiol production in future subordinate follicles. Granulosa cell CART binding in vitro was increased by FSH, and this induction was blocked by estrogen receptor antagonist treatment. In follicles collected in vivo at specific stages of a follicular wave, granulosa cell CART binding in the F2 (second largest), future subordinate follicle increased during dominant follicle selection. Injection into the F2 follicle (at onset of diameter deviation) of an inhibitor of the o/i subclass of G proteins (previously shown to block CART actions in vitro) resulted in increased follicular fluid estradiol concentrations in vivo. Collectively, results demonstrate hormonal regulation of granulosa cell CART binding in vitro and temporal regulation of CART binding in subordinate follicles during dominant follicle selection. Results also suggest that CART signaling may help suppress estradiol-producing capacity of the F2 (subordinate) follicle during this time period.

  15. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Soo Bong; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Woo; Do, Yoon Jun; Park, Jae-Hong; Yang, Boh-Suk

    2012-05-01

    Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski) was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  16. In vitro attachment and invasion of chicken ovarian granulosa cells by Salmonella enteritidis phage type 8.

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajan, D; Saeed, M; Turek, J; Asem, E

    1996-01-01

    The attachment and invasion of chicken ovarian granulosa cells by Salmonella enteritidis was examined in vitro. The attachment was inhibited by preincubation of granulosa cells with anti-chicken fibronectin antibody (approximately 70% reduction in attachment) or preincubation with a 14-kDa fimbrial protein isolated from S. enteritidis (68% reduction in attachment). Treatment of bacterial cells with the tetrapeptide RGDS before addition to granulosa cells resulted in inhibition of attachment (60% inhibition when 2 x 10(7) CFU of bacteria was treated with 500 microg of peptide). Treatment with the peptide GRGD resulted in similar magnitude of inhibition, indicating that extracellular matrix proteins play significant roles in the interaction of S. enteritidis with granulosa cells. In contrast, treatment of the bacterial cells with the peptide GRAD did not result in significant inhibition of attachment to the granulosa cells. S. enteritidis was found to attach specifically to fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin-coated microtiter plate wells, with the rank order of attachment as follows: fibronectin > laminin > collagen IV. Light and transmission electron micrographs of S. enteritidis invasion of granulosa cells showed organisms with or without a surrounding membrane in the cytoplasm of granulosa cells. In some instances, dividing bacterial cells were observed in the cytoplasm. Results of this study demonstrated that S. enteritidis interacts with granulosa cells in a specific manner and can invade and multiply in these cells. The granulosa cell layer of the preovulatory follicles may be a preferred site for the colonization of the chicken ovaries by invasive strains of S. enteritidis. PMID:8945540

  17. Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying the Expression of Prolactin Receptor in Chicken Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shenqiang; Duggavathi, Raj; Zadworny, David

    2017-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) has both pro- and anti-gonadal roles in the regulation of avian ovarian functions through its interaction with the receptor (PRLR). However, neither the pattern of expression of PRLR nor its regulatory mechanisms during follicle development have been clearly defined. The objective of the present study was to investigate mechanisms of PRLR expression in chicken granulosa cells. Levels of PRLR transcript were highest in the stroma and walls of follicles < 2 mm in diameter and progressively declined with the maturation of follicles. In preovulatory follicles, PRLR was expressed at higher levels in granulosa than theca layers. FSH exerted the greatest stimulatory effect on PRLR and StAR expression in cultured granulosa cells of the 6–8 mm follicles but this effect declined as follicles matured to F1. In contrast, LH did not alter the expression of PRLR in granulosa cells of all follicular classes but increased levels of StAR in F2 and F1 granulosa cells. Both non-glycosylated- (NG-) and glycosylated- (G-) PRL upregulated basal PRLR expression in granulosa cells of the 6–8 mm, F3 or F1 follicles but had little effect in F2 follicles. Furthermore, FSH-stimulated PRLR expression was reduced by the addition of either isoform of PRL especially in F2 granulosa cells. These results indicate that PRLR is differentially distributed and regulated by FSH or PRL variants independently or in combination in the follicular hierarchy. By using activators and inhibitors, we further demonstrated that multiple signaling pathways, including PKA, PKC, PI3K, mTOR and AMPK, are not only directly involved in, but they can also converge to modulate ERK2 activity to regulate FSH-mediated PRLR and StAR expression in undifferentiated granulosa cells. These data provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression of PRLR in granulosa cells. PMID:28107515

  18. The magnitude of gonadotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs on ovarian follicles and granulosa cells varies depending upon the category of the drugs and the type of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Aytac; Bildik, Gamze; Senbabaoglu, Filiz; Akin, Nazli; Arvas, Macit; Unal, Fehmi; Kilic, Yagmur; Karanfil, Isil; Eryılmaz, Baldan; Yilmaz, Pelin; Ozkanbaş, Can; Taskiran, Cagatay; Aksoy, Senai; Guzel, Yılmaz; Balaban, Basak; Ince, Umit; Iwase, Akira; Urman, Bulent; Oktem, Ozgur

    2015-12-01

    Do different chemotherapy drugs exert the same magnitude of cytotoxicity on dormant primordial follicles and the growing follicle fraction in the ovary in vivo and on mitotic non-luteinized and non-mitotic luteinized granulosa cells in vitro? Cyclophosphamide (alkylating agent) and cisplatin (alkylating like) impacted both primordial and pre-antral/antral follicles and both mitotic and non-mitotic granulosa cells, whereas the anti-metabolite cancer drug gemcitabine was detrimental only to pre-antral/antral follicles and mitotic non-luteinized granulosa cells. It is already known that anti-metabolite cancer drugs are less detrimental to the ovary than alkylating and alkylating like agents, such as cyclophosphamide and cisplatin. This assumption is largely based on the results of clinical reports showing lower rates of amenorrhea in women receiving anti-metabolite agent-based regimens compared with those treated with the protocols containing an alkylating drug or a platinum compound. But a quantitative comparison of gonadotoxicity with a histomorphometric proof of evidence has not been available for many chemotherapy drugs. Therefore, we combined in this study in vivo and in vitro models of human and rat origin that allows a comparative analysis of the impact of different chemotherapy agents on the ovary and granulosa cells using real-time quantitative cell indices, histomorphometry, steroidogenesis assays, and DNA damage and cell death/viability markers. We also aimed to investigate if there is a difference between mitotic and non-mitotic granulosa cells in terms of their sensitivity to the cytotoxic actions of chemotherapy drugs with different mechanisms of action. This issue has not been addressed previously. This translational research study involved in vivo analyses of ovaries in rats and in vitro analyses of granulosa cells of human and rat origin. For the in vivo assays, 54 4- to 6-week old Sprague-Dawley young female rats were randomly allocated into four

  19. Potassium channel antagonists influence porcine granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Li, Yan; Mitchell, Brianna M; Mason, Diane E; Freeman, Lisa C

    2002-07-01

    This investigation determined the effects of K(+) channel antagonists on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells. The drugs screened for functional effects included the class III antiarrhythmic agents MK-499 and clofilium, the chromanol I(Ks) antagonist 293B, the benzodiazepine I(Ks) antagonists L-735,821 and L-768,673, and the peptidyl toxins charybdotoxin (CTX) and margatoxin (MTX). Granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation were assessed by serial measurements of cell number and progesterone accumulation in the culture media, respectively. Granulosa cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry. Additional information about drug effects was obtained by immunoblotting to detect expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p27(kip1) and the caspase-3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The ERG channel antagonist MK-499 had no functional effects on cultured granulosa cells. However, the broad spectrum K(+) channel antagonist clofilium decreased, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the number of viable granulosa cells cultured, and these effects were associated with induction of apoptosis. All three I(Ks) antagonists (293B, L-735,821, and L-768,673) increased basal, but not FSH-enhanced progesterone accumulation on Day 1 after treatment without affecting the number of viable cells in culture, an effect that was blocked by pimozide. In contrast, CTX and MTX increased the number of viable cells in FSH-stimulated cultures on Day 3 after treatment without affecting progesterone output per cell. These data demonstrate that selective antagonism of granulosa cell K(+) channels with distinct molecular correlates, electrophysiological properties, and expression patterns can influence differential granulosa cell proliferation, steroidogenic capability, and apoptosis. Thus, K(+) channels may represent pharmacological targets for affecting Granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation, in vivo or in vitro.

  20. Gene expression patterns in granulosa cells and oocytes at various stages of follicle development as well as in in vitro grown oocyte-and-granulosa cell complexes.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Yasuhisa; Kawahara-Miki, Ryoka; Shiratsuki, Shogo; Tasaki, Hidetaka; Itami, Nobuhiko; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-08-25

    Follicle development is accompanied by proliferation of granulosa cells and increasing oocyte size. To obtain high-quality oocytes in vitro, it is important to understand the processes that occur in oocytes and granulosa cells during follicle development and the differences between in vivo and in vitro follicle development. In the present study, oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from early antral follicles (EAFs, 0.5-0.7 mm in diameter), small antral follicles (SAFs, 1-3 mm in diameter), large antral follicles (LAFs, 3-7 mm in diameter), and in vitro grown oocyte-and-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs), which were cultured for 14 days after collection from EAFs. Gene expression was analyzed comprehensively using the next-generation sequencing technology. We found top upstream regulators during the in vivo follicle development and compared them with those in in vitro developed OGCs. The comparison revealed that HIF1 is among the top regulators during both in vivo and in vitro development of OGCs. In addition, we found that HIF1-mediated upregulation of glycolysis in granulosa cells is important for the growth of OGCs, but the cellular metabolism differs between in vitro and in vivo grown OGCs. Furthermore, on the basis of comparison of upstream regulators between in vivo and in vitro development of OGCs, we believe that low expression levels of FLT1 (VEGFA receptor), SPP1, and PCSK6 can be considered causal factors of the suboptimal development under in vitro culture conditions.

  1. Gene expression patterns in granulosa cells and oocytes at various stages of follicle development as well as in in vitro grown oocyte-and-granulosa cell complexes

    PubMed Central

    MUNAKATA, Yasuhisa; KAWAHARA-MIKI, Ryoka; SHIRATSUKI, Shogo; TASAKI, Hidetaka; ITAMI, Nobuhiko; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Follicle development is accompanied by proliferation of granulosa cells and increasing oocyte size. To obtain high-quality oocytes in vitro, it is important to understand the processes that occur in oocytes and granulosa cells during follicle development and the differences between in vivo and in vitro follicle development. In the present study, oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from early antral follicles (EAFs, 0.5–0.7 mm in diameter), small antral follicles (SAFs, 1–3 mm in diameter), large antral follicles (LAFs, 3–7 mm in diameter), and in vitro grown oocyte-and-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs), which were cultured for 14 days after collection from EAFs. Gene expression was analyzed comprehensively using the next-generation sequencing technology. We found top upstream regulators during the in vivo follicle development and compared them with those in in vitro developed OGCs. The comparison revealed that HIF1 is among the top regulators during both in vivo and in vitro development of OGCs. In addition, we found that HIF1-mediated upregulation of glycolysis in granulosa cells is important for the growth of OGCs, but the cellular metabolism differs between in vitro and in vivo grown OGCs. Furthermore, on the basis of comparison of upstream regulators between in vivo and in vitro development of OGCs, we believe that low expression levels of FLT1 (VEGFA receptor), SPP1, and PCSK6 can be considered causal factors of the suboptimal development under in vitro culture conditions. PMID:27108636

  2. Expression and effect of NAMPT (visfatin) on progesterone secretion in hen granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Diot, Mélodie; Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Baumard, Yannick; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an adipokine produced by adipose tissue that is found in intracellular and extracellular compartments. The intracellular form of NAMPT is a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, whereas the extracellular form is considered an adipokine. In humans, NAMPT regulates energy metabolism and reproductive functions, such as ovarian steroidogenesis. To date, no study has investigated the role of NAMPT in hen ovaries. We investigated whether NAMPT is present in hen ovarian follicles and its role in granulosa cells. Using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry, we detected mRNA transcripts and proteins related to NAMPT in theca and granulosa cells from pre-ovulatory follicles. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that mRNA NAMPT levels were higher in granulosa cells than they were in theca cells and that during follicle development, theca cell levels decreased, whereas levels remained unchanged in granulosa cells. NAMPT protein quantities were significantly higher in theca cells than they were in granulosa cells, but they were unchanged during follicular development. Plasma NAMPT levels, as determined by ELISA and immunoblotting, were significantly lower in adult hens than they were in juveniles. In vitro, treatment with human recombinant NAMPT (100 ng/ml, 48 h) halved basal and IGF1-induced progesterone secretion, and this was associated with a reduction in STAR and HSD3B protein levels and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation levels in granulosa cells. These effects were abolished by the addition of FK866, a specific inhibitor of NAMPT enzymatic activity. Moreover, NAMPT had no effect on granulosa cell proliferation. In conclusion, NAMPT is present in hen ovarian cells and inhibits progesterone production in granulosa cells. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. MicroRNA 21 Blocks Apoptosis in Mouse Periovulatory Granulosa Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Carletti, Martha Z.; Fiedler, Stephanie D.; Christenson, Lane K.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in many developmental processes, including cell differentiation and apoptosis. Transition of proliferative ovarian granulosa cells to terminally differentiated luteal cells in response to the ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) involves rapid and pronounced changes in cellular morphology and function. MicroRNA 21 (miR-21, official symbol Mir21) is one of three highly LH-induced miRNAs in murine granulosa cells, and here we examine the function and temporal expression of Mir21 within granulosa cells as they transition to luteal cells. Granulosa cells were transfected with blocking (2′-O-methyl) and locked nucleic acid (LNA-21) oligonucleotides, and mature Mir21 expression decreased to one ninth and one twenty-seventh of its basal expression, respectively. LNA-21 depletion of Mir21 activity in cultured granulosa cells induced apoptosis. In vivo, follicular granulosa cells exhibit a decrease in cleaved caspase 3, a hallmark of apoptosis, 6 h after the LH/human chorionic gonadotropin surge, coincident with the highest expression of mature Mir21. To examine whether Mir21 is involved in regulation of apoptosis in vivo, mice were treated with a phospho thioate-modified LNA-21 oligonucleotide, and granulosa cell apoptosis was examined. Apoptosis increased in LNA-21-treated ovaries, and ovulation rate decreased in LNA-21-treated ovaries, compared with their contralateral controls. We have examined a number of Mir21 apoptotic target transcripts identified in other systems; currently, none of these appear to play a role in the induction of ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. This study is the first to implicate the antiapoptotic Mir21 (an oncogenic miRNA) as playing a clear physiologic role in normal tissue function. PMID:20357270

  4. A spatial model showing differences between juxtacrine and paracrine mutual oocyte-granulosa cells interactions.

    PubMed

    Saadeldin, Islam M; Elsayed, Asmaa; Kim, Su Jin; Moon, Joon Hu; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-02-01

    The bidirectional communication between oocytes and granulosa cells are mediated by several factors via a local feedback loop(s). The current model was carried out to study the spatial mutual interaction of porcine denuded oocytes and granulosa cells either in direct contact (juxtacrine) or paracrine co-culture using transwell system. Transwell 0.4 μm polyester membrane inserts were used to permit oocytes-granulosa cells paracrine communication with a distance of 2 mm between them in co-culture. Oocytes were cultured with granulosa cells in a defined basic maturation medium for 44 h. In results, oocyte secreted factors (OSFs; GDF9 and BMP15) temporal expression showed progressive decrement by the end of culture in case of direct contact with granulosa cells while it was increased progressively in the paracrine co-culture groups. However, oocytes that were cultured in direct contact showed a significant increase in blastocyst development after parthenogenetic activation than the paracrine co-cultured ones (20% vs. 11.5%, respectively). By the end of culture, granulosa cell count in direct contact showed a significant decrease than the indirect co-culture group (1.2 x 105 cell/mL vs. 2.1 x 10(5) cell/mL, respectively). Steroids (P4 and E2) and steriodogenesis enzymes mRNA levels showed significant temporal alterations either after 22 h and 44 h of IVM in both juxtacrine and paracrine co-culture systems (P ≤ 0.05). CX43 was much more highly expressed in the granulosa of the direct contact group than the indirect co-culture group. These results indicate the difference in mutual communication between oocytes and granulosa cells that were cocultured either in direct contact (juxtacrine) or with a short distance (paracrine) and propose a new paradigm to study different ovarian follicular cells interaction.

  5. Influence of nicotine on progesterone and estradiol production of cultured human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Bódis, J; Hanf, V; Török, A; Tinneberg, H R; Borsay, P; Szabó, I

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct action of one of the main constituents of cigarette smoke on corpus luteum function. Progesterone and estradiol production were measured in the presence and absence of nicotine as free base or bitartrate salt with or without luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation using radioimmunoassay in an in vitro granulosa cell culture system. Human granulosa cells were obtained from 19 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization embryo transfer treatment for infertility at the University Women's Hospital, Tübinge, Germany. Nicotine free base augmented estradiol secretion and inhibited progesterone secretion by human granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Nicotine bitartrate had little effect on steroid secretion. If granulosa cells were stimulated with LH, both nicotine preparations suppressed estradiol secretion, however, only nicotine bitartrate additionally inhibited progesterone secretion. The results suggest that cigarette smoking specifically affects the control mechanisms of intraovarian processes which are responsible for normal luteal function.

  6. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  7. Hormonal regulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chuderland, Dana; Ben-Ami, Ido; Kaplan-Kraicer, Ruth; Grossman, Hadas; Komsky, Alisa; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Eldar-Boock, Anat; Ron-El, Raphael; Shalgi, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for the development of ovarian follicles. Blood vessels are abrogated from the follicle until ovulation, when they invade it to support the developing corpus luteum. Granulosa cells are known to secrete anti-angiogenic factors that shield against premature vascularization; however, their molecular identity is yet to be defined. In this study we address the physiological role of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a well-known angiogenic inhibitor, in granulosa cells. We have shown that human and mouse primary granulosa cells express and secrete PEDF, and characterized its hormonal regulation. Stimulation of granulosa cells with increasing doses of estrogen caused a gradual decrease in the PEDF secretion, while stimulation with progesterone caused an abrupt decrease in its secretion. Moreover, We have shown, by time- and dose-response experiments, that the secreted PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were inversely regulated by hCG; namely, PEDF level was nearly undetectable under high doses of hCG, while VEGF level was significantly elevated. The anti-angiogenic nature of the PEDF secreted from granulosa cells was examined by migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Depleting PEDF from primary granulosa cells conditioned media accelerated endothelial cells proliferation, migration and tube formation. Collectively, the dynamic expression of PEDF that inversely portrays VEGF expression may imply its putative role as a physiological negative regulator of follicular angiogenesis.

  8. Influence of luteinizing hormone support on granulosa cells transcriptome in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nivet, Anne-Laure; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-Andre

    2017-08-25

    In cows, the use of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to stimulate follicular growth followed by a short period of FSH withdrawal has been shown to be beneficial for oocyte developmental competence. Although this treatment represents a useful optimization to generate highly competent oocytes, the underlying physiological process is not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of luteinizing hormone (LH) action during FSH withdrawal before ovulation. To accomplish this, LH release was pharmacologically inhibited during the coasting period with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Granulosa cells samples were obtained from cows stimulated with FSH during 3 days followed by a coasting period of 68 h and treated with a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix group) or not (control). A significant reduction in the number of follicles at >10 mm diameter was observed with the cetrorelix group and gene expression of granulosa cells reveals that 747 transcripts are potentially regulated by LH. Further analysis indicates how the absence of LH may trigger early atresia, the upregulation of atretic agent as tumor protein P53 and transforming growth factor β1 and the inhibition of growth support. This work allows identification of genes that are associated with maintained follicular growth and conversely the ones leading to atresia in dominant pre-ovulatory follicles. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Opposing actions of TGF{beta} and MAP kinase signaling in undifferentiated hen granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Haugen, Morgan J.; Johnson, A.L. . E-mail: johnson.128@nd.edu

    2005-10-21

    The present studies were conducted to establish interactions between transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, TGF{alpha} and betacellulin (BTC), relative to proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells in hen ovarian follicles. Results presented demonstrate expression of TGF{beta} isoforms, plus TGF{alpha}, BTC, and ErbB receptors in prehierarchal follicles, thus establishing the potential for autocrine/paracrine signaling and cross-talk within granulosa cells at the onset of differentiation. Treatment with TGF{alpha} or BTC increases levels of TGF{beta}1 mRNA in undifferentiated granulosa cells, while the selective inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, U0126, reverses these effects. Moreover, TGF{beta}1 attenuates c-myc mRNA expression and granulosa cell proliferation, while TGF{alpha} blocks both these inhibitory effects. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EGF family ligands regulate both the expression and biological actions of TGF{beta}1 in hen granulosa cells, and indicate that the timely interaction of these opposing factors is an important modulator of both granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation.

  10. Fractalkine restores the decreased expression of StAR and progesterone in granulosa cells from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuo; Pang, Yanli; Yan, Jie; Lin, Shengli; Zhao, Yue; Lei, Li; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Ma, Caihong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low progesterone levels are associated with luteal phase deficiency in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The mechanisms regulating progesterone biosynthesis in the granulosa cells from women with PCOS is largely unknown. Fractalkine is expressed in human ovaries, and is reported to regulate progesterone production in granulosa cells of healthy women. In the current study, we aimed to examine the role of fractalkine in women with PCOS. Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with PCOS. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression. The mechanism mediating these effects may be associated with the inhibition of ERK activity in the granulosa cells from women with PCOS. Our findings revealed that fractalkine regulated steroidogenesis in follicular granulosa cells of women with PCOS. PMID:27386819

  11. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) receptor type II expression and AMH activity in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel H; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Johnson, Alan L

    2016-09-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by granulosa cells has previously been proposed to play a role in regulating granulosa cell differentiation and follicle selection. Although AMH receptor type II (AMHR2) dimerizes with a type I receptor to initiate AMH signaling, little is known about the regulation of AMHR2 expression in bovine granulosa cells and the role of AMH in follicle development. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize AMHR2 expression in granulosa cells during follicle development; (2) identify factors that regulate AMHR2 mRNA expression in granulosa cells; and (3) examine the role of AMH signaling in granulosa cell differentiation and proliferation. Bovine granulosa cells were isolated from 5- to 8-mm follicles before selection and deviation, as well as from 9- to 12-mm and 13- to 24-mm follicles after selection. Analyses revealed that expression of AMHR2 was greater in 5- to 8-mm follicles compared with 13- to 24-mm follicles (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells treated with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) or BMP15, but not BMP2, significantly increased AMHR2 expression when compared with control cultured cells (P < 0.05). In addition, expression of AMH was greater in granulosa cells cultured with BMP2, BMP6, or BMP15 when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Finally, treatment with recombinant human AMH, in vitro, inhibited CYP19A1 expression in a dose-related (10-100 ng/mL) fashion, and reduced granulosa cell proliferation at 48 and 72 hours (P < 0.05). Results from these studies indicate that AMH signaling plays a role in both regulating granulosa cell proliferation and preventing granulosa cells from 5- to 8-mm follicles from undergoing premature differentiation before follicle selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sphingosine-1-phosphate, regulated by FSH and VEGF, stimulates granulosa cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Coronado, C G; Guzmán, A; Rodríguez, A; Mondragón, J A; Romano, M C; Gutiérrez, C G; Rosales-Torres, A M

    2016-09-15

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive polar sphingolipid which stimulates proliferation, growth and survival in various cell types. In the ovary S1P has been shown protect the granulosa cells and oocytes from insults such as oxidative stress and radiotherapy, and S1P concentrations are greater in healthy than atretic large follicles. Hence, we postulate that S1P is fundamental in follicle development and that it is activated in ovarian granulosa cells in response to FSH and VEGF. To test this hypothesis we set out: i) to evaluate the effect of FSH and VEGF on S1P synthesis in cultured bovine granulosa cells and ii) to analyse the effect of S1P on proliferation and survival of bovine granulosa cells in vitro. Seventy five thousand bovine granulosa cells from healthy medium-sized (4-7mm) follicles were cultured in 96-well plates in McCoy's 5a medium containing 10ng/mL of insulin and 1ng/mL of LR-IGF-I at 37°C in a 5% CO2/air atmosphere at 37°C. Granulosa cell production of S1P was tested in response to treatment with FSH (0, 0.1, 1 and 10ng/mL) and VEGF (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100ng/mL) and measured by HPLC. Granulosa cells produced S1P at 48 and 96h, with the maximum production observed with 1ng/mL of FSH. Likewise, 0.01ng/mL of VEGF stimulated S1P production at 48, but not 96h of culture. Further, the granulosa cell expression of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1), responsible for S1P synthesis, was demonstrated by Western blot after 48h of culture. FSH increased the expression of phosphorylated SK1 (P<0.05) and the addition of a SK1 inhibitor reduced the constitutive and FSH-stimulated S1P synthesis (P<0.05). Sphingosine-1-phosphate had a biphasic effect on granulosa cell number after culture. At low concentration S1P (0.1μM) increased granulosa cell number after 48h of culture (P<0.05) and the proportion of cells in the G2 and M phase of the cell cycle (P<0.05), whereas higher concentrations decreased cell number (10μM; P<0.05) by an increase (P<0.05) in the

  13. Markers of stem cells in human ovarian granulosa cells: is there a clinical significance in ART?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of gene expression of Oct-4 and DAZL, which are typical markers for stem cells, in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in women with normal FSH levels undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any clinical significance of such expression in ART. Methods Twenty one women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded separately and granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis for Oct-4 and DAZL gene expression with G6PD gene as internal standard. Results G6PD and Oct-4 mRNA was detected in the granulosa cells in 47.6% (10/21). The median of Oct-4 mRNA/G6PD mRNA was 1.75 with intra-quarteral range from 0.10 to 98.21. The OCT-4 mRNA expression was statistically significantly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved; when the Oct-4 mRNA expression was higher, then more than six oocytes were retrieved (p=0.037, Wilcoxon rank-sum). No detection of DAZL mRNA was found in granulosa cells. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between the levels of Oct-4 expression and FSH basal levels or estradiol peak levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction. No association was found between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells and ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation. Also, no influence on pregnancy was observed between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells or to its expression levels accordingly. Conclusions Expression of OCT-4 mRNA, which is a typical stem cell marker and absence of expression of DAZL mRNA, which is a typical germ cell marker, suggest that a subpopulation of luteinized granulosa cells in healthy ovarian follicles (47.6%) consists of stem cells

  14. Effects of ovarian theca cells on granulosa cell differentiation during gonadotropin-independent follicular growth in cattle.

    PubMed

    Orisaka, Makoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Tajima, Kimihisa; Orisaka, Sanae; Shukunami, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Kotsuji, Fumikazu

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the effects of theca cells or FSH on granulosa cell differentiation and steroid production during bovine early follicular growth, using a co-culture system in which granulosa and theca cells were cultured on opposite sides of a collagen membrane. Follicular cells were isolated from early antral follicles (2-4 mm) that were assumed to be in gonadotropin-independent phase and just before recruitment into a follicular wave. Granulosa cells were cultured under serum-free conditions with and without theca cells or recombinant human FSH to test their effects on granulosa cell differentiation. Messenger RNA levels for P450 aromatase (aromatase), P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), LH receptor (LHr), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in granulosa cells were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. FSH enhanced aromatase mRNA expression in granulosa cells, but did not alter estradiol production. FSH also enhanced mRNA expression for P450scc, LHr, and StAR in granulosa cells, resulting in an increase in progesterone production. In contrast, theca cells enhanced aromatase mRNA expression in granulosa cells resulting in an increase in estradiol production. Theca cells did not alter progesterone production and mRNA expression in granulosa cells for P450scc, 3beta-HSD, LHr, and StAR. The results of the present study indicate that theca cells are involved in both rate-limiting steps in estrogen production, i.e., androgen substrate production and aromatase regulation, and that theca cell-derived factors regulate estradiol and progesterone production in a way that reflects steroidogenesis during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Ovarian Granulosa Cell Survival and Proliferation Requires the Gonad-Selective TFIID Subunit TAF4b

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Lovasco, Lindsay A.; Gyuris, Aron; Baumgartner, Robert A.; Parlow, Albert F.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    Oocyte development in the mammalian ovary requires productive interactions with somatic granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Proliferating granulosa cells support the progression of follicular growth and maturation, multiplying dramatically as it unfolds. The cell cycle recruitment of granulosa cells is regulated at least in part by hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen. Follicles recruited into the growth phase following formation of multiple layers of granulosa cells have two major fates: either to continue proliferation followed by differentiation, or to die by programmed cell death, or atresia. While many of the signaling pathways orchestrating ovarian follicle development are known, the downstream transcriptional regulators that integrate such signals in the mammalian ovary remain to be defined. Recent experiments in diverse organisms have revealed multiple instances of gonad-selective components of the basal transcriptional machinery. One such protein, TAF4b, is a gonadal-enriched coactivator subunit of the TFIID complex required for normal female fertility in the mouse. To determine the etiology of female infertility of the TAF4b-deficient mice, we have determined multiple functions of TAF4b during postnatal ovarian follicle development. Here we demonstrate that the TAF4b protein is expressed in the granulosa cell compartment of the mammalian ovarian follicle. Furthermore, TAF4b-deficient mouse ovaries contain reduced numbers of primordial as well as growing follicles and a concomitant increased proportion of apoptotic follicles in comparison to wild type counterparts. Importantly, TAF4b-null follicles are largely resistant to induction of proliferation in response to multiple hormonal stimuli including estrogen and FSH and demonstrate compromised granulosa cell survival. Together, these data suggest that TAF4b integrates a program of granulosa cell gene expression required for normal ovarian follicle survival and proliferation

  16. Pro-nerve growth factor in the ovary and human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Sabine; Blohberger, Jan; Berg, Dieter; Berg, Ulrike; Dissen, Gregory A.; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background Pro-nerve growth factor must be cleaved to generate mature NGF, which was suggested to be a factor involved in ovarian physiology and pathology. Extracellular proNGF can induce cell death in many tissues. Whether extracellular proNGF exists in the ovary and may play a role in the death of follicular cells or atresia was unknown. Material and Methods Immunohistochemistry of human and Rhesus monkey ovarian sections was performed. IVF-derived follicular fluid and human granulosa cells were studied by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blotting, ATP- and caspase-assays. Results and Conclusions Immunohistochemistry of ovarian sections identified proNGF in granulosa cells and Western blotting of human isolated granulosa cells confirmed the presence of proNGF. Ovarian granulosa cells thus produce proNGF. Recombinant human proNGF even at high concentrations did not affect the levels of ATP or the activity of caspase 3/7, indicating that in granulosa cells proNGF does not induce death. In contrast, mature NGF, which was detected previously in follicular fluid, may be a trophic molecule for granulosa cells with unexpected functions. We found that in contrast to proNGF, NGF increased the levels of the transcription factor early growth response 1 and of the enzyme choline acetyl-transferase. A mechanism for the generation of mature NGF from proNGF in the follicular fluid may be extracellular enzymatic cleavage. The enzyme MMP7 is known to cleave proNGF and was identified in follicular fluid and as a product of granulosa cells. Thus the generation of NGF in the ovarian follicle may depend on MMP7. PMID:26457789

  17. Increasing cell plating density mimics an early post-LH stage in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Baufeld, Anja; Vanselow, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Cultured ovarian granulosa cells are essential models to study molecular mechanisms of gene regulation during folliculogenesis. Here, we characterize primary tissue culture models for bovine granulosa cells by morphological and physiological parameters and by novel molecular luteinization markers, as transcript abundance and DNA methylation levels. The data show that: (1) collagen substrate increased the number of attached, viable cells; (2) the expression of the key transcripts of estrogen synthesis, CYP19A1, could be induced and maintained in granulosa cells from small to medium but not from large follicles, whereas (3) only granulosa cells from large but not from smaller follicles were responsive to LH; (4) serum supplementation unfavorably transformed the cellular phenotype, induced proliferation and PCNA expression, reduced or abolished the transcript abundance of steroidogenic key genes and of gonadotropin receptor genes, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, FSHR and LHCGR but, however, did not increase the abundance of the luteinization-specific marker transcripts PTGS2, PTX3, RGS2 and VNN2; but (5) by increasing the plating density, estradiol production and the abundance of CYP19A1 transcripts, in particular those derived from the main ovarian promoter P2, were decreased concurrently leaving P2-specific DNA methylation levels unchanged, whereas progesterone secretion was stimulated and the expression of both luteinization-specific marker transcripts, RGS2 and VNN2, was significantly induced. From these data, we conclude that increasing the plating density induces a different, partly complementary, physiological and gene expression profile in cultured bovine granulosa cells and drives the cells towards an early post-LH stage of luteinization, even in the absence of luteinizing agents.

  18. [Case report of a granulosa-theca tumor in a cow].

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; Antonis, A F G; Stockhofe, N; Kruip, T A M

    2002-05-01

    A 2 year-old cow with abnormal behaviour was observed during a farm visit. Rectal palpation of the cow revealed the presence of a mass of at least 12 cm in diameter. After further examination, it appeared that 'ovarian tumour' was the most likely differential diagnosis. In order to confirm this diagnosis, blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma progesterone and plasma oestradiol-17 beta concentrations. Also, the gross pathology and histology of the mass were evaluated. The combination of the clinical presentation of the cow, the hormone concentrations, and the histological appearance of the mass confirmed the diagnosis ovarian tumour. The tumour was classified as granulosa-theca cell tumour.

  19. A regulatory role of androgen in ovarian steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Toru; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Hosoya, Takeshi; Fujita, Shiho; Nishiyama, Yuki; Iwata, Nahoko; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Otsuka, Fumio

    2017-09-01

    Excess androgen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in the ovarian follicle has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here we investigated the impact of androgen and IGF-I on the regulatory mechanism of ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. It was revealed that androgen treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) amplified progesterone synthesis in the presence of FSH and IGF-I, whereas it had no significant effect on estrogen synthesis by rat granulosa cells. In accordance with the effects of androgen on steroidogenesis, DHT enhanced the expression of progesterogenic factors and enzymes, including StAR, P450scc and 3βHSD, and cellular cAMP synthesis induced by FSH and IGF-I. Of note, treatment with DHT and IGF-I suppressed Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and transcription of the BMP target gene Id-1, suggesting that androgen and IGF-I counteract BMP signaling that inhibits FSH-induced progesterone synthesis in rat granulosa cells. DHT was revealed to suppress the expression of BMP-6 receptors, consisting of ALK-2, ALK-6 and ActRII, while it increased the expression of inhibitory Smads in rat granulosa cells. In addition, IGF-I treatment upregulated androgen receptor (AR) expression and DHT treatment suppressed IGF-I receptor expression on rat granulosa cells. Collectively, the results indicate that androgen and IGF-I mutually interact and accelerate progesterone production, at least in part, by regulating endogenous BMP signaling in rat granulosa cells. Cooperative effects of androgen and IGF-I counteract endogenous BMP-6 activity in rat granulosa cells, which is likely to be functionally linked to the steroidogenic property shown in the PCOS ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Defective CFTR-regulated granulosa cell proliferation in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Guo, Jing Hui; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2015-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent causes of female infertility, featured by abnormal hormone profile, chronic oligo/anovulation, and presence of multiple cystic follicles in the ovary. However, the mechanism underlying the abnormal folliculogenesis remains obscure. We have previously demonstrated that CFTR, a cAMP-dependent Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) conducting anion channel, is expressed in the granulosa cells and its expression is downregulated in PCOS rat models and human patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of downregulation of CFTR in the impaired follicle development in PCOS using two rat PCOS models and primary culture of granulosa cells. Our results indicated that the downregulation of CFTR in the cystic follicles was accompanied by reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), in rat PCOS models. In addition, knockdown or inhibition of CFTR in granulosa cell culture resulted in reduced cell viability and downregulation of PCNA. We further demonstrated that CFTR regulated both basal and FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation through the HCO3 (-)/sAC/PKA pathway leading to ERK phosphorylation and its downstream target cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) upregulation. Reduced ERK phosphorylation and CCND2 were found in ovaries of rat PCOS model compared with the control. This study suggests that CFTR is required for normal follicle development and that its downregulation in PCOS may inhibit granulosa cell proliferation, resulting in abnormal follicle development in PCOS.

  1. Polysialylation takes place in granulosa cells during apoptotic processes of atretic tertiary follicles.

    PubMed

    Kaese, Miriam; Galuska, Christina E; Simon, Peter; Braun, Beate C; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Middendorff, Ralf; Wehrend, Axel; Jewgenow, Katarina; Galuska, Sebastian P

    2015-12-01

    In the neuronal system, polysialic acid (polySia) is known to be involved in several cellular processes such as the modulation of cell-cell interactions. This highly negatively-charged sugar moiety is mainly present as a post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). More than 20 years ago, differently glycosylated forms of NCAM were detected in the ovaries. However, the exact isoform of NCAM, as well as its biological function, remained unknown. Our analysis revealed that granulosa cells of feline tertiary follicles express the polysialylated form of NCAM-140. Unexpectedly, polySia was only expressed in the granulosa layers of atretic follicles and not of healthy follicles. By contrast, only the un-polysialylated form of NCAM was present on the membrane of granulosa cells of healthy follicles. To study a possible cellular function of polySia in feline follicles, a primary granulosa cell culture model was used. Interestingly, loss of polySia leads to a significant inhibition of apoptosis, demonstrating that polySia is involved during atretic processes in granulosa cells. Thus, polySia might not only directly influence regeneration processes as shown, for example, in the neuronal system, but also apoptosis. © 2015 FEBS.

  2. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  3. In vitro changes in porcine ovarian granulosa cells induced by copper.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bulla, Jozef; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Kolesarova, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this in vitro study was to examine the secretion activity (progesterone and insulin-like growth factor I) of porcine ovarian granulosa cells after copper (Cu) addition and to outline a potential intracellular mediator (cyclin B1) of its effects. It also aimed at investigating the apoptotic potential of Cu on porcine ovarian granulosa cells after addition in vitro. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with copper sulphate (CuSO4·5H2O) at the doses 0.33, 0.40, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 μL mL(-1) for 18 h and compared with control group without Cu addition. Release of progesterone (P4) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by granulosa cells was assessed by RIA, expression of cyclin B1 by immunocytochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Observations show that P4 release by granulosa cells was inhibited while the release of IGF-I and cyclin B1 was stimulated significantly (P < 0.05) by CuSO4·5H2O addition at the dose 2.0 μL mL(-1). Also, addition of CuSO4.5H2O at the lowest dose used in the study (0.33 μL mL(-1)) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased apoptosis in granulosa cells. In conclusion, results indicate dose dependent effect of Cu on (1) secretion of steroid hormone progesterone and growth factor IGF-I, (2) expression of cyclin B1 as marker of proliferation of porcine ovarian granulosa cells, (3) apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells and, (4) that the effect of Cu on ovarian cell proliferation could be mediated by IGF-I and cyclin B1. Obtained data suggest interference of Cu in the pathways of proliferation of porcine ovarian granulosa cells through hormonal and intracellular peptide cyclin B1.

  4. mTOR Controls Ovarian Follicle Growth by Regulating Granulosa Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, James; Yaba, Aylin; Kasiman, Corinna; Thomson, Travis; Johnson, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that inhibition of mTOR in granulosa cells and ovarian follicles results in compromised granulosa proliferation and reduced follicle growth. Further analysis here using spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells has revealed that mTOR pathway activity is enhanced during M-phase of the cell cycle. mTOR specific phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP, and expression of Raptor are all enhanced during M-phase. The predominant effect of mTOR inhibition by the specific inhibitor Rapamycin (RAP) was a dose-responsive arrest in the G1 cell cycle stage. The fraction of granulosa cells that continued to divide in the presence of RAP exhibited a dose-dependent increase in aberrant mitotic figures known as anaphase bridges. Strikingly, estradiol consistently decreased the incidence of aberrant mitotic figures. In mice treated with RAP, the mitotic index was reduced compared to controls, and a similar increase in aberrant mitotic events was noted. RAP injected during a superovulation regime resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the numbers of eggs ovulated. Implications for the real-time regulation of follicle growth and dominance, including the consequences of increased numbers of aneuploid granulosa cells, are discussed. PMID:21750711

  5. Cell-free DNA induced apoptosis of granulosa cells by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yichun; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xingling; Cai, Pengfei; Jia, Qi; Zhao, Wenjie

    2017-10-01

    Cell-free DNA is a DNA fragment that is produced by cell apoptosis which can affect the micro-environment of cell apoptosis. The levels of Cell-free DNA have been associated with successful rate of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and embryonic development. Our aim is to determine the relationship between cell-free DNA and embryo quality. The mechanisms of cell-free DNA in granulose and the apoptosis will be determined also. The study enrolled patients who were undergone IVF for the first time and grouped the patients as pregnant (n=130) and non-pregnant (n=59). The relationship was determined by statistical analysis between the levels of cell-free DNA in the follicular fluid and clinical data of IVF patients. Flow cytometry was done to detect the rate of granulosa cell apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Western blotting and fluorescent quantitative PCR detected the apoptosis-related gene expressions. Clinical data statistics showed that cell-free DNA levels were positively correlated with granulosa cell apoptosis and negatively correlated with embryo quality and pregnancy rates. High levels of cell-free DNA lead to increased ROS in granulosa cells and activated caspase through Fas/FasL that induced apoptosis. High levels of cell-free DNA triggers granulosa cell apoptosis and influences oocyte maturation embryo development and pregnancy rates in IVF treatments. Cell-free DNA can be as a secondary criteria and predictive marker for the quality control of IVF embryo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conditional Deletion of the Retinoblastoma (Rb) Gene in Ovarian Granulosa Cells Leads to Premature Ovarian Failure

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Chen, Ruihong; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) regulates cell proliferation and survival by binding to the E2F family of transcription factors. Recent studies suggest that RB also regulates differentiation in a variety of cell types, including myocytes, neurons, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Rb mutations have been found in ovarian cancer; however, the role of RB in normal and abnormal ovarian function remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that loss of Rb induces ovarian tumorigenesis, we generated an ovarian granulosa cell conditional knockout of Rb (Rb cKO) using the Cre/lox recombination system. Rb cKO females showed 100% survival and no ovarian tumor formation through 9 months of age, but they developed progressive infertility. Prepubertal Rb cKO females showed increased ovulation rates compared with controls, correlating with increased follicle recruitment, higher Fshr and Kitl mRNA levels, and lower anti-Müllerian hormone levels. In contrast, the ovulation rate of 6-wk-old females was similar to that of controls. Morphometric analysis of Rb cKO ovaries from 6-wk-old and older females showed increased follicular atresia and apoptosis. Rb cKO ovaries and preantral follicles had abnormal levels of known direct and indirect target genes of RB, including Rbl2/p130, E2f1, Ccne2, Myc, Fos, and Tgfb2. In addition, preantral follicles showed increased expression of the granulosa cell differentiation marker Inha, decreased levels of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1 aromatase, and abnormal expression of the nuclear receptors Nr5a1, Nr5a2, and Nr0b1. Taken together, our results suggest that RB is required for the temporal-specific pattern of expression of key genes involved in follicular development. PMID:18599617

  7. Local effect of bisphenol A on the estradiol synthesis of ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Qinling; Dang, Xuan; He, Yaqiong; Li, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Close relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) has drawn much attention in recent years, while the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we aim to detect BPA concentration in the follicular fluid and investigate its effect on estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells from PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected from women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. BPA concentration in the follicular fluid from PCOS patients (440.50 ± 63.70 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that from non-PCOS patients (338.00 ± 57.88 pg/ml). Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis in cultured granulosa cells was examined after treatment with BPA from 0.01 to 1 μM for 24 h. Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis was downregulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner in PCOS, but no effect was observed in granulosa cells from non-PCOS patients. These findings provide evidence that increased BPA concentration in the follicular fluid of PCOS patients may play an important role in its pathogenesis by attenuating the expression of aromatase in granulosa cells.

  8. Urokinase redistribution from the secreted to the cell-bound fraction in granulosa cells of rat preovulatory follicles.

    PubMed

    Macchione, E; Epifano, O; Stefanini, M; Belin, D; Canipari, R

    2000-04-01

    Plasminogen activators (PAs) have been shown to be synthesized in ovarian follicles of several mammalian species, where they contribute to the ovulation process. The type of PA secreted by granulosa cells is species-specific. In fact, whereas in the rat, gonadotropins stimulate tissue-type PA (tPA) production, the same hormonal stimulation induces urokinase PA (uPA) secretion in mouse cells. To investigate in more detail the hormonal regulation of this system, we used the rat ovary as a model in which we analyzed the production of PAs by theca-interstitial (TI) and granulosa cells obtained from preovulatory follicles after gonadotropin stimulation. In untreated rats, uPA was the predominant enzyme in both TI and granulosa cells. After hormonal stimulation, an increase in uPA and tPA activity was observed in both cell types. Surprisingly, only tPA mRNA increased in a time-dependent manner in both cell types, while uPA mRNA increased only in TI cells and actually decreased in granulosa cells. These divergent results between uPA enzyme activity and mRNA levels in granulosa cells were explained by studying the localization of the enzyme. Analysis of granulosa cell lysates showed that after hormonal stimulation, 60-70% of the uPA behaved as a cell-associated protein, suggesting that uPA, already present in the follicle, accumulates on the granulosa cell surface through binding to specific uPA receptors. The redistribution of uPA in granulosa cells and the differing regulation of the two PAs by gonadotropins in the rat ovary suggest that the two enzymes might have different functions during the ovulation process. Moreover, the ability of antibodies anti-tPA and anti-uPA to significantly inhibit ovulation only when coinjected with hCG confirmed that the PA contribution to ovulation occurs at the initial steps.

  9. Gonadotropin regulation of the rat proopiomelanocortin promoter: characterization by transfection of primary ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Young, S L; Nielsen, C P; Lundblad, J R; Roberts, J L; Melner, M H

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the transcriptional effects of human (h)FSH and hCG on the POMC gene, primary rat granulosa cells were transiently transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid under the control of the POMC promoter and 5' region. POMC-CAT contains a fragment of the rat POMC gene, extending from nucleotide -704 to nucleotide +63, fused to the CAT gene. Treatment of POMC-CAT-transfected cells with either hFSH (20 ng/ml) or hCG (10 ng/ml) significantly increased CAT enzyme activity; however, neither hCG nor hFSH increased CAT enzyme activity in cells transfected with pSV2-CAT, a reporter plasmid under the control of the SV40 virus promoter and 5' region. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine or the nonhydrolyzable cAMP analog cAMP-chlorothiophenyl significantly increased CAT activity in POMC-CAT-transfected granulosa cells. Human FSH stimulated transcription 10, 20, and 40 h after treatment, but FSH stimulation at the two earlier time points was 2.5- to 5.5-fold greater than that at 40 h. Gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis was equivalent in POMC-CAT-transfected granulosa cells, untransfected, and mock-transfected cells. This indicates that transfection left the physiological hormone response intact. These data demonstrate the following. 1) 767 basepairs of the rat POMC gene are enough to confer gonadotropin stimulation on the CAT marker gene in granulosa cells. 2) Although the POMC promotor lacks a well conserved cAMP response element, either of two different pharmacological manipulations of granulosa cells that raise intracellular cAMP can also stimulate POMC-driven CAT expression. 3) Transfected primary cultures of granulosa cells provide a nontransformed, physiologically relevant model with which to study hormone-regulated gene expression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity on mouse ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; He, Wan Hong; Feng, Ling Lin; Huang, Hao Guang

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity on mouse ovarian granulosa cells. After granulosa cells were treated with doxorubicin at the final concentrations of 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 μg/ml for 24 h, cell apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining or caspase-3/7 fluorescence probe; ROS was determined by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe; mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by rhodamine-123 fluorescence probe; and mRNA expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, FSHR, StAR, P450scc and P450arom were analyzed by RT-PCR. Results indicated that doxorubicin could induce apoptosis of granulosa cells (p < 0.01); increase ROS generation (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01); decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.05); increase mRNA expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 (p < 0.001); enhance mRNA expression level of StAR (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001); and inhibit mRNA expression level of P450scc in granulosa cells (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001). The mRNA expression levels of FSHR and P450arom were not influenced by doxorubicin. We suggest that the ovarian toxicity of doxorubicin was associated with apoptosis of granulosa cells, ROS accumulation, and decline of mitochondrial membrane potential in granulosa cells. In addition, cell apoptosis was regulated by Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and hormone generation could be influenced by StAR and P450scc.

  11. Melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via its membrane receptor MT2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    He, Ya-Mei; Deng, Hong-Hui; Shi, Mei-Hong; Bodinga, Bello Musa; Chen, Hua-Li; Han, Zeng-Sheng; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is documented as a hormone involved in the circadian regulation of physiological and neuroendocrine function in mammals. Herein, the effects of melatonin on the functions of porcine granulosa cells in vitro were investigated. Porcine granulosa cells were cultivated with variable concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10ng/mL) for 48h. Melatonin receptor agonist (IIK7) and antagonist (Luzindole, 4P-PDOT) were used to further examine the action of melatonin. The results showed optimum cell viability and colony-forming efficiency of porcine granulosa cells at 0.01ng/mL melatonin for 48-h incubation period. The percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells was significantly reduced by 0.01 and 0.1ng/mL melatonin within the 48-h incubation period as compared with the rest of the treatments. Estradiol biosynthesis was significantly stimulated by melatonin supplementation and suppressed for the progesterone secretion; the minimum ratio of progesterone to estradiol was 1.82 in 0.01ng/mL melatonin treatment after 48h of cultivation. Moreover, the expression of BCL-2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, SOD1, and GPX4 were up-regulated by 0.01ng/mL melatonin or combined with IIK7, but decreased for the mRNA levels of BAX, P53, and CASPASE-3, as compared with control or groups treated with Luzindole or 4P-PDOT in the presence of melatonin. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that melatonin mediated proliferation, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells predominantly through the activation of melatonin receptor MT2 in vitro, which provided evidence of the beneficial role of melatonin as well as its functional mechanism in porcine granulosa cells in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth differentiation factor-9 has divergent effects on proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J; Aad, P Y; Allen, D; Mazerbourg, S; Hsueh, A J

    2006-05-01

    In addition to gonadotropins, steroidogenesis and proliferation of granulosa cells during follicular development are controlled by a number of intraovarian factors including growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), and IGF-I. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of GDF-9 and BMP-4 and their interaction with IGF-I and FSH on ovarian granulosa cell function in cattle. Granulosa cells from small (1-5 mm) and large (8-22 mm) follicles were collected from bovine ovaries and cultured for 48 h in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum and then treated with various hormones in serum-free medium for an additional 48 h. We evaluated the effects of GDF-9 (150-600 ng/ml) and BMP-4 (30 ng/ml) during a 2-day exposure on hormone-induced steroidogenesis and cell proliferation. In FSH plus IGF-I-treated granulosa cells obtained from small follicles, 300 ng/ml GDF-9 reduced (P < 0.05) progesterone production by 15% and 600 ng/ml GDF-9 completely blocked (P < 0.01) the IGF-I-induced increase in progesterone production. In comparison, 300 and 600 ng/ml GDF-9 decreased (P < 0.05) estradiol production by 27% and 71% respectively, whereas 150 ng/ml GDF-9 was without effect (P > 0.10). Treatment with 600 ng/ml GDF-9 increased (P < 0.05) numbers (by 28%) of granulosa cells from small follicles. In the same cells treated with FSH but not IGF-I, co-treatment with 600 ng/ml GDF-9 decreased (P < 0.05) progesterone production (by 28%), increased (P < 0.05) cell numbers (by 60%), and had no effect (P > 0.10) on estradiol production. In FSH plus IGF-I-treated granulosa cells obtained from large follicles, GDF-9 caused a dose-dependent decrease (P<0.05) in IGF-I-induced progesterone (by 13-48%) and estradiol (by 20-51%) production. In contrast, GDF-9 increased basal and IGF-I-induced granulosa cell numbers by over 2-fold. Furthermore, treatment with BMP-4 also inhibited (P < 0.05) steroidogenesis by 27-42% but had no effect on cell numbers

  13. Effects of resveratrol on growth and function of rat ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Israel; Wong, Donna H; Villanueva, Jesus A; Cress, Amanda B; Sokalska, Anna; Stanley, Scott D; Duleba, Antoni J

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of resveratrol on growth and function of granulosa cells. Previously, we demonstrated that resveratrol exerts profound proapoptotic effects on theca-interstitial cells. In vitro study. Research laboratory. Immature Sprague-Dawley female rats. Granulosa cells were cultured in the absence or presence of resveratrol. DNA synthesis was determined by thymidine incorporation assay, apoptosis by activity of caspases 3/7, cell morphology by immunocytochemistry, steroidogenesis by mass spectrometry, antimüllerian hormone (AMH), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Resveratrol induced a biphasic effect on DNA synthesis, whereby a lower concentration stimulated thymidine incorporation and higher concentrations inhibited it. Additionally, resveratrol slightly increased the cell number and modestly decreased the activity of caspases 3/7 with no effect on cell morphology or progesterone production. However, resveratrol decreased aromatization and VEGF expression, whereas AMH expression remained unaltered. Resveratrol, by exerting cytostatic but not cytotoxic effects, together with antiangiogenic actions mediated by decreased VEGF in granulosa cells, may alter the ratio of theca-to-granulosa cells and decrease vascular permeability, and therefore may be of potential therapeutic use in conditions associated with highly vascularized theca-interstitial hyperplasia and abnormal angiogenesis, such as those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mumps virus induces innate immune responses in mouse ovarian granulosa cells through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Han; Cheng, Lijing; Yan, Keqin; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Fei; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Qihan; Han, Daishu

    2016-11-15

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection may lead to oophoritis and perturb ovarian function. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of innate immune responses to MuV infection in the ovary have not been investigated. This study showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) cooperatively initiate innate immune responses to MuV infection in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells infected with MuV significantly produced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and type 1 interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β). Knockdown of RIG-I significantly decreased MuV-induced cytokine expression. TLR2 deficiency reduced the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 but did not affect the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β in granulosa cells after infection with MuV. Intraperitoneal injection of MuV induced the ovarian innate immune responses in vivo, which suppressed estradiol synthesis and induced granulosa cell apoptosis. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying MuV-induced innate immune responses in the mouse ovary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spontaneous transformation of human granulosa cell tumours into an aggressive phenotype: a metastasis model cell line

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Misa; Muraki, Miho; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Seiki, Motoharu; Takahashi, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Background Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) are frequently seen in menopausal women and are relatively indolent. Although the physiological properties of normal granulosa cells have been studied extensively, little is known about the molecular mechanism of GCT progression. Here, we characterise the unique behavioural properties of a granulosa tumour cell line, KGN cells, for the molecular analysis of GCT progression. Methods Population doubling was carried out to examine the proliferation capacity of KGN cells. Moreover, the invasive capacity of these cells was determined using the in vitro invasion assay. The expression level of tumour markers in KGN cells at different passages was then determined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the growth and metastasis of KGN cells injected subcutaneously (s.c.) into nude mice was observed 3 months after injection. Results During in vitro culture, the advanced passage KGN cells grew 2-fold faster than the early passage cells, as determined by the population doubling assay. Moreover, we found that the advanced passage cells were 2-fold more invasive than the early passage cells. The expression pattern of tumour markers, such as p53, osteopontin, BAX and BAG-1, supported the notion that with passage, KGN cells became more aggressive. Strikingly, KGN cells at both early and advanced passages metastasized to the bowel when injected s.c. into nude mice. In addition, more tumour nodules were formed when the advanced passage cells were implanted. Conclusion KGN cells cultured in vitro acquire an aggressive phenotype, which was confirmed by the analysis of cellular activities and the expression of biomarkers. Interestingly, KGN cells injected s.c. are metastatic with nodule formation occurring mostly in the bowel. Thus, this cell line is a good model for analysing GCT progression and the mechanism of metastasis in vivo. PMID:18980698

  16. Effects of porcine oocytes on the expression levels of transcripts encoding glycolytic enzymes in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yuta; Onuma, Asuka; Fujioka, Yoshie A; Emori, Chihiro; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Oocytes play critical roles in regulating the expression of transcripts encoding the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in granulosa cells in mice, but whether this is the case in pigs or other mammals has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether porcine oocytes regulate the expression levels of these transcripts in granulosa cells in vitro. Porcine cumulus cells expressed higher levels of PFKP and LDHA transcripts than mural granulosa cells (MGCs). However, co-culturing with oocytes had no significant effect on the isolated cumulus cells. While murine oocytes promoted the expression of both Pfkp and Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs, porcine oocytes promoted the expression of only Pfkp, but not Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs. Neither murine nor porcine oocytes affected PFKP and LDHA expression by porcine MGCs. Moreover, in the presence of porcine follicular fluid, porcine oocytes maintained the expression of PFKP, but not LDHA by porcine cumulus cells. Therefore, porcine oocytes are capable of regulating the expression of PFKP but not LDHA in granulosa cells in coordination with unknown factor(s) present in the follicular fluid.

  17. Oleic acid induces down-regulation of the granulosa cell identity marker FOXL2, and up-regulation of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-07-26

    During negative energy balance, the concentration of different fatty acids, especially of oleic acid (OA) increases in the follicular fluid of cattle. Previously, we showed that OA induced morphological, physiological and molecular changes in cultured bovine granulosa cells. In our present study we analyzed effects of OA on the expression of markers for granulosa and Sertoli cell identity, FOXL2 and SOX9, respectively, in addition to effects on the FOXL2 regulated genes ESR2, FST, PTGS2 and PPARG. The results showed that OA down-regulated FOXL2, ESR2, FST and PPARG but up-regulated PTGS2 and SOX9. From these data we conclude that OA can compromise granulosa cell functionality and may initiate trans-differentiation processes in bovine granulosa cells. This novel mechanism may be causally involved in postpartum fertility problems of lactating dairy cows.

  18. Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2012-01-01

    The Ski protein is implicated in the proliferation/differentiation of a variety of cells. We previously reported that the Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells cannot only undergo apoptosis but can alternatively differentiate into luteal cells. It is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinization to examine if Ski might play a role in this process. In order to examine the Ski protein expression during the progression of luteinization, follicular growth was induced in immature female rats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadotropin treatment to mimic the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in the preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to the LH surge and was maintained after formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Although the Ski protein is absent from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-ski) was expressed, and the level of c-ski mRNA was unchanged even after the LH surge. The combined results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggested that its expression is regulated posttranscriptionally.

  19. Expression, Regulation, and Functional Characterization of FST Gene in Porcine Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, QuanYong; Wan, MingChun; Wei, QiPeng; Song, QiongLi; Xiong, LiGen; Huo, JunHong; Huang, JiangNan

    2016-10-01

    Proliferation, differentiation, and estrogen secretion of granulosa cells are the key factors affecting the estrous after weaning in sows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of Follistatin (FST) in the ovary of Xiushui Hang and Duroc sows at weaning and estrus, the effect of FSH on transcript abundance of FST gene in granulosa cells and the role of FST gene in the weaning to estrus using siRNAs targeted to FST gene. In the present study, expression of the FST mRNA was evaluated by real time PCR. The FST mRNA levels showed a reduction from weaning to the estrus in both Xiushui Hang and Duroc sows, and the mRNA levels in Duroc ovary was higher than in Xiushui Hang sows at the beginning of estrus. Granulosa cells were obtained from the two largest follicles around follicular deviation, FST expression was decreased sharply after treatment with FSH (250 ng/ml). Knockdown of FST by siRNA in porcine granulosa cells significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen secretion. These results indicate that FST gene is a negative regulator of follicle growth and function during the weaning-estrus interval.

  20. Androgen and FSH synergistically stimulate lipoprotein degradation and utilization by ovary granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.R.; Nakamura, K.; Schmit, V.; Weinstein, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Androgen can directly modulate the induction of steroidogenic enzymes by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in ovary granulosa cells. In studies of its mechanism of action, the authors examined the androgen effect on granulosa cell interaction with lipoproteins, the physiologic source of cholesterol. After granulosa cells were cultured for 48 hours with and without androgen and/or FSH, the cells were incubated for 24 hours with /sup 125/I-lipoproteins (human high density lipoprotein (HDL), rat HDL, or human low density lipoprotein (LDL)). The media were then analyzed for lipoprotein protein coat degradation products (mainly /sup 125/I-monoiodotyrosine) and progestin (mainly 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-DHP)). In the absence of FSH and androgen, 2 X 10(5) granulosa cells degraded basal levels of all three lipoproteins, but produced no measurable 20 alpha-DHP. The addition of 10(-7) M androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had no effect on lipoprotein protein degradation or 20 alpha-DHP production. FSH alone stimulated lipoprotein protein degradation by 50 to 300% while the addition of androgen synergistically augmented the FSH-stimulated 20 alpha-DHP production as well as protein coat degradation of all three lipoproteins. DHT and T were both effective, indicating that androgens themselves, and not estrogen products, were responsible for the effect on lipoprotein protein degradation and 20 alpha-DHP production.

  1. Dual effect of insulin resistance and cadmium on human granulosa cells - In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Belani, Muskaan; Shah, Preeti; Banker, Manish; Gupta, Sarita

    2016-12-15

    Combined exposure of cadmium (Cd) and insulin resistance (IR) might be responsible for subfertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Cd in vitro in IR human granulosa cells. Isolated human granulosa cells from control and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follicular fluid samples were confirmed for IR by decrease in protein expression of insulin receptor-β. Control and IR human granulosa cells were then incubated with or without 32μM Cd. The combined effect of IR with 32μM Cd in granulosa cells demonstrated significant decrease in expression of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD, FSH-R and LH-R. Decrease was also observed in progesterone and estradiol concentrations as compared to control. Additionally, increase in protein expression of cleaved PARP-F2, active caspase-3 and a positive staining for Annexin V and PI indicated apoptosis as the mode of increased cell death ultimately leading to decreased steroidogenesis, as observed through the combined exposure. Taken together the results suggest decrease in steroidogenesis ultimately leading to abnormal development of the follicle thus compromising fertility at the level of preconception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of vitamin D3 on production of progesterone in porcine granulosa cells by regulation of steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kim, Hong Sung; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jae Ho; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo

    2016-05-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active form of Vitamin D, is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates in response to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B). VD3 deficiency can cause health problems such as immune disease, metabolic disease, and bone disorders. It has also been demonstrated that VD3 is involved in reproductive functions. Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in ovarian granulosa cells as the ovarian follicle develops. The functions of sex hormones include regulation of the estrus cycle and puberty as well as maintenance of pregnancy in females. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovaries and cultured them for experiments. To examine the effects of VD3 on ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blotting assay. Production of progesterone from granulosa cells was also measured by ELISA assay. As a result, transcriptional and translational regulation of progesterone biosynthesis-related genes in granulosa cells was significantly altered by VD3. Furthermore, progesterone concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media decreased in response to VD3. These results show that VD3 was a strong regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss.

  3. Effect of vitamin D3 on production of progesterone in porcine granulosa cells by regulation of steroidogenic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kim, Hong Sung; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jae Ho; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active form of Vitamin D, is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates in response to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B). VD3 deficiency can cause health problems such as immune disease, metabolic disease, and bone disorders. It has also been demonstrated that VD3 is involved in reproductive functions. Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in ovarian granulosa cells as the ovarian follicle develops. The functions of sex hormones include regulation of the estrus cycle and puberty as well as maintenance of pregnancy in females. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovaries and cultured them for experiments. To examine the effects of VD3 on ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blotting assay. Production of progesterone from granulosa cells was also measured by ELISA assay. As a result, transcriptional and translational regulation of progesterone biosynthesis-related genes in granulosa cells was significantly altered by VD3. Furthermore, progesterone concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media decreased in response to VD3. These results show that VD3 was a strong regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss. PMID:27533930

  4. Ferroportin mRNA is down-regulated in granulosa and cervical cells from infertile women.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; López-Navarro, Eva; Candenas, Luz; Pinto, Francisco; Ortega, Francisco J; Sabater-Masdeu, Mònica; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; Blasco, Victor; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Fontán, Marina; Ricart, Wifredo; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José M

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between iron and infertility by investigating iron-related gene expression in granulosa and uterine cervical cells. Case-control study. Two tertiary hospitals. Two independent cohorts of fertile (n = 18 and n = 17) and infertile (n = 31 and n = 35) women. In vitro fertilization. Gene expression levels of ferritin light chain (FTL), ferritin heavy chain (FTH), transferrin receptor (TFRC), and ferroportin (SLC40A1) mRNA were analyzed in granulosa and cervical cells. In the first cohort, fertile and infertile women were similar in body mass index. Ferroportin mRNA levels were decreased in granulosa cells from infertile women in parallel with increased serum hepcidin levels. A positive association between ferroportin and TFRC mRNA, a gene associated with intracellular iron deficiency, was observed only in granulosa cells from fertile women. The major findings were replicated in a second independent cohort. Ferroportin mRNAs and circulating hepcidin identify a subset of infertile women and may constitute a target for therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retinoic Acid Regulates Calcium Signaling to Promote Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, Michael; Huang, Huiya; White, Carl; Kipp, Jingjing L

    2016-09-01

    Normal development of ovarian follicles is critical for female reproduction and endocrine function. We have identified retinoic acid (RA) and the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 as regulators of ovarian follicle development and showed that RA and a CYP26 inhibitor stimulated ovarian granulosa cell proliferation. The mechanism underpinning RA-dependent proliferation, however, is not known. The current study was designed to examine the role of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in mediating the effects of RA on primary mouse granulosa cell proliferation. In single-cell Ca(2+) imaging experiments, treatment of cultured granulosa cells with RA increased the steady-state Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores. This correlated with increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and enhanced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-dependent Ca(2+) release. In proliferation assays, RA treatment or Cyp26b1 knockdown stimulated proliferation, whereas Cyp26b1 overexpression inhibited proliferation. When RA was given together with 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB), a blocker of IP3R-dependent ER Ca(2+) release and SOCE, with xestospongin C, a selective IP3R- receptor antagonist, or with 3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)pyrazole (BTP-2), a specific SOCE blocker, the stimulatory effect of RA on cell proliferation was abolished. Further investigation showed that treatment with 2-APB or BTP-2 inhibited RA induction of RA response element (RARE) activation in granulosa cells, confirming an important role for Ca(2+) signaling in mediating RA actions. Overall, these data support a model in which RA regulates ovarian follicle development by stimulating granulosa cell proliferation and that this stimulatory effect is at least in part driven by the modulation of Ca(2+) signaling.

  6. A lectin-based cell microarray approach to analyze the mammalian granulosa cell surface glycosylation profile.

    PubMed

    Accogli, Gianluca; Desantis, Salvatore; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Gemeiner, Peter; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-10-01

    The high complexity of glycome, the repertoire of glycans expressed in a cell or in an organism, is difficult to analyze and the use of new technologies has accelerated the progress of glycomics analysis. In the last decade, the microarray approaches, and in particular glycan and lectin microarrays, have provided new insights into evaluation of cell glycosylation status. Here we present a cell microarray method based on cell printing on microarray slides for the analysis of the glycosylation pattern of the cell glycocalyx. In order to demonstrate the reliability of the developed method, the glycome profiles of equine native uncultured mural granulosa cells (uGCs) and in vitro cultured mural granulosa cells (cGCs) were determined and compared. The method consists in the isolation of GCs, cell printing into arrays on microarray slide, incubation with a panel of biotinylated lectins, reaction with fluorescent streptavidin and signal intensity detection by a microarray scanner. Cell microarray technology revealed that glycocalyx of both uGCs and cGCs contains N-glycans, sialic acid terminating glycans, N-acetylglucosamine and O-glycans. The comparison of uGCs and cGCs glycan signals indicated an increase in the expression of sialic acids, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-glycans in cGCs. Glycan profiles determined by cell microarray agreed with those revealed by lectin histochemistry. The described cell microarray method represents a simple and sensitive procedure to analyze cell surface glycome in mammalian cells.

  7. Targeted Disruption of Nrg1 in Granulosa Cells Alters the Temporal Progression of Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Ikko; Umehara, Takashi; Noma, Noritaka; Kawai, Tomoko; Shitanaka, Manami

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is induced in granulosa cells by LH and acts on granulosa and cumulus cells during ovulation. In this study, we sought to determine the role of NRG1 in oocyte maturation by generating a granulosa cell–specific Nrg1 knockout mouse (Nrg1flox/flox;Cyp19a1Cre mice [gcNrg1KO]). In the gcNrg1KO mice, meiosis was induced 2 hours earlier than in control mice. More than 60% of the oocytes in the mutant mice spontaneously re-resumed meiosis beyond the MII stage. The percentage of successful fertilization was comparable in oocytes of both genotypes collected at 14 or 16 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin injection but was significantly lower in oocytes of the gcNrg1KO mice at 18 or 20 hours. The number of pups per litter was significantly decreased in gcNrg1KO mice. To determine the molecular events associated with the abnormal progression of meiosis in the gcNrg1KO mouse oocytes, the defects of cumulus/granulosa cell functions were analyzed. The expression of genes involved in luteinization and cumulus expansion was significantly higher at 2 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the gcNrg1KO mice; this was related to abnormal activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphorylation of connexin-43 in cumulus cells. Changes in connexin-43 by PKC might lead to early meiotic resumption of oocytes in gcNrg1KO mice. We conclude that NRG1 is induced by LH in mural granulosa cells and exerts an important regulatory role in oocyte meiotic maturation and competence by reducing PKC activation in cumulus cells and preventing premature progression to the MII stage that leads to abnormal fertilization and fertility. PMID:24650175

  8. Comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation across human polycystic ovary syndrome ovary granulosa cell

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhaofeng; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Niu, Wenbin; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 7% of the reproductive-age women. A growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic mechanisms contributed to the development of PCOS. The role of DNA modification in human PCOS ovary granulosa cell is still unknown in PCOS progression. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were detected between PCOS’ and controls’ granulosa cell. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled to investigate the putative function of DNA methylaiton. Selected genes expressions were analyzed between PCOS’ and controls’ granulosa cell. Our results showed that the granulosa cell global DNA methylation of PCOS patients was significant higher than the controls’. The global DNA hydroxymethylation showed low level and no statistical difference between PCOS and control. 6936 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified between control and PCOS-obesity. 12245 differential methylated CpG sites were detected between control and PCOS-nonobesity group. 5202 methylated CpG sites were significantly differential between PCOS-obesity and PCOS-nonobesity group. Our results showed that DNA methylation not hydroxymethylation altered genome-wide in PCOS granulosa cell. The different methylation genes were enriched in development protein, transcription factor activity, alternative splicing, sequence-specific DNA binding and embryonic morphogenesis. YWHAQ, NCF2, DHRS9 and SCNA were up-regulation in PCOS-obesity patients with no significance different between control and PCOS-nonobesity patients, which may be activated by lower DNA methylaiton. Global and genome-wide DNA methylation alteration may contribute to different genes expression and PCOS clinical pathology. PMID:27056885

  9. Wt1 directs the lineage specification of sertoli and granulosa cells by repressing Sf1 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Lianjun; Cui, Xiuhong; Lin, Xiwen; Li, Yaqiong; Wang, Yaqing; Wang, Yanbo; Qin, Yan; Chen, Dahua; Han, Chunsheng; Zhou, Bin; Huff, Vicki; Gao, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Supporting cells (Sertoli and granulosa) and steroidogenic cells (Leydig and theca-interstitium) are two major somatic cell types in mammalian gonads, but the mechanisms that control their differentiation during gonad development remain elusive. In this study, we found that deletion of Wt1 in the ovary after sex determination caused ectopic development of steroidogenic cells at the embryonic stage. Furthermore, differentiation of both Sertoli and granulosa cells was blocked when Wt1 was deleted before sex determination and most genital ridge somatic cells differentiated into steroidogenic cells in both male and female gonads. Further studies revealed that WT1 repressed Sf1 expression by directly binding to the Sf1 promoter region, and the repressive function was completely abolished when WT1 binding sites were mutated. This study demonstrates that Wt1 is required for the lineage specification of both Sertoli and granulosa cells by repressing Sf1 expression. Without Wt1, the expression of Sf1 was upregulated and the somatic cells differentiated into steroidogenic cells instead of supporting cells. Our study uncovers a novel mechanism of somatic cell differentiation during gonad development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Further studies of the effects of follicular fluid and membrana granulosa cells on the spontaneous maturation of pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Racowsky, C; McGaughey, R W

    1982-11-01

    Liberated cumulus-enclosed pig oocytes were cultured either alone in follicular fluid or with membrana granulosa cells in a complex serum based medium. After 24 h, oocytes were air-dried for cytogenetic analysis, meiotic stage was scored, and viability of granulosa cells was determined. Neither the release from meiotic arrest nor the progression of maturation to metaphase II was significantly inhibited by either of these follicular components. Co-culture of membrana granulosa cells and oocytes significantly stimulated maturation in one experimental series, while viability of the somatic cells was maintained in all experiments. These results do not support the concept of a stable oocyte maturation inhibitor of granulosa cell origin in follicular fluid.

  11. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    SUMITOMO, Jun-ichi; EMORI, Chihiro; MATSUNO, Yuta; UENO, Mizuki; KAWASAKI, Kurenai; ENDO, Takaho A.; SHIROGUCHI, Katsuyuki; FUJII, Wataru; NAITO, Kunihiko; SUGIURA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15–/–/Gdf9+/– (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  12. The Multifaceted Granulosa Cell Tumours—Myths and Realities: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Kanthan, Selliah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), representing ~2% of ovarian tumours, are poorly understood neoplasms with unpredictable and undetermined biological behaviour. Design. 5 unusual presentations of GCT and a retrospective 14-year (1997–2011) surgical pathology review based on patient sex, age, tumour type and concurrent pathology findings are presented to discuss the “myths and realities” of GCTs in the context of relevant evidence-based literature. Results. The 5 index cases included (1) a 5 month-old boy with a left testicular mass, (2) a 7-day-old neonate with a large complex cystic mass in the abdomen, (3) a 76-year-old woman with an umbilical mass, (4) a 64-year-old woman with a complex solid-cystic pelvic mass, and (5) a 45 year-old woman with an acute abdomen. Pathological analysis confirmed the final diagnosis as (1) juvenile GCT, (2) macrofollicular GCT, (3) recurrent GCT 32 years later, (4) collision tumour: colonic adenocarcinoma and GCT, and (5) ruptured GCT. Conclusion. GCT is best considered as an unusual indolent neoplasm of low malignant potential with late recurrences that can arise in the ovaries and testicles in both the young and the old. Multifaceted clinical presentations coupled with the unpredictable biological behaviour with late relapses are diagnostic pitfalls necessitating a high degree of suspicion for accurate clinical and pathological diagnosis. PMID:23008780

  13. The differentiation of mammalian ovarian granulosa cells – living in the shadow of cellular developmental capacity.

    PubMed

    Chachuła, A; Kranc, W; Budna, J; Bryja, A; Ciesiólka, S; Wojtanowicz-Markiewicz, K; Piotrowska, H; Bukowska, D; Krajecki, M; Antosik, P; Brüssow, K P; Bruska, M; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs) promotes oocyte growth and development during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Before ovulation, the follicle is formed by a variety of fully differentiated cell populations; cumulus cells (CCs) that tightly surround the female gamete, granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) which build the internal and external mass of the follicular wall. It is well documented that CCs surrounding the oocyte are necessary for resumption of meiosis and full maturation of the gamete. However, the role of the granulosa cells in acquisition of MII stage and/or full fertilization ability is not yet entirely known. In this article, we present an overview of mammalian oocytes and their relationship to the surrounding cumulus and granulosa cells. We also describe the processes of GCs differentiation and developmental capacity. Finally, we describe several markers of mammalian GCs, which could be used for positive identification of isolated cells. The developmental capacity of oocytes and surrounding somatic cells – a “fingerprint” of folliculogenesis and oogenesis.

  14. Transforming growth factor-β1 up-regulates connexin43 expression in human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Tsai, Horng-Der; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) up-regulate connexin43 (Cx43) to promote cell–cell communication in human granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER TGF-β1 up-regulates Cx43 and increases gap junction intercellular communication activities (GJIC) in human granulosa cells, and this effect occurs via the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)5-mediated Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2/3-SMAD4-dependent pathway. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells, and follicular fluid contains TGF-β1 protein. In human granulosa cells, Cx43 gap junctions play an important role in the development of follicles and oocytes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is an experimental study which was performed over a 1-year period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from women undergoing IVF in an academic research center were used as the study models. Cx43 mRNA and protein expression levels were examined after exposure of SVOG cells to recombinant human TGF-β1. An activin/TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor, SB431542, and small interfering RNAs targeting ALK4, ALK5, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 were used to verify the specificity of the effects and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Real-time-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the specific mRNA and protein levels, respectively. GJIC between SVOG cells were evaluated using a scrape loading and dye transfer assay. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE TGF-β1 treatment increased phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 (P < 0.0001) and up-regulated Cx43 mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001) in SVOG cells and these stimulatory effects were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. In addition, the up-regulatory effect of TGF-β1 on Cx43 expression (mRNA and protein) was confirmed in primary

  15. Growth differentiation factor 9 signaling requires ERK1/2 activity in mouse granulosa and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Maxime; Ritter, Lesley J; Nguyen, Thao M; Liu, Fang; Mottershead, David G; Russell, Darryl L; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2010-09-15

    Ovarian folliculogenesis is driven by the combined action of endocrine cues and paracrine factors. The oocyte secretes powerful mitogens, such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), that regulate granulosa cell proliferation, metabolism, steroidogenesis and differentiation. This study investigated the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2; also known as MAPK3/1) signaling pathway on GDF9 action on granulosa cells. Results show that mitogenic action of the oocyte is prevented by pharmacological inhibition of the EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway. Importantly, EGFR-ERK1/2 activity as well as rous sarcoma oncogene family kinases (SFK) are required for signaling through SMADs, mediating GDF9, activin A and TGFbeta1 mitogenic action in granulosa cells. GDF9 could not activate ERK1/2 or affect EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 in granulosa cells. However, induction of the SMAD3-specific CAGA reporter by GDF9 in granulosa cells required active EGFR, SFKs and ERK1/2 as did GDF9-responsive gene expression. Finally, the EGFR-SFKs-ERK1/2 pathway was shown to be required for the maintenance of phosphorylation of the SMAD3 linker region. Together our results suggest that receptivity of granulosa cells to oocyte-secreted factors, including GDF9, is regulated by the level of activation of the EGFR and resulting ERK1/2 activity, through the requisite permissive phosphorylation of SMAD3 in the linker region. Our results indicate that oocyte-secreted TGFbeta-like ligands and EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling are cooperatively required for the unique granulosa cell response to the signal from oocytes mediating granulosa cell survival and proliferation and hence the promotion of follicle growth and ovulation.

  16. RNA-seq based gene expression analysis of ovarian granulosa cells exposed to zearalenone in vitro: significance to steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Rui-Qian; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Wang, Yu-Feng; Ji, Chuan-Liang; Feng, Yan-Zhong; Yu, Jie; Ge, Wei; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Shi-Duo; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a natural contaminant of various food and feed products representing a significant problem worldwide. Since the occurrence of ZEA in grains and feeds is frequent, the present study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of ZEA on steroid production and gene expression of porcine granulosa cells, using RNA-seq analysis. Porcine granulosa cells were administered 10 μM and 30 μM ZEA during 72 h of culture in vitro. Following ZEA treatment the gene expression profile of control and exposed granulosa cells was compared using RNA-seq analysis. The results showed that in the exposed granulosa cells ZEA significantly altered the transcript levels, particularly steroidogenesis associated genes. Compared with the control group, 10 μM and 30 μM ZEA treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of EDN1, IER3, TGFβ and BDNF genes and significantly reduced the mRNA expression of IGF-1 and SFRP2 genes. In particular, ZEA significantly decreased the expression of genes essential for estrogen synthesis including FSHR, CYP19A1 and HSD17β in granulosa cells. Furthermore, Q-PCR and Western-blot analysis also confirmed reduced expression of these genes in ZEA exposed granulosa cells. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of 17β-estradiol concentrations in the culture medium of granulosa cells. Collectively, these results demonstrated a concretely deleterious effect of ZEA exposure on the mRNA expression of steroidogenesis related genes and the production of steroid hormones in porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. PMID:28969048

  17. Endometrial polypoid adenomyomatosis in a bitch with ovarian granulosa cell tumour and pyometra.

    PubMed

    Zanghì, A; Catone, G; Marino, G; Quartuccio, M; Nicòtina, P A

    2007-01-01

    Endometrial polypoid adenomyomatosis in an 8-year-old German shepherd bitch is described. The lesion was associated with ovarian granulosa cell tumour and pyometra; grossly, it consisted of sessile or pedunculated processes with both epithelial and non-epithelial components, in which smooth muscle cells were predominant. The endometrium was diffusely atrophic and showed multifocal squamous metaplasia. The findings are discussed as possible consequences of the functioning ovarian tumour and pyometra, but an involvement of growth factors is also proposed.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the potential roles of FOXL2 in chicken pre-hierarchical and pre-ovulatory granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Jinqiu; Feng, Yanping; Gong, Yanzhang

    2017-03-01

    Forkheadbox L2 (FOXL2) is a transcription factor involved in mammalian ovarian development, especially in granulosa cell differentiation. However, this factor's function in mature chicken ovary is unclear. To explore the function of FOXL2 in chicken granulosa cells, we performed RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of pre-hierarchical (phGCs) and pre-ovulatory granulosa cells (poGCs) by FOXL2 overexpression. We observed that focal adhesion might be one of the key pathways activated during the differentiation of granulosa cells, and FOXL2 might be involved in follicle selection by regulating the expression of cytokines and the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Interestingly, we observed that FOXL2 played different roles in phGCs and poGCs, which might contribute to homeostasis in the chicken follicle by inducing differentiation of granulosa cells in pre-hierarchal follicles and preventing premature ovulation in pre-ovulatory follicles. Taken together, the results of our study establish a framework for understanding the potential functions of FOXL2 in the chicken granulosa cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Vitamin D3 on Biosynthesis of Estrogen in Porcine Granulosa Cells via Modulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; An, Sung-Min; Shin, Ye Young; Hwang, Dae Youn; Yang, Seung Yun; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble secosteroid responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and other materials. Vitamin D3 deficiency, therefore, can cause health problems such as metabolic diseases, and bone disorder. Female sex hormones including estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in the granulosa cells of ovary. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovary and cultured for the experiments. In order to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on the ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot assay. The production of estrogen from the granulosa cells was also measured by the ELISA assay. Genes associated with follicle growth were not significantly altered by vitamin D3. However, it increases expression of genes involved in the estrogen-biosynthesis. Further, estrogen concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media increased in response to vitamin D3. These results showed that vitamin D3 is a powerful regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss. PMID:28133513

  20. Zinc-induced molt: evidence for a direct inhibitory effect on granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Brake, J

    1992-01-01

    Results from previous studies indicate that the use of dietary zinc may provide an effective means to initiate an induced molt in laying hens. Although much evidence indicates that high concentrations of zinc (10,000 to 20,000 ppm) cause the cessation of lay primarily by depressing feed intake, recent data suggest that lower concentrations (2,800 ppm) in a calcium-deficient diet may act via a direct action on the ovary. Therefore, a series of in vitro studies was conducted to evaluate whether zinc can affect granulosa cell progesterone production. Incubation of granulosa cells from the largest preovulatory (F1) follicle with zinc as zinc sulfate (.1 to 10 microM) had no effect on basal progesterone production. By contrast, ovine luteinizing hormone-stimulated progesterone production was inhibited (P less than .05) in a dose-related fashion by zinc in both the sulfate and acetate forms (1 to 10 microM). Furthermore, zinc attenuated oLH- and forskolin-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation, and inhibited 8-bromo-cAMP- and calcium ionophore (A23187)-induced progesterone production. Such results indicate both pre- and post-cAMP sites of action for zinc's inhibitory actions on progesterone production in F1 granulosa cells. Finally, ovine follicle-stimulating hormone-stimulated cAMP accumulation and progesterone production in granulosa cells collected from 9- to 12-mm follicles (a stage of development representing the early, rapid growth phase) were suppressed (P less than .05) by co-incubation of cells with zinc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. NO-mediated regulation of GLUT by T3 and FSH in rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Ding, Yu; Liu, Juan; Heng, Dai; Xu, Kaili; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-03-17

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for normal reproductive function. Although 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) enhances follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced preantral follicle growth and granulosa cells development in vitro, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating ovarian development via glucose. In this study, we investigated whether and how T3 combines with FSH to regulate glucose transporter protein (GLUT) expression and glucose uptake in granulosa cells. Here, we present evidence that T3 and FSH co-treatment significantly increased GLUT-1/GLUT-4 expression, and translocation in cells, as well as glucose uptake. These changes were accompanied by upregulation of NOS3 expression, total NOS and NOS3 activity and NO content in granulosa cells. Furthermore, we found that activation of the mTOR and PI3K/Akt pathway is required for the regulation of GLUT expression, translocation, and glucose uptake by hormones. We also found that L-arginine (L-arg) up-regulated GLUT-1/GLUT-4 expression and translocation, which were related to increased glucose uptake, however, these responses were significantly blocked by L-NAME. In addition, inhibiting NO production attenuated T3 and FSH-induced GLUT expression, translocation, and glucose uptake in granulosa cells. Our data demonstrate that T3 and FSH co-treatment potentiates cellular glucose uptake via GLUT upregulation and translocation, which are mediated through the activation of the mTOR/PI3K/Akt pathway. Meanwhile, NOS3/NO are also involved in this regulatory system. These findings suggest that GLUT is a novel mediator of T3 and FSH-induced follicular development.

  2. GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells: Anatomical localization and characterization by autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Latouche, J.; Crumeyrolle-Arias, M.; Jordan, D.; Kopp, N.; Augendre-Ferrante, B.; Cedard, L.; Haour, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The presence of receptors for GnRH in human ovary has been investigated by quantitative autoradiography. Simultaneous visualization and characterization of specific receptors on frozen sections were obtained on six pairs of human ovaries. Among them only one exhibited a large preovulatory follicle. This dominant follicle exhibited a specific and high affinity binding capacity for {sup 125}I-GnRHa exclusively localized on the granulosa cell layer. Analysis of saturation curve indicates a Kd value of 0.22 nM and Bmax of 9.6 fmol/mg protein. In contrast LH-hCG binding sites were present in all antral follicles. These data demonstrate for the first time the presence of high affinity GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells at a late stage of follicular maturation.

  3. Follicular growth and atresia in mammalian ovaries: regulation by survival and death of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Fuko; Inoue, Naoko; Manabe, Noboru; Ohkura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian ovary is an extremely dynamic organ in which a large majority of follicles are effectively eliminated throughout their reproductive life. Due to the numerous efforts of researchers, mechanisms regulating follicular growth and atresia in mammalian ovaries have been clarified, not only their systemic regulation by hormones (gonadotropins) but also their intraovarian regulation by gonadal steroids, growth factors, cytokines and intracellular proteins. Granulosa cells in particular have been demonstrated to play a major role in deciding the fate of follicles, serving molecules that are essential for follicular growth and maintenance as well as killing themselves by an apoptotic process that results in follicular atresia. In this review, we discuss the factors that govern follicular growth and atresia, with a special focus on their regulation by granulosa cells. First, ovarian folliculogenesis in adult life is outlined. Then, we explain about the regulation of follicular growth and atresia by granulosa cells, in which hormones, growth factors and cytokines, death ligand-receptor system and B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (BCL2) family members (mitochondria-mediated apoptosis) are further discussed.

  4. Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Impaired Granulosa Cell Differentiation in Androgen Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Chang, Heng-Yu; Kao, Shu-Huei; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Shuyuan; Tzeng, Chii-Reuy; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. Mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR−/−) were noted to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function that might involve the promotion of preantral follicle growth and prevention of follicular atresia. However, the detailed mechanism of how AR in granulosa cells exerts its effects on oocyte quality is poorly understood. Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR−/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR (AR+/+) oocytes had reached metaphase II. Interestingly, we found these AR−/− female mice also had an increased frequency of morphological alterations in the mitochondria of granulosa cells with reduced ATP generation (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 µM/mg protein; p < 0.05) and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanism dissection found loss of AR led to a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1-β (PGC1-β) and its sequential downstream genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), in controlling mitochondrial biogenesis. These results indicate that AR may contribute to maintain oocyte quality and fertility via controlling the signals of PGC1-β-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in granulosa cells. PMID:25941928

  5. Biosynthesis of cellular and secreted proteins during follicle-stimulating hormone-induced granulosa cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Knecht, M; Shinohara, O; Catt, K J

    1986-09-01

    The synthesis of cellular and secreted proteins by differentiating granulosa cells from diethylstilbestrol-treated immature rats was studied by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In cultured granulosa cells, FSH altered the relative biosynthesis of specific cellular and secreted proteins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The incorporation of [35S]methionine into cellular proteins of Mr 42,000, 48,000, and 58,000 was enhanced by increasing amounts of the gonadotropin, whereas the labeling of a 44,000 Mr protein was reduced. Similarly, FSH increased the labeling of secreted proteins with relative Mr of 16,000, 17,000, 20,000, 25,000, 36,000, 41,000, 46,000, 111,000, and 153,000, and decreased that of proteins with Mr of 38,000, 48,000, 191,000, and 250,000. The expression of specific proteins was related to the degree of cellular maturation, since some proteins were newly synthesized during the early stages of granulosa cell development (less than 6 h), whereas others were more evident in the middle (24 h) or later (48 h) phases of culture. Also, the level of specific protein synthesis was variable since certain proteins were progressively produced during culture, and the biosynthesis of others fluctuated or was reduced during development. The effects of FSH on protein synthesis were mimicked by other cAMP-inducing ligands, including cholera toxin, forskolin, and 8-bromo-cAMP. Removal of FSH at 24 h of culture was followed by reversion of the protein biosynthetic pattern at 48 h to that of control cells, indicating that continued exposure to the gonadotropin is required during development. Cells cultured in the absence of ligands for 24 h synthesized proteins characteristic of differentiated cells when subsequently cultured with forskolin. These results indicate that FSH selectively alters the biosynthesis of cell-associated and secreted proteins during granulosa cell maturation. The characterization of these gene products and

  6. The role of FOXL2 in the pathogenesis of adult ovarian granulosa cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Roseanne; Cohen, Paul A; Shelling, Andrew N

    2014-05-01

    It has been four years since the discovery of the FOXL2 402C>G mutation in adult ovarian granulosa cell tumours. Yet to date, there have been few studies which have investigated the precise role of the mutation in tumour pathogenesis. This review aims to summarise the research in this area, proposes a mechanism of action for the mutation, and explores the implications for clinical practice and future therapeutics. A literature search was performed with the keywords 'granulosa cell tumour' and 'FOXL2' on PubMed. Although the search returned 52 articles, of these only nine publications investigate the pathogenic effect of the mutant FOXL2 allele. Mutant FOXL2 maintains some of the transcriptional activity of the wildtype allele, but there is a subtle alteration of the expression in a unique suite of cancer-related genes. The mutation appears to deregulate the anti-proliferative transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway and this may contribute to the pathogenesis of adult GCTs. The inability of mutant FOXL2 to elicit an effective apoptotic signalling cascade may also be important in GCT pathogenesis. The 402C>G mutation in FOXL2 is central to the development of adult granulosa cell tumours. Based on the evidence, we suggest that FOXL2 is an oncogene or tumour suppressor depending on the genetic context that is the GCT subtype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Goose broodiness is involved in granulosa cell autophagy and homeostatic imbalance of follicular hormones.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lou, Yaping; He, Ke; Yang, Songbai; Yu, Wensai; Han, Lu; Zhao, Ayong

    2016-05-01

    Broodiness is observed in most domestic fowls and influences egg production. The goose is one of the most important waterfowls, having strong broody behavior. However, whether autophagy and follicular internal environment play a role in the broodiness behavior of goose is unknown. In this report, we analyzed the follicular internal environment and granulosa cell autophagy of goose follicles. The results show that the contents of hormones, including prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2), increased in broody goose follicles. Most importantly, the level of granulosa cell autophagy in broody goose follicles was elevated, detected by electron microscopy and western blotting. Also, the expressions of positive regulators of autophagy, including miR-7, miR-29, miR-100, miR-181, PRLR, LC3, p53,Beclin1, Atg9, and Atg12, were up-regulated and the expressions of negative regulators of autophagy, including miR-34b and miR-34c, were down-regulated in broody goose follicles. Our results suggest that goose broodiness is involved in increased granulosa cell autophagy and homeostasis imbalance of internal environment in the follicles. This work contributes to our knowledge of goose broodiness and may influence egg production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. miR-22 inhibits mouse ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fang; Hu, Lingqing; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Xiao; Xiao, Juxia

    2016-02-24

    Granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis has been shown to be involved in follicular atresia, which is a degenerative process in ovarian follicles of mammals. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of follicular atresia, particularly by microRNAs, is not well known. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of miR-22 in healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EAF), and progressively atretic follicles (PAF). Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) treated with miR-22 mimics or negative control (NC) mimics. Regulation of the expression of SIRT1 by miR-22 was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay system. To investigate the roles of SIRT1 in mGC apoptosis, the endogenous SIRT1 gene in mGCs was knocked down using an siRNA specific for SIRT1. miR-22 was increased during follicular atresia and suppressed granulosa cell apoptosis. The results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that SIRT1 was a target gene of miR-22. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated apoptosis in mGCs. miR-22 inhibits mGC apoptosis by downregulating SIRT1 directly in vitro. This study provides important insights into understanding the regulation mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia.

  9. miR-22 inhibits mouse ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fang; Hu, Lingqing; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Xiao; Xiao, Juxia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis has been shown to be involved in follicular atresia, which is a degenerative process in ovarian follicles of mammals. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of follicular atresia, particularly by microRNAs, is not well known. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of miR-22 in healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EAF), and progressively atretic follicles (PAF). Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) treated with miR-22 mimics or negative control (NC) mimics. Regulation of the expression of SIRT1 by miR-22 was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay system. To investigate the roles of SIRT1 in mGC apoptosis, the endogenous SIRT1 gene in mGCs was knocked down using an siRNA specific for SIRT1. miR-22 was increased during follicular atresia and suppressed granulosa cell apoptosis. The results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that SIRT1 was a target gene of miR-22. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated apoptosis in mGCs. miR-22 inhibits mGC apoptosis by downregulating SIRT1 directly in vitro. This study provides important insights into understanding the regulation mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia. PMID:26912776

  10. LOX-1 regulates estrogenesis via intracellular calcium release from bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, J M; Vernunft, A; Krüger, B; Plinski, C; Viergutz, T

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol produced by ovarian granulosa cells triggers the luteinizing hormone surge which in turn initiates ovulation in female mammals. Disturbances in estradiol production from granulosa cells are a major reason for reproductive dysfunctions in dairy cows. Endogenous estradiol production might be altered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), a receptor of ox-LDL, leads to increased estrogenesis in granulosa cells. This activity is mediated by calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-dependent and ER-independent calcium pools. Inhibition of the LOX-1 signal transduction pathway is followed by mitochondrial alterations. The membrane potential ΔΨ increases and the ROS production decreases in mitochondria after blocking LOX-1. Our data indicate that blocking the LOX-1 receptor signal pathway might be a promising way to improve steroid hormone concentrations in metabolically highly active female mammals and, therefore, to defend against reproductive dysfunctions in humans and animals.

  11. Estrogen receptors in granulosa cells govern meiotic resumption of pre-ovulatory oocytes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xin, Qiliang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Huarong; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chao; Xu, Yang; Duan, Enkui; Xia, Guoliang

    2017-03-09

    In mammals, oocytes are arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis I until the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggers meiotic resumption through the signals in follicular granulosa cells. In this study, we show that the estradiol (E2)-estrogen receptors (ERs) system in follicular granulosa cells has a dominant role in controlling oocyte meiotic resumption in mammals. We found that the expression of ERs was controlled by gonadotropins under physiological conditions. E2-ERs system was functional in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest by regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide C and natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPPC/NPR2), which was achieved through binding to the promoter regions of Nppc and Npr2 genes directly. In ER knockout mice, meiotic arrest was not sustained by E2 in most cumulus-oocyte complexes in vitro and meiosis resumed precociously in pre-ovulatory follicles in vivo. In human granulosa cells, similar conclusions are reached that ER levels were controlled by gonadotropins and E2-ERs regulated the expression of NPPC/NPR2 levels. In addition, our results revealed that the different regulating patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone and LH on ER levels in vivo versus in vitro determined their distinct actions on oocyte maturation. Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role of E2-ERs system during oocyte meiotic progression and may propose a novel approach for oocyte in vitro maturation treatment in clinical practice.

  12. Transgenic mice expressing inhibin α-subunit promoter (inhα)/Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (Tag) transgene as a model for the therapy of granulosa cell-derived ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chrusciel, Marcin; Doroszko, Milena; Stelmaszewska, Joanna; Li, Xiangdong; Ziecik, Adam J; Coelingh-Bennink, Herjan J T; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Rahman, Nafis A

    2014-03-01

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare, 3-7.6% of primary ovarian tumors, although with poor prognosis as the tumor-related mortality rate is 37.3%, with 80% of deaths occurring on recurrence. We have created a transgenic (TG) murine model for gonadal somatic cell tumors by expressing the powerful viral oncogene, Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (Tag), under the regulation of murine inhibin α-subunit 6 kb promoter (inhα/Tag). Gonadotropin dependent ovarian granulosa cell tumors were formed in females by the age of 5-6 months, with a 100% penetrance. We have successfully used the inhα/Tag model to test different treatment strategies for ovarian tumors. With a gene therapy trial in inhα/Tag mice crossbred with inhα/HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) mice (double TG), we proved the principle that targeted expression of HSV-TK gene in gonadal somatic cell tumors enabled tumor ablation by anti-herpes treatment. When we aimed at targeted destruction of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) expressing inhα/Tag tumor cells in vivo by a lytic peptide Hecate-CGβ conjugate, we could successfully kill the tumor cells, sparing the normal cells. We recently found high zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3) expression in inhα/Tag granulosa cell tumors, as well as in human granulosa cell tumors. We tested the concept of treating the ovarian tumors of inhα/Tag mice by vaccination against the ectopically expressed ZP3. Immunotherapy with recombinant human (rh) ZP3 was highly successful with no objective side effects in inhα/Tag females, suggesting rhZP3 immunization as a novel strategy for the immunotherapy of ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells. PMID:22839299

  14. Expression and regulation of INTELECTIN1 in human granulosa-lutein cells: role in IGF-1-induced steroidogenesis through NAMPT.

    PubMed

    Cloix, Lucie; Reverchon, Maxime; Cornuau, Marion; Froment, Pascal; Ramé, Christelle; Costa, Caroline; Froment, Gisèle; Lecomte, Pierre; Chen, Wenyong; Royère, Dominique; Guerif, Fabrice; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-08-01

    INTELECTIN (ITLN) is an adipokine involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and inflammatory and immunity responses. Serum ITLN levels are lower in obese, diabetic, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women than in control subjects. ITLN has never been studied in ovarian cells. Here, we identified ITLN1 in human ovarian follicles and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of its expression in response to the insulin sensitizers metformin and rosiglitazone, in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLCs) and in a human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line (KGN). We also studied the effects of human recombinant ITLN1 (hRom1) on steroid production and on the activation of various signaling pathways. Using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found that INTL1 is present in human follicular cells. Using ELISA, we showed that INTL levels are similar in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) in control patients, whereas they are higher in FF than in plasma in PCOS patients. In KGN cells and hGLCs, insulin (10(-8) M), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; 10(-8) M), and metformin (10(-2) M or 10(-3) M) increased INTL1 expression (mRNA and protein) after 12 and 24 h of stimulation. For metformin, this effect was mediated by adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (PRKA). Furthermore, hRom1 increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) expression in KGN and hGLCs. We also showed that hRom1 increased IGF-1-induced progesterone and estradiol secretion and this was associated with an increase in the STAR and CYP19A1 protein levels and an increase in IGF-1R signaling. Furthermore, all these data were abolished when NAMPT was knocked down in KGN cells, suggesting that INTL1 improves IGF-1-induced steroidogenesis through induction of NAMPT in hGLCs. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Amidi, Fardin; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Soleimani, Masoud; Shirazi, Reza; Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam

    2017-03-27

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vitamin D3 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities in granulosa cell using a PCOS mouse model. In our study, the PCOS mouse model was developed by the injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for 20 days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells were compared between polycystic and normal ovaries using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Granulosa cells of DHEA-induced PCOS mice were then cultured with and without vitamin D3 and mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes and serum 17beta-estradiol and progesterone levels were investigated using qRT-PCR, western blot, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Steroidogenic enzymes including Cyp11a1, StAR, Cyp19a1, and 3β-HSD were upregulated in granulosa cells of PCOS mice when compared to normal mice. Treatment with vitamin D3 decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes in cultured granulosa cells. Vitamin D3 also decreased aromatase and 3β-HSD activity that leads to decreased 17beta-estradiol and progesterone release. This study suggests that vitamin D3 could modulate the steroidogenesis pathway in granulosa cells of PCOS mice that may lead to improving follicular development and maturation. This is a step towards a possible conceivable treatment for PCOS.

  16. Oxidative Stress Induced by Zearalenone in Porcine Granulosa Cells and Its Rescue by Curcumin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xunsi; Cao, Mingjun; Lai, Fangnong; Yang, Fan; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Xifeng; Cheng, Shunfeng; Sun, Xiaofeng; Qin, Guoqing; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), as a signal of aberrant intracellular mechanisms, plays key roles in maintaining homeostasis for organisms. The occurrence of OS due to the disorder of normal cellular redox balance indicates the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or deficiency of antioxidants. Once the balance is broken down, repression of oxidative stress is one of the most effective ways to alleviate it. Ongoing studies provide remarkable evidence that oxidative stress is involved in reproductive toxicity induced by various stimuli, such as environmental toxicants and food toxicity. Zearalenone (ZEA), as a toxic compound existing in contaminated food products, is found to induce mycotoxicosis that has a significant impact on the reproduction of domestic animals, especially pigs. However, there is no information about how ROS and oxidative stress is involved in the influence of ZEA on porcine granulosa cells, or whether the stress can be rescued by curcumin. In this study, ZEA-induced effect on porcine granulosa cells was investigated at low concentrations (15 μM, 30 μM and 60 μM). In vitro ROS levels, the mRNA level and activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were obtained. The results showed that in comparison with negative control, ZEA increased oxidative stress with higher ROS levels, reduced the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes, increased the intensity of fluorogenic probes 2’, 7’-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium in flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Meanwhile, the activity of glutathione (GSH) did not change obviously following 60 μM ZEA treatment. Furthermore, the underlying protective mechanisms of curcumin on the ZEA-treated porcine granulosa cells were investigated. The data revealed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly suppressed ZEA-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, porcine granulosa cells were sensitive to ZEA, which may induce oxidative

  17. Steroid hormones promote bovine oocyte growth and connection with granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Makita, Miho; Miyano, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    Many approaches have been investigated for growing oocytes in vitro in mammals. To support oocyte growth in vitro, the culture systems must meet certain conditions for maintaining connections between oocytes and surrounding granulosa cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of combinations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and androstenedione (A4) on in vitro growth of bovine oocytes and to determine the number of connections between the oocyte and granulosa cells. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) collected from early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for 14 days in a medium with different concentrations of E2 and A4, either alone or in combinations. We then assessed the number of transzonal projections (TZPs), which extend from granulosa cells through the zona pellucida to the oolemma. During in vitro growth culture, OGC structures were maintained in the medium with steroid hormones. The mean diameter of oocytes grown in the medium with both E2 and A4 was increased from 95.8 μm to around 120 μm, larger than oocytes grown without steroid hormones (109.9 μm) and similar in size to in vivo fully grown oocytes (119.4 μm) from 4- to 6-mm antral follicles. In subsequent in vitro maturation culture (22 hours), 30% (12 of 40) and 34% (14 of 41) of oocytes grown with E2 or A4 alone, respectively, matured to metaphase II; meanwhile, oocytes grown with a combination of E2 and A4 matured to metaphase II at a high rate (58%, 23 of 40). Growing oocytes isolated from early antral follicles had many uniformly distributed TZPs throughout the zona pellucida. After 14 days of culture, there was a significant decrease in the number of TZPs in oocytes grown without steroid hormones, whereas the number of TZPs was maintained in oocytes grown with steroid hormones. In particular, oocytes grown with E2 alone or with a combination of E2 and A4 had numbers of TZPs similar to oocytes before growth culture. In conclusion, a combination of

  18. Pig membrana granulosa cells prevent resumption of meiosis in cattle oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kalous, J; Sutovsky, P; Rimkevicova, Z; Shioya, Y; Lie, B L; Motlik, J

    1993-01-01

    Membrana granulosa was isolated from healthy large antral follicles of prepubertal or cyclic gilts stimulated with PMSG or PMSG and hCG. Ultrastructural observations revealed that pieces of pig membrana granulosa were associated with the basement membrane. The cattle cumulus-enclosed oocytes (COC) were placed in the rolled pieces of the pig membrana granulosa (PMG). After 8 and 24 hr of coculture with PMG from prepubertal gilts, only 16% and 21% of oocytes underwent GVBD, respectively. PMG from PMSG-stimulated cyclic gilts blocked the resumption of meiosis in all COC. The inhibitory effect of heterologous granulosa cells was fully reversible. When COC were initially incubated for 2 and 4 hr, subsequent culture in PMG prevented GVBD in 100% and 36% of oocytes, respectively. This suggests that functional contact between COC and PMG was established during the first 2 hr of coculture. To follow metabolic cooperation between PMG and COC, PMG was prelabeled with 3H-uridine and cocultured with COC. Autoradiography on semithin sections revealed the intensive passage of 3H-uridine from PMG into the cumulus layer and an oocyte. COC placed in PMG after GVBD (8 and 12 hr of an initial incubation) did not extrude the first polar body. PMG isolated from cyclic gilts after PMSG and hCG stimulation also inhibited GVBD of COC. Since nearly all COC placed in PMG isolated 10 and 12 hr after hCG remained in the GV stage after 24 hr of coculture, the hCG stimulation did not substantially diminish the meiosis inhibiting activity of PMG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Inactivation of the LOX-1 pathway promotes the Golgi apparatus during cell differentiation of mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, J M; Vernunft, A; Krüger, B; Plinski, C; Viergutz, T

    2014-12-01

    In female mammals, granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle differentiate into the corpus luteum after ovulation of the pregnable oocyte into the fallopian tube. During these differentiation processes several morphological alterations have to occur and the molecular basis is not fully understood. As an endpoint estradiol production from granulosa cells has to switch off in favor for progesterone production from the proceeding corpus luteum to sustain the developing embryo. Previously, we demonstrated that the multiligand receptor LOX-1 plays a critical role in steroid hormone synthesis of granulosa cells via intracellular calcium release from endoplasmic (ER)-dependent and ER-independent calcium pools. In the present study, we show that inhibition of LOX-1 leads to a rearrangement of ceramide from the basal membrane toward the Golgi apparatus. This activity is accomplished by a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of aromatase, the key step in estradiol production. Phosphorylated aromatase increased estradiol production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data indicate that the ceramide cascade is essential for proper granulosa cell function and ceramide redistribution serves as a first step in order to proceed with the prosperous differentiation into a corpus luteum.

  20. MDR1 overexpression inhibits chemotherapy-induced toxicity of granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To protect granulosa cells from chemotherapy-induced toxicity by retrovirus-mediated multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) transfection. DESIGN Laboratory study. SETTING Academic research laboratory in a university hospital. INTERVENTION(S) KK15 immortalized murine granulosa cell line was transiently transduced with sf91m3 retrovirus vector carrying MDR1 cDNA that encodes P-glycoprtoein (P-gp). Transduced cells were selected with colchicine and treated with doxorubicin or paclitaxel for 24–72 hours. The expression and function of MDR1 and the mRNA expression of selected steroidogenesis enzymes were evaluated by flow cytometry, cell viability assays, Western blot, and RT-PCR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Viability of sf91m3-transduced KK15 cells after treatment with doxorubicin and paclitaxel. RESULT(S) sf91m3-transduced KK15 demonstrated high expression of biologically active MDR1 as shown by flow cytometry analysis and immunoblotting using P-gp monoclonal antibody and Rhodamine 123 efflux assays. sf91m3-transduced KK15 exhibited significant resistance to toxicity of 10uM paclitaxel(p≤0.001). MDR1-transduced KK15 cells were also protected from doxorubicin toxicity (10nM to 2.5uM) as shown by cell viability assay (p≤0.02). Both flow cytometry and cell viability assay showed that the protection of KK15 from doxorubicin toxicity was lost at 5 uM of doxorubicin; equivalent to 500 times LD50 (p≥0.05). sf91m3-transduced KK15 showed normal mRNA expression of a panel of selected steroidogenesis enzymes. CONCLUSION(S) Retroviral gene delivery of human MDR1 inhibited chemotherapy- induced granulosa cell toxicity and offered chemoprotection in an in vitro model. PMID:21316663

  1. Modulation of in vitro DNA synthesis in the chicken ovarian granulosa cell follicular hierarchy by follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    McElroy, A P; Caldwell, D J; Proudman, J A; Hargis, B M

    2004-03-01

    Folliculogenesis in domestic hens appears to be controlled by numerous factors, particularly the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The involvement of LH in follicular steroidogenesis has been described in some detail; however, the specific role of FSH has remained elusive. In 3 experiments, the effects of ovine (o)- or chicken (c)-derived FSH (oFSH, cFSH) or LH (oLH, cLH) were evaluated on in vitro DNA synthesis [3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation], indicative of cellular proliferation, of granulosa cells from F1, F3, or F5-6 preovulatory follicles. In experiment 1, oFSH or cFSH stimulated (P < 0.05) and oLH or cLH decreased DNA synthesis by F1 granulosa cells. In experiment 2, oFSH resulted in concentration-related changes in DNA synthesis by F5-6 granulosa cells; however, no significant changes were observed in F1 or F3 granulosa cells. No effect of oLH was observed on granulosa cell proliferation from any of the follicles. Similar to oFSH, cFSH resulted in concentration-related increases in DNA synthesis in granulosa cells from F5-6 follicles with smaller magnitude changes in proliferation of F1 or F3 granulosa cells. Granulosa cells from F5-6 or F3 follicles had small increases in DNA synthesis in response to cLH. These data support the proposed role for FSH in granulosa cell proliferation, possibly contributing to follicle growth, and suggest that in vitro 3H-TdR incorporation by granulosa cells may provide a sensitive and selective bioassay for chicken gonadotropin preparations. Furthermore, data suggest that proliferative responsiveness of granulosa cells to FSH or LH may differ depending on position of follicles in the preovulatory hierarchy.

  2. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  3. Active 3'-5' cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are present in detergent-resistant membranes of mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Annick; Guillemette, Christine; Sirard, Marc-André; Richard, François J

    2016-01-04

    Lipids rafts are specialised membrane microdomains involved in cell signalling that can be isolated as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) has a central role in cell signalling in the ovary and its degradation is carried out by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme family. We hypothesised that PDEs could be functionally present in the lipid rafts of porcine mural granulosa cell membranes. PDE6C, PDE8A and PDE11A were detected by dot blot in the DRMs and the Triton-soluble fraction of the mural granulosa cells membrane and the cytosol. As shown by immunocytochemistry, PDEs showed clear immunostaining in mural granulosa cell membranes and the cytosol. Interestingly, cAMP-PDE activity was 18 times higher in the DRMs than in the Triton-soluble fraction of cell membranes and was 7.7 times higher in the cytosol than in the DRMs. cAMP-PDE activity in mural granulosa cells was mainly contributed by the PDE8 and PDE11 families. This study shows that PDEs from the PDE8 and PDE11 families are present in mural granulosa cells and that the cAMP-PDE activity is mainly contributed by the cytosol. In the cell membrane, the cAMP-PDE activity is mainly contributed by the DRMs. In addition, receptors for prostaglandin E2 and LH, two G-protein-coupled receptors, are present in lipid rafts and absent from the non-raft fraction of the granulosa cell membrane. These results suggest that in these cells, the lipid rafts exist as a cell-signalling platform and PDEs are one of the key enzyme families present in the raft.

  4. Activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Granulosa Cells from Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Contributes to Ovarian Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nozomi; Harada, Miyuki; Hirota, Yasushi; Nose, Emi; Azhary, Jerilee Mk; Koike, Hiroshi; Kunitomi, Chisato; Yoshino, Osamu; Izumi, Gentaro; Hirata, Tetsuya; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Chang, R Jeffrey; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2017-09-07

    Recent studies report the involvement of intra-ovarian factors, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a local factor that affects various cellular events during a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological conditions. It may also be an important determinant of pro-fibrotic remodeling during tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we showed that ER stress was activated in granulosa cells of PCOS patients as well as in a well-established PCOS mouse model. Pharmacological inducers of ER stress, tunicamycin and thapsigargin, were found to increase the expression of pro-fibrotic growth factors, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, in human granulosa cells, and their expression also increased in granulosa cells of PCOS patients. By contrast, treatment of PCOS mice with an ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid or BGP-15, decreased interstitial fibrosis and collagen deposition in ovaries, accompanied by a reduction in TGF-β1 expression in granulosa cells. These findings suggest that ER stress in granulosa cells of women with PCOS contributes to the induction of pro-fibrotic growth factors during ovarian fibrosis, and that ER stress may serve as a therapeutic target in PCOS.

  5. Abnormal expression levels of BMP15/Smad1 are associated with granulosa cell apoptosis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Bi, Xingyu; Liu, Junfen; Long, Zhijing; Zhang, Xiuping; Zhang, Dongdong; Jia, Hongxiang; Su, Dan; Huo, Kai

    2017-09-28

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects reproductive dysfunction and metabolism in women of childbearing age. An increasing number of studies have suggested that the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) signalling pathway serves an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS; however, the full mechanism remains unknown. The present study revealed that intrinsic follicular dysplasia may be associated with regulation disorders of ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. Compared with the control group, body mass index, luteinising hormone and testosterone levels were significantly increased (P<0.05). The percentage of S phase cells was significantly higher, cells in G2/M phase cells was significantly lower, and cells undergoing apoptosis was significantly higher in the PCOS group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2 was significantly decreased in granulosa cells of PCOS group, whereas the expression of caspase‑3 was higher than the control group (P<0.05). The rate of apoptosis of granulosa cells was measured by a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick‑end labelling assay. The relative mRNA expression levels of BMP receptor 2 and SMAD1 were significantly decreased in granulosa cells in the PCOS group compared with the control (P<0.05). In addition, the expression of BMP15 in follicular fluid and Smad1 in granulosa cells was significantly decreased in the PCOS group compared with the control (P<0.05). The data suggested that the BMP15/Smad1 signalling pathway may be involved in granulosa cell apoptosis, and may be a target for clinical treatment for PCOS.

  6. Embryonic stem cell-derived granulosa cells participate in ovarian follicle formation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; White, Yvonne A R; Niikura, Yuichi; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lee, Ho-Joon; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-05-01

    Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can form ovarian follicle-like structures in vitro, consisting of an oocyte-like cell surrounded by somatic cells capable of steroidogenesis. Using a dual-fluorescence reporter system in which mouse ESCs express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a germ cell-specific Pou5f1 gene promoter and red fluorescent protein (Discosoma sp red [DsRed]) driven by the granulosa cell-specific Forkhead box L2 (Foxl2) gene promoter, we first confirmed in vitro formation of follicle-like structures containing GFP-positive cells surrounded by DsRed-positive cells. Isolated DsRed-positive cells specified from ECSs exhibited a gene expression profile consistent with granulosa cells, as revealed by the detection of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Foxl2, follistatin (Fst), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) as well as by production of both progesterone and estradiol. In addition, treatment of isolated DsRed-expressing cells with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly increased estradiol production over basal levels, confirming the presence of functional FSH receptors in these cells. Last, ESC-derived DsRed-positive cells injected into neonatal mouse ovaries became incorporated within the granulosa cell layer of immature follicles. These studies demonstrate that Foxl2-expressing ovarian somatic cells derived in vitro from differentiating ESCs express granulosa cell markers, actively associate with germ cells in vitro, synthesize steroids, respond to FSH, and participate in folliculogenesis in vivo.

  7. The effect of oxytocin on oestradiol-17 beta and testosterone secretion by cultured human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Clamagirand, C; Plevrakis, I; Bussenot, I; Parinaud, J; Vieitez, G; Grandjean, H

    1991-07-01

    The effect of oxytocin at different concentrations was tested on the secretion of oestradiol-17 beta and testosterone by cultured human granulosa cells obtained by follicular punctures during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) attempts. Oxytocin had no effect on testosterone secretion, either in the absence or the presence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). It had no effect on oestradiol-17 beta in the absence of FSH. However, it decreased the FSH-stimulated secretion of oestradiol-17 beta in a certain number of cases. This inhibitory effect appears to be associated with cells more responsive to FSH and was identified in women found to be successful in achieving pregnancy during IVF attempts.

  8. In vitro culture of oocytes and granulosa cells collected from normal, obese, emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S K; Farman, M; Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Gupta, Psp; Kumar, V Girish

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the oocyte morphology, its fertilizing capacity and granulosa cell functions in ewes (obese, normal, metabolic stressed and emaciated). Ewes (Ovis aries) of approximately 3 years of age (Bellary breed) from a local village were screened, chosen and categorized into a) normal b) obese but not metabolically stressed, c) Emaciated but not metabolically stressed d) Metabolically stressed based on body condition scoring and blood markers. Oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from ovaries of the ewes of all categories after slaughter and were classified into good (oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm), fair (oocytes one or two layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm) and poor (denuded oocytes or with dark ooplasm). The good and fair quality oocytes were in vitro matured and cultured with fresh semen present and the fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development were observed. The granulosa cells were cultured for evaluation of metabolic activity by use of the MTT assay, and cell viability, cell number as well as estrogen and progesterone production were assessed. It was observed that the good and fair quality oocytes had greater metabolic activity when collected from normal and obese ewes compared with those from emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes. No significant difference was observed in oocyte quality and maturation amongst the oocytes collected from normal and obese ewes. The cleavage and blastocyst production rates were different for the various body condition classifications and when ranked were: normal>obese>metabolically stressed>emaciated. Lesser metabolic activity was observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of emaciated ewes. However, no changes were observed in viability and cell number of granulosa cells obtained from ewes with the different body condition categories. Estrogen and progesterone production from cultured granulosa cells were

  9. Autocrine role of estrogens in the augmentation of luteinizing hormone receptor formation in cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kessel, B; Liu, Y X; Jia, X C; Hsueh, A J

    1985-06-01

    The effects of estrogens on gonadotropin-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor formation were examined in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were cultured for 3 days with increasing concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the presence or absence of native and synthetic estrogens. Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulated LH receptor formation in a dose-dependent fashion, and estrogens enhanced the FSH-stimulated LH receptor content by decreasing the apparent ED50 of FSH. At 6.25 ng/ml FSH, the enhancement in LH receptor was estrogen dose dependent, with an ED50 value of about 3 X 10(-9) M for 17 beta-estradiol. The increased LH receptor content seen in cells treated with FSH and estrogen was correlated with increased cAMP production by these cells in response to LH stimulation. Time course studies revealed enhancement of FSH-stimulated LH receptor induction at 48 and 72 h of culture. Granulosa cells were also cultured with FSH for 2 days to induce functional LH receptors, then further cultured for 3 days with LH in the presence or absence of estrogens. At 30 ng/ml LH, increasing concentrations of estrogens maintained LH receptor content in a dose-dependent fashion, with their relative estrogenic potencies in keeping with reported binding affinities to estrogen receptors. An autocrine role of estrogens on LH receptor formation was further tested in granulosa cells treated with FSH and an aromatase substrate (androstenedione) to increase estrogen biosynthesis. Cotreatment with semipurified estrogen antibodies partially blocked the FSH stimulation of LH receptors, whereas nonimmune serum was ineffective. Also, inclusion of diethylstilbestrol prevented the inhibitory effect of the estrogen antibodies. Thus, local estrogens in ovarian follicles may play an autocrine role in granulosa cells to enhance LH receptor formation and to increase granulosa cell responsiveness to the LH surge, with subsequent ovulation and adequate

  10. AKT is involved in granulosa cell autophagy regulation via mTOR signaling during rat follicular development and atresia.

    PubMed

    Choi, JongYeob; Jo, MinWha; Lee, EunYoung; Choi, DooSeok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether granulosa cell autophagy during follicular development and atresia was regulated by the class I phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, which is known to control the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major negative regulator of autophagy. Ovaries and granulosa cells were obtained using an established gonadotropin-primed immature rat model that induces follicular development and atresia. Autophagy was evaluated by measuring the expression level of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) using western blots and immunohistochemistry. The activity of AKT and mTOR was also examined by observing the phosphorylation of AKT and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) respectively. After gonadotropin injection, LC3-II expression was suppressed and phosphorylation of AKT and S6K increased in rat granulosa cells. By contrast, gonadotropin withdrawal by metabolic clearance promoted LC3-II expression and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and S6K. In addition, in-vitro FSH treatment of rat granulosa cells also indicated inhibition of LC3-II expression accompanied by a marked increase in phosphorylation of AKT and S6K. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation using AKT inhibitor VIII suppressed FSH-mediated phosphorylation of S6K, followed by an increase in LC3-II expression. Furthermore, co-treatment with FSH and AKT inhibitor increased the levels of apoptosis and cell death of granulosa cells compared with the single treatment with FSH. Taken together, our findings indicated that AKT-mediated activation of mTOR suppresses granulosa cell autophagy during follicular development and is involved in the regulation of apoptotic cell death.

  11. Antioxidant status and selected biochemical parameters of porcine ovarian granulosa cells exposed to lead in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capcarová, Marcela; Kolesárová, Adriana; Lukác, Norbert; Sirotkin, Alexander; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and release of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total lipids, totals proteins, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides by porcine ovarian granulosa cells cultured in vitro after lead acetate administration. The parameters were analyzed using semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Microlab 300, microprocessor-controlled analyzer EasyLite and spectrophotometer Genesys 10. Cells were cultured with lead acetate trihydrate [Pb(CH(3)COO)(2).3H(2)O] as follows: group Max (5 mg Pb(CH(3)COO)(2).3H(2)O/10 mL), group A (2.5 mg/10 mL), group B (0.83 mg/10 mL), group C (0.625 mg/10 mL), group D (0.455 mg/10 mL) and the control group without lead exposure for 18 hrs. The highest TAS was estimated in the control group without lead treatment in comparison with other groups (MAX, A, B, C, D). Statistical analyses showed significantly lower value (P < 0.05) in group B. The activity of SOD was the lowest in the control group in comparison to those exposed to in vitro lead culture. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) of calcium content in group MAX in comparison with control group was determined. Release of phosphorus by ovarian granulosa cells was significantly lower (P < 0.05; 0.01; 0.001) in all the treated groups in comparison with control group. Lead was found to stimulate the release of magnesium and potassium by granulosa cells, but the increase remained statistically insignificant. The highest concentration of glucose was noted in control group, but the differences were not significant either. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected in concentration of other studied parameters among observed groups, too.

  12. EP3 Receptor Isoforms are Differentially Expressed in Subpopulations of Primate Granulosa Cells and Couple to Unique G-Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ok; Dozier, Brandy L.; Kerry, Julie A.; Duffy, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 produced within the ovarian follicle is necessary for ovulation. Prostaglandin E2 is recognized by four distinct G-protein coupled receptors. Among them, PTGER3 (also known as EP3) is unique in that mRNA splicing generates multiple isoforms. Each isoform has a distinct amino acid composition in the C-terminal region, which is involved in G-protein coupling. To determine if monkey EP3 isoforms couple to different G-proteins, each EP3 isoform was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and intracellular signals were examined after stimulation with the EP3 agonist sulprostone. Stimulation of EP3 isoform 5 (EP3-5) reduced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, indicating involvement of Gαi. Stimulation of EP3-9 increased cAMP, which was reduced by the general G-protein inhibitor GDP-β-S, and also increased intracellular calcium, which was reduced by pertussis toxin and GDP-β-S. So, EP3-9 likely couples to both Gαs and a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein to regulate intracellular signals. Stimulation of EP3-14 increased cAMP, which was further increased by pertussis toxin, so EP3-14 likely regulates cAMP via multiple G-proteins. Granulosa cell expression of all EP3 isoforms increased in response to an ovulatory dose of hCG. Two EP3 isoforms were differentially expressed in functional subpopulations of granulosa cells. EP3-5 was low in granulosa cells at the follicle apex while EP3-9 was high in cumulus granulosa cells. Differential expression of EP3 isoforms may yield different intracellular responses to prostaglandin E2 in granulosa cell subpopulations, contributing to the different roles played by granulosa cell subpopulations in the process of ovulation. PMID:24062570

  13. Effects of a trichothecene, T-2 toxin, on proliferation and steroid production by porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Ranzenigo, Giovanni; Cremonesi, Fausto; Spicer, Leon J

    2009-09-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes and zearalenone, are produced by molds and contaminate a large variety of grains and feedstuffs worldwide. Mycotoxins of Fusarium fungi include the trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin (T2), and zearalenone, and have been implicated in poor reproductive performance in pigs. However, direct ovarian effects of T2 toxin have not been reported. Therefore, porcine granulosa cells (GC) from small follicles (1-5mm) were cultured for 2 days in 5% fetal bovine serum and 5% porcine serum-containing medium followed by 2 days in serum-free medium containing various doses of FSH, insulin-like growth factor-I and T2 (at various doses/combinations) to evaluate the influence of T2 on steroid production and cell proliferation. T2 at 1, 3, 30 and 300 ng/mL completely inhibited FSH plus IGF-I-induced estradiol production, whereas 0.3 ng/mL of T2 inhibited estradiol production by 40%. Progesterone production was less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of T2 with 0.3 ng/mL having no effect and 1 ng/mL inhibiting progesterone production by only 30%. At 30 and 300 ng/mL, T2 completely inhibited FSH plus IGF-I-induced progesterone production. The impact of T2 on the dose-response to IGF-I (0, 3, 10 and 30 ng/mL) was also evaluated; T2 blunted the stimulatory effect of 3-30 ng/mL of IGF-I on steroid production and cell proliferation. Serum-induced granulosa cell proliferation was decreased (P<0.05) by 40% after 1 day and by 56% after 2 days of T2 treatment. The present studies indicate for the first time that T2 may be able to alter in growth of the granulosa layer within ovarian follicles in addition to their effect on steroidogenesis. In conclusion, T2 has potent direct dose-dependent effects on granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. These direct ovarian effects could be one mechanism whereby contaminating Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuffs could impact reproductive performance in swine.

  14. Epidermal growth factor elevates intracellular pH in chicken granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Morley, P; Asem, E K; Tsang, B K

    1991-08-01

    Many bioregulators, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), induce intracellular alkalinization by activating a membrane bound Na+/H+ antiporter. The present studies were designed to examine the influence of EGF on intracellular pH (pHi) in chicken granulosa cells. pHi in granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory follicles of hens was determined spectrofluorometrically using the dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The resting pHi was 6.81 +/- 0.006 (n = 30) when the extracellular pH and sodium concentration (Na+o) were 7.3 and 144 mM, respectively. EGF (5-100 ng/ml) induced a concentration-dependent increase in pHi, which reached a maximum of 0.217 +/- 0.009 pH units at a concentration of 100 ng/ml EGF. Cytosolic alkalinization was observed within 10 min of the addition of EGF and lasted over the 60 min observation period. The increase in pHi was dependent upon the presence of Na+o, since the EGF effect was attenuated when Na+o was substituted with equimolar concentrations of nonpermeant choline chloride. The EGF-induced pHi change was also inhibited by amiloride, dimethyl amiloride, and ethylisopropyl amiloride, inhibitors of the Na+/H+ antiporter. The alkalinization effect of EGF was mimicked by transforming growth factor-alpha but not by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, or transforming growth factor-beta. These studies suggest for the first time that intracellular alkalinization resulting from activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter may be a part of the transmembrane signaling pathway in the action of EGF on chicken granulosa cells.

  15. Molecular basis of voltage-dependent potassium currents in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Diane E; Mitchell, Kathy E; Li, Yan; Finley, Melissa R; Freeman, Lisa C

    2002-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to elucidate the molecular bases for K(+) current diversity in porcine granulosa cells (GC). Two delayed rectifier K(+) currents with distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties were recorded from porcine GC by using whole-cell patch clamp: 1) a slowly activating, noninactivating current (I(Ks)) antagonized by clofilium, 293B, L-735,821, and L-768,673; and 2) an ultrarapidly activating, slowly inactivating current (I(Kur)) antagonized completely by clofilium and 4-aminopyridine and partially by tetraethylammonium, charybdotoxin, dendrotoxin, and kaliotoxin. The molecular identity of the K(+) channel genes underlying I(Ks) and I(Kur) was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting to detect K(+) channel transcripts and proteins. We found that GC could express multiple voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel subunits, including KCNQ1, KCNE1, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv1.6, Kvbeta1.3, and Kvbeta2. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to establish the hetero-oligomeric nature of granulosa cell Kv channels. KCNE1 and KCNQ1 were coassociated in GC, and their expression coincided with the expression of I(Ks). Extensive coassociation of the various Kv alpha- and beta-subunits was also documented, suggesting that the diverse electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of I(Kur) currents may reflect variation in the composition and stoichiometry of the channel assemblies, as well as differences in post-translational modification of contributing Kv channel subunits. Our findings provide an essential background for experimental definition of granulosa K(+) channel function(s). It will be critical to define the functional roles of specific GC K(+) channels, because these proteins may represent either novel targets for assisted reproduction or potential sites of drug toxicity.

  16. Oxidative Stress in Granulosa-Lutein Cells From In Vitro Fertilization Patients.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Julio; González-Fernández, Rebeca; Rotoli, Deborah; Hernández, Jairo; Palumbo, Angela

    2016-12-01

    Ovarian aging is associated with gradual follicular loss by atresia/apoptosis. Increased production of toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species as well as external oxidant agents plays an important role in the process of ovarian senescence and in the pathogenesis of ovarian pathologies such as endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This review provides a synthesis of available studies of oxidative stress (OS) in the ovary, focusing on the most recent evidence obtained in mural granulosa-lutein (GL) cells of in vitro fertilization patients. Synthesis of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxiredoxin 4, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and OS damage response proteins such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 3, member A2 decreases with aging in human GL cells, favoring an unbalance in ROS/antioxidants that mediates molecular damage and altered cellular function. The increase in OS in the granulosa cell correlates with diminished expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and a dysregulation of the FSHR signaling pathway and may be implicated in disrupted steroidogenic function and poor response to FSH in women with aging. Women with endometriosis and PCOS have lower antioxidant production capacity that may contribute to abnormal follicular development and infertility. Further investigation of the signaling pathways involved in cellular response to OS could shed light into molecular characterization of these diseases and development of new treatment strategies to improve reproductive potential in these women.

  17. Oocyte-granulosa cell interactions during mouse follicular development: regulation of kit ligand expression and its role in oocyte growth.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Fiona H; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2006-04-12

    Ovarian folliculogenesis is regulated by both endocrine and intraovarian mechanisms that coordinate the processes of oocyte growth and somatic cell proliferation and differentiation. Within the follicle, paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells are critical for normal cell development and function. This review focuses on the role of paracrine interactions during early oocyte and follicular development that ensure proper coordination of oocyte and somatic cell function. Particular emphasis is given to granulosa cell-derived Kit Ligand (KitL), whose functional importance for oocyte growth has been demonstrated by a wide range of in vivo and in vitro studies. Reported interactions between KitL and oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) suggest the molecular basis of oocyte-granulosa cell interactions, but also hint at the complexity of these communications. These paracrine interactions and the structure of the oocyte-granulosa cell interface are follicle stage-specific and regulated by FSH. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that promote the development of healthy oocytes with good developmental competence has potential applications for improving fertility and for in vitro growth systems for oocytes from domestic animals and humans.

  18. PCSK6 regulated by LH inhibits the apoptosis of human granulosa cells via activin A and TGFβ2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Fan, Deng-Xuan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Ming-Qing; Wu, Hai-Xia; Jin, Li-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian proprotein convertases (PCs) play an important role in folliculogenesis, as they proteolytically activate a variety of substrates such as the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily. PC subtilism/kexin 6 (PCSK6) is a member of the PC family and is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. However, in human granulosa cells, the expression of the PC family members, their hormonal regulation, and the function of PCs are not clear. In this study, we found that PCSK6 is the most highly expressed PC family member in granulosa cells. LH increased PCSK6 mRNA level and PCSK6 played an anti-apoptosis function in KGN cells. Knockdown of PCSK6 not only increased the secretion of activin A and TGFβ2 but also decreased the secretion of follistatin, estrogen, and the mRNA levels of FSH receptor (FSHR) and P450AROM (CYP19A1). We also found that, in the KGN human granulosa cell line, TGFβ2 and activin A could promote the apoptosis of KGN cells and LH could regulate the follistatin level. These data indicate that PCSK6, which is regulated by LH, is highly expressed in human primary granulosa cells of pre-ovulatory follicles and plays important roles in regulating a series of downstream molecules and apoptosis of KGN cells.

  19. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  20. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song; Zhang, Zhifen; Xia, Li-Xia; Huang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) has been proved to have a positive role in the follicular development. We investigated its effect on human granulosa cells and found that M-CSF could stimulate the production of E2. The production of FSH receptors was enhanced by M-CSF in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with or without the addition of tamoxifen (p <0.05). Correspondingly, FSH was also able to coordinate the expression of M-CSF and its receptor (p <0.05). That maybe important to maintain the level of Nppc and the meiotic arrest of the oocyte. The protein p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in JAK/STAT-signaling pathway elevated after the influence of M-CSF (p < 0.05). These results suggest that M-CSF has a role in regulating the response of granulosa cells to gonadotropins. Its function is associated with JAK/STAT-signaling pathway.

  1. Concanavalin-A induces granulosa cell death and inhibits FSH-mediated follicular growth and ovarian maturation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Ethel V; Ríos, Mariana; Ortiz, María Elena; Lizama, Carlos; Nuñez, Elizabeth; Abramovich, Dalhia; Orge, Felipe; Oliva, Barbara; Orellana, Renán; Villalon, Manuel; Moreno, Ricardo D; Tesone, Marta; Rokka, Anne; Corthals, Garry; Croxatto, Horacio B; Parborell, Fernanda; Owen, Gareth I

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive success stems from a finely regulated balance between follicular maturation and atresia, in which the role of carbohydrate structure is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time a fraction of purified recombinant human FSH that is capable of bringing about the cell death of granulosa cells and preventing follicular maturation in a rat model. Further analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of the lectin Concanavalin-A (Con-A) within this fraction of recombinant FSH. Using both the fractionated FSH and Con-A, the observed cell death was predominantly located to the granulosa cells. Ex vivo culture of rat follicles demonstrated that follicle degeneration occurred and resulted in the release of a denuded and deteriorated oocyte. Moreover, in vivo experiments confirmed an increase in atresia and a corresponding reduction confined to follicle in early antral stage. As a mechanism of action, Con-A reduces ovarian proliferation, Von Willebrand staining, and angiogenesis. Based on the observation that Con-A may induce granulosa cell death followed by follicle death, our results further demonstrate that follicular carbohydrate moiety is changing under the influence of FSH, which may allow a carbohydrate-binding lectin to increase granulosa cell death. The physiological consequences of circulating lectin-like molecules remain to be determined. However, our results suggest a potential exploitation of carbohydrate binding in fertility and ovarian cancer treatment. This work may shed light on a key role of carbohydrates in the still obscure physiological process of follicular selection and atresia.

  2. The Luteinizing Hormone Receptor-Activated Extracellularly Regulated Kinase-1/2 Cascade Stimulates Epiregulin Release from Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Andric, Nebojsa; Ascoli, Mario

    2008-01-01

    We examine the pathways involved in the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR)-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) network using cocultures of LHR-positive granulosa cells and LHR-negative test cells expressing an EGF receptor (EGFR)-green fluorescent protein fusion protein. Activation of the LHR in granulosa cells results in the release of EGF-like growth factors that are detected by measuring the phosphorylation of the EGFR-green fluorescent protein expressed only in the LHR-negative test cells. Using neutralizing antibodies and real-time PCR, we identified epiregulin as the main EGF-like growth factor produced upon activation of the LHR expressed in immature rat granulosa cells, and we show that exclusive inhibition or activation of the ERK1/2 cascade in granulosa cells prevents or enhances epiregulin release, respectively, with little or no effect on epiregulin expression. These results show that the LHR-stimulated ERK1/2 pathway stimulates epiregulin release. PMID:18653716

  3. Growth differentiation factor 8 suppresses cell proliferation by up-regulating CTGF expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Pan, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Yi-Min; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-02-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that plays a critical role in the development of ovarian follicles. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is mainly, but not exclusively, expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GDF8 and CTGF on the regulation of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. Using dual inhibition approaches (inhibitors and small interfering RNAs), we have demonstrated that GDF8 induces the up-regulation of CTGF expression through the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)4/5-mediated SMAD2/3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the increase in CTGF expression contributes to the GDF8-induced suppressive effect on granulosa cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that GDF8 and CTGF may play critical roles in the regulation of proliferative events in human granulosa cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Purinergic receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in chicken granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Morley, P; Vanderhyden, B C; Tremblay, R; Mealing, G A; Durkin, J P; Whitfield, J F

    1994-03-01

    These studies were designed to investigate the effects of extracellular ATP on intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) and progesterone secretion in granulosa cells obtained from the two largest preovulatory follicles (F1 and F2) of hens. [Ca2+]i was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-responsive fluorescent dye fura-2. The resting [Ca2+]i in these cells was 99 +/- 7 nM (n = 22). There was a 5.7 +/- 0.7-fold increase in [Ca2+]i in all (n = 140) of the cells within 5 sec of adding a maximally stimulatory concentration (100 microM) of extracellular ATP. The initial spike was followed by [Ca2+]i oscillations that returned to the resting level between spikes. The frequency and amplitude of the [Ca2+]i oscillations were varied and persisted for 1-40 min. [Ca2+]i oscillations were also triggered by 100 microM UTP, UDP, GTP, GDP, ADP, and the nonhydrolyzable analog ATP gamma S. Adenosine, AMP, GMP, and UMP (all at 100 microM) were ineffective. The lowest ATP concentration to trigger a [Ca2+]i response was 1 microM. The sustained oscillatory phase of the response, but not the initial spike, was inhibited by incubating the cells in Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA. The nucleotide-triggered [Ca2+]i oscillations were not affected by adding the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (100 microM), methoxy-verapamil (D600; 100 microM), or nifedipine (10 microM), before or during the response. However, the oscillations, but not the initial spike, were prevented by pretreating the cells with a general Ca2+ channel blocker, lanthanum (1 mM) or cobalt (5 mM). Lanthanum and cobalt also promptly stopped the [Ca2+]i oscillations when added during the oscillatory phase. The nucleotide-triggered [Ca2+]i response was also abolished by pretreating the cells with an inhibitor of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM). In 3-h incubations, adenosine (100 microM) or ATP (100 microM) did not affect basal or LH (20 or 100 ng/ml)-stimulated progesterone

  5. FOXO1/3 Depletion in Granulosa Cells Alters Follicle Growth, Death and Regulation of Pituitary FSH

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhilin; Castrillon, Diego H.; Zhou, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The Forkhead boxO (FOXO) transcription factors regulate multiple cellular functions. FOXO1 and FOXO3 are highly expressed in granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. Selective depletion of the Foxo1 and Foxo3 genes in granulosa cells of mice reveals a novel ovarian-pituitary endocrine feedback loop characterized by: 1) undetectable levels of serum FSH but not LH, 2) reduced expression of the pituitary Fshb gene and its transcriptional regulators, and 3) ovarian production of a factor(s) that suppresses pituitary cell Fshb expression. Equally notable, and independent of FSH, microarray analyses and quantitative PCR document that depletion of Foxo1/3 alters the expression of specific genes associated with follicle growth vs. apoptosis by disrupting critical and selective regulatory interactions of FOXO1/3 with the activin or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) pathways, respectively. As a consequence, both granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis were decreased. These data provide the first evidence that FOXO1/3 divergently regulate follicle growth or death by interacting with the activin or BMP pathways in granulosa cells and by modulating pituitary FSH production. PMID:23322722

  6. FOXO1/3 depletion in granulosa cells alters follicle growth, death and regulation of pituitary FSH.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhilin; Castrillon, Diego H; Zhou, Wei; Richards, Joanne S

    2013-02-01

    The Forkhead boxO (FOXO) transcription factors regulate multiple cellular functions. FOXO1 and FOXO3 are highly expressed in granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. Selective depletion of the Foxo1 and Foxo3 genes in granulosa cells of mice reveals a novel ovarian-pituitary endocrine feedback loop characterized by: 1) undetectable levels of serum FSH but not LH, 2) reduced expression of the pituitary Fshb gene and its transcriptional regulators, and 3) ovarian production of a factor(s) that suppresses pituitary cell Fshb expression. Equally notable, and independent of FSH, microarray analyses and quantitative PCR document that depletion of Foxo1/3 alters the expression of specific genes associated with follicle growth vs. apoptosis by disrupting critical and selective regulatory interactions of FOXO1/3 with the activin or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) pathways, respectively. As a consequence, both granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis were decreased. These data provide the first evidence that FOXO1/3 divergently regulate follicle growth or death by interacting with the activin or BMP pathways in granulosa cells and by modulating pituitary FSH production.

  7. Effects of non-esterified fatty acids on bovine granulosa cells and developmental potential of oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; César, M L; Hermans, J T; Kruitwagen, C L J J; Vos, P L A M; Kruip, T A M

    2004-04-01

    High yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) shortly after parturition, which is accompanied by high concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in blood up to approximately 3 weeks post partum. We hypothesized that the elevated plasma NEFA concentration causes lower fertility by exerting negative effects on granulosa cells and oocytes in the ovary, leading to less viable embryos and insufficient corpora lutea. In two series of experiments, we studied the effects of a realistic NEFA (C18:1) concentration on both the proliferation and the progesterone production of follicular granulosa cells in vitro (part I) and on maturation, fertilization and developmental potential of oocytes (part II). For part I, granulosa cells were added to 4 groups of dishes with four different media and cultured for nine consecutive days. After a preculture period of 42h, the presence of NEFA had a negative effect on the proliferation of granulosa cells. No effect of NEFA on the amount of progesterone production per cell was observed. For part II, a total of 1804 cumulus-oocyte-complexes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using a subgroup of 690 COC, maturation medium with NEFA caused a delay in maturation. Using another 1114 COC, fertilization, cleavage, and embryonic development after maturation in presence of NEFA were significantly reduced. We concluded that the presence of NEFA in follicular fluid and blood of post partum cows may reduce fertility due to hampered embryonic development and subnormal CL function.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from bovine ovarian follicles during atresia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major function of the ovary is to produce oocytes for fertilisation. Oocytes mature in follicles surrounded by nurturing granulosa cells and all are enclosed by a basal lamina. During growth, granulosa cells replicate and a large fluid-filled cavity (the antrum) develops in the centre. Only follicles that have enlarged to over 10 mm can ovulate in cows. In mammals, the number of primordial follicles far exceeds the numbers that ever ovulate and atresia or regression of follicles is a mechanism to regulate the number of oocytes ovulated and to contribute to the timing of ovulation. To better understand the molecular basis of follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from healthy (n = 10) and atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (< 5 mm). Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. These analyses and size-frequency plots of coefficients of variation of signal intensities revealed that the healthy follicles were more heterogeneous. Examining the differentially-expressed genes the most significantly affected functions in atretic follicles were cell death, organ development, tissue development and embryonic development. The overall processes influenced by transcription factor gene TP53 were predicted to be activated, whereas those of MYC were inhibited on the basis of known interactions with the genes in our dataset. The top ranked canonical pathway contained signalling molecules common to various inflammatory/fibrotic pathways such as the transforming growth factor-β and tumour necrosis factor-α pathways. The two most significant networks also reflect this pattern of tissue remodelling/fibrosis gene expression. These networks also contain molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming

  9. GGPP-Mediated Protein Geranylgeranylation in Oocyte Is Essential for the Establishment of Oocyte-Granulosa Cell Communication and Primary-Secondary Follicle Transition in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Na; Zhu, Rui-Lou; Wang, Xiu-Xing; Chen, Zhong; Tao, Wei-Wei; Yao, Bing; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Huang, Xing-Xu; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is a progressive and highly regulated process, which is essential to provide ova for later reproductive life, requires the bidirectional communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells. This physical connection-mediated communication conveys not only the signals from the oocyte to granulosa cells that regulate their proliferation but also metabolites from the granulosa cells to the oocyte for biosynthesis. However, the underlying mechanism of establishing this communication is largely unknown. Here, we report that oocyte geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), a metabolic intermediate involved in protein geranylgeranylation, is required to establish the oocyte-granulosa cell communication. GGPP and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (Ggpps) levels in oocytes increased during early follicular development. The selective depletion of GGPP in mouse oocytes impaired the proliferation of granulosa cells, primary-secondary follicle transition and female fertility. Mechanistically, GGPP depletion inhibited Rho GTPase geranylgeranylation and its GTPase activity, which was responsible for the accumulation of cell junction proteins in the oocyte cytoplasm and the failure to maintain physical connection between oocyte and granulosa cells. GGPP ablation also blocked Rab27a geranylgeranylation, which might account for the impaired secretion of oocyte materials such as Gdf9. Moreover, GGPP administration restored the defects in oocyte-granulosa cell contact, granulosa cell proliferation and primary-secondary follicle transition in Ggpps depletion mice. Our study provides the evidence that GGPP-mediated protein geranylgeranylation contributes to the establishment of oocyte-granulosa cell communication and then regulates the primary-secondary follicle transition, a key phase of folliculogenesis essential for female reproductive function. PMID:28072828

  10. Theca cells and theca-cell conditioned medium inhibit the progression of FSH-induced meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    van Tol, H T; Bevers, M M

    1998-11-01

    The effect of follicular cells and their conditioned media on the FSH-induced oocyte maturation of oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to the membrana granulosa (COCGs) was investigated. COCGs and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 22 hr in M199 supplemented with 0.05 IU FSH/ml in either the presence of pieces of theca cell layer or in the presence of pieces of membrana granulosa. COCGs and COCs were also cultured for 22 hr in either theca-cell conditioned medium (CMt) or in granulosa cell conditioned medium (CMg), both supplemented with 0.05 IU FSH/ml. To investigate the importance of cell-cell contacts between granulosa cells and cumulus cells, oocytes were cultured as COCs in CMt, as COCs in CMt supplemented with pieces of membrana granulosa, or as COCGs in CMt. In all groups the medium was supplemented with 0.05 IU FSH/ml. After culture the nuclear status of the oocytes was assessed using orcein staining. Culture of COCGs in the presence of theca cells as well as in CMt resulted in a significantly decreased proportion of oocytes that had undergone germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) at the end of the culture period as compared to the control. Of the oocytes that resumed meiosis in the presence of theca cells or in CMt, the proportion of oocytes that progressed up to the MII stage was significantly reduced. This indicates the production of a meiosis-inhibiting factor by theca cells. Culture with COCs instead of COCGs resulted in comparable results although the effect was less pronounced. The significant effect on the progression of meiosis of oocytes cultured as COCGs or as COCs, obtained in the presence of granulosa cells or in CMg, was much weaker than the effect of theca cells or culture in CMt. Culture of COCs in CMt supplemented with layers of membrana granulosa and 0.05 IU FSH/ml, resulted in significantly less oocytes that resumed meiosis as compared to culture of COCs in CMt. Of the oocytes that showed GVBD, the proportion that

  11. Differential display and suppressive subtractive hybridization used to identify granulosa cell messenger rna associated with bovine oocyte developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Robert, C; Gagné, D; Bousquet, D; Barnes, F L; Sirard, M A

    2001-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify mRNA expressed in the granulosa cells characterizing differentiated follicles bearing developmentally competent bovine oocytes. Analytical comparisons were made on mRNA pools of granulosa cells using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT) analysis and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). With DDRT, mRNA patterns of granulosa cells from small (< 4 mm) and large (> 8 mm) follicles cultured in the presence or absence of LH were compared to identify mRNA associated with follicular size or with the LH response. Nine clones were sequenced, and two were identified. One of the clones, DRAK 1, was associated with the presence of LH in the medium. Other comparisons directed toward the identification of mRNA associated with the presence of a competent oocyte were done on granulosa cells collected in vivo from superstimulated heifers. With the DDRT analysis, four clones associated with the oocyte developmental competence status were identified. With the SSH analysis, four clones specific to the presence of an incompetent oocyte were sequenced and none were identified, whereas 49 clones specific to the presence of a competent oocyte were sequenced and 18 were identified. Among these clones, early growth response 1, sprouty 2, cytochrome C oxidase, matrix metalloproteinase inducer, matrix metalloproteinase, epiregulin, prostaglandin receptor, and progesterone receptor were the most relevant to the ovarian physiology being examined.

  12. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsberg, Jochen Wegener-Toper, Petra; Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der; Klingmueller, Dietrich

    2009-08-15

    The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 105 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 138 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 49 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 78 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possi0009b.

  13. Effects of fumonisin B1 alone and combined with deoxynivalenol or zearalenone on porcine granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca; Schreiber, Nicole B; Spicer, Leon J

    2014-05-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in corn in combination with deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone. The aim of this study was to determine if FB1, alone and combined with DON or α-zearalenol (ZEA), zearalenone major active metabolite, can affect granulosa cell proliferation, steroid production, and gene expression in swine. Porcine granulosa cells were cultured for 2 days in serum-containing medium followed by 1 or 2 days in serum-free medium with or without added treatments. Fumonisin B1 had inhibitory effects on granulosa cell proliferation. Deoxynivalenol strongly inhibited cell growth, and no significant difference was detected in combination with FB1. α-Zearalenol showed a stimulatory effect on granulosa cell numbers even in combination with FB1. Regarding steroid production, FB1 increased progesterone production, and FB1 had no effect on estradiol production. Deoxynivalenol strongly inhibited progesterone and estradiol production, and FB1 had no significant effect on this response. α-Zearalenol increased progesterone production, and its combination with FB1 produced additive effects. α-Zearalenol had no effect on estradiol production, whereas it decreased estradiol production when co-treated with FB1. Fumonisin B1 was found to decrease CYP11A1 messenger RNA abundance, and the stimulatory effect of FB1 on progesterone production was found to be not dependent on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity suggesting that FB1 increases progesterone production through a different mechanism. The results show that these Fusarium mycotoxins can influence porcine granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production, thereby demonstrating their potential reproductive effects on swine.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Cyp26b1 to Be an Activin Regulated Gene Involved in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Jingjing L.; Golebiowski, Ann; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Demczuk, Michael; Kilen, Signe M.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2011-01-01

    Activin, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is an important modulator of FSH synthesis and secretion and is involved in reproductive dysfunctions and cancers. It also regulates ovarian follicle development. To understand the mechanisms and pathways by which activin regulates follicle function, we performed a microarray study and identified 240 activin regulated genes in mouse granulosa cells. The gene most strongly inhibited by activin was Cyp26b1, which encodes a P450 cytochrome enzyme that degrades retinoic acid (RA). Cyp26b1 has been shown to play an important role in male germ cell meiosis, but its expression is largely lost in the ovary around embryonic d 12.5. This study demonstrated that Cyp26b1 mRNA was expressed in granulosa cells of follicles at all postnatal developmental stages. A striking inverse spatial and temporal correlation between Cyp26b1 and activin-βA mRNA expression was observed. Cyp26b1 expression was also elevated in a transgenic mouse model that has decreased activin expression. The Cyp26 inhibitor R115866 stimulated the proliferation of primary cultured mouse granulosa cells, and a similar effect was observed with RA and activin. A pan-RA receptor inhibitor, AGN194310, abolished the stimulatory effect of either RA or activin on granulosa cell proliferation, indicating an involvement of RA receptor-mediated signaling. Overall, this study provides new insights into the mechanisms of activin action in the ovary. We conclude that Cyp26b1 is expressed in the postnatal mouse ovary, regulated by activin, and involved in the control of granulosa cell proliferation. PMID:21084447

  15. Presence of encircling granulosa cells protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in rat eggs cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Tripathi, Anima; Chaube, Shail K

    2017-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) due to in vitro culture conditions can affect the quality of denuded eggs during various assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Presence of intact granulosa cells may protect eggs from OS damage under in vitro culture conditions. The present study was aimed to investigate whether encircling granulosa cells could protect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced egg apoptosis in ovulated cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro. The OS was induced by exposing COCs as well as denuded eggs with various concentrations of H2O2 for 3 h in vitro. The morphological changes, total reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as catalase expression, Bax/Bcl-2, cytochrome c levels and DNA fragmentation were analysed in COCs as well as denuded eggs. Our results suggest that H2O2 treatment induced morphological apoptotic features in a concentration-dependent manner in denuded eggs cultured in vitro. The 20 µM of H2O2 treatment induced OS by elevating total ROS level, reduced catalase and Bcl-2 expression levels with overexpression of Bax and cytochrome c and induced DNA fragmentation in denuded eggs cultured in vitro. The presence of encircling granulosa cells protected H2O2-induced morphological apoptotic features by preventing the increase of Bax, cytochrome c expression levels and DNA fragmentation in associated egg. However, 20 µM of H2O2 was sufficient to induce peripheral granulosa cell apoptosis in COCs and degeneration in few denuded eggs cultured in vitro. Taken together our data suggest that the presence of encircling granulosa cells could be beneficial to protect ovulated eggs from OS damage under in vitro culture conditions during various ART programs.

  16. Modulation of gonadotrophin induced steroidogenic enzymes in granulosa cells by d-chiroinositol.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Sandro; Marinaro, Federica; Tondelli, Debora; Lui, Jessica; Xella, Susanna; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Argento, Cindy; Tirelli, Alessandra; Giulini, Simone; La Marca, Antonio

    2016-08-31

    d-chiroinositol (DCI) is a inositolphosphoglycan (IPG) involved in several cellular functions that control the glucose metabolism. DCI functions as second messenger in the insulin signaling pathway and it is considered an insulin sensitizer since deficiency in tissue availability of DCI were shown to cause insulin resistance (IR). Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathological condition that is often accompanied with insulin resistance. DCI can positively affects several aspect of PCOS etiology decreasing the total and free testosterone, lowering blood pressure, improving the glucose metabolism and increasing the ovulation frequency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DCI and insulin combined with gonadotrophins namely follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) on key steroidogenic enzymes genes regulation, cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) in primary cultures of human granulosa cells (hGCs). We also investigated whether DCI, being an insulin-sensitizer would be able to counteract the expected stimulator activity of insulin on human granulosa cells (hGCs). The study was conducted on primary cultures of hGCs. Gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR method. Statistical analysis was performed applying student t-test, as appropriate (P < 0.05) set for statistical significance. DCI is able to reduce the gene expression of CYP19A1, P450scc and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in dose-response manner. The presence of DCI impaired the increased expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes generated by the insulin treatment in gonadotrophin-stimulated hGCs. Insulin acts as co-gonadotrophin increasing the expression of steroidogenic enzymes genes in gonadotrophin-stimulated granulosa cells. DCI is an insulin-sensitizer that counteracts this action by reducing the expression of the genes CYP19A1, P450scc and IGF-1R. The ability of DCI to

  17. Zona pellucida protein B2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression varies with follicular development and granulosa cell location.

    PubMed

    Benson, A P; Malloy, M N; Steed, J R; Christensen, V L; Fairchild, B D; Davis, A J

    2017-09-01

    The freshly ovulated ovum in avian species is surrounded by a protein layer called the inner perivitelline layer (IPVL). The IPVL contains zona pellucida proteins and 6 distinct zona pellucida genes have been identified (ZPA, ZPB1, ZPB2, ZPC, ZPD and ZPX1) in the chicken. In the present research, the expression of the mRNA for ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1 was investigated in 2 lines of turkey hens selected for either increased egg production (E line) or increased body weight (F line). Theca and granulosa cell expression of the mRNA for ZPA and ZPB2 was also investigated in hierarchical and prehierarchical follicles from broiler breeder hens. Granulosa tissue was collected from F1 through F4 and F1 through F10 follicles in E line and F line hens, respectively. A one cm2 section of the granulosa layer around the germinal disc (GD) and an equivalent sized nongerminal disc (NGD) area was also collected from the F1 and F2 follicles from other hens from each genetic line. Granulosa and theca tissue was collected from hierarchical and prehierarchical follicles of broiler breeder hens. Total RNA was extracted from the samples. Minor groove-binding probes and primers for detecting ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1, were made for real-time PCR analyses. Expression of ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1 was detected in all follicle sizes from both genetic lines of hens. No significant differences in ZPA and ZPX1 mRNA expression were detected between the GD and NGD granulosa cells. However, the expression of the mRNA for ZPB2 was significantly greater in the GD granulosa cells when compared to the NGD granulosa cells in F1 and F2 follicles from E line and F line hens. In broiler breeder hens, the mRNA expression of ZPA and ZPB2 was greatest in the smallest prehierarchical follicles. The results suggest that higher expression of ZPB2 in the germinal disc area may be important for the preferential binding of sperm to this region of the IPVL. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Dephosphorylation of MAP2D enhances its binding to vimentin in preovulatory ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Maxfield P; Fiedler, Sarah E; Karlsson, Amelia B; Carr, Daniel W; Maizels, Evelyn T; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Preovulatory granulosa cells express the low-molecular-mass MAP2D variant of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Activation of the luteinizing hormone choriogonadotropin receptor by human choriogonadotropin (hCG) promotes dephosphorylation of MAP2D on Thr256 and Thr259. We sought to evaluate the association of MAP2D with the cytoskeleton, and the effect of hCG on this association. MAP2D partially colocalized, as assessed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, with the vimentin intermediate filament and microtubule cytoskeletons in naive cells. In vitro binding studies showed that MAP2D bound directly to vimentin and β-tubulin. Phosphorylation of recombinant MAP2D on Thr256 and Thr259, which mimics the phosphorylation status of MAP2D in naive cells, reduces binding of MAP2D to vimentin and tubulin by two- and three-fold, respectively. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of vimentin (Ser32 and Ser38) promoted binding of vimentin to MAP2D and increased contraction of granulosa cells with reorganization of vimentin filaments and MAP2D from the periphery into a thickened layer surrounding the nucleus and into prominent cellular extensions. Chemical disruption of vimentin filament organization increased progesterone production. Taken together, these results suggest that hCG-stimulated dephosphorylation of MAP2D at Thr256 and Thr259, phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser38 and Ser72, and the resulting enhanced binding of MAP2D to vimentin might contribute to the progesterone synthetic response required for ovulation.

  19. Dephosphorylation of MAP2D enhances its binding to vimentin in preovulatory ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preovulatory granulosa cells express the low-molecular-mass MAP2D variant of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Activation of the luteinizing hormone choriogonadotropin receptor by human choriogonadotropin (hCG) promotes dephosphorylation of MAP2D on Thr256 and Thr259. We sought to evaluate the association of MAP2D with the cytoskeleton, and the effect of hCG on this association. MAP2D partially colocalized, as assessed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, with the vimentin intermediate filament and microtubule cytoskeletons in naive cells. In vitro binding studies showed that MAP2D bound directly to vimentin and β-tubulin. Phosphorylation of recombinant MAP2D on Thr256 and Thr259, which mimics the phosphorylation status of MAP2D in naive cells, reduces binding of MAP2D to vimentin and tubulin by two- and three-fold, respectively. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of vimentin (Ser32 and Ser38) promoted binding of vimentin to MAP2D and increased contraction of granulosa cells with reorganization of vimentin filaments and MAP2D from the periphery into a thickened layer surrounding the nucleus and into prominent cellular extensions. Chemical disruption of vimentin filament organization increased progesterone production. Taken together, these results suggest that hCG-stimulated dephosphorylation of MAP2D at Thr256 and Thr259, phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser38 and Ser72, and the resulting enhanced binding of MAP2D to vimentin might contribute to the progesterone synthetic response required for ovulation. PMID:27335427

  20. Direct antigonadal activity of cannabinoids: suppression of rat granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Adashi, E Y; Jones, P B; Hsueh, A J

    1983-02-01

    The direct effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and related cannabinoids on ovarian granulosa cells were studied in vitro. Granulosa cells from immature, hypophysectomized, estrogen-treated rats were cultured for 2 days in an androstenedione-supplemented medium in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (10 ng/ml) with or without cannabinoids. FSH treatment increased progesterone and estrogen biosynthesis, whereas concomitant treatment with THC led to a dose-dependent inhibition of the FSH-stimulated accumulation of progesterone and estrogen with ED50 values of 3.5 +/- 0.3 X 10(-7) and 1.8 +/- 0.2 X 10(-6) M, respectively. Treatment with related but nonpsychoactive cannabinoids (cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabigerol, or cannabichromene) was equally effective. The THC-induced inhibition of progesterone production was reversible and was associated with an inhibition of pregnenolone biosynthesis and a decrease of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. In addition, treatment with THC brought about a dose-dependent inhibition of the FSH-induced increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors. The inhibitory effects of THC were not associated with changes in cell number, protein content, or cell viability. Thus, THC exerts direct inhibitory effects on FSH-dependent functions related to steroidogenesis and the acquisition of LH receptors, all of which are essential to follicular maturation. Because plasma concentrations of THC similar to those used in this study have been reported in human beings, repeated exposure of female users to THC may lead to ovarian dysfunction, due in part, to the direct antigonadal activity to THC.

  1. Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Granulosa Cells Participate in Ovarian Follicle Formation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Niikura, Yuichi; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lee, Ho-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can form ovarian follicle-like structures in vitro, consisting of an oocyte-like cell surrounded by somatic cells capable of steroidogenesis. Using a dual-fluorescence reporter system in which mouse ESCs express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a germ cell–specific Pou5f1 gene promoter and red fluorescent protein (Discosoma sp red [DsRed]) driven by the granulosa cell–specific Forkhead box L2 (Foxl2) gene promoter, we first confirmed in vitro formation of follicle-like structures containing GFP-positive cells surrounded by DsRed-positive cells. Isolated DsRed-positive cells specified from ECSs exhibited a gene expression profile consistent with granulosa cells, as revealed by the detection of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Foxl2, follistatin (Fst), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) as well as by production of both progesterone and estradiol. In addition, treatment of isolated DsRed-expressing cells with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly increased estradiol production over basal levels, confirming the presence of functional FSH receptors in these cells. Last, ESC-derived DsRed-positive cells injected into neonatal mouse ovaries became incorporated within the granulosa cell layer of immature follicles. These studies demonstrate that Foxl2-expressing ovarian somatic cells derived in vitro from differentiating ESCs express granulosa cell markers, actively associate with germ cells in vitro, synthesize steroids, respond to FSH, and participate in folliculogenesis in vivo. PMID:23536570

  2. Beta-catenin directs the transformation of testis Sertoli cells to ovarian granulosa-like cells by inducing Foxl2 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Zhang, Lianjun; Hu, Yuqiong; Chen, Min; Han, Feng; Qin, Yan; Chen, Min; Cui, Xiuhong; Duo, Shuguang; Tang, Fuchou; Gao, Fei

    2017-09-12

    Sertoli and granulosa cells are two major types of somatic cells in the male and female gonads,respectively. Previous studies have shown that Sertoli and granulosa cells are derived from common progenitor cells and that differentiation of these two cell types is regulated by sex differentiation genes. The signaling pathway including the adhesion and transcription factor Ctnnb1 (cadherin-associated protein, beta 1, also known as β-catenin) regulates differentiation of granulosa cells in the absence of the transcription factor Sry, and over-activation of β-catenin in the presence of Sry leads to granulosa prior to sex determination. Surprisingly, our previous study found that β-catenin over-activation in Sertoli cells after sex determination can also cause disruption of the testicular cord and aberrant testis development. However, the underlying molecular mechanism was unclear. In this study, we found that constitutive activation of Ctnnb1 in Sertoli cells led to ectopic expression of the granulosa cell-specific marker FOXL2 in testes. Co-staining experiments revealed that FOXL2-positive cells were derived from Sertoli cells, and Sertoli cells were transformed into granulosa-like cells after Ctnnb1 over-activation. Further studies demonstrated that CTNNB1 induced Foxl2 expression by directly binding to transcription factor Tcf/Lef binding sites in the FOXL2 promoter region. We also found that directly over-expression of Foxl2 indecreased the expression of Sertoli cell-specific genes in primary Sertoli cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that repression of β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling is required for lineage maintenance of Sertoli cells. Our study provides a new mechanism for Sertoli cell lineage maintenance during gonad development. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. The influence of opioid peptides on steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Siawrys, C; Bogacka, I; Okrasa, S; Przala, J

    2004-02-01

    The present studies were undertaken to examine the influence of mu (beta-endorphin, DAMGO, FK 33-824), delta (met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, DPLPE) and kappa opioid receptor agonists (dynorphin A, dynorphin B, U 50488) used at different doses (1-1000 nM) alone and in combination with LH (100 ng/ml) on steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells derived from large follicles. The effects of mu, delta and kappa receptor agonists on both basal and LH-induced progesterone (P4) secretion were negligible. Agonists of mu opioid receptors reduced basal androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) release. Co-treatment with LH entirely abolished the inhibitory effect of these agonists on A4 and E2 secretion and resulted in an increase in T release. The addition of delta receptor agonists was followed by a decrease in basal A4, T and E2 secretion. The cells incubated in the presence of LH increased the androgen production and abrogated the inhibitory effect of delta agonists on E2 output. Basal A4, T and E2 release was also suppressed by kappa receptor agonists. The presence of LH in culture media extended the inhibitory effect of these opioids on E2 output and caused either abolition of the inhibitory influence of kappa agonists or even augmentation of both androgen release in response to the opioids. In conclusion, these data support the involvement of three major types of opioid receptors in the regulation of porcine granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

  4. Expression of Tachykinins and Tachykinin Receptors and Interaction with Kisspeptin in Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Jordán; Pinto, Francisco M; Prados, Nicolás; Bello, Aixa R; Almeida, Teresa A; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; Candenas, Luz

    2016-06-01

    The neurokinin B/NK3 receptor (NK3R) and kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), two systems which are essential for reproduction, are coexpressed in human mural granulosa (MGC) and cumulus cells (CCs). However, little is known about the presence of other members of the tachykinin family in the human ovary. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of substance P (SP), hemokinin-1 (HK-1), NK1 receptor (NK1R), and NK2 receptor (NK2R) in MGCs and CCs collected from preovulatory follicles of oocyte donors at the time of oocyte retrieval. RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting were used to investigate the patterns of expression of tachykinin and tachykinin receptor mRNAs and proteins and the possible interaction between the tachykinin family and kisspeptin. Intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in MGCs after exposure to SP or kisspeptin in the presence of SP were also measured. We found that SP, HK-1, the truncated NK1R isoform NK1R-Tr, and NK2R were all expressed in MGCs and CCs. NK1R-Tr mRNA and NK2R mRNA and protein levels were higher in MGCs than in CCs from the same patients. Treatment of cells with kisspeptin modulated the expression of HK-1, NK3R, and KISS1R mRNAs, whereas treatment with SP regulated kisspeptin mRNA levels and reduced the [Ca(2+)]i response produced by kisspeptin. These data demonstrate that the whole tachykinin system is expressed and acts in coordination with kisspeptin to regulate granulosa cell function in the human ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Presence of LH receptor mRNA in granulosa cells as a potential marker of oocyte developmental competence and characterization of the bovine splicing isoforms.

    PubMed

    Robert, C; Gagné, D; Lussier, J G; Bousquet, D; Barnes, F L; Sirard, M-A

    2003-03-01

    As the expression of the LH receptor (LH-R) in granulosa cells is thought to be associated with later stages of folliculogenesis, this study was undertaken to evaluate the presence of LH-R mRNA as a suitable marker for developmental competence of oocytes. Granulosa cells and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from cows that had received ovarian stimulation. The COCs were subjected to embryo production procedures in vitro to assess the embryonic potential of the oocyte, and the corresponding granulosa cells were used to evaluate the presence of LH-R mRNA by RT-PCR. The presence of LH-R transcripts in granulosa cells is not a key characteristic of a follicle bearing a competent oocyte, although a higher proportion of oocytes reach the blastocyst stage when LH-R mRNA is detected in the granulosa cells. Different LH-R isoforms were cloned and sequence discrepancies among six of the isoforms enabled the design of specific oligonucleotides to study the presence of the isoforms in different follicular cells. All LH-R transcripts studied and the 80 kDa protein product corresponding to the full length receptor were found in granulosa cells of small (< 4 mm) and large (> 5 mm) follicles. When the granulosa cells were cultured, the transcripts were downregulated by the culture conditions; downregulation was more acute in granulosa cells from small follicles. The addition of LH to the culture media enhanced LH-R mRNA downregulation. The presence of several LH-R transcript isoforms was tissue specific and in the theca cells LH-R mRNA was restricted mainly to cells from larger follicles. This finding indicates that the expression and the splicing of LH-R mRNA are regulated in a cell-specific and follicular size-specific manner.

  6. FOXL2 posttranslational modifications mediated by GSK3β determine the growth of granulosa cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, Hong-Man; Park, Ho-Oak; Ha, Nam-Chul; Kim, Tae Heon; Park, Mira; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 97% of patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) bear the C134W mutation in FOXL2; however, the pathophysiological mechanism of this mutation is unknown. Here we report how this mutation affects GCT development. Sequential posttranslational modifications of the C134W mutant occur where hyperphosphorylation at serine 33 (S33) by GSK3β induces MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In contrast, S33 of wild-type FOXL2 is underphosphorylated, leading to its SUMOylation and stabilization. This prominent hyperphosphorylation is also observed at S33 of FOXL2 in GCT patients bearing the C134W mutation. In xenograft mice, the S33 phosphorylation status correlates with the oncogenicity of FOXL2, and the inhibition of GSK3β efficiently represses GCT growth. These findings reveal a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism that determines the oncogenic attributes of the C134W mutation via differential posttranslational modifications of FOXL2 in GCT development.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells of bovine ovarian follicles during growth from small to large antral sizes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At later stages of folliculogenesis, the mammalian ovarian follicle contains layers of epithelial granulosa cells surrounding an antral cavity. During follicle development granulosa cells replicate, secrete hormones and support the growth of the oocyte. In cattle, the follicle needs to grow > 10 mm in diameter to allow an oocyte to ovulate, following which the granulosa cells cease dividing and differentiate into the specialised cells of the corpus luteum. To better understand the molecular basis of follicular growth and granulosa cell maturation, we undertook transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from small (< 5 mm; n = 10) and large (> 10 mm, n = 4) healthy bovine follicles using Affymetrix microarrays (24,128 probe sets). Results Principal component analysis for the first two components and hierarchical clustering showed clustering into two groups, small and large, with the former being more heterogeneous. Size-frequency distributions of the coefficient of variation of the signal intensities of each probe set also revealed that small follicles were more heterogeneous than the large. IPA and GO enrichment analyses revealed that processes of axonal guidance, immune signalling and cell rearrangement were most affected in large follicles. The most important networks were associated with: (A) Notch, SLIT/ROBO and PI3K signalling, and (B) ITGB5 and extracellular matrix signalling through extracellular signal related kinases (ERKs). Upstream regulator genes which were predicted to be active in large follicles included STAT and XBP1. By comparison, developmental processes such as those stimulated by KIT, IHH and MEST were most active in small follicles. MGEA5 was identified as an upstream regulator in small follicles. It encodes an enzyme that modifies the activity of many target proteins, including those involved in energy sensing, by removal of N-acetylglucosamine from serine and threonine residues. Conclusions Our data suggest that as

  8. Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Skiadas, Christine C; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT-PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different

  9. Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Skiadas, Christine C.; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT–PCR (qRT–PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT–PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different

  10. MicroRNA 17-92 cluster regulates proliferation and differentiation of bovine granulosa cells by targeting PTEN and BMPR2 genes.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Eryk; Hoelker, Michael; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie

    2016-10-01

    Granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation are key developmental steps involved in the formation of the dominant follicle eligible for ovulation. This process is, in turn, regulated by spatiotemporally emerging molecular events. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the molecular signatures believed to regulate granulosa cell function by fine-tuning gene expression. Previously, we showed that the miR-17-92 cluster was differentially expressed in granulosa cells from subordinate and dominant follicles at day 19 of the estrous cycle. However, the role of this miRNA cluster in bovine follicular cell function is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the role of the miR-17-92 cluster in granulosa cell function by using an in vitro model. Target prediction and luciferase assay analysis revealed that the miR-17-92 cluster coordinately regulated the PTEN and BMPR2 genes. Overexpression of the miR-17-92 cluster by using a mimic promoted granulosa cell proliferation and reduced the proportion of differentiated cells. However, cluster inhibition resulted in decreased proliferation and increased differentiation in granulosa cells. This was further supported by expression analysis of marker genes of proliferation and differentiation. The role of the miR-17-92 cluster was cross-validated by selective knockdown of its target genes by the short interfering RNA technique. Suppression of the PTEN and BMPR2 genes revealed similar phenotypic and molecular alterations as observed when the granulosa cells were transfected with the miR-17-92 cluster mimic. Thus, the miR-17-92 cluster is involved in granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation by coordinately targeting the PTEN and BMPR2 genes.

  11. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  12. Movento influences development of granulosa cells and ovarian follicles and FoxO1 and Vnn1 gene expression in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Kafshgiri, Sakineh Kaboli; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Roodbari, Nasim Hayati

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Pesticides has wide range of infertility in female reproductive. This study was done to evaluate the effect of movento pesticide on development of granulosa cells and ovarian follicles and FoxO1 and Vnn1 gene expression in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this study 40 healthy BALB/c mice 5-6 weeks age were used. Animals were randomly allocated into four groups. Control (without any intervention), three experimental groups received 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg movento dissolved in PBS by gavage for 21 days. Animals scarified after three weeks. For determining the effects of movento on granulosa cells in culture, treatments were conducted to movento (125, 250, 500 μg/ml) for 24 hr. We surveyed the expression of the FoxO1 and Vnn1 in granulosa cells in vitro, and its relation to cell death by flowcytometer and DAPI. Levels of FoxO1 and Vnn1 were analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: Exposure to movento significantly decreased ovarian weight and the number of primary, secondary and antral follicles. Further, treatment with different concentration of movento induced apoptosis on granulosa cells. Gene expression analysis showed the transcriptional expression of FoxO1 and vnn1 in granulosa cells. Level of Vnn1 mRNA in granulosa cells was decreased in granulosa cells and expression of FoxO1 significantly increased in treated groups in compare to controls (P-value <0.05). Conclusion: Exposure to movento significantly reduced the number of follicles and increased apoptosis of granulosa cells leading disruption of the reproductive system. Also movento reduced expression of Vnn1 and increased FoxO1 genes in a dose dependent manner. PMID:27917277

  13. Granulosa cells express three inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms: cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; de la Rosa Santander, Patricia; Juárez-Espinosa, Anna Berenice; Arellano, Rogelio O; Morales-Tlalpan, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    Background Granulosa cells play an important endocrine role in folliculogenesis. They mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores by a coordinated action between 1,4,5 inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors (IP3R and RyR). The aim of this study was to explore the isoforms of IP3Rs expressed in mouse C57BL/6 NHsd granulosa cells, characterizing their intranuclear localization and the relation with other Ca2+-handling proteins. Methods Ovarian tissue and granulosa cells were analyzed by multiphotonic and confocal microscopy to determine the intracellular presence of IP3R types 1, 2 and 3, RyR, thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+-ATPase, and endomembranes. Cellular fractionation and Western blot assays were also used to further confirm the nuclear occurrence of the three IP3R isoforms. Free nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations were measured using Fluo-4 AM by confocal microscopy. Results By using antibodies and specific fluorophores, was shown that granulosa cells endomembranes contain three isoforms of IP3R, the RyR, and the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Interestingly, all these proteins were also detected in the nuclear envelope and in well-defined intranuclear structures. Microsomal membranes depicted characteristic bands of the 3 types of IP3R, but also variants of lower molecular weight. Analysis of nuclear membranes and nucleoplasmic fraction confirmed the nuclear localization of the IP3R types 1, 2 and 3. We demonstrated ATP-induced Ca2+ transients in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect on ATP-induced Ca2+ mobilization of brefeldin A was more accentuated in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that granulosa cells, including nuclei, express the Ca2+-handling proteins that allow Ca2+ mobilization. All three IP3R were also detected in ovarian slices, including the nuclei of granulosa cells, suggesting that these cells use the three IP3R in situ to achieve their

  14. Mouse ovarian granulosa cells produce urokinase-type plasminogen activator, whereas the corresponding rat cells produce tissue-type plasminogen activator

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It is well established that rat ovarian granulosa cells produce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The synthesis and secretion of the enzyme are induced by gonadotropins, and correlate well with the time of follicular rupture in vivo. We have found that in contrast, mouse granulosa cells produce a different form of plasminogen activator, the urokinase-type (uPA). As with tPA synthesis in the rat, uPA production by mouse granulosa cells is induced by gonadotropins, dibutyryl cAMP, and prostaglandin E2. However, dexamethasone, a drug which has no effect on tPA synthesis in rat cells inhibits uPA synthesis in the mouse. Results of these determinations made in cell culture were corroborated by examining follicular fluid, which is secreted in vivo predominantly by granulosa cells, from stimulated rat and mouse ovarian follicles. Rat follicular fluid contained only tPA, and mouse follicular fluid only uPA, indicating that in vivo, granulosa cells from the two species are secreting different enzymes. The difference in the type of plasminogen activator produced by the rat and mouse granulosa cells was confirmed at the messenger RNA level. After hormone stimulation, only tPA mRNA was present in rat cells, whereas only uPA mRNA was found in mouse cells. Furthermore, the regulation of uPA levels in mouse cells occurs via transient modulation of steady-state levels of mRNA, a pattern similar to that seen with tPA in rat cells. PMID:3040774

  15. Cell proliferation and progesterone synthesis depend on lipid metabolism in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-03-15

    In dairy cows, lipids are essential to support energy supplies for all biological functions, especially during early lactation. Lipid metabolism is crucial for sustaining proper reproductive function. Alteration of lipid metabolism impacts follicular development and affects oocyte developmental competence. Indeed, nonesterified fatty acids are able to decrease granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and affect estradiol synthesis, thus potentially affecting follicular growth and viability. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of lipid metabolism on bovine GCs, through the use of the lipid metabolism inhibitors etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid (FA) oxidation through inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), and C75, an inhibitor of FA synthesis through inhibition of fatty acid synthase. We showed that etomoxir and C75 significantly inhibited DNA synthesis in vitro; C75 also significantly decreased progesterone synthesis. Both inhibitors significantly reduced AMPK (5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Etomoxir also affected the AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway. Combined, these data suggest that both FA oxidation and synthesis are important for the bovine GCs to express a proliferative and steroidogenic phenotype and, thus, for sustaining follicular growth. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the changes caused by the inhibitors of FA metabolism on GCs in vitro are globally mild, suggesting that lipid metabolism is not as critical in GCs as was observed in the oocyte-cumulus complex. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms by which lipid metabolism interacts with GC functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An immortalized steroidogenic goat granulosa cell line as a model system to study the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response on steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Diqi; Wang, Lei; Lin, Pengfei; Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Fan; Chen, Huatao; Tang, Keqiong; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2017-02-16

    With granulosa and theca cells, the ovaries are responsible for producing oocytes and secreting sex steroids such as estrogen and progesterone. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in follicle atresia and embryo implantation. In this study, goat granulosa cells were isolated from medium-sized (4-6 mm) healthy follicles. Primary granulosa cells were immortalized by transfection with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish a goat granulosa cell line (hTERT-GGCs). These hTERT-GGCs expressed hTERT and had relatively long telomeres at passage 50. Furthermore, hTERT-GGCs expressed the gonadotropin receptor genes CYP11A1, StAR, and CYP19A1, which are involved in steroidogenesis. Additionally, progesterone was detectable in hTERT-GGCs. Although the proliferation potential of hTERT-GGCs significantly improved, there was no evidence to suggest that the hTERT-GGCs are tumorigenic. In addition, thapsigargin (Tg) treatment led to a significant dose-dependent decrease in progesterone concentration and steroidogenic enzyme expression. In summary, we successfully generated a stable goat granulosa cell line. We found that Tg induced ERS in hTERT-GGCs, which reduced progesterone production and steroidogenic enzyme expression. Future studies may benefit from using this cell line as a model to explore the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenesis and apoptosis in goat granulosa cells.

  17. An immortalized steroidogenic goat granulosa cell line as a model system to study the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response on steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Diqi; WANG, Lei; LIN, Pengfei; JIANG, Tingting; WANG, Nan; ZHAO, Fan; CHEN, Huatao; TANG, Keqiong; ZHOU, Dong; WANG, Aihua; JIN, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    With granulosa and theca cells, the ovaries are responsible for producing oocytes and secreting sex steroids such as estrogen and progesterone. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in follicle atresia and embryo implantation. In this study, goat granulosa cells were isolated from medium-sized (4–6 mm) healthy follicles. Primary granulosa cells were immortalized by transfection with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish a goat granulosa cell line (hTERT-GGCs). These hTERT-GGCs expressed hTERT and had relatively long telomeres at passage 50. Furthermore, hTERT-GGCs expressed the gonadotropin receptor genes CYP11A1, StAR, and CYP19A1, which are involved in steroidogenesis. Additionally, progesterone was detectable in hTERT-GGCs. Although the proliferation potential of hTERT-GGCs significantly improved, there was no evidence to suggest that the hTERT-GGCs are tumorigenic. In addition, thapsigargin (Tg) treatment led to a significant dose-dependent decrease in progesterone concentration and steroidogenic enzyme expression. In summary, we successfully generated a stable goat granulosa cell line. We found that Tg induced ERS in hTERT-GGCs, which reduced progesterone production and steroidogenic enzyme expression. Future studies may benefit from using this cell line as a model to explore the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenesis and apoptosis in goat granulosa cells. PMID:27746409

  18. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Radtke, Catherine L.; Russell, Lauren A.; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  19. Isolation of granulosa cells from follicular fluid; applications in biomedical and molecular biology experiments

    PubMed Central

    Aghadavod, Esmat; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Farzadi, Laya; Zare, Mina; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Nouri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, a lot of research has been conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the low quality of oocytes with granulosa cells (GCs). GCs are one of the major cell types found in follicular fluid and purification of these cells from the follicular fluid is very important for further studies. Although, there are different techniques of purification, a method for separation of highly-pure and minimally-damaged cells is necessary. In this paper, we presented a novel method for high purification of GCs with a large quantity and high purity. Materials and Methods: Follicular fluid was collected from patients who referred for in vitro fertilization and GCs in follicular fluid were extracted by Ficoll, Percoll and Red blood cell lysing buffer (RLB) methods. Then purity of extracted GCs was assessed by flow cytometry and morphological properties of GCs were observed by differential interference contrast microscopy. The purity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid extracts was examined by NanoDrop 1000, pre-restriction fragment length polymorphism and electrophoresis techniques. Quality and quantity of extracting GCs were affected during the cell separation procedures. Results: Our results showed that each of purification method can affect quality and quantity of extracted cells. Conclusion: RLB method for extraction of GCs was shown to be a convenient procedure in comparison with Ficoll and Percoll methods. PMID:26918232

  20. Isolation of granulosa cells from follicular fluid; applications in biomedical and molecular biology experiments.

    PubMed

    Aghadavod, Esmat; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Farzadi, Laya; Zare, Mina; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Nouri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a lot of research has been conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the low quality of oocytes with granulosa cells (GCs). GCs are one of the major cell types found in follicular fluid and purification of these cells from the follicular fluid is very important for further studies. Although, there are different techniques of purification, a method for separation of highly-pure and minimally-damaged cells is necessary. In this paper, we presented a novel method for high purification of GCs with a large quantity and high purity. Follicular fluid was collected from patients who referred for in vitro fertilization and GCs in follicular fluid were extracted by Ficoll, Percoll and Red blood cell lysing buffer (RLB) methods. Then purity of extracted GCs was assessed by flow cytometry and morphological properties of GCs were observed by differential interference contrast microscopy. The purity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid extracts was examined by NanoDrop 1000, pre-restriction fragment length polymorphism and electrophoresis techniques. Quality and quantity of extracting GCs were affected during the cell separation procedures. Our results showed that each of purification method can affect quality and quantity of extracted cells. RLB method for extraction of GCs was shown to be a convenient procedure in comparison with Ficoll and Percoll methods.

  1. Lysosomes are involved in induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression and progesterone synthesis through low-density lipoprotein in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-You; Wu, Yi; Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Zeng, Shen-Ming; Zhang, Gui-Xue

    2015-09-15

    Progesterone is an important steroid hormone in the regulation of the bovine estrous cycle. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is an indispensable component for transporting cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is one of the rate-limiting steps for progesterone synthesis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) supplies cholesterol precursors for progesterone formation, and the lysosomal degradation pathway of LDL is essential for progesterone biosynthesis in granulosa cells after ovulation. However, it is currently unknown how LDL and lysosomes coordinate the expression of the StAR gene and progesterone production in bovine granulosa cells. Here, we investigated the role of lysosomes in LDL-treated bovine granulosa cells. Our results reported that LDL induced expression of StAR messenger RNA and protein as well as expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1) messenger RNA and progesterone production in cultured bovine granulosa cells. The number of lysosomes in the granulosa cells was also significantly increased by LDL; whereas the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, strikingly abolished these LDL-induced effects. Our results indicate that LDL promotes StAR expression, synthesis of progesterone, and formation of lysosomes in bovine granulosa cells, and lysosomes participate in the process by releasing free cholesterol from hydrolyzed LDL.

  2. Progesterone-receptor antagonists and statins decrease de novo cholesterol synthesis and increase apoptosis in rat and human periovulatory granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rung, Emilia; Friberg, P Anders; Shao, Ruijin; Larsson, D G Joakim; Nielsen, Eva Ch; Svensson, Per-Arne; Carlsson, Björn; Carlsson, Lena M S; Billig, Håkan

    2005-03-01

    Progesterone-receptor (PR) stimulation promotes survival in rat and human periovulatory granulosa cells. To investigate the mechanisms involved, periovulatory rat granulosa cells were incubated in vitro with or without the PR-antagonist Org 31710. Org 31710 caused the expected increase in apoptosis, and expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis revealed regulation of several groups of genes with functional and/or metabolic connections. This regulation included decreased expression of genes involved in follicular rupture, increased stress responses, decreased angiogenesis, and decreased cholesterol synthesis. A decreased cholesterol synthesis was verified in experiments with both rat and human periovulatory granulosa cells treated with the PR-antagonists Org 31710 or RU 486 by measuring incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol, cholesterol ester, and progesterone. Correspondingly, specific inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in periovulatory rat granulosa cells using 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (lovastatin, mevastatin, or simvastatin) increased apoptosis, measured as DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activity. The increase in apoptosis caused by simvastatin was reversed by addition of the cholesterol synthesis-intermediary mevalonic acid. These results show that PR antagonists reduce cholesterol synthesis in periovulatory granulosa cells and that cholesterol synthesis is important for granulosa cell survival.

  3. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Qing; Gao, Bin-Wen; Wang, Jing; Ren, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Jun-Feng; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xing, Bao-Song

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases. PMID:27057282

  4. Adding of ascorbic acid to the culture medium influences the antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters in the hen granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Capcarova, M; Kolesarova, A; Kalafova, A; Bulla, J; Sirotkin, A V

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) of the hen granulosa cells, and selected biochemical parameters, including calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, glucose, cholesterol, proteins, in the culture medium of granulosa cells after exposing them to ascorbic acid in vitro conditions. Ovarian granulosa cells of hens were incubated with various doses of ascorbic acid (E1 0.09 mg/ml, E2 0.13 mg/ml, E3 0.17 mg/ml, E4 0.33 mg/ml, E5 0.5 mg/ml). Ascorbic acid did not manifest antioxidant potential and higher doses of ascorbic acid (0.17; 0.33 and 0.5 mg/ml) decreased the activity of SOD in granulosa cells. Vitamin application resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) higher accumulation of Na+ and K+ in culture media of granulosa cells and decreased the concentration of glucose and proteins. These results indicate that ascorbic acid might be involved in the regulation of selected biochemical and physiological processes in ovarian granulosa cells.

  5. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  6. Comparison of nine media in the culture of human ovarian granulosa lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Bouraki, Genovefa; Metallinou, Chryssa; Simopoulou, Mara; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Asimakopoulos, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Cultures of human ovarian granulosa lutein (hGL) cells are broadly used in experimental studies. The choice of the culture medium is important for the optimization of the conditions for culture of hGL cells. To compare the efficiency of a basic salt solution and eight different defined media on the culture of hGL cells. Cultures of the HGL-5 cell line were maintained for 72 hours with DMEM/F12, RPMI-1640, Ham'sF10, Modified Ham'sF10®, HTFXtra®, Global®, Complete Multiblast®, Universal® or Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS). At the end of the culturing period, the attachment, the viability and the total number of cells were measured. Culture in DMEM/F12 led to the highest score of all studied parameters, followed by RPMI-1640. The lowest performance was recorded with Complete Multiblast® and EBSS. The use of the other media gave mediocre results. Among the media tested, DMEM/F12 appears to be the best choice for the culture of hGL cells.

  7. Human sperm acrosome reaction-initiating activity associated with the human cumulus oophorus and mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Siiteri, J E; Dandekar, P; Meizel, S

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the detection and partial characterization of preovulatory human cumulus oophorus and mural granulosa cell-associated activity capable of initiating the human sperm acrosome reaction (AR) in vitro. Fragments of preovulatory human cumulus (cells plus extracellular matrix) were washed 3 times, incubated for 24 hr and the spent media and washes assayed for their ability to initiate the human sperm acrosome reaction (AR) in vitro. AR activity was present in the first two washes but not the third wash; however, AR activity was recovered in the spent medium after 3 X-washed fragments were incubated for 24 hr under conditions which maintained the viability of the cumulus cells. The spent media of preovulatory human mural granulosa cells contained AR-initiating activity after 1-3, 3-6, and 6-9 days of culture. The properties of the AR activity present in spent media of human cumulus fragments included resistance to loss of activity during treatment with pronase; resistance to loss of activity during treatment with chondroitinase ABC or bacterial hyaluronidase; heat stability after overnight incubation; lack of extraction by chloroform-methanol; an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 50,000, as determined by Sephadex G-75 column chromatography; conversion to a lower apparent MW activity by incubation with pronase. These properties are also characteristic of a fraction derived by Sephadex G-75 chromatography of preovulatory human follicular fluid which also has been shown to stimulate the human sperm acrosome reaction in vitro. The AR activity from spent media of human mural granulosa cells is also found in a 50,000 MW Sephadex G-75 fraction. We propose that the sources of the 50,000 MW human follicular fluid AR activity are the cumulus oophorus and the mural granulosa cells.

  8. Transcriptomic diversification of developing cumulus and mural granulosa cells in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Wigglesworth, Karen; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Emori, Chihiro; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J

    2015-01-01

    Cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells (MGCs) have functionally distinct roles in antral follicles, and comparison of their transcriptomes at a global and systems level can propel future studies on mechanisms underlying their functional diversity. These cells were isolated from small and large antral follicles before and after stimulation of immature mice with gonadotropins, respectively. Both cell types underwent dramatic transcriptomic changes, and differences between them increased with follicular growth. Although cumulus cells of both stages of follicular development are competent to undergo expansion in vitro, they were otherwise remarkably dissimilar with transcriptomic changes quantitatively equivalent to those of MGCs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that cumulus cells of small follicles were enriched in transcripts generally associated with catalytic components of metabolic processes, while those from large follicles were involved in regulation of metabolism, cell differentiation, and adhesion. Contrast of cumulus cells versus MGCs revealed that cumulus cells were enriched in transcripts associated with metabolism and cell proliferation while MGCs were enriched for transcripts involved in cell signaling and differentiation. In vitro and in vivo models were used to test the hypothesis that higher levels of transcripts in cumulus cells versus MGCs is the result of stimulation by oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs). Surprisingly ∼48% of transcripts higher in cumulus cells than MGCs were not stimulated by ODPFs. Those stimulated by ODPFs were mainly associated with cell division, mRNA processing, or the catalytic pathways of metabolism, while those not stimulated by ODPFs were associated with regulatory processes such as signaling, transcription, phosphorylation, or the regulation of metabolism.

  9. Progesterone secretion by ovine granulosa cells: effects of nitric oxide and plane of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Bass, Casie S; Kaminski, Samantha L; Perry, George A; Redmer, Dale A

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of nutritional plane on in vitro progesterone (P4) secretion by granulosa (G) cells cultured in the presence or absence of effectors of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Ewes were randomly assigned into three nutritional groups: control (C), overfed (O; 2 × C), or underfed (U; 0.6 × C). Follicular development was induced by FSH injections. On day 15 of the estrous cycle, G cells were isolated and cultured with or without DETA-NONOate (NO donor), L-NAME (NO synthase [S] inhibitor), Arg and (or) LH for 8 h. DETA-NONOate decreased basal and LH-stimulated P4 secretion, and L-NAME increased basal P4 secretion in all groups. In U, Arg decreased LH-stimulated P4 secretion. These data demonstrate that (i) plane of nutrition affects basal P4 secretion by G cells, (ii) the NO donor decreases, NOS inhibitor increases but Arg does not affect basal P4 secretion, and (iii) effects of Arg on LH-stimulated P4 secretion are affected by plane of nutrition in FSH-treated sheep. Thus, plane of nutrition affects G cell function, and the NO system is involved in the regulation of basal and LH-stimulated P4 secretion. The mechanism of the NO system effects on secretory activity of G cells remains to be elucidated.

  10. Oxidative Stress Induces Mouse Follicular Granulosa Cells Apoptosis via JNK/FoxO1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qiannan; Liu, Zequn; Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in diverse biological processes, including cellular metabolism, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle. However, the JNK/FoxO1 pathway involved in the process of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the JNK activity significantly increased in response to oxidative stress in mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs). SP600125, a selective JNK inhibitor, attenuated the oxidative stress-induced MGCs apoptosis. Oxidative stress enhanced the FoxO1 nuclear translocation by activating the JNK activity. Moreover, JNK mediated the dissociation of FoxO1 from 14-3-3 proteins in MGCs after the treatment with H2O2. Finally, oxidative stress up-regulated the expression of FoxO1 via JNK mediation of FoxO1 self-regulation in MGCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that JNK/FoxO1 is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis in MGCs. PMID:27936150

  11. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-05

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bisphenol-A exposure and gene expression in human luteinized membrana granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Abdallah; Israel, Ariel; Combelles, Catherine M H; Adir, Michal; Racowsky, Catherine; Hauser, Russ; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Machtinger, Ronit

    2017-02-01

    Does bisphenol-A (BPA) affect gene expression in human membrana granulosa cells (MGC)? In vitro, short exposure to supra-physiological concentrations of BPA alters human MGC gene expression. Exposure to BPA may interfere with reproductive endocrine signaling. In vitro studies, mostly in animal models, have shown an inverse correlation between exposure to BPA and follicular growth, meiosis, and steroid hormone production in granulosa cells. Primary cultures of MGC obtained from 24 patients undergoing IVF (for PGD, male factor infertility or unexplained infertility) were exposed to various concentrations of BPA (0, 0.02, 0.2, 2 or 20 µg/ml) for 48 h. The study was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital. Microarray analysis was used to identify genes exhibiting expression changes following BPA exposure. Genes significantly altered were identified based on changes greater than 2-fold relative to the control group (not treated by BPA) and a Student's t-test P-value <0.05. Statistical significance was adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Alterations in the expression of genes that are involved in the enriched functional annotations altered by BPA at the concentration of 20 µg/ml were confirmed by real-time PCR. A distinct pattern of gene expression was observed in primary cultures of MGC exposed to the highest BPA concentration compared with untreated cells. We identified 652 genes that exhibited at least 2-fold differences in expression after BPA exposure (all P < 0.05 versus untreated). These genes were significantly enriched for annotations related to cell cycle progression, segregation of chromosomes, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, lipid synthesis, oocyte maturation and chromosomal alignment. No significant changes in gene expression were found at the lower doses of BPA most relevant to human exposure. N/A. Human exposure to BPA in vivo occurs over long periods of time. In this in vitro model, cells were exposed to the

  13. Identification of differential gene expression in in vitro FSH treated pig granulosa cells using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, A; Frappart, P O; Dehais, P; Tosser-Klopp, G; Hatey, F

    2006-07-07

    FSH, which binds to specific receptors on granulosa cells in mammals, plays a key role in folliculogenesis. Its biological activity involves stimulation of intercellular communication and upregulation of steroidogenesis, but the entire spectrum of the genes regulated by FSH has yet to be fully characterized. In order to find new regulated transcripts, however rare, we have used a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization approach (SSH) on pig granulosa cells in primary culture treated or not with FSH. Two SSH libraries were generated and 76 clones were sequenced after selection by differential screening. Sixty four different sequences were identified, including 3 novel sequences. Experiments demonstrated the presence of 25 regulated transcripts.A gene ontology analysis of these 25 genes revealed (1) catalytic; (2) transport; (3) signal transducer; (4) binding; (5) anti-oxidant and (6) structural activities. These findings may deepen our understanding of FSH's effects. Particularly, they suggest that FSH is involved in the modulation of peroxidase activity and remodelling of chromatin.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated expression and function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Dyson, Matthew T; Boos, Alois; Stocco, Douglas M

    2010-10-26

    VIP is a peptide hormone capable of activating the cAMP/PKA pathway and modifying gonadal steroidogenic capacity. Less is known about the molecular mechanisms of VIP-mediated steroidogenesis and its role in regulating the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR). We examined the impact of VIP on STAR expression and function in immortalized (KK1) and primary mouse granulosa cells, where VIP strongly upregulated STAR expression and steroidogenesis. Inhibitors of the PKA and PKC pathways suggested that both are activated by VIP. VIP did not efficiently phosphorylate STAR (P-STAR); however, VIP together with cAMP-analogs that activate Type II PKA increased P-STAR and further increased steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that VIP-induced STAR expression and function in granulosa cells result from the preferential activation of Type I PKA. Furthermore, the PKA and PKC pathways appear to converge at regulating VIP-mediated Star transcription and translation.

  15. Induction of Fas-Mediated Apoptosis by Interferon-γ is Dependent on Granulosa Cell Differentiation and Follicular Maturation in the Rat Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Tsang, Benjamin K.; Kim, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fas ligand (FasL) and its receptor Fas have been implicated in granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia. Although interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is believed to be involved in the regulation Fas expression in differentiated granulosa or granulosa-luteal cells, the expression of this cytokine and its role in the regulation of the granulosa cell Fas/FasL system and apoptosis during follicular maturation have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we have examined the presence of IFN-γ in ovarian follicles at different stage of development by immunohistochemistry and related their relative intensities with follicular expression of Fas and FasL, and with differences in granulosa cell sensitivity to Fas activation by exogenous agonistic Anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (Fas mAb). Although IFN-γ immunostaining was detectable in oocyte and granulosa cells in antral follicles, most intense immunoreactivity for the cytokine was observed in these cells of preantral follicles. Intense immunoreactivity for IFN-γ was most evident in granulosa cells of atretic early antral follicles where increased Fas and FasL expression and apoptosis were also observed. Whereas low concentrations of IFN-γ (10-100 U/mL) significantly increased Fas expression in undifferentiated granulosa cells (from preantral or very early antral follicles) in vitro, very higher concentrations (≥ 1,000 U/mL) were required to up-regulate of Fas in differentiated cells isolated from eCG-primed (antral) follicles. Addition of agonistic Fas mAb to cultures of granulosa cells at the two stages of differentiation and pretreated with IFN-γ (100 U/mL) elicited morphological and biochemical apoptotic features which were more prominent in cells not previously exposed to the gonadotropin in vivo. These findings suggested that IFN-γ is an important physiologic intra-ovarian regulator of follicular atresia and plays a pivotal role in regulation of expression of Fas receptor and subsequent

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis and Meta-Analysis of Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Maver, Ales; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Lovrečić, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Specific gene expression in oocytes and its surrounding cumulus (CC) and granulosa (GC) cells is needed for successful folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to compare genome-wide gene expression and biological functions of human GC and CC. Individual GC and CC were derived from 37 women undergoing IVF procedures. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a meta-analysis. Results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 6029 differentially expressed genes (q < 10−4); of which 650 genes had a log2 FC ≥ 2. After the meta-analysis there were 3156 genes differentially expressed. Among these there were genes that have previously not been reported in human somatic follicular cells, like prokineticin 2 (PROK2), higher expressed in GC, and pregnancy up-regulated nonubiquitous CaM kinase (PNCK), higher expressed in CC. Pathways like inflammatory response and angiogenesis were enriched in GC, whereas in CC, cell differentiation and multicellular organismal development were among enriched pathways. In conclusion, transcriptomes of GC and CC as well as biological functions, are distinctive for each cell subpopulation. By describing novel genes like PROK2 and PNCK, expressed in GC and CC, we upgraded the existing data on human follicular biology. PMID:26313571

  17. Leptin siRNA promotes ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and affects steroidogenesis by increasing NPY2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaomeng; Kou, Xinxin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Guomei; Jia, Tianming

    2017-10-30

    Leptin has been found to be involved in the ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Loss of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can correct the obesity syndrome of mutant mice lacking of leptin (ob/ob). However, the association of NPY and leptin in ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian steroidogenesis has not been investigated. Here, C57BL/6J ob/ob mice and C57BL/6J (control) mice were intraperitoneally injected with PBS, leptin (0.4μg/g bodyweight) or BIIE0246 (NPY2 receptor [NPY2R] antagonist, 30μg/kg bodyweight) every day for 15days. We found that NPY2R mRNA expression in mouse ovary was suppressed by leptin treatment, but increased by leptin deficiency. Leptin or BIIE0246 treatment significantly increased E2, but notably decreased progesterone in both mice. A lower level of E2 and a higher level of progesterone was observed in ob/ob mice than in control mice. Further, we then knocked down leptin expression in human ovarian granulosa cells by siRNA transfection and treated the cells with DMSO or BIIE0246. In vitro experiments confirmed the findings in mice. siLeptin treatment decreased the secretion of E2, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and the cell proliferation, but increased the secretion of progesterone and cell apoptosis. Western blotting analysis of PCNA, Bcl-2 and Bax confirmed the results of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of JAK2 and STAT3 was also suppressed by knocking down leptin. All the effects of siLeptin on ovarian granulosa cells were partially reversed by BIIE0246. In conclusion, knockdown of leptin significantly affected ovarian steroidogenesis and ovarian function through NPY. siLeptin transfection impaired the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and contributed to ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis partially through up-regulating NPY2R expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ovarian tissue vitrification is more efficient than slow freezing in protecting oocyte and granulosa cell DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Freya Jothsna; D'Souza, Fiona; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the primary treatment modality currently available to women at risk of losing their ovarian function due to cytotoxic therapy. However, the impact of these techniques on the oocyte DNA integrity is not elucidated. Here we have investigated the effect of vitrification and conventional slow freezing of eight week old Swiss albino mouse ovarian tissues on the oocyte and granulosa cell DNA integrity using the comet assay. The intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species in oocytes was measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. The cryopreservation of ovarian tissue by the slow freezing technique resulted in a significantly higher level of DNA fragmentation in oocytes in comparison to vitrification (p < 0.05) whereas DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells was significantly higher than the control (p < 0.01). Further, reactive oxygen species were significantly elevated in oocytes derived from slow freezing when compared to vitrification (p < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that the ovarian tissue slow freeze-thawing makes the oocyte and granulosa cells more vulnerable to DNA damage whereas vitrification appears to be a safer method than slow freezing for ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

  19. Effects of the phytoestrogen, genistein, and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor-dependent mechanisms on steroidogenesis and estrogen receptor expression in porcine granulosa cells of medium follicles.

    PubMed

    Nynca, A; Nynca, J; Wąsowska, B; Kolesarova, A; Kołomycka, A; Ciereszko, R E

    2013-01-01

    The use of soy-based products in pig diets had raised concerns regarding the reproductive toxicity of genistein, the predominant isoflavone in soybeans. Genistein was reported to exhibit weak estrogenic activity but its mechanism of action is not fully recognized. The aim of the study was to examine the in vitro effects of genistein on (1) progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) secretion by porcine granulosa cells harvested from medium follicles, (2) the viability of cultured granulosa cells, and (3) the mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) in these cells. In addition, to verify the role of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)-dependent mechanisms possibly involved in genistein biological action, we tested the effects of lavendustin C, the nonsteroidal PTK inhibitor, on granulosa cell steroidogenesis. We found that genistein inhibited (P < 0.05) basal P(4) secretion by granulosa cells harvested from medium follicles of pigs. In contrast, lavendustin C did not affect basal P(4) secretion by the cells. Moreover, genistein increased (P < 0.05) basal granulosal secretion of E(2). In contrast, lavendustin C did not alter basal E(2) secretion by porcine granulosa cells. In addition, we demonstrated that genistein increased mRNA and protein expression of ERβ (P < 0.05) in the examined cells. The expression of ERα mRNA was not affected by genistein and ERα protein was not detected in the cultured granulosa cells of pigs. In summary, the genistein action on follicular steroidogenesis in pigs involved changes in the granulosal expression of ERβ. However, the genistein action on P(4) and E(2) production by granulosa cells harvested from medium follicles did not seem to be associated with PTK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CHEMERIN (RARRES2) decreases in vitro granulosa cell steroidogenesis and blocks oocyte meiotic progression in bovine species.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Bertoldo, Michael J; Ramé, Christelle; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-05-01

    CHEMERIN, or RARRES2, is a new adipokine that is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats and humans. Here we studied the expression of CHEMERIN and its three receptors (CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2) in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found CHEMERIN, CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2 in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, INSULIN, IGF1, and two insulin sensitizers-metformin and rosiglitazone-increased rarres2 mRNA expression whereas they decreased cmklr1, gpr1, and cclr2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, TNF alpha and ADIPONECTIN significantly increased rarres2 and cmklr1 expression, respectively. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, human recombinant CHEMERIN (hRec, 200 ng/ml) reduced production of both progesterone and estradiol, cholesterol content, STAR abundance, CYP19A1 and HMGCR proteins, and the phosphorylation levels of MAPK3/MAPK1 in the presence or absence of FSH (10(-8) M) and IGF1 (10(-8) M). All of these effects were abolished by using an anti-CMKLR1 antibody. In bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, the addition of hRec (200 ng/ml) in the maturation medium arrested most oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, and this was associated with a decrease in MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, hRec decreases steroidogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation, probably through CMKLR1. Moreover, in cumulus-oocyte complexes, it blocked meiotic progression at the germinal vesicle stage and inhibited MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both the oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary presenting with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Ahmed; Lubina-Solomon, Alexandra; Kew, Fiona M; Webster, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea represent a common endocrine presentation. We report a case of an oestrogen-producing juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the ovary in a 16-year-old post-pubertal woman with hyperprolactinaemia amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea which resolved following surgical resection of the tumour. This patient presented with a 9-month history of secondary amenorrhoea and a 2-month history of galactorrhoea. Elevated serum prolactin at 7081 mIU/l and suppressed gonadotropins (LH <0.1 U/l; FSH <0.1 U/l) were detected. Serum oestradiol was significantly elevated at 7442 pmol/l with undetectable β-human chorionic gonadotropin. MRI showed a bulky pituitary with no visible adenoma. MRI of the abdomen showed a 4.8 cm mass arising from the right ovary with no evidence of metastatic disease. Serum inhibin B was elevated at 2735 ng/l. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of a JGCT, stage International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1A. Immunohistochemical staining for prolactin was negative. Post-operatively, oestrogen and prolactin levels were normalised, and she subsequently had a successful pregnancy. In summary, we present a case of an oestrogen-secreting JGCT with hyperprolactinaemia manifesting clinically with galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea. We postulate that observed hyperprolactinaemia was caused by oestrogenic stimulation of pituitary lactotroph cells, a biochemical state analogous to pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hyperprolactinaemia as a result of excessive oestrogen production in the context of a JGCT. Learning points Hyperprolactinaemia with bilateral galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea has a wide differential diagnosis and is not always caused by a prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma.Significantly elevated serum oestradiol levels in the range seen in this case, in the absence of pregnancy, are indicative

  2. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary presenting with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Ahmed; Novodvorsky, Peter; Lubina-Solomon, Alexandra; Kew, Fiona M; Webster, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea represent a common endocrine presentation. We report a case of an oestrogen-producing juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the ovary in a 16-year-old post-pubertal woman with hyperprolactinaemia amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea which resolved following surgical resection of the tumour. This patient presented with a 9-month history of secondary amenorrhoea and a 2-month history of galactorrhoea. Elevated serum prolactin at 7081 mIU/l and suppressed gonadotropins (LH <0.1 U/l; FSH <0.1 U/l) were detected. Serum oestradiol was significantly elevated at 7442 pmol/l with undetectable β-human chorionic gonadotropin. MRI showed a bulky pituitary with no visible adenoma. MRI of the abdomen showed a 4.8 cm mass arising from the right ovary with no evidence of metastatic disease. Serum inhibin B was elevated at 2735 ng/l. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of a JGCT, stage International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1A. Immunohistochemical staining for prolactin was negative. Post-operatively, oestrogen and prolactin levels were normalised, and she subsequently had a successful pregnancy. In summary, we present a case of an oestrogen-secreting JGCT with hyperprolactinaemia manifesting clinically with galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea. We postulate that observed hyperprolactinaemia was caused by oestrogenic stimulation of pituitary lactotroph cells, a biochemical state analogous to pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hyperprolactinaemia as a result of excessive oestrogen production in the context of a JGCT. Hyperprolactinaemia with bilateral galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea has a wide differential diagnosis and is not always caused by a prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma.Significantly elevated serum oestradiol levels in the range seen in this case, in the absence of pregnancy, are indicative of an oestrogen

  3. Identification of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Specific Genes in Cumulus and Mural Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aydos, Alp; Gurel, Aykut; Oztemur Islakoglu, Yasemin; Noyan, Senem; Gokce, Bagdagul; Ecemis, Tolga; Kaya, Cemil; Aksu, Arif Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrine disorder which affects women of reproductive age with prevalence of 8–18%. The oocyte within the follicle is surrounded by cumulus cells (CCs), which connect with mural granulosa cells (MGCs) that are responsible for secreting steroid hormones. The main aim of this study is comparing gene expression profiles of MGCs and CCs in PCOS and control samples to identify PCOS-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In this study, two microarray databases were searched for mRNA expression microarray studies performed with CCs and MGCs obtained from PCOS patients and control samples. Three independent studies were selected to be integrated with naive meta-analysis since raw meta-data from these studies were found to be highly correlated. DEGs in these somatic cells were identified for PCOS and control groups. This study enabled us to reveal dysregulation in MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase), insulin and Wnt signaling pathways between CCs and MGCs in PCOS. The meta-analysis results together with qRT-PCR validations provide evidence that molecular signaling is dysregulated through MGCs and CCs in PCOS, which is important for follicle and oocyte maturation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the syndrome. PMID:27997581

  4. Identification of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Specific Genes in Cumulus and Mural Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Aydos, Alp; Gurel, Aykut; Oztemur Islakoglu, Yasemin; Noyan, Senem; Gokce, Bagdagul; Ecemis, Tolga; Kaya, Cemil; Aksu, Arif Tarik; Gur Dedeoglu, Bala

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrine disorder which affects women of reproductive age with prevalence of 8-18%. The oocyte within the follicle is surrounded by cumulus cells (CCs), which connect with mural granulosa cells (MGCs) that are responsible for secreting steroid hormones. The main aim of this study is comparing gene expression profiles of MGCs and CCs in PCOS and control samples to identify PCOS-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In this study, two microarray databases were searched for mRNA expression microarray studies performed with CCs and MGCs obtained from PCOS patients and control samples. Three independent studies were selected to be integrated with naive meta-analysis since raw meta-data from these studies were found to be highly correlated. DEGs in these somatic cells were identified for PCOS and control groups. This study enabled us to reveal dysregulation in MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase), insulin and Wnt signaling pathways between CCs and MGCs in PCOS. The meta-analysis results together with qRT-PCR validations provide evidence that molecular signaling is dysregulated through MGCs and CCs in PCOS, which is important for follicle and oocyte maturation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  5. STMN1 Promotes Progesterone Production Via StAR Up-regulation in Mouse Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yun-De; Zhao, Han; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Shi-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Yu, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zeng-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Chao; Liu, Tao; Gao, Xuan; Li, Lei; Lu, Gang; Chan, Wai-Yee; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a biomarker in several types of neoplasms. It plays an important role in cell cycle progression, mitosis, signal transduction and cell migration. In ovaries, STMN1 is predominantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs). However, little is known about the role of STMN1 in ovary. In this study, we demonstrated that STMN1 is overexpressed in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In mouse primary GCs, the overexpression of STMN1 stimulated progesterone production, whereas knockdown of STMN1 decreased progesterone production. We also found that STMN1 positively regulates the expression of Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and Cyp11a1 (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1). Promoter and ChIP assays indicated that STMN1 increased the transcriptional activity of Star and Cyp11a1 by binding to their promoter regions. The data suggest that STMN1 mediates the progesterone production by modulating the promoter activity of Star and Cyp11a1. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of STMN1 in ovary GC steroidogenesis. A better understanding of this potential interaction between STMN1 and Star in progesterone biosynthesis in GCs will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets in PCOS. PMID:27270953

  6. FSH protects mouse granulosa cells from oxidative damage by repressing mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Jiang, Yi; Guan, Zhiqiang; Cao, Yan; Sun, Shao-chen; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in triggering granulosa cell (GC) death during follicular atresia. Recent studies suggested that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has a pivotal role in protecting GCs from oxidative injury, although the exact mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report that FSH promotes GC survival by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced mitophagy. The loss of GC viability caused by oxidative stress was significantly reduced after FSH treatment, which was correlated with impaired activation of mitophagy upon oxidative stress. Compared with FSH treatment, blocking mitophagy displayed approximate preventive effect on oxidative stress-induced GC death, but FSH did not further restore viability of cells pretreated with mitophagy inhibitor. Importantly, FSH suppressed the induction of serine/threonine kinase PINK1 during oxidative stress. This inhibited the mitochondrial translocation of the E3 ligase Parkin, which is required for the subsequent clearance of mitochondria, and ultimately cell death via mitophagy. In addition, knocking down PINK1 using RNAi confirmed the role of the FSH-PINK1-Parkin-mitophagy pathway in regulating GC survival under oxidative conditions. These findings introduce a novel physiological function of FSH in protecting GCs against oxidative damage by targeting PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:27901103

  7. Tissue localization of GM-CSF receptor in bovine ovarian follicles and its role on glucose uptake by mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta, O A; Bucher, D; Angulo, C; Castro, M A; Ratto, M H; Concha, Il

    2016-07-01

    The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in proliferation, differentiation, and activation of several cell types including those involved in hematopoiesis and reproduction. In the present study, the expression of the α- and β-subunit genes of GM-CSF receptor during follicular development in cattle was assessed. The spatial association of α- and β-subunits of GM-CSF with follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and the temporal associations with gene expression of hexose transporters (GLUTs) in granulosa cells of cattle were also evaluated. The effect of GM-CSF on the functionality of hexose transporters was also determined in an in vitro primary culture of granulosa cells. The spatial association of subunits of the GM-CSF receptor with 3β-HSD and FSHR suggests a potential steroidogenic regulation of GM-CSF in granulosa cells. Immunodetection of GLUTs and uptake kinetic assays confirmed expression and functionality of these genes for hexose transporters in granulosa cells of cattle. Treatment of granulosa cells with GM-CSF, FSH or insulin- like growth factor-I (IGF-I) alone increased 2-deoxyglucose (DOG) or 3-0-methylglucose (OMG) uptake; however, when cells were treated with various combination of these factors there were no additive effect. Unexpectedly, the combination of GM-CSF and FSH decreased DOG uptake compared to FSH treatment alone. Thus, the expression pattern of GM-CSF receptor subunit genes during follicle development in cattle and promotion of DOG and OMG uptake in granulosa cells indicate a role for GM-CSF, FSH and/or IGF-I alone in regulating granulosa cell metabolic activity, specifically by promoting glucose uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Granulosa cell-oocyte interactions: the phosphorylation of specific proteins in mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage is dependent upon the differentiative state of companion somatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cecconi, S.; Tatone, C.; Buccione, R.; Mangia, F.; Colonna, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of granulosa cells in the regulation of mouse ovarian oocyte metabolism was investigated. Fully grown antral oocytes, isolated from surrounding cumulus cells, were cultured on monolayers of preantral granulosa cells in the presence of dbcAMP to prevent the resumption of meiosis. Under these conditions metabolic cooperativity was established between the two cell types as early as 1 hr after seeding. Moreover, cocultured oocytes phosphorylated two polypeptides of 74 and 21 kDa which are normally phosphorylated in follicle-enclosed growing oocytes but not in cumulus cell-enclosed fully grown oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. When cocultured oocytes were allowed to resume meiosis, the 74 and 21 kDa proteins were synthesized but no longer phosphorylated even though intercellular coupling between the two cell types was maintained during radiolabeling. It appears therefore: (a) that the different protein kinase activity of growing and fully grown germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes is related to the differentiative state of granulosa cells, and (b) that the regulation of oocyte protein phosphorylation activity by granulosa cells is dependent on the meiotic stage of the oocyte.

  9. Epithelialization and stromalization of porcine follicular granulosa cells during real-time proliferation - a primary cell culture approach.

    PubMed

    Ciesiółka, S; Bryja, A; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Bukowska, D; Piotrowska, H; Porowski, L; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The process of oocyte growth and development takes place during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. This is accompanied by biochemical and morphological changes, occurring from the preantral to antral stages during ovarian follicle differentiation. It is well known that the process of follicle growth is associated with morphological modifications of theca (TCs) and granulosa cells (GCs). However, the relationship between proliferation and/or differentiation of porcine GCs during long-term in vitro culture requires further investigation. Moreover, the expression of cytokeratins and vimentin in porcine GCs, in relation to real-time cell proliferation, has yet to be explored. Utilizing confocal microscopy, we analyzed cytokeratin 18 (CK18), cytokeratin 8 + 18 + 19 (panCK), and vimentin (Vim) expression, as well as their protein distribution, within GCs isolated from slaughtered ovarian follicles. The cells were cultured for 168 h with protein expression and cell proliferation index analyzed at 24-h intervals. We found the highest expression of CK18, panCK, and Vim occurred at 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC) as compared with other experimental time intervals. All of the investigated proteins displayed cytoplasmic distribution. Analysis of real-time cell proliferation revealed an increased cell index after the first 24 h of IVC. Additionally, during each period between 24-168 h of IVC, a significant difference in the proliferation profile, expressed as the cell index, was also observed. We concluded that higher expression of vimentin at 120 h of in vitro proliferation might explain the culmination of the stromalization process associated with growth and domination of stromal cells in GC culture. Cytokeratin expression within GC cytoplasm confirms the presence of epithelial cells as well as epithelial-related GC development during IVC. Moreover, expression of both cytokeratins and vimentin during short-term culture suggests that the process of GC proliferation

  10. Safety of brilliant cresyl blue staining protocols on human granulosa and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Alcoba, Diego Duarte; Conzatti, Maiara; Ferreira, Gustavo Dias; Pimentel, Anita Mylius; Kussler, Ana Paula; Capp, Edison; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Brum, Ilma Simoni

    2016-02-01

    The selection of human immature oocytes destined for in vitro maturation (IVM) is performed according to their cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) morphology. In animal models, oocyte pre-selection with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining improves fertilization and blastocyst rates and even increases the number of calves born. As the granulosa cells and cumulus cells (GCs and CCs) have a close relationship with the oocyte and are available in in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs, applying BCB staining to these cells may help to elucidate whether BCB shows toxicity to human oocytes and to determine the safest protocol for this dye. GCs and CCs were isolated from 24 patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. After 48 h, cells were exposed to: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) with or without phenol red, DPBS and mDPBS for 60 min; 13, 20 and 26 μM BCB for 60 min; and 60, 90 or 120 min to 13 μM BCB. Cellular viability was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue assays. The 20 and 26 μM BCB exposures resulted in lower cell viability, similar to when cells were exposed to BCB for 90 or 120 min. GCs and CCs viabilities were equal among control group and 13 μM BCB group after 60 min. BCB staining was not toxic to GCs and CCs when the regime of 13 μM BCB for 60 min was used. Due to the close molecular/biochemical relationship between these cells and the gamete, we propose that it is unlikely that the use of BCB could interfere with the viability/health of human oocytes.

  11. Effect of epidermal growth factor on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced proliferation of granulosa cells from chicken prehierarchical follicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-xing; Jia, Yu-dong; Zhang, Cai-qiao

    2011-11-01

    The development of ovarian follicular cells is controlled by multiple circulating and local hormones and factors, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). In this study, the stage-specific effect of EGF on FSH-induced proliferation of granulosa cells was evaluated in the ovarian follicles of egg-laying chickens. Results showed that EGF and its receptor (EGFR) mRNAs displayed a high expression in granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles, including the large white follicle (LWF) and small yellow follicle (SYF), and thereafter the expression decreased markedly to the stage of the largest preovulatory follicle. SYF represents a turning point of EGF/EGFR mRNA expression during follicle selection. Subsequently the granulosa cells from SYF were cultured to reveal the mediation of EGF in FSH action. Cell proliferation was remarkably increased by treatment with either EGF or FSH (0.1-100 ng/ml). This result was confirmed by elevated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and decreased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, EGF-induced cell proliferation was accompanied by increased mRNA expressions of EGFR, FSH receptor, and the cell cycle-regulating genes (cyclins D1 and E1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 6) as well as decreased expression of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA. However, the EGF or FSH-elicited effect was reversed by simultaneous treatment with an EGFR inhibitor AG1478. In conclusion, EGF and EGFR expressions manifested stage-specific changes during follicular development and EGF mediated FSH-induced cell proliferation and retarded cell differentiation in the prehierarchical follicles. These expressions thus stimulated follicular growth before selection in the egg-laying chicken.

  12. Potential role of hCG in apoptosis of human luteinized granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    HIRATA, Rei; HOJO, Takuo; SANO, Masahiro; HAYASHI, Nobuyoshi; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) forms after ovulation and acts as a temporary endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P4), a hormone that is essential for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. In pregnant women, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the conceptus prevents luteolysis. hCG also increases the survival of cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs). To clarify the maintenance mechanism of the human CL, we investigated the effects of hCG and P4 receptor antagonists, onapristone (OP) and RU486, on the viability of hLGCs. With the patients’ consent, hLGCs were isolated from follicular aspirates for in vitro fertilization. The cells were cultured with hCG (0.1, 1, 10, 100 IU/ml), OP (10, 25, 50, 100 μM), RU486 (100 μM), P4 (1, 10, 25, 50 μM) or some combination of the four for 24 h. Cell viability was significantly increased by hCG (100 IU/ml) and significantly decreased by OP (100 μM) compared with the control. Cells treated with hCG and OP together were significantly less viable than the control and OP-treated cells. The combined treatment also significantly increased CASP3 activity and cleaved CASP3 protein expression. Furthermore, P4 addition reversed the reduction in cell viability caused by the combination of hCG and OP treatment. The overall findings suggest that hCG cooperates with P4 to increase survival of hLGCs and to induce apoptosis when P4 action supported by hCG is attenuated in the human CL. PMID:25451535

  13. PGRMC1 participates in late events of bovine granulosa cells mitosis and oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, L; Tessaro, I; Raucci, F; Merico, V; Mazzini, G; Garagna, S; Zuccotti, M; Franciosi, F; Lodde, V

    2016-08-02

    Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in both oocyte and ovarian somatic cells, where it is found in multiple cellular sub-compartments including the mitotic spindle apparatus. PGRMC1 localization in the maturing bovine oocytes mirrors its localization in mitotic cells, suggesting a possible common action in mitosis and meiosis. To test the hypothesis that altering PGRMC1 activity leads to similar defects in mitosis and meiosis, PGRMC1 function was perturbed in cultured bovine granulosa cells (bGC) and maturing oocytes and the effect on mitotic and meiotic progression assessed. RNA interference-mediated PGRMC1 silencing in bGC significantly reduced cell proliferation, with a concomitant increase in the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase, which is consistent with an arrested or prolonged M-phase. This observation was confirmed by time-lapse imaging that revealed defects in late karyokinesis. In agreement with a role during late mitotic events, a direct interaction between PGRMC1 and Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) was observed in the central spindle at of dividing cells. Similarly, treatment with the PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 or PGRMC1 silencing in the oocyte impaired completion of meiosis I. Specifically the ability of the oocyte to extrude the first polar body was significantly impaired while meiotic figures aberration and chromatin scattering within the ooplasm increased. Finally, analysis of PGRMC1 and AURKB localization in AG205-treated oocytes confirmed an altered localization of both proteins when meiotic errors occur. The present findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 participates in late events of both mammalian mitosis and oocyte meiosis, consistent with PGRMC1's localization at the mid-zone and mid-body of the mitotic and meiotic spindle.

  14. The effect of androgens on ovarian follicle maturation: Dihydrotestosterone suppress FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation by upregulating PPARγ-dependent PTEN expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Yu-Shih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-12-17

    Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPARγ and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPARγ dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells.

  15. The effect of androgens on ovarian follicle maturation: Dihydrotestosterone suppress FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation by upregulating PPARγ-dependent PTEN expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Yu-Shih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-01-01

    Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPARγ and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPARγ dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells. PMID:26674985

  16. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation.

  17. MicroRNA Mediating Networks in Granulosa Cells Associated with Ovarian Follicular Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoyun; Chen, Long; Feng, Guangde; Xiang, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Chu, Mingxing

    2017-01-01

    Ovaries, which provide a place for follicular development and oocyte maturation, are important organs in female mammals. Follicular development is complicated physiological progress mediated by various regulatory factors including microRNAs (miRNAs). To demonstrate the role of miRNAs in follicular development, this study analyzed the expression patterns of miRNAs in granulosa cells through investigating three previous datasets generated by Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. Furthermore, via bioinformatic analyses, we dissected the associated functional networks of the observed significant miRNAs, in terms of interacting with signal pathways and transcription factors. During the growth and selection of dominant follicles, 15 dysregulated miRNAs and 139 associated pathways were screened out. In comparison of different styles of follicles, 7 commonly abundant miRNAs and 195 pathways, as well as 10 differentially expressed miRNAs and 117 pathways in dominant follicles in comparison with subordinate follicles, were collected. Furthermore, SMAD2 was identified as a hub factor in regulating follicular development. The regulation of miR-26a/b on smad2 messenger RNA has been further testified by real time PCR. In conclusion, we established functional networks which play critical roles in follicular development including pivotal miRNAs, pathways, and transcription factors, which contributed to the further investigation about miRNAs associated with mammalian follicular development. PMID:28316977

  18. Expression of endothelin-1 gene and protein in human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Magini, A.; Granchi, S.; Susini, T.

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies in animal models indicated an autocrine/paracrine action of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the ovary. We now report evidence on the presence of ET-1 in human ovary during reproductive life. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated a positive signal into cytoplasm of granulosa cells (GC) of follicles at different growth stages. The concentration of ET-1-like immunoreactivity (ET-1-Li) was also measured by a specific RIA in human follicular fluid (FF). FF samples were obtained from women in an in vitro fertilization program undergoing gonadotropin stimulation (group A; n = 24) or no treatment (group B; n = 7). The mean ({+-}SD) ET-1-LI FF level in group A (4.85 {+-} 2.06 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in group B (1.29 {+-} 0.43 pg/mL; P < 0.01), whereas the corresponding mean plasma levels were not significantly different and were not correlated to respective FF values. Our results indicate for the first time the presence of ET-1 and its messenger ribonucleic acid in the GC of the human ovary. The higher ET-1-LI levels found in the FF from women undergoing gonadotropin treatment suggest a modulation by gonadotropins and/or ovarian steroids of ET-1 production by GC. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Transcriptome profiling of granulosa and theca cells during dominant follicle development in the horse.

    PubMed

    Donadeu, F Xavier; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Esteves, Cristina L; Nadaf, Javad; Miedzinska, Katarzyna; McNeilly, Alan S; Waddington, David; Gérard, Nadine

    2014-11-01

    Several aspects of equine ovarian physiology are unique among domestic species. Moreover, follicular growth patterns are very similar between horses and humans. This study aimed to characterize, for the first time, global gene expression profiles associated with growth and preovulatory (PO) maturation of equine dominant follicles. Granulosa cells (GCs) and theca interna cells (TCs) were harvested from follicles (n = 5) at different stages of an ovulatory wave in mares corresponding to early dominance (ED; diameter ≥22 mm), late dominance (LD; ≥33 mm) and PO stage (34 h after administration of crude equine gonadotropins at LD stage), and separately analyzed on a horse gene expression microarray, followed by validation using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting/immunohistochemistry. Numbers of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs; ≥2-fold; P < 0.05) during the ED-LD and LD-PO transitions were 546 and 2419 in GCs and 5 and 582 in TCs. The most prominent change in GCs was the down-regulation of transcripts associated with cell division during both ED-LD and LD-PO. In addition, DET sets during LD-PO in GCs were enriched for genes involved in cell communication/adhesion, antioxidation/detoxification, immunity/inflammation, and cholesterol biosynthesis. In contrast, the largest change in TCs during the LD-PO transition was an up-regulation of genes involved in immune activation, with other DET sets mapping to GPCR/cAMP signaling, lipid/amino acid metabolism, and cell proliferation/survival and differentiation. In conclusion, distinct expression profiles were identified between growing and PO follicles and, particularly, between GCs and TCs within each stage. Several DETs were identified that have not been associated with follicle development in other species.

  20. Effects of retinoic acid on maturation of immature mouse oocytes in the presence and absence of a granulosa cell co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Eimani, Hussein; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fathi, Rouhollah

    2011-06-01

    Evaluation of the all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) effects on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of immature mouse oocytes in the presence and absence of granulosa cell monolayer. Denuded oocytes isolated from mice ovaries and matured in IVM medium alone (Control I), IVM medium in the presence of granulosa cells (Control II), IVM medium with t-RA (Experimental I) and IVM medium simultaneously with t-RA and granulosa cells (Experimental II). After 24 h, matured oocytes were fertilized in T6 medium and their development was followed until the blastocyst stage. Metaphase II oocytes ploidy were evaluated by chromosome counting. The t-RA group compared to the control groups showed no obvious abnormalities. Additionally maturation and embryo development rates significantly increased in the t-RA treated granulosa cell co-culture system. In conclusion, association of t-RA with granulosa cell co-culture during in vitro maturation increases meiosis resumption, formation of metaphase II oocytes, as well as 2-cell and blastocyst stage embryos.

  1. Apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells after serum withdrawal is mediated by Fas antigen (CD95) and Fas ligand.

    PubMed

    Hu, C L; Cowan, R G; Harman, R M; Porter, D A; Quirk, S M

    2001-02-01

    Ovarian follicular atresia occurs by apoptosis of granulosa and theca cells. The Fas antigen (Fas), a cell surface receptor that triggers apoptosis when activated by Fas ligand (FasL), may be involved in this process. A possible role of the Fas pathway in mediating serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells was examined. Granulosa cells collected from 5- to 10-mm bovine follicles were cultured in DMEM-F12 containing serum for 3 days, deprived of serum, and live cells were counted at various times after serum withdrawal. Cell death increased significantly 6 h after serum withdrawal (21% +/- 7%; P: < 0.05 vs. 0 h) and continued to increase until 24 h (43% +/- 6%). No further increases in cell death were observed through 72 h. Detection of the translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer surface of the cell membrane by annexin V binding indicated that cells died by apoptosis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays showed no changes in Fas mRNA levels but a 4.7-fold increase in FasL mRNA 3 h after serum withdrawal (P: < 0.05 vs. 0 h). FasL mRNA remained elevated through 24 h and returned to basal levels at 48 h. Immunohistochemical staining showed that both Fas and FasL protein increased on the cell surface within 3 h and remained elevated through 12 h (the last time point tested). Binding of FasL to Fas was blocked with two reagents that bind to the extracellular domain of FasL: an anti-FasL antibody and Fas:Fc, a chimeric protein consisting of the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G and the extracellular domain of human Fas. Cell death 24 h after serum withdrawal was reduced 55% +/- 10% and 34% +/- 12% by anti-FasL antibody and Fas:Fc, respectively (P: < 0.05 vs. no blocking protein). In conclusion, serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells is mediated at least partially by Fas/FasL interactions. These results are consistent with a potential role of Fas in an autocrine or paracrine pathway to trigger

  2. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

  3. Peroxiredoxin 2 inhibits granulosa cell apoptosis during follicle atresia through the NFKB pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuhong; Luo, Aiyue; Hao, Xing; Lai, Zhiwen; Ding, Ting; Ma, Xiangyi; Mayinuer, Maitituohe; Shen, Wei; Wang, Xi; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding; Wang, Shixuan

    2011-06-01

    Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) has been known to act as an antioxidant enzyme whose main function is H(2)O(2) reduction in cells. We aimed to study the expression patterns of PRDX2 in mouse ovaries and explore the function of this protein in apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs). We found that the expression of the PRDX2 protein in atretic follicle GCs was markedly higher than in healthy follicle GCs. In vitro, the transfection of siRNA targeting the Prdx2 gene inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of primary cultured GCs. Furthermore, suppression of PRDX2 resulted in the augmentation of endogenous H(2)O(2), and the ability to eliminate the exogenous H(2)O(2) was attenuated. The expression of PRDX2 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB), whose activity was inhibited by binding to IKB, increased in GCs treated with various concentrations of H(2)O(2) for 30 min. However, no significant change in cytoplasmic IKB expression was observed. At 2 h after treatment with H(2)O(2), nuclear NFKB expression level was reduced, cytoplasmic IKB expression was increased, and PRDX2 expression was unchanged. Silencing of the Prdx2 gene caused early changes in NFKB and IKB expression in the primary cultured GCs compared to that in control cells. Taken together, these data suggest that PRDX2 plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis in GCs and that PRDX2 actions may be related to the expression of NFKB and IKB.

  4. Enhanced Inflammatory Transcriptome in the Granulosa Cells of Women With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jaye; Liu, Zhilin; Ren, Yi Athena; Wun, Wan-Song; Zhou, Wei; Kenigsberg, Shlomit; Librach, Clifford; Valdes, Cecilia; Gibbons, William

    2016-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. Objective: We propose that increased or altered intrafollicular inflammatory reactions also occur in periovulatory follicles of PCOS patients. Design: Gene profiling and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses in granulosa-lutein cells (GCs) collected from PCOS and non-PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization were compared with serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of cytokines and chemokines. Setting: This was a university-based study. Patients: Twenty-one PCOS and 45 control patients were recruited: demographic, hormone, body mass index, and pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from patient data files. Interventions: GC cytokine/chemokine mRNAs were identified and analyzed by gene-chip microarrays/qPCR before and after culture with human chorionic gonadotropin, DHT, IL-6, or IL-8; serum/FF cytokine levels were also analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Relative serum/FF cytokine levels and GC cytokine expression before and after culture were compared and related to body mass index. Results: The following results were found: 1) PCOS GCs express elevated transcripts encoding cytokines, chemokines, and immune cell markers, 2) based on gene profiling and qPCR analyses, obese PCOS patients define a distinct PCOS disease subtype with the most dramatic increases in proinflammatory and immune-related factors, and 3) human chorionic gonadotropin and DHT increased cytokine production in cultured GCs, whereas cytokines augmented cytokine and vascular genes, indicating that hyperandrogenism/elevated LH and obesity in PCOS women augment intrafollicular cytokine production. Conclusions: Intrafollicular androgens and cytokines likely comprise a local regulatory loop that impacts GC expression of cytokines and chemokines and the presence of immune cells; this loop is further enhanced in the obese PCOS subtype. PMID:27228368

  5. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation of Wnt5a (but not Wnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genes in vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signaling via the WNT/Ca2+ or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decrease via a glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.—Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling. PMID:26667040

  6. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe WNT/Ca(2+)or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decreaseviaa glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.-Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

  7. A role for retinoids in human oocyte fertilization: regulation of connexin 43 by retinoic acid in cumulus granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Best, Monica W; Wu, Juanjuan; Pauli, Samuel A; Kane, Maureen A; Pierzchalski, Keely; Session, Donna R; Woods, Dori C; Shang, Weirong; Taylor, Robert N; Sidell, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Retinoids are essential for ovarian steroid production and oocyte maturation in mammals. Oocyte competency is known to positively correlate with efficient gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) among granulosa cells in the cumulus-oocyte complex. Connexin 43 (C x 43) is the main subunit of gap junction channels in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGC) and is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in other hormone responsive cell types. The objectives of this study were to quantify retinoid levels in human CGC obtained during IVF oocyte retrievals, to investigate the potential relationship between CGC ATRA levels and successful oocyte fertilization, and to determine the effects of ATRA on C x 43 protein expression in CGC. Results showed that CGC cultures actively metabolize retinol to produce ATRA. Grouped according to fertilization rate tertiles, mean ATRA levels were 2-fold higher in pooled CGC from women in the highest versus the lowest tertile (P < 0.05). ATRA induced a rapid dephosphorylation of C x 43 in CGC and granulosa cell line (KGN) cultures resulting in a >2-fold increase in the expression of the functional non-phosphorylated (P0) species (P < 0.02). Similar enhancement of P0 by ATRA was shown in CGC and KGN cultures co-treated with LH or hCG which, by themselves, enhanced the protein levels of C x 43 without altering its phosphorylation profile. Correspondingly, the combination of ATRA+hCG treatment of KGN caused a significant increase in GJIC compared with single agent treatments (P < 0.025) and a doubling of GJIC from that seen in untreated cells (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that CGC are a primary site of retinoid uptake and ATRA biosynthesis. Regulation of C x 43 by ATRA may serve an important role in folliculogenesis, development of oocyte competency, and successful fertilization by increasing GJIC in CGC.

  8. A role for retinoids in human oocyte fertilization: regulation of connexin 43 by retinoic acid in cumulus granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Best, Monica W.; Wu, Juanjuan; Pauli, Samuel A.; Kane, Maureen A.; Pierzchalski, Keely; Session, Donna R.; Woods, Dori C.; Shang, Weirong; Taylor, Robert N.; Sidell, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids are essential for ovarian steroid production and oocyte maturation in mammals. Oocyte competency is known to positively correlate with efficient gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) among granulosa cells in the cumulus-oocyte complex. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the main subunit of gap junction channels in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGC) and is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in other hormone responsive cell types. The objectives of this study were to quantify retinoid levels in human CGC obtained during IVF oocyte retrievals, to investigate the potential relationship between CGC ATRA levels and successful oocyte fertilization, and to determine the effects of ATRA on Cx43 protein expression in CGC. Results showed that CGC cultures actively metabolize retinol to produce ATRA. Grouped according to fertilization rate tertiles, mean ATRA levels were 2-fold higher in pooled CGC from women in the highest versus the lowest tertile (P < 0.05). ATRA induced a rapid dephosphorylation of Cx43 in CGC and granulosa cell line (KGN) cultures resulting in a >2-fold increase in the expression of the functional non-phosphorylated (P0) species (P < 0.02). Similar enhancement of P0 by ATRA was shown in CGC and KGN cultures co-treated with LH or hCG which, by themselves, enhanced the protein levels of Cx43 without altering its phosphorylation profile. Correspondingly, the combination of ATRA+hCG treatment of KGN caused a significant increase in GJIC compared with single agent treatments (P < 0.025) and a doubling of GJIC from that seen in untreated cells (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that CGC are a primary site of retinoid uptake and ATRA biosynthesis. Regulation of Cx43 by ATRA may serve an important role in folliculogenesis, development of oocyte competency, and successful fertilization by increasing GJIC in CGC. PMID:25877907

  9. Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Ovary

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-03

    Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  10. Expression of neurokinin B/NK3 receptor and kisspeptin/KISS1 receptor in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, J; Pinto, F M; Fernández-Sánchez, M; Prados, N; Cejudo-Román, A; Almeida, T A; Hernández, M; Romero, M; Tena-Sempere, M; Candenas, L

    2014-12-01

    Are neurokinin B (NKB), NK3 receptor (NK3R), kisspeptin (KISS1) and kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) expressed in human ovarian granulosa cells? The NKB/NK3R and kisspeptin/KISS1R systems are co-expressed and functionally active in ovarian granulosa cells. The NKB/NK3R and KISS1/KISS1R systems are essential for reproduction. In addition to their well-recognized role in hypothalamic neurons, these peptide systems may contribute to the control of fertility by acting directly on the gonads, but such a direct gonadal role remains largely unknown. This study analyzed matched mural granulosa cells (MGCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) collected from preovulatory follicles of oocyte donors at the time of oocyte retrieval. The samples were provided by 56 oocyte donor women undergoing ovarian stimulation treatment. Follicular fluid samples containing MGCs and cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected after transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval. RT-PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and western blot were used to investigate the pattern of expression of the NKB/NK3R and KISS/KISS1R systems in MGCs and CCs. Intracellular free Ca(2+) levels, [Ca(2+)]i, in MGCs after exposure to NKB or KISS1, in the presence or not of tachykinin receptor antagonists, were also measured. NKB/NK3R and KISS1/KISS1R systems were expressed, at the mRNA and protein levels, in MGCs and CCs, with significantly higher expression in CCs. Kisspeptin increased the [Ca(2+)]i in the cytosol of human MGCs while exposure to NKB failed to induce any change in [Ca(2+)]i. However, the [Ca(2+)]i response to kisspeptin was reduced in the presence of NKB. The inhibitory effect of NKB was only partially mimicked by the NK3R agonist, senktide and marginally suppressed by the NK3R-selective antagonist SB 222200. Yet, a cocktail of antagonists selective for the NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptors blocked the effect of NKB. The granulosa and cumulus cells were obtained from oocyte donors undergoing ovarian

  11. Conserved miR-10 family represses proliferation and induces apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiajie, Tu; Yanzhou, Yang; Hoi-Hung, Albert Cheung; Zi-Jiang, Chen; Wai-Yee, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Granulosa cells (GCs) are essential somatic cells in the ovary and play an important role in folliculogenesis. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and the TGF-β pathway have been identified as a critical hormone and signalling pathway, respectively, in GCs. In this study, we found that a conserved microRNA family that includes miR-10a and miR-10b repressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in human, mouse, and rat GCs (hGCs, mGCs and rGCs, respectively). Moreover, essential hormones and growth factors in the follicle, such as FSH, FGF9 and some ligands in the TGF-β pathway (TGFβ1, Activin A, BMP4 and BMP15), inhibited miR-10a and miR-10b expression in GCs. In contrast, the miR-10 family suppressed many key genes in the TGF-β pathway, suggesting a negative feedback loop between the miR-10 family and the TGF-β pathway in GCs. By using bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq, qPCR, FISH, immunofluorescence, Western blot and luciferase reporter assays, BDNF was identified as a direct target of the miR-10 family in GCs. Additionally, reintroduction of BDNF rescued the effects of miR-10a and miR-10b in GCs. Collectively, miR-10a and miR-10b repressed GC development during folliculogenesis by repressing BDNF and the TGF-β pathway. These effects by the miR-10 family on GCs are conserved among different species. PMID:28112253

  12. Granulosa cells and retinoic acid co-treatment enrich potential germ cells from manually selected Oct4-EGFP expressing human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Fu; Jan, Pey-Shynan; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Wu, Fang-Chun; Lan, Chen-Wei; Huang, Mei-Chi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2014-09-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem (HES) cells to germ cells may become clinically useful in overcoming diseases related to germ-cell development. Niches were used to differentiate HES cell lines, NTU1 and H9 Oct4-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), including laminin, granulosa cell co-culture or conditioned medium, ovarian stromal cell co-culture or conditioned medium, retinoic acid, stem cell factor (SCF) and BMP4-BMP7-BMP8b treatment. Flow cytometry showed that granulosa cell co-culture (P < 0.001) or conditioned medium (P = 0.007) treatment for 14 days significantly increased the percentages of differentiated H9 Oct4-EGFP cells expressing early germ cell marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1(SSEA1); sorted SSEA1[+] cells did not express higher levels of germ cell gene VASA and GDF9. Manually collected H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells expressed significantly higher levels of VASA (P = 0.005) and GDF9 (P = 0.001). H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells developed to ovarian follicle-like structures after culture for 28 days but with low efficiency. Unlike SCF and BMP4, retinoic acid co-treatment enhanced VASA, GDF9 and SCP3 expression. A protocol is recommended to enrich differentiated HES cells with germ-cell potential by culture with granulosa cells, conditioned medium or retinoic acid, manual selection of Oct4-EGFP[+] cells, and analysis of VASA, GDF9 expression, or both. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TGF-β1 downregulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production through Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2014-11-01

    Regulation of progesterone production in granulosa cells is important for normal reproductive functions. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is recognized as the key regulatory protein involved in the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. TGF-β1 protein is detected in human follicular fluid, and TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells. However, the functional role of TGF-β1 in the regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells. SVOG cells are human granulosa cells that were obtained from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and immortalized with SV40 large T antigen. SVOG cells were used to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production at an academic research center. Levels of mRNA and protein were examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The accumulation levels of progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-β1 treatment downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production were abolished by the inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with TGF-β1 activated the Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The inhibition of the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. TGF-β1 downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production by activating the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

  14. Effects of orexins A and B on expression of orexin receptors and progesterone release in luteal and granulosa ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Natalia I; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A R; Libertun, Carlos

    2012-10-10

    Orexin-A and orexin-B are neuropeptides controlling sleep-wakefulness, feeding and neuroendocrine functions via their G protein-coupled receptors, orexin-1R and orexin-2R. They are synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus and project throughout the brain. Orexins and orexin receptors have also been described outside the brain. Previously we demonstrated the presence of both receptors in the ovary, their increased expression during proestrous afternoon and the dependence on the gonadotropins. Here we studied the effects of orexins on the mRNA expression of both receptors, by quantitative real-time PCR, on luteal cells from superovulated rat ovaries and granulosa cells from diethylstilbestrol-treated rat ovaries. Effects on progesterone secretion were also measured. In luteal cells, 1 nM of either orexin-A or orexin-B decreased progesterone secretion. Orexin-A treatment increased expression of both orexin-1R and orexin-2R mRNA. The effect on orexin-1R mRNA expression was abolished by an orexin-1R selective receptor antagonist SB-334867 and the effect on orexin-2R mRNA expression was abolished by a selective orexin-2R antagonist JNJ-10397049. Orexin-B did not modify orexin-1R mRNA expression, but increased orexin-2R mRNA expression. The effect of orexin-B on orexin-2R was abolished by a selective orexin-2R antagonist. Neither the expression of orexin receptors nor progesterone secretions by granulosa cells were affected by orexins. FSH, as positive control, increased both steroid hormones secretion, but did not induce the expression of OX receptors in granulosa cells isolated from late preantral/early antral follicles. Finally in ovaries obtained immediately after sacrifice, the expression of orexin-1R and orexin-2R was higher in superovulated rat ovaries compared to control or diethylstilbestrol treated rat ovaries. A selective presence and function of both orexinergic receptors in luteal and granulosa cells is described, suggesting that the orexinergic system may

  15. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  16. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns initiate inflammation and perturb the endocrine function of bovine granulosa cells from ovarian dominant follicles via TLR2 and TLR4 pathways.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer C; Bromfield, John J; Sheldon, I Martin

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial infections of the uterus or mammary gland commonly cause disease and infertility by perturbing growth and steroidogenesis of the dominant follicle in the ovary of cattle. Cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by bacteria, leading to activation of MAPK and nuclear factor-κBκ pathways and production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8. The present study tested whether granulosa cells from dominant follicles have functional TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 pathways. Supernatants of primary bovine granulosa cells accumulated IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 when treated for 24 hours with Pam3CSK4 (PAM) that binds TLR2 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that binds TLR4 but not flagellin that binds TLR5. Granulosa cell responses to PAM or LPS were rapid, with increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 within 30 minutes and increased abundance of IL6, IL1B, IL10, TNF, IL8, and CCL5 mRNA after 3 hours of treatment. Accumulation of IL-6 in response to PAM and LPS was attenuated using small interfering RNA targeting TLR2 and TLR4, respectively. Furthermore, treating granulosa cells with inhibitors targeting MAPK or nuclear factor-κB reduced the accumulation of IL-6 in response to LPS or PAM. Treatment with LPS or PAM reduced the accumulation of estradiol and progesterone, and the PAMPs reduced granulosa cell expression of CYP19A1 mRNA and protein. In conclusion, bacterial PAMPs initiate inflammation and perturb the endocrine function of bovine granulosa cells from dominant follicles via TLR2 and TLR4 pathways.

  17. Proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells in germinal disc and non-disc regions during follicular growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in situ.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Y; Okamoto, T; Tamura, T

    1996-05-01

    Proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells was analysed during ovarian follicular growth in laying Japanese quail. The birds were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 10 or 4 h before ovulation, that is, before or after a preovulatory LH surge, respectively, and incorporation of BrdU by follicular tissues was detected immunocytochemically. Cells labelled with BrdU were seldom seen in the most immature follicles in the ovarian cortex, whereas many granulosa and thecal cells were labelled with BrdU in medium-sized white yolky follicles (approximately 13.3% and 14.4% in granulosa and theca layers, respectively). Ten and four hours before ovulation, the granulosa cells in the germinal disc and non-disc regions of the third largest yellow yolky follicle (F3) were labelled with BrdU (approximately 8.4% and 9.4% in germinal disc; 6.1% and 9.0% in the non-disc region), but only those in the germinal disc region were labelled (approximately 5.4% and 4.0%) in the largest yellow yolky follicle (F1). The percentage of thecal cells labelled with BrdU 4 h before ovulation was significantly higher than the percentage labelled 10 h before ovulation, and was higher in F3 (approximately 11.7%) than in F1 follicles (approximately 5.4%) 4 h before ovulation. These results show that proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells occurs in both germinal disc and non-disc regions in growing follicles, but when a follicle matures proliferation is reduced and in the case of granulosa cells it is restricted to the germinal disc region.

  18. Involvement of the Up-regulated FoxO1 Expression in Follicular Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Lin, Fei; Zhang, Jiaqing; Tang, Yiting; Chen, Wei-Kang; Liu, Honglin

    2012-01-01

    Follicular atresia is common in female mammalian ovaries, where most follicles undergo degeneration at any stage of growth and development. Oxidative stress gives rise to triggering granulosa cell apoptosis, which has been suggested as a major cause of follicular atresia. However, the underlying mechanism by which the oxidative stress induces follicular atresia remains unclear. FoxO transcription factors are known as critical mediators in the regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, the involvement of FoxO1 in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. It was observed that increased apoptotic signals correlated with elevated expression of FoxO1 in MGCs when mice were treated with the oxidant. Correspondingly, the expressions of FoxO1 target genes, such as proapoptotic genes and antioxidative genes, were also up-regulated. In primary cultured MGCs, treatment with H2O2 led to FoxO1 nuclear translocation. Further studies with overexpression and knockdown of FoxO1 demonstrated the critical role of FoxO1 in the induction of MGC apoptosis by oxidative stress. Finally, inactivation of FoxO1 by insulin treatment confirmed that FoxO1 induced by oxidative stress played a pivotal role in up-regulating the expression of downstream apoptosis-related genes in MGCs. Our results suggest that up-regulation of FoxO1 by oxidative stress leads to apoptosis of granulosa cells, which eventually results in follicular atresia in mice. PMID:22669940

  19. The effect of energy balance on the transcriptome of bovine granulosa cells at 60 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Girard, Annie; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows expend great amounts of energy during the lactation peak to cope with milk production. A state of negative energy balance (NEB) was suggested as a cause for the suboptimal fertility observed during this period, via an interaction with ovarian function. The objective of this study was to identify the impact of NEB on gene expression in granulosa cells of dairy cows at 60 days postpartum and to suggest a potential treatment to improve ovarian function. Dairy cows at 60 days postpartum from 10 typical medium-sized farms were synchronized using a single injection of prostaglandin. Dominant follicles  were collected 42 hours later by transvaginal aspiration. Blood concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on the day of aspiration were used to classify animals into two groups: severe NEB (high BHB, n = 12) and mild NEB (low BHB, n = 12). The transcriptomes of granulosa cells from both groups were contrasted using microarrays, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify affected functions and potential upstream regulators. Genes linked with cellular organization (KRT4 and PPL), proliferation (TACSTD2), and fatty acids metabolism (VNN2) were downregulated in granulosa cells from animals with severe NEB. Several genes linked to decitabine, a hypomethylating agent, and with beta-estradiol, were downregulated in the severe NEB group. Numerous genes linked to vitamins A and D were also downregulated in this group of cows, suggesting a potential deficiency of these vitamins in dairy cows during the postpartum period. This study supports the idea that energy balance has an impact on follicular dynamics which could be detrimental to resumption of fertility after calving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prohibitin regulates the FSH signaling pathway in rat granulosa cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Zeleznik, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Published results from our laboratory identified prohibitin (PHB), a gene product expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) that progressively increases during follicle maturation. Our current in vitro studies demonstrate that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates Phb expression in rat primary GCs. The FSH-dependent expression of PHB was primarily localized within mitochondria, and positively correlates with the morphological changes in GCs organelles, and synthesis and secretions of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). In order to confirm that PHB plays a regulatory role in rat GC differentiation, endogenous PHB-knockdown studies were carried out in undifferentiated GCs using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated RNA interference methodology. Knockdown of PHB in GCs resulted in the suppression of the key steroidogenic enzymes including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), p450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and aromatase (Cyp19a1); and decreased E2 and P4 synthesis and secretions in the presence of FSH stimulation. Furthermore, these experimental studies also provided direct evidence that PHB within the mitochondrial fraction in GCs is phosphorylated at residues Y249, T258, and Y259 in response to FSH stimulation. The observed levels of phosphorylation of PHB at Y249, T258, and Y259 were significantly low in GCs in the absence of FSH stimulation. In addition, during GC differentiation FSH-induced expression of phospho-PHB (pPHB) requires the activation of MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, these studies provide new evidence supporting FSH-dependent PHB/pPHB upregulation in GCs is required to sustain the differentiated state of GCs. PMID:27044659

  1. Effects of granulosa cell mitochondria transfer on the early development of bovine embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiang-Chen; Ma, Li-Bing; Cao, Jun-Wei; Dai, Jin-Po; Li, Rong

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous mitochondria obtained from granulosa cells on the development of bovine embryos in vitro. We classified cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) as good (G)- and poor (P)-quality oocytes based on cytoplasmic appearance and cumulus characteristics, and assessed mtDNA copy numbers in the G and P oocytes with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mitochondria were isolated by fractionation and suspended in mitochondria injection buffer (MIB). Part one of the experiment consisted of the following treatments: (1) G-oocytes + sperm, (2) P-oocytes + mitochondria + MIB + sperm, (3) P-oocytes + MIB + sperm, and (4) P-oocytes + sperm. In part 2, oocytes were parthenogenetically activated. The treatments were: (1) G-oocytes, (2) P-oocytes + mitochondria + MIB, (3) P-oocytes + MIB, and (4) P-oocytes alone. The results indicated a significant difference in mtDNA copy number between G (361 113 +/- 147 114) and P (198 293 +/- 174 178) oocytes (p < 0.01). The rates of morula, blastocyst, and hatched blastocysts derived from P-oocytes + mitochondria were similar to those of G-oocytes, but significantly higher than P-oocytes without exogenous mitochondria in both the ICSI and parthenogenetic activation experiments. We found no difference in blastomere numbers between G-oocytes and P-oocytes + mitochondria in either experiment, but blastomere numbers in these two groups were significantly higher than in P-oocyte groups without exogenous mitochondria. These data suggest that mtDNA content is very important for early embryo development. Furthermore, the transfer of mitochondria from the same breed may improve embryo quality during preimplantation development.

  2. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation.

  3. Paraoxonase (PON) 1, 2 and 3 expression in granulosa cells and PON1 activity in follicular fluid of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A; Absalon-Medina, V A; Esposito, G; Corrêa, M N; Butler, W R

    2013-12-01

    Normal metabolic activity in ovarian follicles may result in oxidative stress and damage to oocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of the natural anti-oxidants paraoxonase (PON) 1, 2 and 3 in granulosa cells and PON1 activity in follicular fluid (FF) and plasma of dairy cows. For the first experiment, ovaries were collected from cows at slaughter, after which follicles were dissected and classified as oestrogen active (EAF) or atretic (ATF). Expression of PON1, PON2 and PON3 mRNA was evaluated in granulosa cells, and activity of PON1 was measured in FF. PON1 mRNA was undetectable in granulosa cells, PON2 mRNA expression was not different between follicle types, and PON3 mRNA tended to be higher in EAF (p = 0.11). The activity of PON1 in FF was higher (p = 0.01) for EAF (82.6 ± 8.0 kU/L) than ATF (53.9 ± 6.8 kU/L), as were high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and total cholesterol concentrations. In the second experiment, we aimed to compare plasma and FF PON1 activity in early lactation Holstein cows (n = 15) with pre-ovulatory EAF. Activity of PON1 was twofold higher (p < 0.0001) in plasma (122.5 ± 11.1 kU/L) than in FF (61.4 ± 5.2 kU/L). Plasma concentrations were also higher (p < 0.0001) for HDL, LDL and total cholesterol when compared to FF. In conclusion, FF concentrations of PON1, HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were higher in healthy oestrogen active bovine follicles than in atretic follicles. PON1 was not expressed by granulosa cells indicating that high PON1 activity in bovine FF is apparently derived by transfer from blood in association with HDL. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. PMID:25497287

  5. Granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone during early growth of hen ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Lee, Jeeyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the laying hen ovary, the cyclic recruitment of a follicle represents a process in which a single follicle is selected to enter the rapid growth phase and undergo final maturation prior to ovulation. Published data support the proposal that final differentiation of the granulosa cell (GC) layer commences at the time of follicle selection. This process is characterized by the enhanced capacity for FSH-induced cell signaling via the protein kinase A/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. One consequence of such signaling within the GC layer is the initial capacity for steroidogenesis (predominantly progesterone production) mediated by increased expression of mRNA encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A). Prior to selection, the GC layer remains minimally responsive to a 3 h challenge with FSH (10 ng/mL), in vitro, compared to that from the most recently selected 9- to 12-mm follicle. By comparison, when the duration of the cell culture prior to FSH challenge is increased to 18 h, GCs collected from 1- to 2-mm, 3- to 5-mm, and 6- to 8-mm follicles respond to a 3 h FSH challenge by increasing STAR expression and progesterone production, with the greatest response from GCs collected from 6- to 8-mm follicles. Culture with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) enhances both CYP11A expression and FSH responsiveness at each stage of development, with the greatest response again occurring in GCs from 6- to 8-mm follicles. Significantly, factors that activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or protein kinase C (PKC) signaling prevent the ability of prolonged culture or culture with BMP6 to induce FSH-responsiveness and the initiation of GC differentiation at each stage of development. Collectively, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that prior to follicle selection, inhibitory cell signaling (e.g., MAPK, PKC) maintains the GC layer in an undifferentiated state in

  6. The role of hypoxia and HIF1α in the regulation of STAR-mediated steroidogenesis in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois

    2015-02-05

    The adaptive responses to hypoxia are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α). Its role, however, in regulating steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. We examined the role of hypoxia and HIF1α in regulating steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression and steroidogenesis in immortalized (KK1) mouse granulosa cells under progressively lowering O2 concentrations (20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%). Basal and dbcAMP-stimulated progesterone synthesis was decreased under severe hypoxia (1% and 5% O2). The partial hypoxia revealed opposing effects, with a significant increase in steroidogenic response at 10% O2 in dbcAMP-treated cells: Star-promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression were increased. The hypoxia-stimulated STAR expression was PKA-dependent. Binding of HIF1α to the Star-promoter was potentiated under partial hypoxia. Inhibition of the transcriptional activity or expression of HIF1α suppressed STAR-expression. HIF1α appears to be a positive regulator of basal and stimulated STAR-expression, which under partial hypoxia is capable of increasing the steroidogenic capacity of granulosa cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of inhibitor and activator of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) on porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Meszarošová, Monika; Grossmann, Roland; Benčo, Andrej; Valenzuela, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    It was previously shown, that ghrelin and its agonistic analogue, ghrelin 1-18, can be a stimulator of ovarian cell functions (promoter of proliferation, inhibitor of apoptosis and stimulator of hormones release). The aim of our studies was to compare the action of two ghrelin analogues - ghrelin 1-18, activator of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1a), and (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6, its inhibitor, on porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions. Effects of (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 added at doses of 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml on the expression of markers of proliferation (PCNA, cyclin B1, MAPK/ERK1,2), apoptosis (bax, p53, caspase 3) and release of steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol) were examined. In addition, some effect of ghrelin 1-8 on some of these parameters (expression of MAPK/ERK1,2, bax, p53) were verified. It was shown, that (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 promotes all markers of granulosa cell proliferation, inhibits all markers of apoptosis and stimulates the release of all three steroid hormones. Similar effects of (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 (inhibitor of GHS-R1a) and ghrelin 1-18 (its stimulator) suggest that the examined effects of these substances on porcine ovaries are not mediated by GHS-R1a. Both chemical analogues could be potentially useful for stimulation of reproductive processes, at least in in vitro conditions.

  8. Metabolism of testosterone by human granulosa cells in culture: influence of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Y.S.; Duleba, A.; Leung, P.C.; Gomel, V.

    1982-03-15

    Human granulosa cells were isolated from follicles (8 to 15 mm) and cultivated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (NIH-FSH-HS-1, 1 microgram/ml) and luteinizing hormone (NIAMDD-hLH-1, 1 microgram/ml). Testosterone -4-14C was added subsequently to all cultures for 4-, 6-, and 24-hour periods. Of the seven metabolites of testosterone studied, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were the major products. In all patients, levels of E2 were three to ten times higher than those of E1. Production of E2, but not E1, was stimulated by either follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH). The cells of the largest follicle (15 mm) showed greater response to LH than to FSH. Production of the other C19 and C18 metabolites was very low or negligible. These results further suggest that FSH regulates the aromatization of testosterone in human granulosa cells, and that LH may have the same effect on the matured follicle during the preovulatory period.

  9. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. We demonstrated that the inhibition of EGFR and the knockdown of AREG abolished hCG-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production. Importantly, follicular fluid AREG levels were positively correlated with progesterone levels in the follicular fluid and serum. Treatment with AREG increased StAR expression and progesterone production, and these stimulatory effects were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling was required for the AREG-induced up-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. Our results demonstrate that AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:27113901

  10. Influence of nicotine, cotinine, anabasine and cigarette smoke extract on human granulosa cell progesterone and estradiol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gocze, P M; Szabo, I; Freeman, D A

    1999-08-01

    To reveal the well known effect of smoking on the incidence of early abortion, the possible effects of cigarette alkaloids on progesterone and estradiol synthesis were investigated. A suspected cause for early spontaneous abortion is corpus luteum insufficiency. The present experiments evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke alkaloids on progesterone and estradiol biosynthesis. Human granulosa cells were obtained from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment because of infertility. Incubation of the granulosa cells with cotinine, anabasine, with the combination of nicotine, cotinine and anabasine, or with an aqueous extract of cigarette smoke resulted in inhibition of progesterone synthesis. The alkaloids and smoke extract decreased the DNA content of the culture dish. These latter findings suggested a cytotoxic effect of the alkaloids. Both cotinine and anabasine slightly stimulated the synthesis of normalized estradiol. However, nicotine, combination of all three alkaloids, and cigarette smoke extract had no significant influence on estradiol production. Taken together, these data would suggest that cigarette alkaloids inhibit cellular progesterone synthesis both by inhibiting progesterone synthesis and by causing less specific toxic effects to the cell. In contrast, cigarette smoke alkaloids slightly stimulated or had no effect on estradiol production. These concomitant actions of cigarette alkaloids partly explain the higher incidence of early abortion in pregnant women who smoke.

  11. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  12. Effects of nicotine administration on elemental concentrations in mouse granulosa cells, maturing oocytes and oviduct epithelium studied by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Jin, M; Nilsson, B O; Roomans, G M

    1998-10-01

    A normal maturation of the oocytes is dependent upon, among other things, normally functioning granulosa and corona radiata cells. Analyses performed during human in vitro fertilization programs have revealed that, in smokers, ovarian functions are affected and that smokers have a decreased fertilization rate. Further, animal studies have indicated that nicotine can reach the genital tractus, and that nicotine administration interferes with oocyte maturation, fertilization and early pregnancy. We applied X-ray microanalysis to monitor whether nicotine administration changed the ionic balance of cells in the reproductive tract (granulosa cells, oocytes and oviduct epithelial cells). The animals were given nicotine in the drinking water at a concentration of 108 mumol/l. After 15 days the animals were superovulated, ovaries and oviducts were frozen, and thick cryosections were prepared for energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In the granulosa cells, the concentrations of Na and Cl increased after nicotine treatment, while the K concentrations decreased resulting in an increased Na/K ratio. The treated oocytes had a higher K concentration and a decreased Na/K ratio compared to the controls. In the epithelial cells of the oviduct, the concentrations of Na and K decreased after nicotine treatment without any changes in the Na/K ratio. Thus, heavy nicotine administration to mice causes significant changes in the ionic composition of the granulosa cells, the ovarian oocytes and the oviduct epithelium.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the anti-apoptotic drug Z-VAD-FMK on human ovarian granulosa cell lines for further use in ovarian tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Maïté; Henry, Laurie; Labied, Soraya; Noël, Agnès; Nisolle, Michelle; Munaut, Carine

    2015-10-01

    Because ovarian granulosa cells are essential for oocyte survival, we examined three human granulosa cell lines as models to evaluate the ability of the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) to prevent primordial follicle loss after ovarian tissue transplantation. To validate the efficacy of Z-VAD-FMK, three human granulosa cell lines (GC1a, HGL5, COV434) were treated for 48 h with etoposide (50 μg/ml) and/or Z-VAD-FMK (50 μM) under normoxic conditions. To mimic the ischemic phase that occurs after ovarian fragment transplantation, cells were cultured without serum under hypoxia (1 % O(2)) and treated with Z-VAD-FMK. The metabolic activity of the cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay. Cell viability was determined by FACS analyses. The expression of apoptosis-related molecules was assessed by RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses. Our assessment of metabolic activity and FACS analyses in the normoxic experiments indicate that Z-VAD-FMK protects granulosa cells from etoposide-induced cell death. When cells are exposed to hypoxia and serum starvation, their metabolic activity is reduced. However, Z-VAD-FMK does not provide a protective effect. In the hypoxic experiments, the number of viable cells was not modulated, and we did not observe any modifications in the expressions of apoptosis-related molecules (p53, Bax, Bcl-xl, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)). The death of granulosa cell lines was not induced in our ischemic model. Therefore, a protective effect of Z-VAD-FMK in vitro for further use in ovarian tissue transplantation could not be directly confirmed. It will be of interest to potentially use Z-VAD-FMK in vivo in xenograft models.

  14. Differential antibacterial response of chicken granulosa cells to invasion by Salmonella serovars.

    PubMed

    Babu, Uma S; Harrison, Lisa M; Patel, Isha R; Ramirez, Gerardo A; Williams, Kristina M; Pereira, Marion; Balan, Kannan V

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (SE) is among the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness via consumption of raw or undercooked eggs. The top Salmonella serovars implicated in U.S. foodborne outbreaks associated with chicken consumption include SE, Typhimurium (ST), Heidelberg (SH), Montevideo, Mbandka, Braenderup, and Newport. While enforcement actions target the eradication of SE from layer hens, there is a growing concern that other serovars could occupy this niche and be a cause of egg-transmitted human salmonellosis. Therefore, we tested the invasion and survival of SE, SH, ST, and Salmonella enterica ser. Hadar (S. Hadar) at 4 and 20 h post infection (hpi) in chicken ovarian granulosa cells (cGC); a cellular layer which surrounds the previtelline layer and central yolk in egg-forming follicles. We also evaluated cGC transcriptional changes, using an antibacterial response PCR array, to assess host response to intracellular SalmonellaWe observed that invasion of cGC by SE, SH, and ST was significantly higher than invasion by S. Hadar, with ST showing the highest level of invasion. The Bacterial Survival Index, defined as the ratio of intracellular bacteria at 20 and 4 h, were 18.94, 7.35, and 15.27 for SE, SH, and ST, respectively, with no significant difference in survival between SE or ST compared to SH. Evaluation of cGC anti-Salmonella gene responses indicated that at 4 hpi there was a significant decrease in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mRNA in cGC infected with SE, whereas TLR5 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 were significantly down regulated across all serovars. At 4 hpi, invasion by Salmonella serovars resulted in significant upregulation of several antimicrobial genes, and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (PICs). At 20 hpi, all the serovars induced PICs with SH being the strongest inducer. Additionally, SE, SH and ST differentially induced signal transduction pathways. Although only a single

  15. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Glister, Claire; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Knight, Philip G.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the ‘follicular’ phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3–6 mm) and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data. PMID:28282394

  16. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1), were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure.

  17. The imitation switch ATPase Snf2l is required for superovulation and regulates Fgl2 in differentiating mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Pépin, David; Paradis, François; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Picketts, David J; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2013-06-01

    Imitation switch (ISWI) proteins are catalytic subunits of chromatin remodeling complexes that alter nucleosome positioning by hydrolyzing ATP to regulate access to DNA. In mice, there are two paralogs, SNF2-homolog (SNF2H) and SNF2-like (SNF2L), which participate in different complexes and have contrasting patterns of expression. Here we investigate the role of SNF2L in ovaries by characterizing a mouse bearing an inactivating deletion of exon 6 that disrupts the ATPase domain. Snf2l mutant mice produce significantly fewer eggs than control mice when superovulated. Gonadotropin stimulation leads to a significant deficit in secondary follicles and an increase in abnormal antral follicles. Mutant females also failed to induce fibrinogen-like 2 (Fgl2) in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, while overexpression of SNF2L was sufficient to drive its expression in granulosa cells. SNF2L was also shown to directly interact with the nuclear receptor co-activator flightless I (FLI-I) as shown by immunoprecipitation. These results begin to establish a role for SNF2L in the precise coordination of gene expression in granulosa cells during folliculogenesis and its broader implications in fertility.

  18. A Long Noncoding RNA, lncRNA-Amhr2, Plays a Role in Amhr2 Gene Activation in Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi P; Yoneda, Ryoma; Kurihara, Misuzu; Mayama, Shota; Matsubara, Shin

    2017-09-14

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is critical to the regression of Müllerian ducts during mammalian male differentiation and targets ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells of adults. Specific effects of AMH are exerted via its receptor, AMH type II receptor (Amhr2), but the mechanism by which the Amhr2 gene is specifically activated is not fully understood. To see whether a proximal promoter was sufficient to Amhr2 gene activation, we generated transgenic mice that bore the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by a 500-bp mouse Amhr2 gene promoter. None of the established 10 lines, however, showed appropriate EGFP expression, indicating that the 500-bp promoter was insufficient to Amhr2 gene activation. As a novel regulatory element, we found a long noncoding RNA, lncRNA-Amhr2, transcribed from upstream of the Amhr2 gene in ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. In primary granulosa cells, knock down of lncRNA-Amhr2 resulted in a decrease of Amhr2 mRNA level, and transient reporter gene assay showed that lncRNA-Amhr2 activation increased Amhr2 promoter activity. The activity was correlated with lncRNA-Amhr2 transcription in stably transfected OV3121 cells that were derived from mouse granulosa cells. Moreover, by the Tet-on system, the induction of lncRNA-Amhr2 transcription dramatically increased Amhr2 promoter activity in OV3121 cells. These results indicate that lncRNA-Amhr2 plays a role in Amhr2 gene activation in ovarian granulosa cells by enhancing promoter activity, providing a novel insight into the Amhr2 gene regulation underlying the AMH signaling in the female reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Morphological evidence of apoptosis and the prevalence of apoptotic versus mitotic cells in the membrana granulosa of ovarian follicles during spontaneous and induced atresia in ewes.

    PubMed

    Jolly, P D; Smith, P R; Heath, D A; Hudson, N L; Lun, S; Still, L A; Watts, C H; McNatty, K P

    1997-04-01

    Apoptosis is a process by which granulosa cells are thought to be deleted during ovarian follicular atresia. The aims of the present studies, using sheep as the experimental model, were to determine 1) whether morphological changes in cells composing the membrana granulosa during the process of atresia conformed with the general criteria of apoptotic cell death as assessed using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin; 2) whether cells classified as apoptotic on the basis of their morphology contained fragmented DNA using an in situ 3' end-labeling technique; and 3) the degree of apoptosis and mitosis within the granulosa cell populations of large antral follicles (> or = 3 mm in diameter) during both spontaneous and experimentally induced atresia using stereological methods. The results showed that most degenerate granulosa cells in follicles undergoing atresia display the morphological characteristics of apoptosis, suggesting that this is the most common pathway of cell deletion. Typical features were cells containing nuclei with marginated chromatin; cells with a single small densely staining nucleus (pyknotic appearance); cells with multiple smaller, densely staining nuclear fragments; and densely staining membrane-bound bodies (apoptotic bodies) either singly or in clusters. Cells with morphological features more typical of oncosis or necrosis were sometimes observed, but mainly during the later stages of atresia. All cells classified as apoptotic on the basis of morphological criteria contained fragmented DNA as measured by 3' end-labeling. Apoptotic bodies and/or cells were found in all follicles examined, including those classified as healthy. The overall prevalence of apoptotic cells plus apoptotic bodies expressed as a percentage of the total granulosa cell number per follicle varied from 0.02% to 0.20% in healthy follicles, varied from 0.21% to 2.00% in follicles in early (primary) atresia, and was > 2.0% in follicles in later (secondary

  20. Granulosa cells from bovine follicles activate different signal transduction pathways dependent on follicle health status and ability to convert androstenedione to estrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since steroidogenesis is a critical component in the development of competent preovulatory follicles we hypothesized that granulosa cells from follicles of cows treated with normal levels of progesterone (CIDR) or with melengestrol acetate (MGA), which results in the development of persistent follic...

  1. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Intracellular Ca2+ and antioxidant values induced positive effect on fertilisation ratio and oocyte quality of granulosa cells in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Mungan, Muhittin Tamer; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Naziroğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is important for promoting oocyte maturation and ovulation within the follicle through calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx. The relationship between antioxidant and cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and oocyte quality and fertilisation rate in the granulosa cells of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation was investigated. Granulosa cells were collected from 33 patients. Cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and oocyte quality were measured in the granulosa cells. The relationship between two drug protocols was also examined (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and agonist protocols) and the same parameters investigated. The [Ca(2+)]i concentration (P<0.001), glutathione (P<0.05) and oocyte quality (P<0.001) values were significantly higher in the fertilised group than in the non-fertilised group, although glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the non-fertilised group than in the fertilised group. The [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were also higher (P<0.001) in the good-quality oocyte groups than in the poor-quality oocyte group. There was no correlation between the two drug protocols and investigated parameters. In conclusion, it was observed that high glutathione and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations in granulosa cells of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation tended to increase the fertilisation potential of oocytes.

  3. VISFATIN (NAMPT) Improves In Vitro IGF1-Induced Steroidogenesis and IGF1 Receptor Signaling Through SIRT1 in Bovine Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Rame, Christelle; Bunel, Audrey; Chen, Wenyong; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-03-01

    VISFATIN is a novel adipokine, also known as a nicotinamide phosphorybosyltransferase (NAMPT), that is able to modulate different processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats, humans, and chickens. Here we identified VISFATIN in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found VISFATIN in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, we showed that IGF1 (10(-8) M) and VISFATIN (10 and 100 ng/ml) but not FSH (10(-8) M) increased mRNA expression levels of NAMPT after 48 h of stimulation. Moreover, we observed that human recombinant VISFATIN (hVisf, 10 ng/ml, 48 h) increased the release of progesterone and estradiol secretion, and this was associated with an increase in the protein level of STAR, the HSD3B activity, and the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and MAPK ERK1/2 in the presence or absence of IGF1 (10(-8) M). All these effects were abolished when NAMPT was knocked down and when the sirtuin pharmacological inhibitors CHIC-35 (60 nM) and EX-527 (0.5 μM) were preincubated in bovine granulosa cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, VISFATIN improves basal and IGF1-induced steroidogenesis and IGF1 receptor signaling through SIRT1. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. Activation of protein kinase Czeta mediates luteinizing hormone- or forskolin-induced NGFI-B expression in preovulatory granulosa cells of rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Il; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Chun, Jang-Soo; Seo, You-Mi; Jeon, Mi-Jin; Ohba, Motoi; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chun, Sang-Young

    2007-05-30

    We have previously demonstrated that luteinizing hormone (LH) induces a rapid and transient expression of NGFI-B in the ovary. In this report, we investigated the signaling pathway for LH- and forskolin-induced NGFI-B expression in cultured rat granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. LH- or forskolin-induced NGFI-B expression was suppressed by high dose of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor RO 31-8220 (10 microM), but not by low doses RO 31-8220 (0.1-1.0 microM) or adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL-12,300A, implicating the involvement of atypical PKCs. Kinase assay revealed that LH treatment of granulosa cells resulted in a rapid stimulation of atypical PKCzeta activity. Interestingly, like LH, forskolin was also able to activate PKCzeta. Treatment with the cell-permeable PKCzeta-specific inhibitor pseudosubstrate peptide inhibited LH-or forskolin-induced NGFI-B expression, indicating the essential role of PKCzeta. Consistent with this promise, in granulosa cells depleted of diacylglycerol sensitive PKCs by prolonged treatment with tetradecanoylphobol-13-acetate, LH or forskolin could still induce NGFI-B expression, and RO 31-8220 or the PKCzeta pseudosubstrate peptide inhibited LH- or forskolin-induced NGFI-B expression. Furthermore, overexpression of dominant-negative PKCzeta in primary granulosa cells using a replication-defective adenovirus vector resulted in the suppression of LH- or forskolin-induced NGFI-B expression. Our findings demonstrate that PKCzeta, which is activated by LH or forskolin, contributes to the induction of NGFI-B in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles.

  5. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor with Elevated Inhibin B As a Cause of Secondary Amenorrhea in Adolescents with Germline DICER1 Mutation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    infancy and early childhood.8 The D/CERJ-related disorders have expanded to include other ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors Guveni le granulosa cell...in children and adolescents. Cancer. 1987; 59: 12 14 3. Schultz KA, Harris AK, Schneider OT, et al. Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor. Journal of

  6. Nonfunctioning Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Ryoko; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare renal tumor characterized by excessive renin secretion causing intractable hypertension and hypokalemia. However, asymptomatic nonfunctioning JGCT is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of nonfunctioning JGCT in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a left renal tumor without hypertension or hypokalemia. Under a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumor was located in the middle portion adjacent to the renal pelvis, measuring 2 cm in size. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of cuboidal cells forming a solid arrangement, immunohistochemically positive for renin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as JGCT. In cases with hyperreninism, preoperative diagnosis of JGCT is straightforward but difficult in nonfunctioning case. Generally, JGCT presents a benign biological behavior. Therefore, we should take nonfunctioning JGCT into the differential diagnoses for renal tumors, especially in younger patients to avoid excessive surgery. PMID:23607027

  7. Tumor cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  8. MicroRNA-764-3p regulates 17β-estradiol synthesis of mouse ovarian granulosa cells by targeting steroidogenic factor-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianlian; Li, Cong; Li, Rong; Deng, Youlin; Tan, Yixin; Tong, Chao; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have reported that microRNA-764-3p (miR-764-3p) is one of the most up-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in TGF-β1-stimulated mouse ovarian granulosa cells. However, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of miR-764-3p in granulosa cell function during follicular development. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-764-3p inhibited 17β-estradiol (E2) synthesis of granulosa cells through directly targeting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). MiR-764-3p inhibited SF-1 by affecting its messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, which subsequently suppressed the expression levels of Cyp19a1 gene (aromatase, a downstream target of SF-1). In addition, SF-1 was involved in regulation of miR-764-3p-mediated Cyp19a1 expression in granulosa cells which contributed, at least partially, to the effects of miR-764-3p on granulosa cell E2 release. These results suggest that miR-764-3p functions to decrease steroidogenesis by targeting SF-1, at least in part, through inactivation of Cyp19a1. Taken together, our data provide mechanistic insights into the roles of miR-764-3p on E2 synthesis. Understanding of potential miRNAs affecting estrogen synthesis will help to diagnose and treat steroid-related diseases.

  9. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27{sup Kip1} and p21{sup Cip1}, were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. - Highlights: • HFD induced-obesity leads to abnormal ovarian morphology. • HFD induced-obesity triggers excessive apoptosis in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity up-regulates cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity causes cell cycle arrest in the ovary.

  10. Administration of follicle-stimulating hormone induces autophagy via upregulation of HIF-1α in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jilong; Yao, Wang; Li, Chengyu; Wu, Wangjun; Li, Qifa; Liu, Honglin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies reported the important role of autophagy in follicular development. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on mouse granulosa cells (MGCs). Results indicated that autophagy was induced by FSH, which is known to be the dominant hormone regulating follicular development and granulosa cell (GC) proliferation. The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of autophagy, was inhibited during the process of MGC autophagy. Moreover, MHY1485 (an agonist of mTOR) significantly suppressed autophagy signaling by activating mTOR. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) was increased after FSH treatment. Blocking hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha attenuated autophagy signaling. In vitro, CoCl2-induced hypoxia enhanced cell autophagy and affected the expression of beclin1 and BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) in the presence of FSH. Knockdown of beclin1 and Bnip3 suppressed autophagy signaling in MGCs. Furthermore, our in vivo study demonstrated that the FSH-induced increase in weight was significantly reduced after effectively inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine, which was correlated with incomplete mitophagy process through the PINK1-Parkin pathway, delayed cell cycle, and reduced cell proliferation rate. In addition, chloroquine treatment decreased inhibin alpha subunit, but enhanced the expression of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Blocking autophagy resulted in a significantly lower percentage of antral and preovulatory follicles after FSH stimulation. In conclusion, our results indicate that FSH induces autophagy signaling in MGCs via HIF-1α. In addition, our results provide evidence that autophagy induced by FSH is related to follicle development and atresia. PMID:28817115

  11. [Retroperitoneal germ cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Borrell Palanca, A; García Garzón, J; Villamón Fort, R; Domenech Pérez, C; Martínez Lorente, A; Gunthner, S; García Sisamón, F

    1999-03-01

    We report a case of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ-cell tumor in an 17 years old patient who presented with aedema and pain in left inferior extremity asociated with hemopthysis caused by pulmonar metastasis, who was treated with chemotherapy and resection of residual mass and pulmonary nodes. Dyagnosis was stableshed by fine neadle aspiration biopsy of the wass. We comment on the difficult of stableshing differential dyagnosis between retroperitoneal extragonadal germ-cell tumor and metastasis of a testicular tumor. Dyagnosis is stableshed by the finding of a histologically malignant germ-cell tumor with normal testis. We considered physical examination and ecographyc exploration enough for a correct dyagnosis.

  12. MC-LR Exposure Leads to Subfertility of Female Mice and Induces Oxidative Stress in Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Mingming; Song, Yuefeng; Sun, Feng; Han, Xiaodong

    2015-12-02

    Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 μg/L for three and six months. We found that chronic exposure to MC-LR at environmental levels could stimulate follicle atresia and lead to decreased developmental follicles, accompanied by a reduction of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In line with the irregular gonadal hormone level and estrus cycles, subfertility of female mice was also confirmed by analyzing numbers of litters and pups. The in vitro study suggested that granulosa cells could uptake MC-LR and should be the target of the toxicant. Oxidative stress in granulose cells induced by MC-LR promoted follicle atresia and eventually leads to female subfertility.

  13. MC-LR Exposure Leads to Subfertility of Female Mice and Induces Oxidative Stress in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Mingming; Song, Yuefeng; Sun, Feng; Han, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 μg/L for three and six months. We found that chronic exposure to MC-LR at environmental levels could stimulate follicle atresia and lead to decreased developmental follicles, accompanied by a reduction of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In line with the irregular gonadal hormone level and estrus cycles, subfertility of female mice was also confirmed by analyzing numbers of litters and pups. The in vitro study suggested that granulosa cells could uptake MC-LR and should be the target of the toxicant. Oxidative stress in granulose cells induced by MC-LR promoted follicle atresia and eventually leads to female subfertility. PMID:26633508

  14. Overexpression of glutamate–cysteine ligase protects human COV434 granulosa tumour cells against oxidative and γ-radiation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Wanstreet, Mabel M.; Giedzinski, Erich; Limoli, Charles L.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1–8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of γ-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity in hen granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Li, Z; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S

    1994-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450 17 alpha-OH) mRNA levels and enzyme activity in granulosa cells from nonhierarchal (6-8-mm) follicles. Initial studies demonstrated that immunoreactive VIP is localized within the theca (but not granulosa) layer of both resting (< 0.5-mm follicles) and 6-8-mm follicles, thus providing a potential paracrine mechanism of action for VIP. While short-term (3 h) incubation of granulosa cells with VIP (0.001-1.0 microM) failed to stimulate progesterone production from 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells, a 4-h culture period in the presence of VIP resulted in increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, and a 24-h culture period resulted in progesterone synthesis and increased P450scc mRNA levels; control levels of each endpoint measurement were not altered within the period observed. By contrast, culture with the growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the presence of VIP (1 microM) prevented increases in P450scc mRNA levels and progesterone production. Similar effects of VIP and TGF alpha in the presence of VIP were demonstrated for P450 17 alpha-OH mRNA levels and enzyme activity. Finally, there was an additive effect of VIP (0.1 microM) plus recombinant human (rh) FSH (100 mIU) on the initiation of progesterone production in cultured 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells compared to the addition of VIP or rhFSH alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Keating, Aileen F

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6μM) for 24 or 48h. Cell viability was reduced (P<0.05) after 48h of exposure to 3 or 6μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24h of 6μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  18. Toxicological effects of fumonisin B1 alone and in combination with other fusariotoxins on bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Schütz, Luis F; Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Spicer, Leon J

    2016-08-01

    There is now overwhelming evidence of global contamination of commodities with Fusarium mycotoxins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in corn in combination with deoxynivalenol (DON), α-zearalenol (α-ZEA) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEA). The aim of this study was to determine if FB1, alone and combined with DON or α-ZEA or β-ZEA, can affect cell proliferation and steroid production of bovine granulosa cells (GC). A species-specific model with bovine granulosa cells (GC) was used to study the potential endocrine disruptor effects of FB1 alone and in co-exposure. In the presence of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL), FB1 at 30 ng/mL showed a stimulatory effect on GC numbers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1)-stimulated cell proliferation was decreased after exposure to β-ZEA alone at 5.0 μg/mL and FB1 with α-ZEA and β-ZEA at the same concentration. Regarding steroid production, FB1 at 30 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL amplified the inhibitory effect of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL) on estradiol (E2) production, while FB1 alone increased (P < 0.05) IGF1-induced E2 production. α-ZEA alone decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production, whereas β-ZEA alone and in combination with FB1 decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production. These studies indicate for the first time that the Fusarium mycotoxin FB1 along with other mycotoxins can affect GC proliferation and steroid production, which ultimately could influence reproductive function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SIRT1 induces resistance to apoptosis in human granulosa cells by activating the ERK pathway and inhibiting NF-κB signaling with anti-inflammatory functions.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Luo, Haining; Wang, Hui; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yunshan

    2017-07-28

    SIRT1, a member of the sirtuin family, has recently emerged as a vital molecule in controlling ovarian function. The aims of the present study were to investigate SIRT1 expression and analyze SIRT1-mediated apoptosis in human granulosa cells (GCs). Human ovarian tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for localization of SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 knockdown in a human ovarian GC tumor line (COV434) was achieved by small interfering RNA, and the relationship between apoptosis and SIRT1 was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. We further detected SIRT1 expression in human luteinized GCs. Associations among SIRT1 knockdown, SIRT1 stimulation (resveratrol) and expression of ERK1/2 and apoptotic regulatory proteins were analyzed in cell lines and luteinized GCs. Resveratrol downregulated the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB/p65, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by suppressing SIRT1 activity. The NF-κB/p65 inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate achieved similar anti-apoptosis effects. These results suggest that SIRT1 might play an anti-apoptotic role in apoptosis processes in GCs, possibly by sensing and regulating the ERK1/2 pathway, which has important clinical implications. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic link, whereby activation of SIRT1 function might help to sustain human reproduction by maintaining GCs as well as oocytes, offering a novel approach for developing a new class of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents.

  20. Regulation and Function of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1 and TIMP3 in Periovulatory Rat Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feixue; Curry, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    In the ovary, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) have been postulated to regulate extracellular matrix remodeling associated with ovulation. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of Timp1 and Timp3 mRNA in periovulatory granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were isolated from immature pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-primed (10 IU) rat ovaries and treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 1 IU/ml). At 4 h after hCG treatment, Timp1 expression was highest and then decreased gradually over the remaining 24 h of culture. In contrast, hCG induced a biphasic increase of Timp3 expression at 2 and 16 h. The hCG stimulated expression of Timp1 and Timp3 mRNA was blocked by inhibitors of the protein kinase A (H89), protein kinase C (GF109203), and MAPK (SB2035850) pathways. To further explore Timp1 and Timp3 regulation, cells were cultured with the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486, which blocked the hCG induction of Timp3 expression, whereas the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 blocked the hCG stimulation of both Timp1 and Timp3 expression. The prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 inhibitor NS-398 had no effect. The potential function of TIMP3 was investigated with Timp3-specific small interfering RNA treatment. Timp3 small interfering RNA resulted in a 20% decrease in hCG-induced progesterone levels and microarray analysis revealed an increase in cytochrome P450 Cyp 17, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2T, and heat shock protein 70. IGF binding protein 5, stearyl-CoA desaturase, and annexin A1 were decreased. The differential regulation between Timp1 and Timp3 may correlate with their unique roles in the processes of ovulation and luteinization. For TIMP3, this may include regulating fatty acid synthesis, steroidogenesis, and protein turnover. PMID:19389837

  1. Growth differentiation factor-9 stimulates progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells via a prostaglandin E2/EP2 receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Elvin, J A; Yan, C; Matzuk, M M

    2000-08-29

    Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, progesterone receptor, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2; Ptgs2), and the EP2 prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor (EP2; Ptgerep2) are required for fertility in female but not male mice. To define the interrelationship of these factors, we used a preovulatory granulosa cell culture system in which we added recombinant GDF-9, prostaglandins, prostaglandin receptor agonists, or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. GDF-9 stimulated Cox2 mRNA within 2 h, and PGE(2) within 6 h; however, progesterone was not increased until 12 h after addition of GDF-9. This suggested that Cox2 is a direct downstream target of GDF-9 but that progesterone synthesis required an intermediate. To determine whether prostaglandin synthesis was required for progesterone production, we analyzed the effects of PGE(2) and cyclooxygenase inhibitors on this process. PGE(2) can stimulate progesterone synthesis by itself, although less effectively than GDF-9 (3-fold vs. 6-fold increase over 24 h, respectively). Furthermore, indomethacin or NS-398, inhibitors of Cox2, block basal and GDF-9-stimulated progesterone synthesis. However, addition of PGE(2) to cultures containing both GDF-9 and NS-398 overrides the NS-398 block in progesterone synthesis. To further define the PGE(2)-dependent pathway, we show that butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, stimulates progesterone synthesis and overrides the NS-398 block. In addition, GDF-9 stimulates EP2 mRNA synthesis by a prostaglandin- and progesterone-independent pathway. Thus, GDF-9 induces an EP2 signal transduction pathway which appears to be required for progesterone synthesis in cumulus granulosa cells. These studies further demonstrate the importance of oocyte-somatic cell interactions in female reproduction.

  2. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-2 within the immature rat ovary and its role in regulating mitosis and apoptosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Pru, Cindy; Pru, James K; Peluso, John J

    2014-08-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (Pgrmc2) mRNA was detected in the immature rat ovary. By 48 h after eCG, Pgrmc2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% and were maintained at 48 h post-hCG. Immunohistochemical studies detected PGRMC2 in oocytes and ovarian surface epithelial, interstitial, thecal, granulosa, and luteal cells. PGRMC2 was also present in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells, localizing to the cytoplasm of interphase cells and apparently to the mitotic spindle of cells in metaphase. Interestingly, PGRMC2 levels appeared to decrease during the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Moreover, overexpression of PGRMC2 suppressed entry into the cell cycle, possibly by binding the p58 form of cyclin dependent kinase 11b. Conversely, Pgrmc2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment increased the percentage of cells in G1 and M stage but did not increase the number of cells, which was likely due to an increase in apoptosis. Depleting PGRMC2 did not inhibit cellular (3)H-progesterone binding, but attenuated the ability of progesterone to suppress mitosis and apoptosis. Taken together these studies suggest that PGRMC2 affects granulosa cell mitosis by acting at two specific stages of the cell cycle. First, PGRMC2 regulates the progression from the G0 into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Second, PGRMC2 appears to localize to the mitotic spindle, where it likely promotes the final stages of mitosis. Finally, siRNA knockdown studies indicate that PGRMC2 is required for progesterone to slow the rate of granulosa cell mitosis and apoptosis. These findings support a role for PGRMC2 in ovarian follicle development.

  3. CD9 Expression by Human Granulosa Cells and Platelets as a Predictor of Fertilization Success during IVF.

    PubMed

    Jaslow, Carolyn R; Patterson, Kyle S; Cholera, Shila; Jennings, Lisa K; Ke, Raymond W; Kutteh, William H

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether CD9 expression on human granulosa cells (GCs) and platelets could predict the success of conventional fertilization of human oocytes during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods. Thirty women undergoing IVF for nonmale factor infertility participated. Platelets from venous blood and GCs separated from retrieved oocytes were prepared for immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry quantified the percent of GCs expressing CD9, and CD9 surface density on GCs and platelets. Fertilization rate was determined for the total number of oocytes, and the number of mature oocytes per patient. Correlations tested for significant relationships (P < .05) between fertilization rates and CD9 expression. Results. CD9 surface density on human GCs is inversely correlated with fertilization rate of oocytes (P = .04), but the relationship was weak. Conclusion. More studies are needed to determine if CD9 expression on GCs would be useful for predicting conventional fertilization success during IVF.

  4. Endometriosis as a detrimental condition for granulosa cell steroidogenesis and development: From molecular alterations to clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vercellini, Paolo; Pagliardini, Luca; Candiani, Massimo; Vigano, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory condition that affects women in their reproductive period. Alterations in ovarian follicle morphology and function have been documented in affected women. The local intrafollicular environment has been as well examined by various groups. In the present review, we aimed to summarize the molecular evidence supporting the idea that endometriosis can negatively influence growth, steroidogenesis and the function of the granulosa cells (GCs). Reduced P450 aromatase expression, increased intracellular ROS generation and altered WNT signaling characterize the GCs of women with endometriosis. Clear evidence for an increased level of GC apoptosis has been provided in association with the downregulation of pro-survival factors. Other potentially negative effects include decreased progesterone production, locally decreased AMH production and lower inflammatory cytokine expression, although these have been only partially clarified. The possibility that endometriosis per se may influence IVF clinical results as a consequence of the detrimental impact on the local intrafollicular environment is also discussed.

  5. High concentration of insulin promotes apoptosis of primary cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells via its increase in extracellular HMGB1.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao-Rong; Sun, Zhou-Jun; Hu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Rong-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent finding in women with PCOS, which indicates that insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia may be an important player in the pathogenesis of the PCOS. However, the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia on the pathogenesis of the PCOS remains elusive. In this study, we found an increased high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the serum from women with PCOS having insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, we discovered that high concentration of insulin, which mimics insulin resistance model, promoted apoptosis in primary cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) via its effect on the increase in extracellular HMGB1. Our data presented the first evidence that increased HMGB1 induced by insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia promoted apoptosis of ovarian GCs, which provided new molecular basis for the PCOS pathogenesis.

  6. Merkel cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H

    1987-06-01

    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  7. The global effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and tumour necrosis factor α on gene expression in cultured bovine ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oocytes mature in ovarian follicles surrounded by granulosa cells. During follicle growth, granulosa cells replicate and secrete hormones, particularly steroids close to ovulation. However, most follicles cease growing and undergo atresia or regression instead of ovulating. To investigate the effects of stimulatory (follicle-stimulating hormone; FSH) and inhibitory (tumour necrosis factor alpha; TNFα) factors on the granulosa cell transcriptome, bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and pools of granulosa cells were cultured in vitro for six days under defined serum-free conditions with treatments present on days 3–6. Initially dose–response experiments (n = 4) were performed to determine the optimal concentrations of FSH (0.33 ng/ml) and TNFα (10 ng/ml) to be used for the microarray experiments. For array experiments cells were cultured under control conditions, with FSH, with TNFα, or with FSH plus TNFα (n = 4 per group) and RNA was harvested for microarray analyses. Results Statistical analysis showed primary clustering of the arrays into two groups, control/FSH and TNFα/TNFα plus FSH. The effect of TNFα on gene expression dominated that of FSH, with substantially more genes differentially regulated, and the pathways and genes regulated by TNFα being similar to those of FSH plus TNFα treatment. TNFα treatment reduced the endocrine activity of granulosa cells with reductions in expression of FST, INHA, INBA and AMH. The top-ranked canonical pathways and GO biological terms for the TNFα treatments included antigen presentation, inflammatory response and other pathways indicative of innate immune function and fibrosis. The two most significant networks also reflect this, containing molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming growth factor β signalling, and these were up regulated. Upstream regulator analyses also predicted TNF, interferons γ and

  8. Stable reference genes in granulosa cells of bovine dominant follicles during follicular growth, FSH stimulation and maternal aging.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Irfan-Ur-Rehman; Dias, Fernanda Caminha Faustino; Dufort, Isabelle; Misra, Vikram; Sirard, Marc-Andre; Singh, Jaswant

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a set of reference genes in granulosa cells of dominant follicles that are suitable for relative gene expression analyses during maternal and follicular aging. Granulosa cells of growing and preovulatory dominant follicles were collected from aged and young cows (maternal aging study) and from FSH-stimulated follicles developing under different durations of FSH treatment (follicular aging study). The mRNA levels of the two commonly used reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB) and four novel genes (UBE2D2, EIF2B2, SF3A1, RNF20) were analysed using cycle threshold values. Results revealed that mRNA levels of GAPDH, ACTB, EIF2B2, RNF20, SF3A1 and UBE2D2 were similar (P>0.05) between dominant follicle type, age and among follicles obtained after FSH-stimulation, but differed (P=0.005) due to mRNA processing (i.e. with versus without amplification). The stability of reference genes was analysed using GeNorm, DeltaCT and NormFinder programs and comprehensive ranking order was determined using RefFinder. The mRNA levels of GAPDH and ACTB were less stable than those of UBE2D2 and EIF2B2. The geometric mean of multiple genes (UBE2D2, EIF2B2, GAPDH and SF3A1) is a more appropriate reference control than the use of a single reference gene to compare relative gene expression among dominant and FSH-stimulated follicles during maternal and/or follicular aging studies.

  9. Promotion of glucose utilization by insulin enhances granulosa cell proliferation and developmental competence of porcine oocyte grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Itami, Nobuhiko; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    In vitro culture of the oocyte granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) from early antral follicles (EAFs) shows granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, but to a lesser extent than that observed in vivo during follicle development. As the number of GCs closely relates to energy sufficiency of the oocytes, enhancement of GC proliferation influences oocyte development. GC proliferation depends on glycolysis and insulin-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; therefore, addition of culture medium containing insulin and glucose may potentially promote GC proliferation and hence improve oocyte development. In the present study, we assessed the effect of exogenous insulin and glucose concentration on GC proliferation and oocyte energy status as well as developmental abilities of porcine oocytes grown in vitro. In the presence of 5.5 mM of glucose (Low), a comparison of 10 versus 20 μg/ml insulin showed that high insulin enhanced GC proliferation but exhausted glucose from the medium, which resulted in low energy status including lipid and adenosine triphosphate of the oocyte. Whereas, in the presence of 20 μg/ml insulin, medium with 11 mM glucose (High) enhanced GC proliferation and oocyte energy status as well as developmental ability up to the blastocyst stage. Considering that there was no difference in OGCs development observed with medium (10 μg/ml insulin) containing 5.5 versus 11 mM glucose, we concluded that the combination of high insulin and glucose enhanced GC proliferation and energy status of oocytes as well as the developmental ability of the oocytes grown in vitro.

  10. Effect of cortisol on neurophysin I/oxytocin and peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase mRNA expression in bovine luteal and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol stimulates the synthesis and secretion of oxytocin (OT) from bovine granulosa and luteal cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cortisol action remain unknown. In this study, granulosa cells or luteal cells from days 1-5 and 11-15 of the oestrous cycle were incubated for 4 or 8 h with cortisol (1 x 10(-5), 1 x 10(-7) M). After testing cell viability and hormone secretion (OT, progesterone, estradiol), we studied the effect of cortisol on mRNA expression for precursor of OT (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA). The influence of RU 486 (1 x 10(-5) M), a progesterone receptor blocker and inhibitor of the glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR), on the expression for both genes was tested. Cortisol increased the mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in granulosa cells and stimulated the expression for NP-I/OT mRNA in luteal cells obtained from days 1-5 and days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle. Expression for PGA mRNA was increased only in luteal cells from days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle. In addition, RU 486 blocked the cortisol-stimulated mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in both types of cells. These data suggest that cortisol affects OT synthesis and secretion in bovine ovarian cells, by acting on the expression of key genes, that may impair ovary

  11. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Sex Cord-Ovarian Stromal Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  12. Induction of chemokines and prostaglandin synthesis pathways in luteinized human granulosa cells: potential role of luteotropin withdrawal and prostaglandin F2α in regression of the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenxiang; Salih, Sana M; Bormann, Charles L; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants (forskolin or hCG) on expression of chemokines and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in luteinized human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were collected from 12 women undergoing oocyte retrieval and were luteinized in vitro with forskolin or hCG. In first experiment, granulosa-lutein cells were treated with PGF2α, the primary luteolytic hormone in most species. In second experiment, granulosa cells that had been luteinized for 8 d had luteotropins withdrawn for 1, 2, or 3 d. Treatment with PGF2α induced mRNA for chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) and CXC ligand 8 (CXCL8; also known as interleukin-8) in granulosa cells luteinized for 8 d but not in cells that were only luteinized for 2 d. Similarly, luteinization of human granulosa cells for 8 d with forskolin or hCG followed by withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants, not only decreased P4 production, but also increased mRNA concentrations for CXCL8, CXCL-2 (after forskolin withdrawal), and PTGS2. These results provide evidence for two key steps in differentiation of luteolytic capability in human granulosa cells. During 8 d of luteinization, granulosa cells acquire the ability to respond to luteolytic factors, such as PGF2α, with induction of genes involved in immune function and PG synthesis. Finally, a decline in luteotropic stimuli triggers similar pathways leading to induction of PTGS2 and possibly intraluteal PGF2α production, chemokine expression, leukocyte infiltration and activation, and ultimately luteal regression.

  13. Stimulatory Effect of Insulin on 5α-Reductase Type 1 (SRD5A1) Expression through an Akt-Dependent Pathway in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kayampilly, Pradeep P.; Wanamaker, Brett L.; Stewart, James A.; Wagner, Carrie L.; Menon, K. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of 5α-reduced androgens have been shown to be associated with hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, the leading causes of ovulatory dysfunction in women. 5α-Dihydrotestosterone reduces ovarian granulosa cell proliferation by inhibiting FSH-mediated mitogenic signaling pathways. The present study examined the effect of insulin on 5α-reductase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to their 5α-derivatives. Granulosa cells isolated from immature rat ovaries were cultured in serum-free, phenol red-free DMEM-F12 media and treated with different doses of insulin (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg/ml) for different time intervals up to 12 h. The expression of 5α-reductase type 1 mRNA, the predominant isoform found in granulosa cells, showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in response to the insulin treatment up to 12 h compared with control. The catalytic activity of 5α-reductase enzyme was also stimulated in a dose-depended manner (P < 0.05). Inhibiting the Akt-dependent signaling pathway abolished the insulin-mediated increase in 5α-reductase mRNA expression, whereas inhibition of the ERK-dependent pathway had no effect. The dose-dependent increase in 5α-reductase mRNA expression as well as catalytic activity seen in response to insulin treatment was also demonstrated in the human granulosa cell line (KGN). In addition to increased mRNA expression, a dose-dependent increase in 5α-reductase protein expression in response to insulin was also seen in KGN cells, which corroborated well with that of mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated levels of 5α-reduced androgens seen in hyperinsulinemic conditions might be explained on the basis of a stimulatory effect of insulin on 5α-reductase in granulosa cells. The elevated levels of these metabolites, in turn, might adversely affect growth and proliferation of granulosa cells, thereby impairing follicle growth and ovulation. PMID:20810561

  14. Conjugated linoleic acids attenuate FSH- and IGF1-stimulated cell proliferation; IGF1, GATA4, and aromatase expression; and estradiol-17β production in buffalo granulosa cells involving PPARγ, PTEN, and PI3K/Akt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Isha; Singh, Dheer

    2012-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn much interest in last two decades in the area ranging from anticancer activity to obesity. A number of research papers have been published recently with regard to CLA's additional biological functions as reproductive benefits. However, not much is known how this mixture of isomeric compounds mediates its beneficial effects particularly on fertility. In this study, we demonstrated the cross talk between downstream signaling of CLA and important hormone regulators of endocrine system, i.e. FSH and IGF1, on buffalo granulosa cell function (proliferation and steroidogenesis). Experiments were performed in primary serum-free buffalo granulosa cell culture, where cells were incubated with CLA in combination with FSH (25 ng/ml) and IGF1 (50  ng/ml). Results showed that 10 μM CLA inhibits FSH- and IGF1-induced granulosa cell proliferation; aromatase, GATA4, and IGF1 mRNA; and estradiol-17β production. Western blot analysis of total cell lysates revealed that CLA intervenes the IGF1 signaling by decreasing p-Akt. In addition, CLA was found to upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) level in granulosa cells. Further study using PPARG- and PTEN-specific inhibitors supports the potential role of CLA in granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis involving PPARG, PTEN, and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  15. Influence of FSH and hCG on the resumption of meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    van Tol, H T; van Eijk, M J; Mummery, C L; van den Hurk, R; Bevers, M M

    1996-10-01

    Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and cumulus oocyte complexes connected to a piece of the membrane granulosa (COCGs) were isolated from bovine antral follicles with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm. After culture of COCGs without gonadotrophic hormones for 22 hr approximately 50% of the oocytes were still in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Histology of the COCGs showed that the pieces of the membrana granulosa were free of thecal cells and parts of the basal membrane. This indicates that the membrana granulosa solely inhibits the progression of meiosis. To investigate the effect of gonadotropins on the resumption of meiosis of oocytes from small and medium sized antral follicles, COCs and COCGs were cultured with or without rec-hFSH or hCG. Addition of 0.05 IU rec-hFSH to the culture medium of COCGs resulted in germinal vesicle breakdown in 97.8% of the oocytes compared to 46% in the control group, and an increase of the diameter of the COCs (479 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). Addition of 0.05 IU hCG to the culture medium had no effect on nuclear maturation (47.2% GV vs. 48.5% GV in the control group) nor on cumulus expansion (246 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). RT-PCR on cDNA of the follicular wall, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, COCs, and oocytes revealed that mRNA for FSH receptor was present in all cell types except oocytes. mRNA of the LH receptor was detected exclusively in thecal cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis and alignment of the cloned PCR products showed the presence of two isoforms of the FSH receptor mRNA and two isoforms of the LH receptor mRNA. It is concluded that, in vitro, resumption of meiosis of oocytes, originating from small and medium sized antral follicles and meiotically arrested by the membrana granulosa, is triggered by FSH and not by LH. This is supported by the fact that receptors for FSH, but not for LH, are transcribed in the cumulus and granulosa cells of these follicles.

  16. The modulatory role of transforming growth factor beta1 and androstenedione on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced gelatinase secretion and steroidogenesis in rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ferng-Chun; Chuang, Li-Chung; Lee, Ming-Ting; Chen, Yun Ju; Lin, Sui-Wen; Wang, Paulus S; Stocco, Douglas M; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the potential roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in ovarian granulosa cell differentiation, we studied the interactive effects of FSH and local ovarian factors, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and androstenedione, on gelatinase secretion and progesterone production in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Granulosa cells of eCG-primed immature rats were treated once with various doses of FSH and TGFbeta1 and androstenedione alone or in combinations for 2 days. Conditioned media were analyzed for gelatinase activity using gelatin-zymography/densitometry and progesterone levels using enzyme immunoassay. Cell lysates were analyzed for steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) enzyme protein levels. This study demonstrates for the first time that FSH dose-dependently increased the secretion of a major 63-kDa gelatinase and minor 92- and 67-kDa gelatinases. TGFbeta1 also dose-dependently increased the secretion of 63-kDa gelatinase, while androstenedione alone had no effect. The 92-kDa gelatinase was identified as the pro-MMP9 that could be cleaved by aminophenylmercuric acetate into the 83-kDa active form. Importantly, we show that TGFbeta1 and androgen act in an additive manner to enhance FSH stimulatory effects both on the secretion of gelatinases and the production of progesterone. We further show by immunoblotting that the enhancing effect of TGFbeta1 and androstenedione on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis is partly mediated through the increased level of StAR protein and/or P450scc enzyme. In conclusion, this study indicates that, during antral follicle development, TGFbeta1 and androgen act to enhance FSH promotion of granulosa cell differentiation and that the process may involve the interplay of modulating cell- to-matrix/cell-to-cell interaction and steroidogenic activity.

  17. Apelin (APLN) and Apelin Receptor (APLNR) in Human Ovary: Expression, Signaling, and Regulation of Steroidogenesis in Primary Human Luteinized Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Roche, Jennifer; Ramé, Christelle; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Cornuau, Marion; Guerif, Fabrice; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-11-01

    Apelin (APLN) is a recently discovered adipokine involved in the regulation of various metabolic functions. Its receptor, APLNR, is expressed in reproductive tissues, however, its role in human ovarian cells is unknown. In this study, we identified APLN and APLNR in human ovarian follicles and analyzed their expression in granulosa cells and follicular fluid obtained from obese and nonobese patients, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We also investigated the effect of APLN on steroidogenesis in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hGCs) from nonobese patients without PCOS. Using RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we found that APLN and APLNR were expressed in hGCs and cumulus and theca cells. We confirmed these data immunohistochemically and observed that APLNR and APLN are present in human oocytes at different stages of follicular development. In patients with PCOS, we observed that follicular fluid APLN concentration and granulosa cell APLN and APLNR mRNA expression was higher than that observed in control patients. In cultured hGCs from nonobese patients without PCOS, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) increased APLNR expression, and recombinant human APLN (APLN-13 and APLN-17) increased both basal and IGF1-induced steroid secretion. These effects on steroid production were reversed when cultured in the presence of ML221, an APLNR antagonist, which was associated with an increased 3beta-hydrosteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) protein concentration. We showed that these effects were dependent on the activation of the AKT and MAPK3/1 pathways using pharmacological inhibitors. Our results show that APLN and APLNR are present in human ovarian cells and APLN increases IGF1-induced steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through an increase in HSD3B protein expression and activation of the MAPK3/1 and Akt pathways. Therefore, APLN and APLNR may play a role in human follicular development and the pathogenesis of PCOS. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of

  18. Down-regulation of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions is correlated with irreversible commitment to resume meiosis in golden Syrian hamster oocytes.

    PubMed

    Racowsky, C; Baldwin, K V; Larabell, C A; DeMarais, A A; Kazilek, C J

    1989-08-01

    One of the currently popular hypotheses for the regulation of meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes proposes that the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone causes down-regulation of follicular gap junctions, which in turn disrupts transfer of a meiotic arrester from the somatic cells into the oocyte. The present study has investigated this hypothesis by examining the integrity of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions during the period of irreversible commitment to maturation of golden Syrian hamster oocytes in vivo. Our results have revealed a significant progressive decrease in the fractional area of cell surface occupied by gap junction membrane with increasing percentage of oocytes irreversibly committed to mature (1.946% and 0.921% fractional gap junction area at 0% and 100% oocytes irreversibly committed to mature, respectively, P less than 0.05). This net loss of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions from the cell surface was accompanied by a significant decrease in density of gap junction particles, whether they were arranged in rectilinear or non-rectilinear packing patterns. Furthermore, the number of gap junction particles per unit area of surface membrane scanned also underwent a significant progressive decrease with increasing percentage of oocytes irreversibly committed to mature. These data with the hamster are consistent with the hypothesis that down-regulation of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions may be of central importance in the regulation of gonadotropic stimulation of meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes.

  19. [Testicular germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Dourthe, L M; Ouachet, M; Fizazi, K; Droz, J P

    1998-09-01

    Testicle germ cells tumors are the most common young men neoplasm. The incidence is maximal in Scandinavian countries. Cryptorchidism is a predisposing factor. Diagnosis is clinic, first treatment is radical orchidectomy by inguinal incision, after study of tumor markers. Histology shows seminoma or non seminomatous tumor. Carcinoma in situ is the precursor of invasive germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors have no p53 mutation, and have isochrome of the short arm of chromosome 12 as a specific marker. With the results of histological, biochemical and radiographic evaluation, patient are classified as follows: good, intermediate and poor risk prognosis. Standard treatment of stage I seminoma is prophylactic irradiation. Stage II with less than 3 cm lymph node too. Other situations need a cisplatin based chemotherapy. In case of metastatic residuals masses more than 3 cm, surgery need to be discussed. Stage I non seminomatous germ cell tumors are treated by retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, by surveillance or by two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (BEP). Standard treatment of good prognosis stage II and III is three cycles of BEP, four for poor prognosis. Residual mass need surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary in presence of viable germ cell. Standard treatment for relapses is chemotherapy with cisplatin, ifosfamide and vinblastine with a 30% remission rate. The place of high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation is not yet standardised. New drugs, as paclitaxel, are under studies.

  20. The effects of cetrorelix and triptorelin on the viability and steroidogenesis of cultured human granulosa luteinized cells.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Köster, Frank; Diedrich, Klaus; Nikolettos, Nikos; Asimakopoulos, Byron

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin as well the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix those of on the viability and steroidogenesis in human granulosa luteinized (hGL) cell cultures. The hGL cells were obtained from 34 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment. The cells were cultured for 48 h with or without 1 nM or 3 nM of cetrorelix or triptorelin in serum-free media. The cell viability was evaluated by the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Treatment with triptorelin slightly increased cell viability, whereas treatment with 3 nM cetrorelix led to a significant decrease. Estradiol concentrations were reduced with 3 nM triptorelin. Cultures treated with high-dose of either cetrorelix or triptorelin tended to secrete less progesterone than controls. Cetrorelix significantly reduces the viability of hGL cells. Triptorelin and cetrorelix may have minor effects on steroidogenesis. These results suggest that GnRH analogues may influence ovarian functions.

  1. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) as autocrine/paracrine regulators of granulosa cell differentiation and growth: Studies with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IGF-I

    SciTech Connect

    Mondschein, J.S.; Canning, S.F.; Miller, D.Q.; Hammond, J.M. )

    1989-07-01

    Evidence that granulosa cells secrete and respond to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) suggests, but does not prove, the importance of IGFs as intraovarian regulators. To further assess the role of these peptides in ovarian function, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IGF-I was employed to block the actions of IGFs in porcine follicular fluid and in granulosa cell-conditioned medium. In one series of experiments, granulosa cells from immature porcine follicles were cultured in medium containing porcine follicular fluid that had been charcoal-treated to remove steroids. As noted before, fluid from large follicles (LFF) stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect of LFF (30% v/v) could be inhibited by greater than 50% by the anti-IGF monoclonal antibody. This inhibitory action was specific for the anti-IGF antibody and could be overcome by the addition of excess exogenous IGFs. In another series of experiments, granulosa cells were made dependent on endogenously produced IGFs by culturing them in a serum-free medium without exogenous growth factors. The effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), growth hormone (GH), and combinations thereof on progesterone production were inhibited by approximately 50% by the anti-IGF antibody. The effects of IGFs on indices of cell growth (judged by the criterion of being inhibited by the anti-IGF antibody) were less dramatic. A modest 18% increase in cell number was observed with FSH and E2 treatment in serum-free medium; this effect was virtually abolished by the antibody.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 regulates cell-cell communication by down-regulating connexin43 expression in luteinized human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Ting; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Huang, He-Feng; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Leung, Peter C K

    2017-03-01

    Does bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) regulate connexin43 (Cx43) and modulate cell-cell communication in luteinized human granulosa cells? BMP2 decreases gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) of luteinized human granulosa cells by down-regulating Cx43 expression through an activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/ALK3-mediated Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)-dependent signaling pathway. BMP2 and its putative receptors are highly expressed in the human corpus luteum and are involved in the process of luteolysis. Cx43-coupled gap junctions play a critical role in the development and maintenance of corpus luteum. This is a laboratory study conducted over a 1-year period. At least three independent experiments with three replicates were conducted and the experimental samples were compared with the appropriate vehicle controls for all of the inhibition-approach, concentration-dependent or time-course studies. SVOG cell line (immortalized human granulosa-lutein cells derived from in vitro fertilization patients in an academic research center) was used as the study model. The changes of Cx43 expression and levels of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 protein were evaluated after exposure to recombinant human BMP2. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis were used to examine the specific mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The BMP/TGF-β type I receptor inhibitors (Dorsomorphin, DMH-1 and SB431542) and target depletion small interfering RNAs (ALK2, ALK3, ALK6 and SMAD4) were used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. A scrape loading and dye transfer assay was used to evaluate the GJIC between the SVOG cells. Treatment with BMP2 down-regulated the expression of Cx43 and decreased the GJIC activity, whereas it increased the phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 protein in SVOG cells (P < 0.05). These biological effects were abolished by pre-treatment with the BMP type I receptor inhibitors, Dorsomorphin and DMH-1 (P < 0.05), but not SB431542. Additionally

  3. GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols in ovarian stimulation: differential regulation pathway of aromatase expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mohamad; Mittre, Hervé; Levallet, Jérôme; Hanoux, Vincent; Denoual, Christine; Herlicoviez, Michel; Bonnamy, Pierre-Jacques; Benhaim, Annie

    2010-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists have been widely used to prevent premature LH surge during ovarian stimulation. However, studies have shown a significantly lower serum oestradiol concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration for cycles using GnRH antagonist. This study compared aromatase gene expression in granulosa lutein cells from 50 women randomly assigned to receive either GnRH agonist (group 1, n=28) or GnRH antagonist (group 2, n=22). The cellular mechanism involved in the observed effects was also investigated. GnRH antagonist treatment significantly affected serum oestradiol concentration (1894+/-138 versus 1074+/-63 pg/ml; P < or = 0.001), follicular-fluid oestradiol concentration in large follicles (18,565+/-2467 versus 10,184+/-1993 pg/ml; P < or = 0.05), aromatase activity (9600+/-1179 versus 5376+/-997 fmol/10(6) cells/h; P < or = 0.05) and mRNA aromatase/mRNA glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (15+/-3 versus 6+/-1; P < 0.05). Protein kinase C (PKC) activity in granulosa lutein cells from the GnRH antagonist group was 2.5-fold higher than in the GnRH agonist group. In-vitro experiments showed that selective down-regulation of PKC was only observed in GnRH-desensitized granulosa lutein cells. This report suggests that, in granulosa lutein cells, the modulation of the FSH-induced protein kinase A pathway by PKC was different in agonist versus antagonist cycles.

  4. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M. )

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from (1B-3H)androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures.

  5. Growth Differentiation Factor-8 Decreases StAR Expression Through ALK5-Mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Luteinized Human Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Yu, Yiping; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-12-01

    Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) has been recently shown to be expressed in human granulosa cells, and the mature form of GDF-8 protein can be detected in the follicular fluid. However, the biological function and significance of this growth factor in the human ovary remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF-8 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and the potential mechanisms of action in luteinized human granulosa cells. We demonstrated that treatment with GDF-8 did not affect the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, whereas it significantly down-regulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effect of GDF-8 on StAR expression was abolished by the inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with GDF-8 activated both Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 5 reversed the effects of GDF-8 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation and StAR expression. The inhibition of Smad3 or ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the GDF-8-induced down-regulation of StAR and production of progesterone. Interestingly, the concentrations of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with those of progesterone in human follicular fluid. These results indicate a novel autocrine function of GDF-8 to down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in luteinized human granulosa cells, most likely through activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that granulosa cells might play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone production to prevent premature luteinization during the final stage of folliculogenesis.

  6. hCG-induced Sprouty2 mediates amphiregulin-stimulated COX-2/PGE2 up-regulation in human granulosa cells: a potential mechanism for the OHSS

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Sun, Ying-Pu; Leung, Peter C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty2 (SPRY2) is an important intracellular regulator for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated ERK1/2 signaling. In human granulosa cells, although SPRY2 is expressed, its regulation and function remains complete unknown and must be defined. Our previous study has shown that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) up-regulates the expression levels of EGF-like growth factor, amphiregulin (AREG), which subsequently contributes to the hCG/LH-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hCG on SPRY2 expression and the role of hCG-induced SPRY2 in AREG-stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human granulosa cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of SPRY2 was up-regulated by hCG treatment. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown, we showed that activation of ERK1/2 signaling was required for hCG-induced up-regulation of SPRY2 expression. Further, SPRY2 knockdown attenuated the AREG-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production by inhibiting AREG-activated ERK1/2 signaling. Interestingly, we showed that SPRY2 expression levels were significantly increased in granulosa cells of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) patients. These results for the first time elucidate the physiological roles of SPRY2 in human granulosa cells and suggest that aberrant expression of SPRY2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of OHSS. PMID:27539669

  7. Ovotoxic Effects of Galactose Involve Attenuation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Bioactivity and Up-Regulation of Granulosa Cell p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Pratip; Saha, Piyali; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Banerjee, Sutapa; Kabir, Syed N.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests an association between galactosaemia and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI); however, the mechanism still remains unresolved. Experimental galactose toxicity in rats produces an array of ovarian dysfunction including ovarian development with deficient follicular reserve and follicular resistance to gonadotrophins that characterize the basic tenets of human POI. The present investigation explores if galactose toxicity in rats attenuates the bioactivity of gonadotrophins or interferes with their receptor competency, and accelerates the rate of follicular atresia. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric food-pellets supplemented with or without 35% D-galactose from day-3 of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. The 35-day old female litters were autopsied. Serum galactose-binding capacity, galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity, and bioactivity of FSH and LH together with their receptor competency were assessed. Ovarian follicular atresia was evaluated in situ by TUNEL. The in vitro effects of galactose were studied in isolated whole follicles in respect of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of caspase 3, and in isolated granulosa cells in respect of mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of p53, and apoptosis. The rats prenatally exposed to galactose exhibited significantly decreased serum GalTase activity and greater degree of galactose-incorporation capacity of sera proteins. LH biopotency and LH-FSH receptor competency were comparable between the control and study population, but the latter group showed significantly attenuated FSH bioactivity and increased rate of follicular atresia. In culture, galactose increased follicular generation of ROS and expression of caspase 3. In isolated granulosa cells, galactose disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, stimulated p53 expression, and induced apoptosis in vitro; however co-treatment with either FSH or estradiol significantly prevented

  8. Expression of mRNA Encoding the LH Receptor (LHR) and LHR Binding Protein in Granulosa Cells from Nelore (Bos indicus) Heifers Around Follicle Deviation.

    PubMed

    Ereno, R L; Loureiro, B; Castilho, A C S; Machado, M F; Pegorer, M F; Satrapa, R A; Nogueira, M F G; Buratini, J; Barros, C M

    2015-12-01

    The time at which follicles acquire LHR in bovine granulosa cells is the subject of some controversy among researchers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of LHR and LRBP (mRNA protein binding), a post-transcriptional suppressor of LHR mRNA expression, in granulosa cells from the two largest follicles around the expected time of follicle deviation in Nelore heifers. First, the interval between ovulation and follicle deviation in 20 Nelore heifers was determined (2.3 ± 0.2 days after ovulation). Ovulation was hormonally synchronized, and then, heifers were slaughtered on days 2, 2.5 and 3 after ovulation (before, during and after, respectively, the expected time of follicle deviation), and granulosa cells from the two largest follicles were collected. The mRNA abundance of an LHR fragment common to all isoforms (total LHR) and LRBP was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, and LHR alternative transcripts were assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR followed by electrophoresis. LHR mRNA expression was not detected before the expected time of deviation. Total LHR mRNA abundance was greater in the largest follicle and increased from day 2.5 to 3. In contrast, LRBP mRNA was detected starting on day 2 and was more expressed in the second largest follicle on days 2.5 and 3. The present data suggest that the expression of LHR mRNA in bovine granulosa cells is established after follicle deviation and that the lower abundance of LRBP mRNA after the expected time of deviation may contribute to greater expression of LHR in the bovine dominant follicle. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. No Specific Gene Expression Signature in Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells for Prediction of Oocyte Fertilisation and Embryo Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Lovrecic, Luca; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Maver, Ales

    2015-01-01

    In human IVF procedures objective and reliable biomarkers of oocyte and embryo quality are needed in order to increase the use of single embryo transfer (SET) and thus prevent multiple pregnancies. During folliculogenesis there is an intense bi-directional communication between oocyte and follicular cells. For this reason gene expression profile of follicular cells could be an important indicator and biomarker of oocyte and embryo quality. The objective of this study was to identify gene expression signature(s) in human granulosa (GC) and cumulus (CC) cells predictive of successful embryo implantation and oocyte fertilization. Forty-one patients were included in the study and individual GC and CC samples were collected; oocytes were cultivated separately, allowing a correlation with IVF outcome and elective SET was performed. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a quantitative real-time PCR validation. After statistical analysis of microarray data, there were no significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR<0,05) between non-fertilized and fertilized oocytes and non-implanted and implanted embryos in either of the cell type. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR were in consent with microarray data as there were no significant differences in gene expression of genes selected for validation. In conclusion, we did not find biomarkers for prediction of oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation in IVF procedures in the present study. PMID:25769026

  10. α-SNAP is expressed in mouse ovarian granulosa cells and plays a key role in folliculogenesis and female fertility.

    PubMed

    Arcos, Alexis; Paola, Matilde de; Gianetti, Diego; Acuña, Diego; Velásquez, Zahady D; Miró, María Paz; Toro, Gabriela; Hinrichsen, Bryan; Muñoz, Rosa Iris; Lin, Yimo; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Rivera, Francisco J; Michaut, Marcela A; Batiz, Luis Federico

    2017-09-18

    The balance between ovarian folliculogenesis and follicular atresia is critical for female fertility and is strictly regulated by a complex network of neuroendocrine and intra-ovarian signals. Despite the numerous functions executed by granulosa cells (GCs) in ovarian physiology, the role of multifunctional proteins able to simultaneously coordinate/modulate several cellular pathways is unclear. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (α-SNAP) is a multifunctional protein that participates in SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events. In addition, it regulates cell-to-cell adhesion, AMPK signaling, autophagy and apoptosis in different cell types. In this study we examined the expression pattern of α-SNAP in ovarian tissue and the consequences of α-SNAP (M105I) mutation (hyh mutation) in folliculogenesis and female fertility. Our results showed that α-SNAP protein is highly expressed in GCs and its expression is modulated by gonadotropin stimuli. On the other hand, α-SNAP-mutant mice show a reduction in α-SNAP protein levels. Moreover, increased apoptosis of GCs and follicular atresia, reduced ovulation rate, and a dramatic decline in fertility is observed in α-SNAP-mutant females. In conclusion, α-SNAP plays a critical role in the balance between follicular development and atresia. Consequently, a reduction in its expression/function (M105I mutation) causes early depletion of ovarian follicles and female subfertility.

  11. Expression of factors involved in apoptosis and cell survival is correlated with enzymes synthesizing lysophosphatidic acid and its receptors in granulosa cells originating from different types of bovine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Sinderewicz, Emilia; Grycmacher, Katarzyna; Boruszewska, Dorota; Kowalczyk-Zięba, Ilona; Staszkiewicz, Joanna; Ślężak, Tomasz; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela

    2017-09-06

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulates reproductive processes in the cow. Ovarian granulosa cells play a pivotal role in follicle growth and development. Nevertheless, the role of LPA in the local regulation of granulosa cell function in different follicle categories in the bovine ovary has not been investigated. Ovarian follicles were divided into healthy, transitional and atretic categories. The expression levels of AX, PLA2, LPARs and factors involved in apoptosis and cell survival processes in granulosa cells in different types of follicles were measured by real-time PCR. The correlations between the expression levels of AX, PLA2, LPARs and the examined factors were measured. The immunolocalization of AX, PLA2 and LPARs in different ovarian follicles was examined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were conducted in GraphPad using a one-way ANOVA followed by the Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparison test or a correlation analysis followed by Pearson's test. The expression levels of AX, PLA2 and LPARs, with the major role of LPAR2 and PLA2, were found in the granulosa cells originating from different follicle types. The expression levels of the factors involved in cell apoptosis (TNFα and its receptors, FAS, FASL, CASP3, CASP8, β-glycan, and DRAK2) were significantly higher in the granulosa cells of the atretic follicles compared to the healthy follicles. A number of correlations between LPARs, AX, PLA2 and factors associated with apoptosis were observed in the atretic but not in the healthy follicles. A greater expression of the factors involved in differentiation and proliferation in the granulosa cells (DICE1 and SOX2) was found in the healthy follicles in comparison with the atretic. A number of correlations between LPARs, AX, PLA2 and the factors associated with cell survival were observed in the healthy but not in the atretic follicles. Granulosa cells are the target of LPA action and the source of LPA synthesis in the bovine ovarian follicle. We

  12. Driving Human Granulosa-Luteal Cells Recovered From In Vitro Fertilization Cycles Toward the Follicular Phase Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vireque, Alessandra Aparecida; Campos, Jacira Ribeiro; Dentillo, Daniel Blasioli; Bernuci, Marcelo Picinin; Campos, Carolina Oliveira; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá

    2015-08-01

    Culture systems are available for human granulosa cells (GCs) that perpetuate luteinization. The present study examines the plating density effects and long-term serum-free culture on the in vitro dynamics differentiation of luteinizing human GCs. Cells were cultured in serum-free α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) or serum-based tissue culture medium (TCM). The time course of GCs morphology and secretion of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and relaxin were analyzed after 48, 96, and 144 hours of culture. Other functional markers as follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone receptors and steroidogenic enzymes were investigated at the end of culture. The morphology of an α-MEM cell rather than a TCM cell resembles more closely that seen in vivo. Compared to TCM cultures, α-MEM cells secreted 93.7% and 87.2% more E2 and approximately 7% and 17% of the amount of P4 when cultured at densities of 2 × 10(4) or 4 × 10(4) cells/well, respectively. Relaxin secretion was significantly reduced in α-MEM cultures. α-MEM cells were estrogenic and expressed the CYP19 gene. Levels of CYP17 increased about 8-fold in α-MEM cells above the levels found in TCM cells. Our results reveal new insights into human GCs differentiation in vitro and demonstrate the critical importance of the culture system and cell-plating density on the establishment of estrogenic or progestogenic GC phenotypes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Ovarian transcriptomes as a tool for a global approach of genes modulated by gonadotropic hormones in human ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Sarit; Sarit, Freimann; Dantes, Ada; Ada, Dantes; Amsterdam, Abraham; Abraham, Amsterdam

    2005-04-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a key stimulant for the development of the ovarian follicle, while luteinizing hormone (LH) plays a major role in triggering ovulation and luteinization. Both FSH and LH are glycoprotein hormones that share the same alpha subunit but bind to specific seven transmembrane-domain G coupled receptors located on the cell membrane of the granulosa cells, which comprise the main somatic population of the ovarian follicle. These hormone-receptor complexes may trigger different signaling cascades, but the entire repertoire of genes modulated by these hormones is far from being understood, in particular on the transcriptional level. The development of DNA micro-arrays technique, using the entire genome profile of some mammalian species, allows a global approach and screening of multiple signal transduction pathways. This method opened new insights into the cellular and molecular events that control ovulation and desensitization of the corpus luteum to hyperstimulation by gonadotropic hormones. In addition, this technique permitted the discovery of novel members of the EGF family, such as epiregulin and amphiregulin, that were found to be expressed in the gonadotropin-stimulated cells and were discovered to play a crucial role in the mechanism of ovulation. However, because of the pitfalls in interpreting the data other approaches, for example, Northern blots and RT-PCR must be conducted in parallel to verify the validity of the data.

  14. Modulation of gene expression in small follicle porcine granulosa cells by human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH)

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, F.O.; Ryan, R.J.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1986-03-01

    Small follicle (1-3 mm) porcine granulosa cells (SFPGF) were isolated by puncture, aspiration and cultured under standard conditions in DMEM, HEPES, BSA, MIX. At the start of culture, cells were stimulated with 100ng hFSH/ml. At various times afterwards total cellular RNA was prepared using guanidine-hydrochloride solubilization, phenol extraction and precipitation from 3M NaOAc, pH 6.0. RNA was 5'-end labelled with /sup 32/P in a kinase reaction and hybridized to an excess of clone-specific DNA immobilized on nitrocellulose filters using stringent hybridization and wash conditions. After autoradiography the RNA hybridized to the DNA blot filter were quantitated by microdensitometry. Hybridization to parent plasmid was negative. RNA derived from control cultures showed patterns of hybridization similar to those obtained from freshly obtained cells. Results of these experiments demonstrate hFSh induction of RNA specific for transferrin receptor, ..cap alpha..-interferon, H-ras, and K-ras. Increased RNA levels were apparent within 10 min of treatment and had declined by 180 min. Expression of actin, p53 and for RNAs declined by 10 min of hFSH addition but was enhanced by 160 min. Levels of ..beta..-interferon, myc, mos, abl and yb RNAs were not detectable under these conditions. These results demonstrate specific gene modulation in SFPGC cultured with hFSH.

  15. Nuclear Localization of β-Catenin in Sertoli Cell Tumors and Other Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Testis: An Immunohistochemical Study of 87 Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis and subclassification of Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) of the testis are often challenging to general surgical pathologists because of the rarity of the tumors. Immunohistochemical study to date has limited diagnostic value. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, which correlated closely with CTNNB1 gene mutation, was recently reported in SCTs. We investigated the utility of β-catenin nuclear localization in diagnosing SCTs and differentiating them from other testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for β-catenin was evaluated in 87 cases of testicular sex cord-stromal tumor: 33 SCTs, not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS) (15 with benign and 18 with malignant features), 10 sclerosing SCTs (SSCT), 5 large cell calcifying SCTs (LCCSCT), 6 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 10 Leydig cell tumors, 7 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 4 adult granulosa cell tumors, and 12 sex cord-stromal tumors, unclassified. Twenty-one of 33 (64%) SCT-NOS, 6 of 10 (60%) SSCTs, and 4 of 6 (67%) Sertoli-stromal cell tumors showed strong, diffuse β-catenin nuclear staining. Nuclear β-catenin positivity was more frequent in SCTs-NOS with benign features than in those with malignant features (93% and 39%, respectively, P=0.13) and, in the Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, occurred only in the Sertoli component. All 5 LCCSCTs and all other types of sex cord-stromal tumor were negative for β-catenin nuclear staining. In conclusion, SCT-NOS and SSCT frequently show β-catenin nuclear localization. Positive nuclear staining of β-catenin is specific for SCT-NOS, SSCT, and Sertoli-stromal cell tumor among testicular sex cord-stromal tumors but has limited sensitivity (63%) in this group. The similar reactivity of SCT-NOS and SSCT provides additional support that these 2 variants are not distinct entities.

  16. Effects of Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) on Steroidogenesis and Gene Expression and Control of FGF9 mRNA in Bovine Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Nicole B.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) is decreased in granulosa cells (GC) of cystic follicles compared with normal dominant follicles in cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of FGF9 on GC steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation and to determine the hormonal control of GC FGF9 production. GC were collected from small (1–5 mm) and large (8–22 mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with various hormones in serum-free medium for 24 or 48 h. In small- and large-follicle GC, FGF9 inhibited (P < 0.05) IGF-I-, dibutyryl cAMP-, and forskolin-induced progesterone and estradiol production. In contrast, FGF9 increased (P < 0.05) GC numbers induced by IGF-I and 10% fetal calf serum. FGF9 inhibited (P < 0.05) FSHR and CYP11A1 mRNA abundance in small- and large-follicle GC but had no effect (P > 0.10) on CYP19A1 or StAR mRNA. In the presence of a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, trilostane, FGF9 also decreased (P < 0.05) pregnenolone production. IGF-I inhibited (P < 0.05) whereas estradiol and FSH had no effect (P > 0.10) on FGF9 mRNA abundance. TNFα and wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family member-3A decreased (P < 0.05) whereas T4 and sonic hedgehog increased (P < 0.05) FGF9 mRNA abundance in control and IGF-I-treated GC. Thus, GC FGF9 gene expression is hormonally regulated, and FGF9 may act as an autocrine regulator of ovarian function by slowing follicular differentiation via inhibiting IGF-I action, gonadotropin receptors, the cAMP signaling cascade, and steroid synthesis while stimulating GC proliferation in cattle. PMID:22798350

  17. Expression of mRNA and protein of IL-18 and its receptor in human follicular granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Salmassi, A; Fattahi, A; Nouri, M; Hedderich, J; Schmutzler, A G

    2017-04-01

    There is no information available about the IL-18 receptor in ovarian follicles, so the present study attempts to demonstrate the expression of IL-18 and its receptor in human granulosa cells (GCs). To evaluate the concentration of IL-18 in serum and follicular fluid (FF), we collected serum and FF from 102 women undergoing oocyte retrieval. Also, to detect expression of IL-18 and its receptor by luteinized GCs, these cells were pooled six times from a total of twenty individual patients with 5-16 follicles each. The IL-18 concentration was determined by ELISA and the expression of IL-18 and its receptor by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that the median IL-18 concentration in serum, 159.27 pg/ml (IQR 121.41-210.1), was significantly higher than in FF, 142.1 pg/ml (IQR 95.7-176.5), p < 0.001. Moreover, we found that IL-18 and its receptor are expressed by GCs. The presence of IL-18 in FF and the expression of IL-18 and its receptor by GCs suggest an important role for this cytokine in ovarian function.

  18. FMR1 and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways: potential functional interactions controlling folliculogenesis in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Rehnitz, Julia; Alcoba, Diego D; Brum, Ilma S; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Youness, Berthe; Strowitzki, Thomas; Vogt, Peter H

    2017-08-04

    Granulosa cells (GCs) play a major role in folliculogenesis and are crucial for oocyte maturation and growth. In these cells, the mTOR/AKT signalling pathway regulates early folliculogenesis by maintaining the dormancy of primordial follicles, while FSH induces their further differentiation and maturation. Because changes in number of CGG triplets in FMR1 exon 1 (below or beyond normal values of 26-34 triplets) affect ovarian reserve and pre-mutations containing >54 CGG triplets represent a known risk factor for premature ovarian insufficiency/failure, we investigated in the human GC model (COV434) how FMR1/FMRP and mTOR/AKT are expressed and potentially interact during GC proliferation. As FMR protein (FMRP) is expressed mainly in human ovarian GCs, we used these after inducing their proliferation using recombinant FSH (rFSH) and the repression of the mTOR/AKT signalling pathway. We showed that AKT and mTOR expression levels significantly increase after stimulation with rFSH, while S6K and FMR1 expression decrease. After inhibiting mTOR and AKT, FMR1 and S6K expression significantly increased. Only AKT inhibition led to decreased FMRP levels, as expected due to the known FMR1/FMRP negative feedback loop. But rFSH and the mTOR inhibition increased them, indicating a decoupling of this FMR1/FMRP negative feedback loop in our model system. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of AKT1 along with AKT2 in granulosa-lutein cells of hyperandrogenic PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Nekoonam, Saeid; Naji, Mohammad; Nashtaei, Maryam Shabani; Mortezaee, Keywan; Koruji, Morteza; Safdarian, Leili; Amidi, Fardin

    2017-04-01

    AKTs have a pivotal role in the granulosa-lutein cell (GC) proliferation and folliculogenesis, and there is a reciprocal feedback between AKT with androgen. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the role of AKTs in GCs of hyperandrogenic (+HA) PCOS cases. There were three groups: control, +HA PCOS and -HA (non-hyperandrogenic) PCOS. All groups were subjected to GnRH antagonist protocol for stimulation of ovulation. Follicular fluid was aspirated from large follicles, and GCs were isolated using cell strainer method. AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expressions were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and total-AKT and p-AKT (Ser(473) & Thr(308)) were investigated using western blotting. There were high levels of AKT1, AKT2, and AR mRNA expressions and high levels of p-AKT protein expression in the +HA PCOS group (p ≤ 0.05). There was a direct positive correlation between free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) with the levels of AKT1, AKT2, and p-AKT (Ser(473)), and also between FT with the levels of AR. High expressions of AKT1 and AKT2 through possible relation with androgen may cause GCs dysfunction in the +HA PCOS patients.

  20. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC-2 interact to suppress entry into the cell cycle in spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peluso, John J; Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Horne, Meghan

    2014-11-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 are expressed in rat granulosa cells and spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) but their biological roles are not well defined. The present studies demonstrate that depleting either Pgrmc1 or Pgrmc2 in SIGCs increases entry into the cell cycle but does not increase cell proliferation. Rather, PGRMC1 and/or PGRMC2-deplete cells accumulate in metaphase and undergo apoptosis. Because both PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 localize to the mitotic spindle, their absence likely accounts for cells arresting in metaphase. Moreover, pull-down assays, colocalization studies and in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA) indicate that PGRMC1 binds PGRMC2. Disrupting the PGRMC1:PGRMC2 complex through the use of siRNA or the cytoplasmic delivery of a PGRMC2 antibody increases entry into the cell cycle. Conversely, overexpressing either PGRMC1-GFP or GFP-PGRMC2 fusion protein inhibits entry into the cell cycle. Subsequent studies reveal that depleting PGRMC1 and/or PGRMC2 reduces the percentage of cells in G0 and increases the percentage of cells in G1. These observations indicate that in addition to their role at metaphase, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 are involved in regulating entry into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Interestingly, both PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 bind GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 2 (G3BP2) as demonstrated by pull-down assays, colocalization assays, and PLAs. G3bp2 siRNA treatment also promotes entry into the G1 stage. This implies that dynamic changes in the interaction among PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and G3BP2 play an important protein regulating the rate at which SIGCs enter into the cell cycle.

  1. Altered glycosylation in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, C.L. ); Hakomori, S. ); Marcus, D.M. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the following: Glycoconjugates of normal and tumor cells; Glycosyltransferases in normal and neoplastic cells; Mammalian lectins of normal tissues and tumor cells; and Immune recognition of carbohydrates and clinical applications.

  2. Ghost Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Jason; Cohen, Molly D; Ramer, Naomi; Payami, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ghost cell tumors are a family of lesions that range in presentation from cyst to solid neoplasm and in behavior from benign to locally aggressive or metastatic. All are characterized by the presence of ameloblastic epithelium, ghost cells, and calcifications. This report presents the cases of a 14-year-old girl with a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a 65-year-old woman with a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) with dysplastic changes, a rare locally invasive tumor of odontogenic epithelium. The first patient presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph displayed a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion. An incisional biopsy yielded a diagnosis of CCOT. Decompression of the mass was completed; after 3 months, it was enucleated and immediately grafted with bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest. The second patient presented with a 3-month history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph depicted a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion with saucerization of the buccal mandibular cortex. An incisional biopsy examination suggested a diagnosis of DGCT because of the presence of ghost cells, dentinoid, and islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Excision of the mass with peripheral ostectomy was completed. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted.

  3. Expression of PUMA in Follicular Granulosa Cells Regulated by FoxO1 Activation During Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Qun; Shen, Ming; Wu, Wang-Jun; Li, Bo-Jiang; Weng, Qian-Nan; Li, Mei; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is a main cause of follicular atresia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways involving numerous genes and transcription factors. In this study, we found expression of the p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily protein, in ovarian GCs during oxidative stress. By overexpression and knockdown of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), we found that FoxO1 regulates PUMA at the protein level. Moreover, as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to activate FoxO1 by promoting its nuclear import, we used a JNK inhibitor to reduce FoxO1 activation and detected decreased PUMA messenger RNA expression and protein levels during oxidative stress. In addition, in vivo oxidative stress-induced upregulation of PUMA was found following injection of 3 nitropropionic acid in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress increases PUMA expression regulated by FoxO1 in follicular GCs.

  4. A current perspective on the pathological assessment of FOXL2 in adult-type granulosa cell tumours of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Kommoss, Stefan; Gilks, Cyril Blake; Penzel, Roland; Herpel, Esther; Mackenzie, Robertson; Huntsman, David; Schirmacher, Peter; Anglesio, Michael; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of adult-type granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (aGCT) is based on histomorphology aided by immunohistochemical staining for sex cord markers. Recently a single, recurrent somatic point mutation (402C→G) in FOXL2 was described in aGCT. We have investigated the impact of FOXL2 mutation testing in a large cohort of aGCT diagnosed previously by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue cores from a cohort of 52 aGCT diagnosed previously by expert gynaecopathologists were analysed immunohistologically. FOXL2 mutation status was determined by Sanger sequencing and high-sensitivity TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Histomorphology was reassessed by two expert gynaecopathologists. FOXL2 mutation analyses could be performed successfully in 46 cases, 40 of which were positive for the c.402C>G mutation, confirming a diagnosis of aGCT. In the six cases negative for the c.402C>G mutation, one case was confirmed on review as FOXL2 wild-type aGCT, whereas in the remaining five cases diagnoses other than aGCT were made. In cases where a diagnosis of aGCT is a consideration and unequivocal diagnosis is not possible based on morphology and routine immunostains, FOXL2 mutation testing can help to confirm the diagnosis. It is particularly relevant for accurate subclassification within the group of sex cord-stromal tumours. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Steroidogenesis during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes and possible effects of tri-butyltin on granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, M; Schams, D; Einspanier, R

    2003-02-01

    Steroids are known as important factors on the route of oocytes development and cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) as well as follicular granulosa cells (GC) are suggested to be themselves involved in steroidogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize such a local sex steroidogenic system during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine COCs according to the production of estradiol (E), testosterone (T) and progesterone (P). The expression of two steroid-converting key-enzymes was measured in parallel by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, possible effects of the environmental pollutant tri-butyltin (TBT) were elucidated for the first time on bovine COC and GC in vitro concerning that steroidogenic system. During IVM of bovine COCs concentrations of P increased continuously, corresponding with steady-state levels of 3-beta-hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenase (HSD) transcripts. In contrast, E together with P450 aromatase mRNA (ARO) increased in the first hours of IVM but declining thereafter, whereas T reached almost balanced levels. However, TBT showed only slight effects during IVM of COC. In cultured GC, LH caused highest P- and E-production within 24h and treatment with 50pM TBT induced a significant decrease of E in contrast to 100pM TBT and the control. These results indicate, that (1) COCs were able to modulate their steroidogenic environment in vitro and that (2) TBT may possibly influence or disturb steroidogenesis in the cows reproductive tract shown here for GC.

  6. The influence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on steroid hormone production by porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, Adriana; Medvedova, Marina; Halenar, Marek; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Bulla, Jozef

    2017-09-25

    Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) are frequently occurring in feed of pigs together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible in vitro effects of DON and ZEA, alone or their combination on steroid secretion of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). A species-specific model with porcine ovarian GCs was used to study the potential endocrine disrupting effects of DON and ZEA alone and in co-exposure. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of this study demonstrate that DON alone at the higher concentrations may act to stimulate P4 (at 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 ng mL(-1) but not 10 and 100 ng mL(-1)) and E2 (at 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 ng mL(-1) but not 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL(-1)) secretion. The effects of ZEA on P4 and E2 secretion were not confirmed. DON in combination with the other fusariotoxin ZEA may impair steroidogenesis. Results aslo demonstrate different toxicological effects of fusariotoxins on follicle stimulating hormone-induced secretion of P4 and E2. All these results taken together suggest that fusariotoxin and their interactions can impact ovarian steroidogenesis, thereby demonstrating their potential reproductive effects in pigs.

  7. Alleviation of Rosup-induced oxidative stress in porcine granulosa cells by anthocyanins from red-fleshed apples

    PubMed Central

    He, Guifang; Li, Yapeng; Yang, Leilei; Shen, Wei; Huo, Heqiang; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Hongyi

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the polyphenolic phytochemicals which have been shown to scavenge free radicals. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthocyanins extracted from red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii) on reducing oxidative damage by Rosup in porcine granulosa cells (GCs) by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), content of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and the gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1. Apoptosis was determined with TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and apoptosis-related proteins were quantified with Western blotting. The results indicate that Rosup increases oxidative stress by inducing reactive oxygen species production in porcine GCs and the oxidative stress could be reduced by anthocyanins. The gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1 and the activities of these enzymes were increased when GCs were treated with anthocyanins and Rosup for 6 hours. Anthocyanins inhibit Rosup-induced apoptosis by increasing expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and suppressing the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Collectively, anthocyanins from red-fleshed apples reduce oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in porcine GCs in vitro. This approach indicates that antioxidants might be developed from red-fleshed apples. PMID:28850606

  8. In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that hamster oocyte meiotic arrest is maintained only transiently by follicular fluid, but persistently by membrana/cumulus granulosa cell contact.

    PubMed

    Racowsky, C; Baldwin, K V

    1989-08-01

    Studies were carried out with the golden Syrian hamster to investigate the capacity of follicular fluid to maintain oocyte meiotic arrest and to determine the importance of cumulus-membrana granulosa cell contact in the regulation of meiotic status. The follicular fluid studies were conducted by cytological assessment of meiotic stage up to 6 hr after transferring cumulus-free oocytes into antra of explanted "host" follicles in vitro or into follicles of anesthetized animals prior to the gonadotropin surge at proestrus in vivo. The cumulus-membrana granulosa contact studies were undertaken with explanted follicles in which the oocyte-cumulus complex was dislodged from the underlying membrana granulosa, released into the antrum, and subsequently allowed to reestablish contact during 6 hr of incubation within the follicle. The extent of recontact of the dislodged complex with the underlying membrana granulosa was assessed visually at the end of incubation and was classified as close, moderate, or none. These various degrees of contact typically involved the following number of cumulus cells, as determined by serial sectioning of a representative sample of follicles after dislodgement and subsequent incubation: close, 32.7 +/- 1.78; moderate, 9.0 +/- 2.1; and no contact, 0. After 6 hr of incubation either in vitro or in vivo, few transferred oocytes remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage (18.8 +/- 8.7 and 17.3 +/- 4.0% GV, respectively). However, time course experiments revealed that meiotic resumption was significantly delayed in transferred oocytes compared with either liberated oocytes, spontaneously maturing oocytes, or follicle-enclosed oocytes induced to mature by luteinizing hormone in vitro (after 4 hr, transferred, 31.3 +/- 6.0% GV; liberated, 0% GV; follicle-enclosed, 0% GV; after 6 hr, 0% transferred oocytes exhibited a GV). In the dislodgement studies, after 6 hr of incubation, 26% of complexes reestablished close contact with the underlying membrana

  9. Knockdown of CREB3/Luman by shRNA in Mouse Granulosa Cells Results in Decreased Estradiol and Progesterone Synthesis and Promotes Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yanglei; Lin, Pengfei; Tang, Keqiong; Wang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Luman (also known as LZIP or CREB3) is a transcription factor and a member of the cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) family proteins. Although Luman has been detected in apoptotic granulosa cells and disorganized atretic bodies, the physiological function of Luman in follicular development has not been reported. Our objective is to determine the role of Luman in folliculogenesis by knocking down Luman expression in mouse GCs (granulosa cells) using shRNA. Luman expression was successfully knocked down in mouse GCs at the mRNA and protein level, as confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Knockdown of Luman significantly decreased the concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in cell culture medium. Furthermore, Luman knockdown promoted cell proliferation but had no effect on cell apoptosis. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism underlying the effects of Luman knockdown on steroid synthesis and cell cycle, we measured the mRNA and protein expression levels of several related genes. The expression of Star, Cyp19a1, and Cyp1b1, which encode steroidogenic enzymes, was down-regulated, while that of Cyp11a1 and Runx2, which also encode steroidogenic enzymes, was up-regulated. The expression of the cell cycle factors Cyclin A1, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D2, and Cyclin E was significantly up-regulated. Among apoptosis-related genes, only Bcl-2 was down-regulated, while Caspase 3, Bax and p53 were not significantly affected, suggesting that Luman knockdown may regulate cell cycle activity and hormone secretion at the transcriptional and translational level in mouse GCs. The expression of two important genes associated with folliculogenesis in mouse GCs, Has2 and Ptgs2, were also significantly altered by Luman knockdown. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Luman regulates mouse GCs modulation of steroid synthesis, cell cycle activity and other regulators of folliculogenesis. PMID

  10. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research.

  11. Circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of the “liquid biopsy” using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:24521660

  12. Adenosine 3',5-cyclic monophosphate phosphodiesterase activity in granulosa cells from Booroola x Romney ewes with and without the F gene.

    PubMed

    McNatty, K P; Heath, D A; Lun, S; Hudson, N L

    1989-02-01

    Granulosa cells from ovarian follicles (greater than or equal to 1 mm diameter) in Booroola ewes which are homozygous (FF) or heterozygous (F+) for the F gene have previously been shown to produce significantly more cAMP in response to FSH or LH than those from similar sized follicles in ewes without the F gene (++). The aim of these studies was to test whether these F gene-specific differences arose because of differences in cAMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) activity. In the first study using 1 mumol cAMP/l as substrate, no F gene-specific effects were noted in cAMP-PDE activity in granulosa cells from small (1-2.5 mm diameter, n = 4 per genotype) or large (greater than or equal to 3 mm diameter, n = 4 per genotype) follicles from FF, F+ or ++ ewes, despite F gene-specific effects in FSH (1 microgram/ml)- and LH (0.1 microgram/ml)-induced cAMP accumulation in these same cell preparations. The overall mean levels of cAMP-PDE across all genotypes in cells from small and large follicles were 0.47 +/- 0.04 (S.E.M., n = 12) and 0.28 +/- 0.03 pmol cAMP/10(6) cells per min respectively; the mean PDE activity in cells from small follicles was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher compared with that in cells from large follicles. In a second study, granulosa cells from each genotype were pooled over all follicle sizes (greater than or equal to 1 mm diameter, one pool per genotype) and the rates of cAMP hydrolysis tested over a range of substrate concentrations (0-16 mumol/l) but no gene-specific differences with respect to the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity were noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Benign notochordal cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gamarra, C; Bernabéu Taboada, D; Pozo Kreilinger, J J; Tapia Viñé, M

    2017-08-01

    Benign notochordal cell tumors (TBCN) are lesions with notochordal differentiation which affect the axial skeleton. They are characterized by asymptomatic or non-specific symptomatology and are radiologically unnoticed because of their small size, or because they are mistaken with other benign bone lesions, such as vertebral hemangiomas. When they are large, or symptomatic, can be differential diagnosis with metastases, primary bone tumors and chordomas. We present a case of a TBCN in a 50-year-old woman, with a sacral lesion seen in MRI. A CT-guided biopsy was scheduled to analyze the lesion, finding that the tumor was not clearly recognizable on CT, so the anatomical references of MRI were used to select the appropriate plane. The planning of the approach and the radio-pathological correlation were determinant to reach the definitive diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutations of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor that do not activate the phosphoinositide cascade allow hCG to induce aromatase expression in immature rat granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Andric, Nebojsa; Ascoli, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Using primary cultures of immature rat granulosa cells and adenoviral infections we expressed two mutants of the human lutropin receptor (hLHR) that do not activate the phosphoinositide cascade. One mutant (hLFF) has the extracellular domain of the hLHR and the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the hFSHR. The other (hLHR-L457D) has a leucine to aspartate mutation in residue 457 of transmembrane helix 3. When expressed in immature rat granulosa cells the hLHR stimulates cAMP and inositol phosphate accumulation, transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), elicits a transient increase in Akt phosphorylation, and a sustained increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation but aromatase expression is not enhanced. When expressed at comparable densities, hLFF and hLHR-L457D support cAMP accumulation and transient Akt phosphorylation but do not support inositol phosphate accumulation, EGFR transactivation or a sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cells expressing either of these two mutants respond to hCG with increased aromatase expression. We also show that addition of hCG to cells expressing the hLHR antagonizes the effects of hFSH on aromatase expression whereas addition of hCG to cells expressing the hLHR-L457D mutant does not. These results show that activation of the phosphoinositide cascade is upstream of EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and that this pathway is a negative regulator of aromatase expression in granulosa cells. PMID:18313839

  15. Embryonic Poly(A)-Binding Protein (EPAB) Is Required for Granulosa Cell EGF Signaling and Cumulus Expansion in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Lowther, Katie M.; Lalioti, Maria D.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein in Xenopus, mouse, and human oocytes and early embryos before zygotic genome activation. EPAB is required for translational activation of maternally stored mRNAs in the oocyte and Epab−/− female mice are infertile due to impaired oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of follicular somatic cell dysfunction in Epab−/− mice. Using a coculture system of oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs) with denuded oocytes, we found that when wild-type OOXs were cocultured with Epab−/− oocytes, or when Epab−/− OOXs were cocultured with WT oocytes, cumulus expansion failed to occur in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). This finding suggests that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from Epab−/− mice fail to send and receive the necessary signals required for cumulus expansion. The abnormalities in Epab−/− CCs are not due to lower expression of the oocyte-derived factors growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15, because Epab−/− oocytes express these proteins at comparable levels with WT. Epab−/− granulosa cells (GCs) exhibit decreased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in response to lutenizing hormone and EGF treatment, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. In conclusion, EPAB, which is oocyte specific, is required for the ability of CCs and GCs to become responsive to LH and EGF signaling. These results emphasize the importance of oocyte-somatic communication for GC and CC function. PMID:26492470

  16. Autocrine/paracrine proliferative effect of ovarian GH and IGF-I in chicken granulosa cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Solórzano, S Marisela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Carranza, Martha; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Luna-Acosta, José Luis; Harvey, Steve; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR) are expressed in granulosa cells (GC) and thecal cells during the follicular development in the hen ovary, which suggests GH is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions in the female reproductive system. In this work, we show that the knockdown of local ovarian GH with a specific cGH siRNA in GC cultures significantly decreased both cGH mRNA expression and GH secretion to the media, and also reduced their proliferative rate. Thus, we analyzed the effect of ovarian GH and recombinant chicken GH (rcGH) on the proliferation of pre-hierarchical GCs in primary cultures. Incubation of GCs with either rcGH or conditioned media, containing predominantly a 15-kDa GH isoform, showed that both significantly increased proliferation as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) quantification and ((3)H)-thymidine incorporation ((3)H-T) assays in a dose response fashion. Both, locally produced GH and rcGH also induced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in GC cultures. Furthermore, GH increased IGF-I synthesis and its release into the GC culture incubation media. These results suggest that GH may act through local IGF-I to induce GC proliferation, since IGF-I immunoneutralization completely abolished the GH-induced proliferative effect. These data suggest that GH and IGF-I may play a role as autocrine/paracrine regulators during the follicular development in the hen ovary at the pre-hierarchical stage.

  17. Lhcgr Expression in Granulosa Cells: Roles for PKA-Phosphorylated β-Catenin, TCF3, and FOXO1

    PubMed Central

    Law, Nathan C.; Weck, Jennifer; Kyriss, Brandon; Nilson, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian follicles lacking FSH or FSH receptors fail to progress to a preovulatory stage, resulting in infertility. One hallmark of the preovulatory follicle is the presence of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptors (LHCGR) on granulosa cells (GCs). However, the mechanisms by which FSH induces Lhcgr gene expression are poorly understood. Our results show that protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways are required for FSH to activate both the murine Lhcgr-luciferase reporter and expression of Lhcgr mRNA in rat GCs. Based on results showing that an adenovirus (Ad) expressing a steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) mutant that cannot bind β-catenin abolished FSH-induced Lhcgr mRNA, we evaluated the role of β-catenin in the regulation of Lhcgr gene expression. FSH promoted the PKA-dependent, PI3K-independent phosphorylation of β-catenin on Ser552 and Ser665. FSH activated the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) artificial promoter-reporter TOPFlash via a PKA-dependent, PI3K-independent pathway, and dominant-negative (DN) TCF abolished FSH-activated Lhcgr-luciferase reporter and induction of Lhcgr mRNA. Microarray analysis of GCs treated with Ad-DN-TCF and FSH identified the Lhcgr as the most down-regulated gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results placed β-catenin phosphorylated on Ser552 and Ser675 and SF1 on the Lhcgr promoter in FSH-treated GCs; TCF3 was constitutively associated with the Lhcgr promoter. Transduction with an Ad-phospho-β-catenin mutant (Ser552/665/Asp) enhanced Lhcgr mRNA expression in FSH-treated cells greater than 3-fold. Finally, we identified a recognized PI3K/AKT target, forkhead box O1, as a negative regulator of Lhcgr mRNA expression. These results provide new understanding of the complex regulation of Lhcgr gene expression in GCs. PMID:23754802

  18. Embryonic Poly(A)-Binding Protein (EPAB) Is Required for Granulosa Cell EGF Signaling and Cumulus Expansion in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Lowther, Katie M; Lalioti, Maria D; Seli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein in Xenopus, mouse, and human oocytes and early embryos before zygotic genome activation. EPAB is required for translational activation of maternally stored mRNAs in the oocyte and Epab(-/-) female mice are infertile due to impaired oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of follicular somatic cell dysfunction in Epab(-/-) mice. Using a coculture system of oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs) with denuded oocytes, we found that when wild-type OOXs were cocultured with Epab(-/-) oocytes, or when Epab(-/-) OOXs were cocultured with WT oocytes, cumulus expansion failed to occur in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). This finding suggests that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from Epab(-/-) mice fail to send and receive the necessary signals required for cumulus expansion. The abnormalities in Epab(-/-) CCs are not due to lower expression of the oocyte-derived factors growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15, because Epab(-/-) oocytes express these proteins at comparable levels with WT. Epab(-/-) granulosa cells (GCs) exhibit decreased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in response to lutenizing hormone and EGF treatment, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. In conclusion, EPAB, which is oocyte specific, is required for the ability of CCs and GCs to become responsive to LH and EGF signaling. These results emphasize the importance of oocyte-somatic communication for GC and CC function.

  19. N-hexane inhalation during pregnancy alters DNA promoter methylation in the ovarian granulosa cells of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Wang, Wenxiang; Weng, Shaozheng; Xiao, Shihua; Huang, Huiling; Zhang, Wenchang

    2014-08-01

    The N-hexane-induced impact on the reproductive system of the offspring of animals exposed to n-hexane has caused great concern. Pregnant Wistar rats inhaled 500, 2 500 or 12 500 ppm n-hexane during gestational days 1-20. Clinical characteristics and developmental indices were observed. Ovarian granulosa cells were extracted from F1 rats, the number of follicles was determined in ovarian slices and promoter methylation was assessed using MeDIP-Chip. Several methods were used to analyze the scanned genes, including the Gene Ontology Consortium tools, the DAVID Functional Annotation Clustering Tool, hierarchical clustering and KEGG pathway analysis. The results indicated that the live pups/litter ratio was significantly lowest in the 12 500 ppm group. A significant decrease in secondary follicles and an increase in atresic follicles were observed in the 12 500 ppm group. The number of shared demethylated genes was higher than that of the methylated genes, and the differentially methylated genes were enriched in cell death and apoptosis, cell growth and hormone regulation. The methylation profiles of the offspring from the 500 ppm and control groups were different from those of the 2500 and 12 500 ppm groups. Furthermore, the methylation status of genes in the PI3K-Akt and NF-kappa B signaling pathways was changed after n-hexane exposure. The Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1a1 and Srd5a1 promoters were hypermethylated in the n-hexane-exposed groups. These results indicate that the developmental toxicity of n-hexane in F1 ovaries is accompanied by the altered methylation of promoters of genes associated with apoptotic processes and steroid hormone biosynthesis.

  20. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Jafri, S Z; Gibson, D P; Bis, K G; Ali-Reza

    1995-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular (JG) cell tumor is a rare benign neoplasm of the kidney that typically presents with hypertension, secondary hyperaldosteronism, hypocalcemia, and hyperreninism. We describe a case of JG cell tumor diagnosed with MRI.

  1. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  2. Cultivation of rat granulosa cells in a serum-free chemically defined medium--a useful model to study lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Azhar, S; Tsai, L; Maffe, W; Reaven, E

    1988-11-25

    We have developed a chemically defined, serum-free medium for the culture of rat granulosa cells. This medium contains Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient F12 (DME:F12) (1:1) plus insulin (2 micrograms/ml), hydrocortisone (100 ng/ml), transferrin (5 micrograms/ml) and fibronectin (2 micrograms/cm2). Granulosa cells grown in this medium have an absolute requirement for added cholesterol-rich lipoproteins for steroidogenesis. When cells are cultured in basal medium, progestin production is low; when cells are cultured in the presence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or dibutyryl cAMP [Bu)2 cAMP), progestin secretion is increased 10-100-fold. Both heterologous and homologous lipoproteins synergistically increased the effects of (Bu)2 cAMP or FSH: e.g., addition to the medium of human (h)-HDL3 produced a significant increase in both basal (approx. 15-fold) and (Bu)2 cAMP-stimulated (approx. 1000-2000-fold) progestin production. LDL were less effective than HDL at equivalent concentrations of lipoprotein cholesterol. FSH invoked changes similar to that of (Bu)2 cAMP, although the magnitude of the FSH-induced change was less dramatic than that seen with (Bu)2 cAMP. The effect of h-HDL3 and h-LDL on both basal and hormone-stimulated progestin production was concentration- and time-dependent. The maximum effect of h-HDL3 was achieved at a protein concentration of 500 micrograms/ml, with an ED50 of approx. 90 micrograms/ml. In contrast, h-LDL was most effective at a concentration of 30-40 micrograms protein/ml. Likewise, rat (r-)HDL and r-LDL supported steroidogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal responses to all additions were observed after 72 h of treatment. Granulosa cells secreted 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3-one as the predominant steroid in response to (Bu)2 cAMP. However, with the addition of h-HDL3, the major secreted product was progesterone. In conclusion, rat granulosa cells maintained in the described serum-free medium are

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of gene cascades involved in protein kinase A and C signalling in the KGN line of human ovarian granulosa tumour cells1.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Patricia G; Sirard, Marc-André

    2017-04-05

    The developmental competence of an oocyte is its capacity to resume maturation, undergo successful fertilization and reach the blastocyst stage. This competence is acquired through interaction with somatic cells of the follicle. Cumulus and granulosa cells support oocyte development while the oocyte influences follicular cell growth and differentiation. Studies suggest that follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone play an essential role in oocyte competence acquisition through signalling initiated by protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC) in granulosa cells. Using a microarray and RT-qPCR, the transcriptome of human granulosa-like tumour cells (KGN) treated for 24 h with forskolin (FSK) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was analyzed to determine the effects of PKA and PKC stimulation on gene expression. Protein-kinase-driven signalling appeared to involve five major upstream regulators, namely EGF, TGFB1, VEGF, FGF2 and HGF. Genes associations with seven major ovarian functions were identified: PTGS2, IL8 and IL6 with inflammation; STAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 with steroidogenesis; VEGFC, VEGFA and CXCR4 with angiogenesis; AREG, EGFR and SPRY2 with differentiation, BAX, BCL2L12 and CASP1 with apoptosis, CCND1, CCNB1 and CCNB2 with division and MMP1, MMP9 and TIMP1 with ovulation. These results indicate overall that signalling via both PKA and PKC potentiates gene regulation of functions such as inflammation and apoptosis, while functions such as differentiation, ovulation and angiogenesis are partial to one kinase or the other. These results improve understanding of the pathways underlying the most important changes that occur in the follicle prior to ovulation.

  4. Expression of scavenger receptor-BI and low-density lipoprotein receptor and differential use of lipoproteins to support early steroidogenesis in luteinizing macaque granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Greason, Erin; Rodriguez, Annabelle; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Chaffin, Charles L

    2009-02-01

    An ovulatory hCG stimulus to rhesus macaques undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols results in a rapid and sustained increase in progesterone synthesis. The use of lipoproteins as a substrate for progesterone synthesis remains unclear, and the expression of lipoprotein receptors [very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI)] soon after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (<12 h) has not been characterized. This study investigated lipoprotein receptor expression and lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and HDL) support of steroidogenesis during luteinization of macaque granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were aspirated from rhesus monkeys undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation before or up to 24 h after an ovulatory hCG stimulus. The expression of VLDLR decreased within 3 h of hCG, whereas LDLR and SR-BI increased at 3 and 12 h, respectively. Granulosa cells isolated before hCG were cultured for 24 h in the presence of FSH or FSH plus hCG with or without VLDL, LDL, or HDL. Progesterone levels increased in the presence of hCG regardless of lipoprotein addition, although LDL, but not HDL, further augmented hCG-induced progesterone. Other cells were cultured with FSH or FSH plus hCG without an exogenous source of lipoprotein for 24 h, followed by an additional 24 h culture with or without lipoproteins. Cells treated with hCG in the absence of any lipoprotein were unable to maintain progesterone levels through 48 h, whereas LDL (but not HDL) sustained progesterone synthesis. These data suggest that an ovulatory stimulus rapidly mobilizes stored cholesterol esters for use as a progesterone substrate and that as these are depleted, new cholesterol esters are obtained through an LDLR- and/or SR-BI-mediated mechanism.

  5. Ammonia concentrations in different size classes of ovarian follicles of sheep (Ovis aries): Possible mechanisms of accumulation and its effect on oocyte and granulosa cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the concentrations and the mechanisms of accumulation of ammonia in different sizes of ovarian follicles and the effect of ammonia on oocyte and granulosa cell growth and functions in vitro with sheep (Ovis aries) as an animal model. The effects of cyclicity, seasonality, phases of the estrous cycle, and seasons (environmental) on ammonia concentrations in follicular fluid were also investigated. The effect of ammonia on in vitro development of oocytes (maturation rate, viability rate, cleavage rate, morulae/blastocysts yield) recovered from different sizes of follicles was examined at the levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 300, and 500 μM. Same concentrations of ammonia were examined on growth parameters (metabolic activity, viability, cell number increment, monolayer formation, apoptosis rate) and hormone (progesterone, estrogen) secretion activity of granulosa cells in vitro. Results suggested as the follicle size increased, ammonia concentrations decreased. The ammonia concentrations in ovine follicular fluid were found to be 261.5 ± 32.4, 157.7 ± 19.2, and 42.9 ± 8.3 μM, respectively, for small, medium, and large follicles. The corresponding ranges were 290 to 238 μM, 184 to 142 μM, and 70 to 22 μM. The differences were due to more accumulation of fluid, less metabolic activity of granulosa cells, and elevation of protein, potassium, and chloride as the follicle size increased. The seasonality and phases of the estrous cycle did not have any effect on ammonia level in ovarian follicles. Ammonia concentrations in all size classes of follicles examined were significantly reduced in ewes during hot seasons compared to cold seasons and in acyclic animals compared to cyclic ones. Ammonia impaired oocyte development at 300 μM when the oocytes were isolated from small follicles and at 250 μM when the oocytes were isolated from medium and large follicles. In contrast, ammonia caused the negative impact on granulosa cells growth

  6. Cryptotanshinone Regulates Androgen Synthesis through the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 Pathway in Porcine Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Danfeng; Li, Meifang; Zhang, Yuehui; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Hua; Wu, Wanting; Ma, Wanying; Quan, Kewei; Ng, Ernest H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism behind androgen reduction in porcine granulosa cells (pGCs) with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract cryptotanshinone. PGCs were isolated from porcine ovaries and identified. Androgen excess model of the pGCs was induced with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The testosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture media. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17 in the cells were measured by western blot. Cryptotanshinone decreased the concentration of testosterone and the protein level of CYP17 and increased the protein levels of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos in the androgen excess mode. After the c-Fos gene was silenced by infection with c-Fos shRNA lentivirus, we measured the mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and protein level by western blot of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17. This showed that the mRNA expression and protein level of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos were significantly reduced in the shRNA–c-Fos group compared to the scrambled group, while those of CYP17 were significantly increased. So we concluded that cryptotanshinone can significantly reduce the androgen excess induced by PD98059 in pGCs. The possible molecular mechanism for this activity is regulating the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 pathway. PMID:28167972

  7. Involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 in the effect of PCBs, DDT and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Ziolkowska, A; Kotwica, J

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolite (DDE) belong to estrogen-like endocrine disruptors. However, though their activity is approximately 1000-fold lower than the activity of estradiol (E2), this steroid's high concentration in follicular fluid and incubation media does not inhibit the influence of these xenobiotics. It was hypothesized that these xenobiotics might affect Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1) and impair ovary function. To test this hypothesis, granulosa cells were obtained from ovarian follicles >1 or <1cm in diameter, which were treated with PCB-77, PCB-153, DDT or DDE (each at 10ng/ml), alone or jointly with an SF-1 antagonist (F0160). Treatment with the SF-1 antagonist inhibited (P<0.05) the secretion of P4 from cells of both sizes of follicles, as induced (P<0.05) by an SF-1 activator (HxP), DDE or PCB-153. All xenobiotics and HxP stimulated (P<0.05) the synthesis and secretion of oxytocin (OT). However, the effect on mRNA expression for NP-I/OT, which is OT precursor, was inhibited (P<0.05) by F0160 in all cultures treated with PCB-77, except for granulosa cells derived from follicles <1cm. Moreover, F0160 inhibited the effect on OT secretion of HxP, as well as all xenobiotics except for PCB-77 and DDE, in granulosa cells derived from follicles <1cm. Xenobiotic treatment did not affect (P>0.05) the expression for SF-1 mRNA. It is suggested that the SF-1 receptor may be involved in the adverse effects of xenobiotics on P4 secretion as well as the synthesis and secretion of OT.

  8. A novel cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive element involved in the transcriptional regulation of the lutropin receptor gene in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Liu, X; Segaloff, D L

    2000-09-01

    The induction of the lutropin receptor (LHR) in granulosa cells by FSH is mediated, at least in part, by cAMP. However, the classic cAMP-responsive element (CRE) is not present in the 5'-flanking region of the rat LHR gene. Previous studies from our laboratory had shown that three Sp1 sites within the promoter region of the rat LHR (rLHR) bind Sp1 and Sp3 and are involved in the basal and cAMP-mediated transcription of the rLHR gene. In the present studies we show that the rLHR promoter region forms a complex (designated complex A) with nuclear extracts from rat granulosa cells, and the abundance of complex A is markedly increased when using cells that had been pretreated with 8-bromo (Br)-cAMP. We have localized the binding of the protein(s) in complex A to a DNA sequence immediately upstream and partially overlapping with the Sp1c binding site. The core site (designated SAS for Sp1c adjacent sequence) is localized to nucleotide (nt) -146 to -142 and contains the sequence GGGGG. The consensus sequence for the core portion of this element appears to be (G/T)GGGG. Mutations of the SAS site, but not SP1c site, abolish complex A formation. Experiments utilizing rat granulosa cells transfected with luciferase reporter genes driven by the 5'-flanking region of the rLHR gene demonstrate a functional role for the SAS site in the cAMP responsiveness of the rLHR gene.

  9. Influence of a Roundup formulation on glyphosate effects on steroidogenesis and proliferation of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Perego, Maria Chiara; Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Schutz, Luis F; Albonico, Marco; Tsuzukibashi, Denise; Spicer, Leon J

    2017-09-04

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is a non-selective systemic herbicide widely used worldwide. The purpose of this study is to determine if glyphosate alone (GLPH) or in formulation with Roundup (G-RU) can affect granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production. Four experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, 10 and 300 μg/mL of GLPH had no effect (P > 0.05) on cell numbers, estradiol or progesterone production, whereas 10 and 300 μg/mL of G-RU dramatically decreased (P < 0.05) cell numbers and estradiol and progesterone production. In Exp. 2, G-RU at 0.1 μg/mL had no significant effect whereas G-RU at 10 μg/mL decreased (P < 0.05) GC numbers, progesterone and estradiol production. In the absence of IGF1 but presence of FSH, 1 μg/mL of G-RU decreased (P < 0.05) estradiol production, whereas in the presence of IGF1 and FSH, 1 μg/mL of G-RU increased (P < 0.05) cell numbers, progesterone and estradiol production. In Exp. 3, IGF1 significantly increased cell numbers (by 2.8-fold) and estradiol (by 17.8-fold) and progesterone (by 6.1-fold) production. GLPH at 10 μg/mL alone had no significant effect on FSH-induced (i.e., basal) or FSH plus IGF1-induced cell numbers, estradiol or progesterone production. However, G-RU at 10 μg/mL significantly inhibited FSH plus IGF1-induced cell numbers, estradiol and progesterone production by 65%-91%. In Exp. 4, 48 h treatment of G-RU had no significant effect on viability of attached cells. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate that GLPH and particularly G-RU may have the potential to impair reproductive function in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inside the granulosa transcriptome.

    PubMed

    D'Aurora, Marco; Sperduti, Samantha; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Stuppia, Liborio; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-12-01

    The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte. We also explore the CGs transcriptome modifications induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) or pathological conditions and their impact in reproduction. The transcriptome analysis of GCs could be a powerful tool to improve our knowledge about the pathways involved in oocyte development. This approach, associated with new technologies as RNA-seq could allow the identifications of new noninvasive biological markers of oocyte quality to increase the efficiency of clinical IVF. Moreover, GCs expression analysis could be useful to shed light on new therapeutic targets by providing new options for the treatment of infertility.

  11. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  12. The expression of CXCR4 is induced by the luteinizing hormone surge and mediated by progesterone receptors in human preovulatory granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yohan; Park, Ji Yeon; Wilson, Kalin; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2017-06-01

    The chemokine CXC motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its cognate receptor, CXCR4, have been implicated in the ovulatory process in various animal models. However, little is known about the expression and regulation of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and their functions during the ovulatory period in the human ovary. In this study, we characterized the expression patterns of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in preovulatory follicles collected before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and at defined hours after hCG administration in women with the regular menstrual cycle. The levels of mRNA and protein for CXCR4 were increased in granulosa cells of late ovulatory follicles, whereas CXCL12 expression was constant in follicles throughout the ovulatory period. Both CXCR4 and CXCL12 were localized to a subset of leukocytes around and inside the vasculature of human preovulatory follicles. Using a human granulosa cell culture model, the regulatory mechanisms and functions of CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression were investigated. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated CXCR4 expression, whereas CXCL12 expression was not affected, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Both RU486 (progesterone receptor antagonist) and CoCl2 (HIFs activator) blocked the hCG-induced increase in CXCR4 expression, whereas AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) had no effect. The treatment with CXCL12 had no effect on granulosa cell viability but decreased hCG-stimulated CXCR4 expression. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Involvement of FoxO1 in the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone on inhibition of apoptosis in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M; Liu, Z; Li, B; Teng, Y; Zhang, J; Tang, Y; Sun, S-C; Liu, H

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian ovaries, follicular atresia occurs periodically and destroys almost all the follicles in the ovary. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts as the primary survival factor during follicular atresia by preventing apoptosis in granulosa cells. FoxO1 is a critical factor in promoting follicular atresia and granulosa cell apoptosis. FSH inhibits the induction of FoxO1. In this report, we investigated the role of FSH-FoxO1 pathway in mouse follicular atresia. FSH dampened stress-induced apoptosis and the expression of FoxO1 and pro-apoptosis genes in mouse granulosa cells (MGCs). In contrast, overexpression of FoxO1 inhibited the viability of MGCs and induced the expression of endogenous FoxO1. The signaling cascades involved in regulating FoxO1 activity upon FSH treatment were identified using FSH signaling antagonists. Blocking protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) or protein kinase B (AKT) restored the upregulation of FoxO1 and apoptotic signals, which was suppressed by FSH. Moreover, inhibition of PKA or PI3K impaired FSH-induced AKT activity, but inactivation of PI3K or AKT had little effect on PKA activity in the presence of FSH. Correspondingly, constitutive activation of FoxO1 (all three AKT sites were replaced by alanines) also promoted MGC apoptosis despite FSH administration. Furthermore, both luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that FoxO1 directly bound to a FoxO-recognized element site within the FoxO1 promoter and contributed to the regulation of FoxO1 expression in response to FSH. Taken together, we propose a novel model in which FSH downregulates FoxO1-dependent apoptosis in MGCs by coordinating the PKA–PI3K–AKT–FoxO1 axis and FoxO1–FoxO1 positive feedback. PMID:25321482

  14. Telomerase activity is more significant for predicting the outcome of IVF treatment than telomere length in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Hong; Li, Ruiqi; Ouyang, Nengyong; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Lili; Mai, Meiqi; Zhang, Ningfeng; Zhang, Qingxue; Yang, Dongzi

    2014-05-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that luteinized granulosa cells (GCs) have the potential to proliferate and that the telomerase activity (TA) of luteinized GCs may predict the clinical outcomes of IVF treatment. However, in the field of telomere research, there have always been different opinions regarding the significance of TA and telomere length (TL). Thus, in the present study, we compared the effects of these two parameters on IVF treatment outcomes in the same individuals. TL did not differ significantly between the pregnant group and the non-pregnant group. The TA, number of retrieved oocytes and rate of blastocyst transfer were significantly higher in the pregnant group than in the non-pregnant group (0.8825 OD×mm, 12.75±2.20 and 34.48%, respectively, in the pregnant group vs 0.513 OD×mm, 11.60±0.93 and 14.89%, respectively, in the non-pregnant group (P<0.05)), while basal FSH level was lower in the pregnant group than in the non-pregnant group. The subjects did not differ with regard to ovarian stimulation or other clinical characteristics. A TA increase of 1 OD×mm increased the chance of becoming pregnant 4.769-fold (odds ratio: 5.769, 95% CI: 1.434-23.212, P<0.014). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.576 for TL and 0.674 for TA (P=0.271 and P<0. 012 respectively). The corresponding cut-off points were 4.470 for TL and 0.650 OD×mm for TA. These results demonstrate that TA is a better predictor of pregnancy outcomes following IVF treatment than TL. No other clinical parameters, including age, baseline FSH level or peak oestradiol level, distinguished between the pregnant group and the non-pregnant group as effectively as TA.

  15. Luteinizing Hormone-Induced RUNX1 Regulates the Expression of Genes in Granulosa Cells of Rat Periovulatory Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Misung; Curry, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The LH surge induces specific transcription factors that regulate the expression of a myriad of genes in periovulatory follicles to bring about ovulation and luteinization. The present study determined 1) the localization of RUNX1, a nuclear transcription factor, 2) regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression, and 3) its potential function in rat ovaries. Up-regulation of mRNA and protein for RUNX1 is detected in preovulatory follicles after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection in gonadotropin-treated immature rats as well as after the LH surge in cycling animals by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. The regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression was investigated in vitro using granulosa cells from rat pre-ovulatory ovaries. Treatments with hCG, forskolin, or phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression. The effects of hCG were reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase, indicating that Runx1 expression is regulated by the LH-initiated activation of these signaling mediators. In addition, hCG-induced Runx1 mRNA expression was inhibited by a progesterone receptor antagonist and an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, whereas amphiregulin stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression, demonstrating that the expression is mediated by the activation of the progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Finally, knockdown of Runx1 mRNA by small interfering RNA decreased progesterone secretion and reduced levels of mRNA for Cyp11a1, Hapln1, Mt1a, and Rgc32. The hormonally regulated expression of Runx1 in periovulatory follicles, its involvement in progesterone production, and regulation of preovulatory gene expression suggest important roles of RUNX1 in the periovulatory process. PMID:16675540

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-enhanced synthesis of progesterone during luteinization of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Fadhillah; Yoshioka, Shin; Nishimura, Ryo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-16

    Hypoxia has been suggested to enhance progesterone (P4) synthesis in luteinizing granulosa cells (GCs), but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the hypoxia-induced increase in P4 synthesis during luteinization in bovine GCs is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). GCs obtained from small antral follicles were cultured with 2 µg/ml insulin in combination with 10 µM forskolin for 24 h as a model of luteinizing GCs. To examine the influence of HIF-1 on P4 synthesis, we determined the effect of changes in protein expression of the α-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF1A) on P4 production and on the expression levels of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD. CoCl2 (100 µM), a hypoxia-mimicking chemical, increased HIF-1α protein expression in luteinizing GCs. After the upregulation of HIF-1α, we observed an increase in P4 production and in the gene and protein expression levels of StAR in CoCl2-treated luteinizing GCs. In contrast, CoCl2 did not affect the expression of either P450scc or 3β-HSD. Echinomycin, a small-molecule inhibitor of HIF-1's DNA-binding activity, attenuated the effects of CoCl2 and of low oxygen tension (10% O2) on P4 production and StAR expression in luteinizing GCs. Overall, these findings suggest that HIF-1 is one of the factors that upregulate P4 in GCs during luteinization.

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-enhanced synthesis of progesterone during luteinization of granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    FADHILLAH; YOSHIOKA, Shin; NISHIMURA, Ryo; YAMAMOTO, Yuki; KIMURA, Koji; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has been suggested to enhance progesterone (P4) synthesis in luteinizing granulosa cells (GCs), but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the hypoxia-induced increase in P4 synthesis during luteinization in bovine GCs is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). GCs obtained from small antral follicles were cultured with 2 µg/ml insulin in combination with 10 µM forskolin for 24 h as a model of luteinizing GCs. To examine the influence of HIF-1 on P4 synthesis, we determined the effect of changes in protein expression of the α-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF1A) on P4 production and on the expression levels of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD. CoCl2 (100 µM), a hypoxia-mimicking chemical, increased HIF-1α protein expression in luteinizing GCs. After the upregulation of HIF-1α, we observed an increase in P4 production and in the gene and protein expression levels of StAR in CoCl2-treated luteinizing GCs. In contrast, CoCl2 did not affect the expression of either P450scc or 3β-HSD. Echinomycin, a small-molecule inhibitor of HIF-1′s DNA-binding activity, attenuated the effects of CoCl2 and of low oxygen tension (10% O2) on P4 production and StAR expression in luteinizing GCs. Overall, these findings suggest that HIF-1 is one of the factors that upregulate P4 in GCs during luteinization. PMID:27840375

  18. Regression of subcutaneous lymphoma following removal of an ovarian granulosatheca cell tumor in a horse.

    PubMed

    Henson, K L; Alleman, A R; Cutler, T J; Ginn, P E; Kelley, L C

    1998-05-01

    A 9-year-old Arabian mare was admitted for evaluation of multiple subcutaneous nodules and infertility. Fine-needle aspiration of one of the subcutaneous nodules resulted in a cytologic diagnosis of histiolymphocytic lymphoma. Palpation per rectum and transrectal ultrasonography revealed a mass associated with the left ovary. Excision of the ovarian tumor was performed, and a histopathologic diagnosis of granulosa-theca cell tumor was made. After removal of the granulosa-theca cell tumor, subcutaneous nodules regressed. The referring veterinarian reported that the nodules had also disappeared and then recurred after administration of a synthetic progestin. To further characterize the lymphoma and investigate this possible hormonal relationship, immunophenotyping and estrogen and progesterone receptor assays were performed. The subcutaneous lymphoma was classified as a T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma, results of estrogen receptor assays were negative, and results of progesterone receptor assays were positive. Clinical observations of subcutaneous lymphoma in horses indicate that the waxing and waning nature of these tumors may be associated with the estrous cycle, pregnancy, foaling, and lactation. Clinical observations and identification of progesterone receptors suggest that a relationship between serum steroid hormone concentrations, such as estrogen and progesterone, and subcutaneous lymphoma may exists.

  19. Granular cell tumor of trachea.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Edgar; Toth, Jennifer W; Benninghoff, Michael G; Kang, Jason; Betancourt, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree are rare benign lesions of neurogenic origin. These benign tumors mostly involve the skin, oral cavity, or esophagus. There is no consensus regarding treatment of granular cell tumors. Treatment varies from simple observation to different bronchoscopic interventions, such as laser therapy or fulguration to surgical resection.

  20. Increased expression of pentraxin 3 after in vivo and in vitro stimula