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Sample records for grape seed extract

  1. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  2. Changes in polyphenol and polysaccharide content of grape seed extract and grape pomace after enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Alvarez, I; Vega, E; Brenes, A

    2012-07-15

    Grape seed extract and grape pomace are rich sources of polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of polyphenols, the solubilisation of carbohydrate, and the antioxidant capacity of these grape by-products after enzymatic reaction with carbohydrases (cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities) and tannase for 24h. The use of tannase in these by-products, and pectinase in grape pomace changed the galloylated form of catechin to its free form, releasing gallic acid and increasing the antioxidant activity. In grape pomace, cellulase treatment was not efficient for phenolic release and antioxidant activity improvement. The addition of carbohydrases to grape pomace, either alone or in combination, degraded the cell wall polysaccharides, increasing the content of monosaccharides. These results provide relevant data about the potential of pectinase, tannase and combinations of enzymes on the release of polyphenols and monosaccharides from grape by-products, improving the antioxidant capacity and the nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of grape seed extract on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Aysun; Kaynar, Leylagül; Koçyiğit, Ismail; Hacioğlu, Sibel Kabukçu; Saraymen, Recep; Oztürk, Ahmet; Orhan, Okan; Sağdiç, Osman

    2008-06-01

    The tolerance of the liver is considerably low when an effective radiation (RTx) dose needs to be delivered in patients in whom either their liver or whole body area has to be irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of grape seed extract on liver toxicity induced by RTx in the rat liver. We used four groups, each consisting of 12 healthy male Wistar rats. RTx-grape seed extract group: rats were given grape seed extract (100 mg/kg) orally for seven days, following 8 Gy whole body irradiation, and grape seed extract was maintained for four days. RTx group: the same protocol was applied in this group; however, they received distilled water instead of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract group: only grape seed extract solution was administered for 11 consecutive days in the same fashion. only distilled water (orally) was administered in a similar manner. The level of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, two important endogenous antioxidants, were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Grape seed extract was seen to protect the cellular membrane from oxidative damage and consequently from protein and lipid oxidation. In the RTx group, malondialdehyde levels were extremely higher than those of the grape seed extract-RTx group (p<0.001). Grape seed extract administration moderately reserved the malondialdehyde levels. RTx therapy decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver homogenates (p<0.001), and these alterations were significantly reversed by grape seed extract treatment (p<0.001). There were no differences between the grape seed extract- RTx, grape seed extract and control groups with regard to antioxidant activity (p>0.05). The levels of antioxidant parameters on RTx-induced liver toxicity were restored to control values with grape seed extract therapy. Grape seed extract may be promising as a therapeutic option in RTx

  4. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  5. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  6. Rejuvenation of antioxidant system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Balu, Muthaiya; Sangeetha, Purushotham; Haripriya, Dayalan; Panneerselvam, Chinnakannu

    2005-08-05

    Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in discrete regions of the central nervous system of young and aged rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into four groups: Group I-control young rats, Group II-young rats treated with grape seed extract (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days, Group III-aged control rats and Group IV-aged rats supplemented with grape seed extract (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. Age-associated increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, striatum and the hippocampus regions of aged rats (Group III). Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of non-enzymic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, Vitamin C and Vitamin E were found to be significantly decreased in all the brain regions studied in aged rats when compared to young rats. However, normalized lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defenses were reported in the grape seed extract-supplemented aged rats. These findings demonstrated that grape seed extract enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the incidence of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in the central nervous system of aged rats.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zuo-Hui; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T; Li, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Danhong; Wojcik, Kim; Anderson, Travis; Qin, Yimin; Dey, Lucy; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2003-06-01

    This study sought to test whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress induced in chick cardiomyocytes and whether this cytoprotection is mediated by PKC activation, mito K(ATP) channel opening, NO production, oxidant scavenging, or iron chelating effects. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (exogenous oxidant stress, 0.5mM) or antimycin A (endogenous oxidant stress, 100 micro M) for 2h following pretreatment with GSPE at various concentrations for 2h. Cells were also pretreated with GSPE or with inhibitors of PKC (chelerytherine), mito K(ATP) channel (5-hydroxydecanoate), nitric oxide synthase (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) for 2h. Oxidant stress was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide. Free radical scavenging and iron chelating ability was tested in vitro. GSPE dose-dependently attenuated oxidant formation and significantly improved cell survival and contractile function. However, inhibitors of PKC, mito K(ATP) channel or NO synthase failed to abolish the protective action of GSPE during H(2)O(2) or antimycin A exposure. In vitro studies suggested that GSPE scavenges H(2)O(2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron. These results indicate that GSPE confers cardioprotection against exogenous H(2)O(2)- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito K(ATP) channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron chelating directly.

  8. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  9. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the influence of white grape seed extracts as copigment sources on the anthocyanin extraction from grape skins previously classified by near infrared hyperspectral tools.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José

    2017-04-15

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chis, Irina C; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton, Adriana; Simedrea, Ramona; Muresan, Adriana; Postescu, Ion-Dan; Decea, Nicoleta

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml/rat), at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 20 consecutive days after the induction of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced by an i.p. injection with streptozotocin for groups II and III. TheTBARS, carbonylated proteins, were measured in the plasma and in the supernatant of liver homogenisates, and superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in the haemolysates of RBCs and supernatant of liver homogenisates. The results showed that oral administration of grape seed extract (100 mg/kg/day) reduced the levels of lipid peroxides and carbonylated proteins and improved the antioxidant activity in plasma and hepatic tissue in rats treated with grape seed natural extract as compared with the diabetic control rats. These results suggested that the grape seed extract enhanced the antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species produced under hyperglycaemic conditions, hence protecting the liver cells.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  14. The Photostabilizing Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Three Common Sunscreen Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Martincigh, Bice S; Ollengo, Moses A

    2016-11-01

    The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Exposure of the extract to UV radiation increased the UV absorption capacity of the extract. All sunscreens showed an improved photostability in the extract. The inherent photo-instability of BMDBM when exposed to UV radiation was almost eliminated in the presence of grape seed extract. A mixture of all three sunscreens in the extract showed very high photostability and a red shift covering the entire UVB and UVA regions, thereby improving the broad-spectrum protection. The incorporation of grape seed extract in sunscreen and other cosmetic formulations for topical application boosts photoprotection by stabilizing the UV filters and enhancing broad-spectrum coverage. This in turn helps in reducing the amounts of absorbers and other additives incorporated in a sunscreen product and consequently lowers the risk of an unprecedented buildup of photoproducts whose toxicities are currently unknown. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Crude ethanol extracts from grape seeds and peels exhibit anti-tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Chou, Su-Tze; Huang, Pai-Jane; Mong, Mei-Chin; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Hsueh, Yu-Pin; Jhan, Jyun-Kai

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase activities of ethanol extracts from the peels and the seeds of Kyoho grapes and Red Globe grapes (KG-PEE, KG-SEE, RGG-PEE, and RGG-SEE). The total phenolic content in KG-SEE and RGG-SEE was 400 +/- 11 and 339 +/- 7 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively, about 22 times and 13 times that in KG-PEE and RGG-PEE, respectively. Both seed extracts showed significantly higher anti-tyrosinase activity than the peel extracts due to their high total phenolic content. The gallic acid content in RGG-SEE was twice that in KG-SEE, and gallic acid showed high anti-tyrosinase activity; thus, RGG-SEE had higher anti-tyrosinase activity than KG-SEE. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the inhibitory mechanism of the ethanol extracts from the grapes was a mix-type inhibition. Grape seed has a greater total phenolic content and has potential as a skin-lighting agent.

  16. Amelioration of tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats by grape seed extract, black seed extract and curcumin.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-03-01

    Liver injury was induced in female rats using tamoxifen (TAM). Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) extract (GSE), black seed (Nigella sativa) extract (NSE), curcumin (CUR) or silymarin (SYL) were orally administered to TAM-intoxicated rats. Liver histopathology of TAM-intoxicated:rats showed pathological changes. TAM-intoxication elicited declines in liver antioxidant enzymes levels (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio plus the hepatic elevations in lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum liver enzymes; alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Oral intake of NSE, GSE, CUR or SYL to TAM-intoxicated rats, attenuated histopathological changes and corrected all parameters mentioned above. Improvements were prominent in case of NSE (similarly SYL) > CUR > GSE. Data indicated that NSE, GSE or CUR act as free radicals scavengers and protect TAM-induced liver injury in rats.

  17. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D’Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects. PMID:22312277

  18. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus epigallocatechin and procyanidins on colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.

  19. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  20. Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.

  1. Which is the best grape seed additive for frankfurters: extract, oil or flour?

    PubMed

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2014-03-15

    Grape seed products (winery by-products) are valuable vegetable sources to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, 21 treatments of frankfurters, in three different groups, including 0%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% grape seed oil (GSO), and 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% grape seed flour (GSF) were produced in order to compare the differences among them during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Increasing the level of GSO made the frankfurters lighter in color (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of all the 21 frankfurters were under the limit of deterioration (2.0 mg malonaldehite kg⁻¹ treatment) during 90 days' storage. However, increasing the amount of additives (GSE, GSO and GSF) led to a decrease in overall acceptability for each group. According to the general comparison of the three frankfurter groups in terms of lipid oxidation, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of the frankfurters including GSE and GSF were found to be similar, but the frankfurters containing GSO exhibited the highest lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). While the products including GSE were the most acceptable group in terms of overall acceptability, the group produced with GSF received the lowest points (P < 0.05). Although the three grape seed products have partially undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurters, all these additives showed different positive influences in the production of frankfurters. The results showed that the group of frankfurters including GSE was the best of three different groups of products due to the lipid oxidation and overall acceptability results. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Mechanism of grape seeds extract protection against paracetamol renal cortical damage in male Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, S M N; Rifaai, R A; Abd Elzaher, W Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible protective role of grape seeds extract (GSE) in ameliorating the toxic effects of paracetamol overdose on the rat renal cortical tissue. Paracetamol is one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Unfortunately, it was reported as the most common cause of toxic ingestion in the world. Grape seeds extract (GSE) is known to have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, GSE group, paracetamol group and GSE with paracetamol group. Kidney specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immunohisto-chemical studies. The study showed marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in serum urea and creatinine levels with significant decrease in renal superoxide dismutase with paracetamol group. Furthermore, Proximal (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules showed marked degeneration, dense nuclear staining, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and partial loss of the brush borders. Most tubules were dilated, irregular and were filled with hyaline casts. PCT and DCT showed less PAS reaction and more COX-2 and caspase expression if compared with the control and the GSE groups. Concomitant administration of grape seeds extract with paracetamol revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. Proximal and distal convoluted tubules showed less PAS reaction and more COX2 and caspase expression if compared with the control and the GSE. Concomitant administration of GSE with paracetamol revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. Grape seeds extract provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in paracetamol induced renal cortical toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in oxidative damage and apoptosis (Tab. 1, Fig. 7, Ref. 55).

  3. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

    2013-12-15

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-29

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  5. The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors.

  6. In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D

    2008-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 h at 37 degrees C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy.

  7. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-12-01

    To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  8. Effects of grape pomace in growing lamb diets compared with vitamin E and grape seed extract on meat shelf life.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rivas, C; Vieira, C; Rubio, B; Martínez, B; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; Manso, T

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dietary treatment (CTRL, control; VIT-E, 500 mg kg(-1) vitamin E; GSE, 50 mg grape seed extract kg(-1); GP-5, 5% dried red grape pomace kg(-1)) on shelf life of lamb meat was studied. After slaughter (27 kg LBW), m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sliced, packaged under modified atmosphere (80:20%/O2:CO2) and stored in retail conditions for 14 days. At each sampling day (0, 4, 7, 11, 14), microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were analysed. Meat from VIT-E presented lower microbial counts than CTRL, GSE and GP-5, without differences between polyphenol treatments (GSE and GP-5) and CTRL. Vitamin E reduced meat discoloration and lipid oxidation (TBARS values) from day 7 with respect to the other treatments. Although not significant, an improvement in TBARS values of about 20% was observed for GSE and GP-5, compared with CTRL, from day 7 of storage. VIT-E dietary treatment was more effective in preventing sensory spoilage than the other treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  10. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  11. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alterations to metabolically active bacteria in the mucosa of the small intestine predict anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities of grape seed extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Laura E; Witrick, Katherine A; Klotz, Courtney; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Fundaro, Gabrielle; McMillan, Ryan P; Hulver, Matthew W; Ponder, Monica A; Neilson, Andrew P

    2017-10-18

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that grapes and grape-derived products may reduce the risk for chronic disease. Grape seed extract specifically has been gaining interest due to its reported ability to prevent weight gain, moderate hyperglycemia, and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of two doses of grape seed extract (10 and 100 mg kg -1 body wt per d in mice) on markers of metabolic syndrome in the context of a moderately high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the lower dose of grape seed extract was more effective at inhibiting fat gain and improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Neither the high fat diet nor grape seed extract altered skeletal muscle substrate metabolism. Most interestingly, when examining the profile of metabolically active microbiota in the mucosa of the small intestine, cecum, and colonic tissue, grape seed extract seemed to have the most dramatic effect on small intestinal tissue, where the population of Firmicutes was lower compared to control groups. This effect was not observed in the cecal or colonic tissues, suggesting that the main alterations to gut microbiota due to flavan-3-ol supplementation occur in the small intestine, which has not been reported previously. These findings suggest that grape seed extract can prevent early changes in glucose tolerance and alter small intestinal gut microbiota, prior to the onset of skeletal muscle metabolic derangements, when grape seed extract is consumed at a low dose in the context of a moderately high fat diet.

  13. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    PubMed

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P < 0.01). Present investigations indicated that oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol constituents of grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. Aim To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Materials and methods Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Results Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Conclusion Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. How to cite this article Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185. PMID:27843246

  15. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Swadas, Milan; Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185.

  16. Recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds: effect of extraction time and solid-liquid ratio.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid-liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29 h) and the solid-liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 gdw mL(-1)), were investigated (where dw = dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high levels of both total polyphenols (73.66 mg(Gallic Acid Equivalent) gdw(-1)) and flavonoids (30.90 mg(Catechin Equivalent) gdw(-1)), being the optimum extraction time 19 h approximately. The main phenolic compounds analysed with high performance liquid chromatography were catechin and quercetin with a maximum extraction yield obtained at 29 h (362.23 and 339.35 mg/100 gdw, respectively). Concentration of the polyphenols and their antiradical powers are demonstrated to have a significant linear correlation.

  17. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape seed and skin extract prevents high-fat diet-induced brain lipotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury.

  20. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  1. Effect of grape seed extract against biodegradation of composite resin-dentin shear bond strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).

  2. Influence of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-12-01

    Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats.

  3. Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

  4. Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts from grape seed and cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pinent, Montserrat; Castell-Auví, Anna; Genovese, Maria Inés; Serrano, Joan; Casanova, Angela; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna

    2016-01-15

    The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco-2 and the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. We show that GSPE prevents tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg kg(-1) body weight cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE kg(-1) body weight reduced ROS in fasted animals and also decreased ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short-term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin-rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms from those of GSPE. Natural proanthocyanidin-rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the GI tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone-secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  6. Grape seed procyanidin extract modulates proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Arola, Lluís; Pinent, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) modulates glucose homeostasis and insulinemia in several animal models. Under pathological conditions, insulin levels are dependent on pancreatic beta-cell functionality, as well as on the beta-cell mass expansion or apoptosis in the pancreas. In this study, we analysed the effects of GSPE on modulating apoptosis and proliferation in beta-cells. We tested the effects of GSPE in the INS-1E pancreatic beta-cell line, either under basal or altered conditions with high glucose, insulin or palmitate levels. GSPE enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of high glucose and showed clear antiproliferative effects under high glucose, insulin and palmitate conditions. These antiproliferative effects are likely due to high molecular weight compounds contained in the extract. GSPE also modulated pro- and anti-apoptotic markers in the pancreas of rats fed a cafeteria diet, with the effect depending on the dose of GSPE and duration of treatment. Thus, GSPE is able to modulate apoptosis and proliferation of beta-cells under altered, but not basal, conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-08-01

    Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  9. Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed extracts of cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2017-07-01

    Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Efficacy of grape seed and skin extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols.

  11. Grape seed extract enhances neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dong-Woo; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-05-01

    The effects of grape seed extract (GSE), a major source of phenolic compounds, were examined on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (12 month-old) mice using Ki67, doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry and 5'-bromo-2-deoxyguanosine (BrdU)/calbindin D-28k (CB) double immunofluorescence study, respectively. GSE (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days, and the animals were treated with 50 mg/kg BrdU intraperitoneally on the day of first GSE treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, Ki67 and DCX immunoreactivity was detected in the subgranular zone of the DG (SZDG). GSE treatment dose-dependently increased the number of Ki67 and DCX immunoreactive cells, particularly the number of DCX immunoreactive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. GSE also dose-dependently increased DCX protein levels. In addition, GSE treatment increased significantly the number of BrdU/CB double labeled granule cells. These results suggest that GSE significantly increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells in the DG, and the consumption of GSE enhances the plasticity of hippocampus in middle-aged mice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Oral administration of grape seed polyphenol extract restores memory deficits in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zheng, Yake; Wu, Tianwen; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated. Here, CCH-related memory impairment was modeled in rats using permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. A Morris water maze task was used to evaluate memory, the levels of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine were used to evaluate cholinergic function, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonic dialdehyde, and catalase. We found that oral administration of GSPE for 1 month can rescue memory deficits. We also found that GSPE restores cholinergic neuronal function and represses oxidative damage in the hippocampus of CCH rats. We propose that GSPE protects memory in CCH rats by reducing ischemia-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. These findings provide a novel application of GSPE in CCH-related memory impairments.

  13. The role of grape seed extract in the remineralization of demineralized dentine: micromorphological and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng-fang; Fang, Ming; Liu, Rui-rui; Dou, Qi; Chai, Zhi-guo; Xiao, Yu-hong; Chen, Ji-hua

    2013-12-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is known to have a positive effect on the demineralization and/or remineralization of artificial root caries lesions. The present study aimed to investigate whether biomodification of caries-like acid-etched demineralized dentine, using proanthocyanidins-rich GSE, would promote its remineralization potential. Dentine specimens were acid-etched for 30s, then biomodified using proanthocyanidin-based preconditioners (at different concentrations and pH values) for 2min, followed by a 15-day artificial remineralization regimen. They were subsequently subjected to microhardness measurements, micromorphological evaluation and X-ray diffraction analyses. Stability of the preconditioners was also analyzed, spectrophotometrically. A concentration-dependent increase was observed in the microhardness of the specimens that were biomodified using GSE preconditioners, without pH adjustment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed greater mineral deposition on their surfaces, which was further identified mainly as hydroxylapatite. The absorbances of preconditioner dilutions at pH 7.4 and pH 10.0 decreased at the two typical polyphenol bands. Transient GSE biomodification promoted remineralization on the surface of demineralized dentine, and this process was influenced by the concentration and pH value of the preconditioner. GSE preconditioner at a concentration of 15%, without pH adjustment, presented with the best results, and this may be attributed to its high polyphenolic content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract alleviates ouabain-induced vascular remodeling through regulation of endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangju; Qiu, Jie; Zhao, Shaohua; You, Beian; Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xiaopei; Wang, Qian; Gao, Haiqing

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-β1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.

  15. Proanthocyanidin-Rich Grape Seed Extract Modulates Intestinal Microbiota in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangwen; Asou, Yoshinori; Ishiyama, Kirika; Okawa, Atsushi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2018-04-01

    Grape-seed extract (GSE) is rich in proanthocyanidins (polymers of flavan-3-ols). GSE is well known to have various beneficial effects to health. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary GSE on the intestinal microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) mice as a model of menopause. Phylum-level analyses using 16S rRNA-targeted group-specific polymerase-chain reaction primers in fecal samples collected 8 weeks postoperatively from OVX mice revealed that the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations became imbalanced as compared with that in sham-operated control mice. That is, the ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes populations in the OVX group were increased significantly. When OVX animals were given dietary GSE, the imbalanced proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations was normalized to that seen in control mice. In addition, the body weight of OVX animals measured at 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly higher than that in sham-operated control animals. Dietary GSE also prevented OVX animals from increasing body weight. Thus, we postulated that GSE can improve imbalanced populations of intestinal microbiota, leading to prevention of obesity under conditions of not only menopause but morbidity. The GSE has a great potential to be a functional food to improve dysbiosis in post-menopausal women. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  17. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  18. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on aortic pulse wave velocity in streptozocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-li; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Cheng, Mei; Xu, Ling; Li, Xian-hua; Ma, Ya-bing

    2009-06-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) have been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about therapeutic agents against diabetic macrovascular complications. We used streptozocin to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg of body weight) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Aortic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were determined in anesthetized rats. Serum glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined. An electronic microscope was used to observe the changes in aortic ultrastructure. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) protein expression in aortic tissue. GSPEs significantly decreased aortic PWV, blood pressure, and aortic medial thickness (P<0.05), and inhibited the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. GSPEs significantly reduced the AGEs (P<0.05) and the expression of RAGE in aortas of diabetic rats. GSPEs play an important role against diabetic macrovascular complications. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of diabetic macrovascular complications.

  19. Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Lee, Kit Yee; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) possess a broad spectrum of antioxidative properties that protects various cells from free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, the genoprotective effect of GSE on human lymphocytic DNA was studied using standard and lysed cell comet assays. Lymphocytes from 5 healthy subjects were pretreated with GSE in different concentrations. The standard and lysed cell comet assays were performed on treated, untreated, challenged, and unchallenged cells in parallel. Cells were then subjected to an oxidant challenge induced with 5-min exposures to hydrogen peroxide. In the standard comet assay, GSE significantly diminished hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the lysed cell assay, however, the antioxidant effect was diminished at a higher GSE concentration. Data indicate that the cell membrane might play a role in limiting cellular access to antioxidants, which directly affects the genoprotective or potential pro-oxidant effect of antioxidants on human DNA. Using both standard and lysed cell comet assays in parallel could be a useful way to elucidate the mechanism of protection or damage by antioxidants.

  20. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao; Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya; AlMaadeed, Mariam A; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4μgml(-1) & 5μgml(-1) of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    PubMed

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  3. Grape seed extract reduces oxidative stress and fibrosis in experimental biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dulundu, Ender; Ozel, Yahya; Topaloglu, Umit; Toklu, Hale; Ercan, Feriha; Gedik, Nursal; Sener, Goksel

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against oxidative liver injury and fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups; control (C), GSE-treated, bile duct ligated (BDL), and BDL and GSE-treated (BDL + GSE) groups. GSE was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg a day orally for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver function and tissue damage, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) were assayed in plasma samples. Liver tissues were taken for determination of the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and plasma TNF-alpha were elevated in the BDL group as compared to the control group and were significantly decreased with GSE treatment. Plasma AOC and hepatic GSH level, depressed by BDL, was elevated back to the control level in the GSE-treated BDL group. Increases in tissue MDA level, MPO activity and collagen content due to BDL were also attenuated by GSE treatment. Furthermore, luminol and lucigenin CL values in the BDL group increased dramatically compared to the control and were reduced by GSE treatment. These results suggest that GSE protects the liver from oxidative damage following bile duct ligation in rats. This effect possibly involves the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation; thus, restoration of oxidant and antioxidant status in the tissue.

  4. The effect of grape seed extract on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2013-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. To determine the clinical effect of GSE on CYP2D6, the pharmacokinetic interaction between GSE and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy adult volunteers was examined. In this open label, randomized, cross-over study, 30 subjects were assigned to cohort A or B. Both cohorts ingested 30 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide on day 1 and day 10. Cohort A received 100 mg GSE capsules three times daily on days 8, 9 and 10, while cohort B started with GSE on day -1 until day 1. After urine collection (0-8 h) on day 1 and day 10, the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio was determined. Among 28 evaluable subjects, an increase of the urinary metabolic ratio was observed in 16 subjects (57 %). The mean metabolic ratio (± standard deviation) before and after GSE supplementation was 0.41 (± 0.56) and 0.48 (± 0.59), respectively. This result was neither statistically (P = 0.342) nor clinically [geometric mean ratio 1.10, 90 % CI (0.93-1.30)] significant. Further, the majority (73 %) of the included subjects did not experience any adverse events after intake of dextromethorphan or GSE. Supplementation of GSE did not significantly affect the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio in healthy volunteers. The results of this clinical study indicate that GSE appears to be safe to combine with drugs extensively metabolized by CYP2D6, such as dextromethorphan and tamoxifen.

  5. Mechanical properties, water sorption characteristics, and compound release of grape seed extract-incorporated resins

    PubMed Central

    EPASINGHE, Don Jeevanie; YIU, Cynthia Kar Yung; BURROW, Michael Francis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study evaluated the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) incorporation on the mechanical properties, water sorption, solubility, and GSE release from the experimental adhesive resins. Material and Methods An experimental comonomer mixture, consisting of 40% Bis-GMA, 30% Bis MP, 28% HEMA, 0.26% camphorquinone and 1% EDMAB, was used to prepare four GSE-incorporated adhesive resins at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 wt%. The neat resin without GSE was used as the control. Six resin beams (25 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm) per group were prepared for flexural strength and modulus of elasticity evaluations using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Five disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) per group were used for microhardness measurements using a Leitz micro-hardness tester with Leica Qgo software. Five disks (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) per group were prepared and stored in deionized water for 28 days. Water sorption, solubility, and GSE release in deionized water were calculated for each GSE-incorporated adhesive at the end of 28th day. Data was evaluated using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons. Results Flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and microhardness of GSE-incorporated adhesive decreased significantly with incorporation of 1.5% of GSE (p<0.05). Addition of GSE had no effect on the water sorption of the adhesive resins (p=0.33). The solubility of the resin also increased significantly with incorporation of 1.5% of GSE (p<0.05). Quantities of GSE release increased with increased concentration of GSE in the adhesive resin. Conclusion Up to 1% of GSE can be incorporated into a dental adhesive resin without interfering with the mechanical properties or solubility of the resins. PMID:28877280

  6. Efficacy of grape seed extract gel in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rayyan, Mohammad; Terkawi, Tammam; Abdo, Hajer; Abdel Azim, Dalia; Khalaf, Aseel; AlKhouli, Zenab; Meziad, Maha; Alshamma'a, Marwa; Abu Naim, Horiyah

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of applying grape seed extract (GSE) gel in periodontal pockets for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Eighty-six sites with pocket depth (PD) >4 mm were selected from five systemically-healthy patients in whom scaling, and root planing were performed, and oral instructions were given, a week earlier. PD, gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured, and sites were then divided into the control group (N = 38) and GSE group (N = 48). Four doses of formulated 2% mucoadhesive GSE gel were applied to GSE group sites at baseline visit (T0), and 3, 6, and 9 days after T0. Similarly, a control gel was applied to the control sites. PD, PI, GI and BOP were re-evaluated after 4 weeks and 6 months of first gel application. Paired t test for both the control and GSE groups showed a significant reduction for all variables after 6 months of gel application (P < .05). The independent t test showed a significant difference (P < .05) only in the reduction of gingival index (mean: 0.85 ± 0.77 for control and 1.3 ± 0.8 for GSE) and plaque index (mean: 0.75 ± 0.71 for control and 1.12 ± 0.7 for GSE). The subgingival application of the formulated 2% mucoadhesive GSE gel showed significant improvement in the PI and GI only. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Thomas H J; Girard, Benoit; Kopp, Thomas; Drover, John C G

    2005-03-09

    Grape seed has a well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is currently produced as a specialty oil byproduct of wine manufacture. Seed oils from eight varieties of grapes crushed for wine production in British Columbia were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCE) and petroleum ether (PE). Oil yields by SCE ranged from 5.85 +/- 0.33 to 13.6 +/- 0.46% (w/w), whereas PE yields ranged from 6.64 +/- 0.16 to 11.17 +/- 0.05% (+/- is standard deviation). The oils contained alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol being most important quantitatively. In both SCE- and PE-extracted oils, phytosterols were a prominent feature of the unsaponifiable fraction, with beta-sitosterol quantitatively most important with both extractants. Total phytosterol extraction was higher with SCE than with PE in seven of eight variety extractions. Fatty acid composition of oils from all varieties tested, and from both extraction methods, indicated linoleic acid as the major component ranging from 67.56 to 73.23% of the fatty acids present, in agreement with literature reports.

  8. Investigation of antioxidant ability of grape seeds extract to prevent oxidatively induced DNA damage by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aybastıer, Önder; Dawbaa, Sam; Demir, Cevdet

    2018-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have been studied elaborately for their efficacy to improve health and to protect against a wide variety of diseases. Herein this study, different analysis methods were implemented to evaluate the antioxidant properties of catechin and cyanidin using their standard substances and as they found in the grape seeds extracts. Total phenol contents were 107.39±8.94mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for grape seed extract (GSE) and 218.32±10.66mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for acid-hydrolyzed grape seed extract (AcGSE). The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD system and the results showed the presence of catechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid in the processed methanolic extract and cyanidin, gallic acid and ellagic acid in the processed acidified methanolic extract. The protective abilities of catechin and cyanidin were tested against the oxidation of DNA. The results showed that cyanidin has better protection of DNA against oxidation than catechin. GSE and AcGSE were revealed to inhibit the oxidatively induced DNA damage. GSE decreased about 57% of damage caused by the Fenton control sample. This study could show new aspects of the antioxidant profiles of cyanidin and catechin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of grape seed extract treatment on blood pressure changes: A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haili; Liu, Shuang; Li, Lan; Liu, Shisong; Liu, Shuqi; Mi, Jia; Tian, Geng

    2016-08-01

    Several clinical trials have shown that grape seed extract can reduce blood pressure, but the results are often irreproducible. We therefore sought to systematically evaluate the impact of grape seed extract treatment on the changes of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) by meta-analyzing available randomized controlled trials. Trial selection and data extraction were completed independently by 2 investigators. Effect-size estimates were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Twelve articles involving 16 clinical trials and 810 study subjects were analyzed. Overall analyses found significant reductions for SBP (WMD = -6.077; 95% CI: -10.736 to -1.419; P = 0.011) and DBP (WMD = -2.803; 95% CI: -4.417 to -1.189; P = 0.001) after grape seed extract treatment. In subgroup analyses, there were significant reductions in younger subjects (mean age < 50 years) for SBP (WMD = -6.049; 95% CI: -10.223 to -1.875; P = 0.005) and DBP (WMD = -3.116; 95% CI: -4.773 to -1.459; P < 0.001), in obese subjects (mean body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m) for SBP (WMD = -4.469; 95% CI: -6.628 to -2.310; P < 0.001), and in patients with metabolic syndrome for SBP (WMD = -8.487; 95% CI: -11.869 to -5.106; P < 0.001). Further meta-regression analyses showed that age, body mass index, and baseline blood pressure were negatively associated with the significant reductions of SBP and DBP after treatment. There was no indication of publication bias. Our findings demonstrate that grape seed extract exerted a beneficial impact on blood pressure, and this impact was more obvious in younger or obese subjects, as well as in patients with metabolic disorders. In view of the small sample size involved, we agree that confirmation of our findings in a large-scale, long-term, multiple-dose randomized controlled trial, especially among hypertensive patients is warranted.

  10. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  11. Adverse Effects of Grape Seed Extract Supplement: A Clinical Case and Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Abidali, Hussein; Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Dholaria, Kevin; Johnson, Cassandra; Kishore, Varsha A; Baltz, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) supplement use is becoming more popular today for its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic role. We report a 49-year-old male who presented with recurrent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute weakness following GSE use. A thorough medical workup ensued and no causes were identified clinically, procedurally, or with imaging. Symptoms resolved after GSE discontinuation and the patient remained symptom-free 5 years later. This case illustrates the paucity of documented detailed clinical cases and lack of controlled trials detailing a thorough and reproducible adverse effect profile of GSE supplement.

  12. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    PubMed

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p < 0.05) in seed tannin extracts, whereas in skin tannin extracts, significant differences were observed for %G and %P (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that grape variety influenced neither astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  13. Encapsulation of grape seed extract in polylactide microcapsules for sustained bioactivity and time-dependent release in dental material applications.

    PubMed

    Yourdkhani, Mostafa; Leme-Kraus, Ariene Arcas; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; White, Scott R

    2017-06-01

    To sustain the bioactivity of proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts via encapsulation within biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Polylactide microcapsules containing grape seed extract (GSE) were manufactured using a combination of double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. Microcapsule morphology, size distribution, and cross-section were examined via scanning electron microscopy. UV-vis measurements were carried out to evaluate the core loading and encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules. The bioactivity of extracts was evaluated after extraction from capsules via solvent partitioning one week or one year post-encapsulation process. Fifteen human molars were cut into 7mm×1.7mm×0.5mm thick mid-coronal dentin beams, demineralized, and treated with either encapsulated GSE, pristine GSE, or left untreated. The elastic modulus of dentin specimens was measured based on three-point bending experiments as an indirect assessment of the bioactivity of grape seed extracts. The effects of the encapsulation process and storage time on the bioactivity of extracts were analyzed. Polynuclear microcapsules with average diameter of 1.38μm and core loading of up to 38wt% were successfully manufactured. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean fold increase of elastic modulus values among the samples treated with encapsulated or pristine GSE (p=0.333), or the storage time (one week versus one year storage at room temperature, p=0.967). Polynuclear microcapsules containing proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts were prepared. The bioactivity of extracts was preserved after microencapsulation. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Grape seed extract and Zinc containing nutritional food supplement delays onset and progression of Streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminaryana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai; Vaishnav, Rajdip Lalit

    2015-05-01

    Prevention of hyperglycemia and enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanisms remain major goals in the treatment of diabetic cataract. Earlier, we reported strong anti-hyperglycemic and in vitro antioxidant potential of the combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate effects of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets against streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were selected and diabetes was induced by streptozocin (35 mg/kg, i.p) and divided into four groups (group II-V). The normal control (group I) and streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract control rats received only vehicle. Groups III, IV and V animals received orally 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg of combined formulation of Zincovit tablets with grape seed extract respectively for a period of 150 days. The biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress, polyol pathway and alterations in adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and blood glucose were investigated, to understand the possible mechanism of action of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Rats treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets delayed the progression of diabetic cataract as well as it showed significant alterations in oxidative stress markers along with blood glucose, aldose reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphate level in lens. Over all, the results suggest that single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets may be of great value in delaying diabetic cataract of human subjects as nutritional food supplement.

  15. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny

    2004-08-11

    The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.

  16. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this

  17. Formulation and evaluation on human skin of a water-in-oil emulsion containing Muscat hamburg black grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Sharif, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, M S; Menaa, A; Menaa, B; Khan, B A; Menaa, F

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera 'muscat hamburg' (Vitaceae) is a blue-black grape variety commonly found in Pakistan. It has been consumed and used in traditional medicine for centuries. Compared to other grapes, M. hamburg records one of the greatest amount of polyphenols and displays potent antioxidant activities, which make it a great candidate for its exploitation in the development of stable cream emulsions destined to improve the skin appearance. Evaluate the effects of stable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion containing 2% M. hamburg grape seed extract ('formulation') on human cheek skin in comparison with the placebo ('base'). An occlusive patch test, containing either the formulation or the base, was topically tested for 8 weeks during a winter period in young adult and healthy Pakistani male volunteers. The subjects were instructed to use twice a day the base and the formulation on their right and left cheek skin, respectively. Non-invasive measurements on these skin areas were carried out every week to assess any effects produced on melanin, elasticity and sebum. Skin compatibility assay (Burchard test) was used to report any potential skin reactivity. ANOVA, paired sample t-test and LSD test were applied to determine the statistical data significance. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found between the placebo and the formulation in terms of their respective skin effects elicited on melanin, elasticity and sebum content. Nevertheless, placebo and formulation exerted similar effects on skin erythema and moisture contents. Importantly, no skin hypersensitivity cases were reported during the whole course of the study. The developed grape-based cream could be efficiently and safely applied to improve a number of skin conditions (e.g. hyper-pigmentation, premature ageing, acne). © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. The protective effect of grape seed procyanidin extract against cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Rong; Li, Wei-min; Niu, Yu-jie; Guo, Hui-cai; Liu, Xue-hui; Hou, Yu-chun; Zhao, Li-juan

    2013-11-01

    As an important environmental pollutant, cadmium (Cd) can lead to serious renal damage. Grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE), a biological active component of grape seed, has been shown to possess antioxidative effects. Here, we assessed the protective effect of GSPE on Cd-induced renal damage using animal experiment. After 30 days, the oxidative damage of kidney was evaluated through measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidation (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Since, oxidative stress could lead to apoptosis, the renal apoptosis was measured using flow cytometer. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax and Bcl-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that Cd led to the decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and the increase of MDA level, induced renal apoptosis. However, the coadministration of GSPE attenuated Cd-induced lipid peroxidation, and antagonized renal apoptosis, probably associated with the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. These data suggested that GSPE has protective effect against renal oxidative damage induced by Cd, which provide a potential natural chemopreventive agent against Cd-poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  20. Water-dispersible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solution containing grape seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruchao; Si, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Qiyi

    2012-02-01

    A novel and effective method for the preparation of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles was reported. nHAp was prepared in the presence of grape seed polyphenol (GSP) solution with different concentrations. Chemical precipitation method was adopted to produce pure nHAp and modified nHAp (nHAp-GSP) at 60 °C for 2 h. The chemical nature of the products was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the crystal structure and morphology of particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the spherical nHAp particles with a diameter of 20-50 nm could be synthesized at 60 °C. The zeta potential values of pure nHAp and nHAp-GSP are -0.36 mV and -26.1 mV respectively. According to the sedimentary time, the colloidal stability of nHAp-GSP in water could be improved dramatically with the increase of GSP content and the particles tended to exist as dispersive nanoparticles without aggregation. All the results indicated that GSP exhibited strong binding to nHAp and enhanced the colloidal stability of nHAp particles.

  1. Grape seed polyphenolic extract specifically decreases aβ*56 in the brains of Tg2576 mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Kemper, Lisa J; Wang, Jun; Zahs, Kathleen R; Ashe, Karen H; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and transgenic mouse models of AD, cause synaptotoxicity and memory impairment. Grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) inhibits Aβ oligomerization in vitro and attenuates cognitive impairment and AD-related neuropathology in the brains of transgenic mice. In the current study, GSPE was administered to Tg2576 mice for a period of five months. Treatment significantly decreased brain levels of Aβ*56, a 56-kDa Aβ oligomer previously shown to induce memory dysfunction in rodents, without changing the levels of transgenic amyloid-β protein precursor, monomeric Aβ, or other Aβ oligomers. These results thus provide the first demonstration that a safe and affordable intervention can lower the levels of a memory-impairing Aβ oligomer in vivo and strongly suggest that GSPE should be further tested as a potential prevention and/or therapy for AD.

  2. Effect of Grape Seed Extract and Quercetin on Cardiovascular and Endothelial Parameters in High-Risk Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has in vitro antioxidant activity but whether or not it works in vivo is not clear. In a fully randomised, crossover trial with 4-week treatment periods on 36 men and women with above-average vascular risk, we aimed to demonstrate that 2 g/day of GSE (1 g of polyphenols) alone, or with 1 g/day of added quercetin in yoghurt, favourably alters vascular function, endothelial function, and degree of oxidative damage in comparison to a control yoghurt. GSE alone improved flow-mediated dilatation determined ultrasonically by an absolute 1.1% compared with control. There was no effect of the combination of GSE with quercetin. No other blood or urine measure was altered. Thus sufficient polyphenols from GSE appear to be absorbed to influence endothelial nitric oxide production, and GSE has the potential to favourably influence vascular function. PMID:15577189

  3. Folic Acid and Grape Seed Extract Prevent Azathioprine-induced Fetal Malformations and Renal Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Bayad, Aida E

    2016-12-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is an important drug commonly used in the therapy of the autoimmune system disorders. It induces many hazard effects that restrict its use. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of AZA on the fetal development and renal function and its co-administration with either folic acid (FA) or grape seed extract (GSE). The effects of administration of GSE or FA on AZA toxicity by gavage simultaneously for 4 weeks were studied by determining the changes in kidney histology, the glutathione level (GSH), and lipid per oxidation content as malondialdehyde in the kidney tissue. Additionally, their effects on the fetal development were investigated. Azathioprine induced a renal damage as indicated from the pronounced changes in histological structure, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine, and malondialdehyde content in the kidney tissue. Meanwhile, the GSH activity was significantly decreased. Co-treatment with GSE significantly minimized the previously mentioned hazard effects of AZA by ameliorating the antioxidant activity. At this point, FA induced a nonsignificant protective activity. The results also revealed that administration of FA or GSE at 6th to 15th day of gestation did not altered fetal development. While, AZA administration clearly disturbed fetal development as indicated from a significant decrease in fetal weights. Furthermore, co-administration of both drugs significantly minimized similarly the hazards of AZA on the fetal development. It may be concluded that GSE and FA are a useful remedies. Maternal administrations of either both are protective agents against AZA-induced fetal malformations. Grape seed extract was more active than FA in potentiating the antioxidative defenses for controlling AZA-induced oxidative renal damages. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100 µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol.

  5. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, J; Kataoka, S; Koga, T; Ariga, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from grape seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1% and 1% in diets [w/w]) did not appreciably affect the changes in serum lipid profile of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract plus cholesterol than in the plasma of rabbits fed cholesterol alone, but not in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased in rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract. Feeding proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1 and 1% in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a decrease in the number of oxidized LDL-positive macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract. When proanthocyanidin-rich extract was administered orally to rats, proanthocyanidin was detected in the plasma by Porters method but not in the lipoproteins (LDL plus VLDL). In an in vitro experiment using human plasma, proanthocyanidin-rich extract added to the plasma inhibited the oxidation of cholesteryl linoleate in LDL, but not in the LDL isolated after the plasma and the extract were incubated in advance. These results suggested that proanthocyanidins, the major polyphenols in red wine, might trap reactive oxygen species in aqueous series such as plasma and interstitial fluid of the arterial wall, thereby inhibiting oxidation of LDL and showing an antiatherosclerotic activity.

  6. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress by a grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extract in normal and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Postescu, Ion Dan; Chereches, Gabriela; Tatomir, Corina; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2012-07-01

    The major limitation of Doxorubicin (Dox) clinical use is the development of chronic and acute toxic side effects induced through the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present work was designated to investigate in vitro effects of a red grape-seed hydroethanolic extract Burgund Mare (BM), in associated administration with Dox (30 min before drug administration) in normal (Hfl-1) and tumor cell lines (HepG2 and Mls). The BM concentrations administered were below the level of the extract cytotoxiciy threshold (40 μg gallic acid [GA] Eq/mL; 37.5, 25.0, and 12.5 μg GA Eq/mL). The antioxidant capacity of the BM extract was assessed by measuring the acute toxicity at 24 h, lipid peroxides (LP), and protein oxidation. In normal cells, the product statistically decreased cytotoxicity and markedly inhibited LP and protein carbonyl (PC) formation, in a dose-dependent relationship. On contrary, in tumor cells, such treatment resulted in a reversed effect, cell death, malondialdehyde, and PC contents increasing with BM dose enhancement. BM extract treatment prior to subsequent administration of Dox afforded a differential protection against Dox-negative toxic side effects in normal cells without weakening (even enhancing) Dox's antitumor activity.

  7. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity.

  8. Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2017-01-19

    Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years. Analysis of the extract's flavanol composition emerged from unspecific colorimetric assays to precise high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting techniques. The early recognition of the preparation's auspicious effects on the permeability of vascular capillaries directed research to unravel the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Recent clinical data revealed a multitude of favorable alterations in the vasculature upon an 8 weeks supplementation which summed up in a health benefit of the extract in healthy humans. Changes in gene expression of inflammatory pathways in the volunteers' leukocytes were suggested to be involved in this benefit. The historically grown scientific evidence for the preparation's health effects paves the way to further elucidate its metabolic fate and molecular action in humans.

  9. Effect of polyphenol-rich grape seed extract on ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ras, Rouyanne T; Zock, Peter L; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Johnston, Neil R; Webb, David J; Draijer, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols, such as those from grape products, may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including anti-hypertensive effects. We investigated the effect of a specific grape seed extract (GSE) rich in low-molecular-weight polyphenolic compounds on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in untreated subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension. In addition, potential mechanisms that could underlie the hypothesised effect of GSE on blood pressure (BP), and platelet aggregation, were explored. The study was designed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group intervention study including seventy healthy subjects with systolic BP between 120 and 159 mmHg. A 1-week run-in period was followed by an 8-week intervention period, during which subjects consumed capsules containing either 300 mg/d of GSE or a placebo (microcrystalline cellulose). Before and after the intervention, daytime ABP readings, 24 h urine samples and fasting and non-fasting blood samples were taken. The mean baseline systolic BP was 135.8 (SE 1.3) mmHg and diastolic BP was 81.5 (SE 0.9) mmHg. BP values were modestly, but not significantly, affected by the polyphenol-rich GSE treatment v. placebo with an effect of - 3.0 mmHg for systolic BP (95% CI - 6.5, 0.5) and - 1.4 mmHg for diastolic BP (95% CI - 3.5, 0.6). Vasoactive markers including endothelin-1, NO metabolites and asymmetric dimethylarginine, plasma renin activity and platelet aggregation were not affected by the GSE intervention. Our findings show that consumption of polyphenol-rich GSE does not significantly lower ABP in untreated subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension.

  10. Different concentrations of grape seed extract affect in vitro starch fermentation by porcine small and large intestinal inocula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongjie; Williams, Barbara A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; D'Arcy, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) phenolics have potential health-promoting properties, either from compounds present within the extract, or metabolites resulting from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) fermentation of these compounds. This study describes how GSE affected the kinetics and end-products of starch fermentation in vitro using pig intestinal and fecal inocula. Six GSE concentrations (0, 60, 125, 250, 500, and 750 µg ml⁻¹ were fermented in vitro by porcine ileal and fecal microbiota using starch as the energy source. Cumulative gas production, and end-point short chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. GSE phenolics altered the pattern (gas kinetics, and end-products such as SCFA and NH₄⁺) of starch fermentation by both inocula, at concentrations above 250 µg ml⁻¹ . Below this level, neither inoculum showed any significant (P > 0.05) effect of the GSE. The results show that GSE phenolics at a concentration over 250 µg ml⁻¹ can have measurable effects on microbial activity in an in vitro fermentation system, as evidenced by the changes in kinetics and end-products from starch fermentation. This suggests that fermentation patterns could be conceivably shifted in the actual GIT, though further evidence will be required from in vivo studies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Mechanistic insight into nuclear receptor-mediated regulation of bile acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis by grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE).

    PubMed

    Downing, Laura E; Edgar, Daniel; Ellison, Patricia A; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Dietary procyanidins have emerged as important bioactive components that regulate various metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE), in particular, has demonstrated regulatory effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism in vivo. While numerous studies in rodent models have shown the potent hypolipidemic action of grape seed extracts, human studies have shown inconsistent results. This review will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic actions of GSPE identified to date, specifically highlighting the effects exerted via nuclear receptors. Such evidence may provide avenues for future research in human subjects with GSPE as a therapeutic treatment for the prevention and amelioration of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Inhibition of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway by a grape seed and grape marc meal extract in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Ringseis, R; Siebers, M; Keller, J; Kloster, J; Wen, G; Eder, K

    2012-12-01

    In pigs and other monogastric animal, the weaning phase is commonly accompanied by an increased susceptibility to gut disorders such as diarrhoea owing to the induction of an inflammatory process in the intestine during weaning. Given the unfavourable effects of intestinal inflammation on feed consumption, digestive capacity of the intestine and growth of animals, controlling intestinal inflammation is a reasonable approach for the maintenance of performance characteristics of livestock animals. Therefore, this study aimed to study the anti-inflammatory potential of a commercial polyphenol-rich grape seed (GS) and grape marc (GM) meal-based feed additive in a well-established in vitro intestinal epithelium model (polarized Caco-2 cells). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by studying the effect of an ethanolic extract obtained from the GS and GM meal-based feed additive (GSGME) on the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, which is considered to play a key role in the induction of weaning-associated intestinal inflammation. The highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of the ethanolic GSGME dose dependently reduced TNFα-induced NF-κB transactivation and decreased TNFα-induced mRNA levels of the NF-κB target genes IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1 and CXCL1 in Caco-2 intestinal cells (p < 0.05). No effect of the ethanolic GSGME was observed on the cytoprotective Nrf2 pathway in Caco-2 cells as evidenced by an unaltered Nrf2 transactivation and unchanged mRNA levels of Nrf2 target genes, such as GPX-2, NQO1, CYP1A1 and UGT1A1. In conclusion, this study shows that an ethanolic GSGME exerts anti-inflammatory effects in intestinal cells under in vitro conditions. Thus, polyphenol-rich GSGM meal-based feed additives may be useful for the inhibition or prevention of inflammatory processes in the intestine of livestock animals, in particular during states with inappropriate NF-κB activation in the intestinal tissue, such as the weaning phase. Future studies are

  13. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    It was recently reported that dairy cows fed a polyphenol-rich grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) during the transition period had an increased milk yield, but the underlying reasons remained unclear. As polyphenols exert a broad spectrum of metabolic effects, we hypothesized that feeding of GSGME influences metabolic pathways in the liver which could account for the positive effects of GSGME in dairy cows. In order to identify these pathways, we performed genome-wide transcript profiling in the liver and lipid profiling in plasma of dairy cows fed GSGME during the transition period at 1 week postpartum. Transcriptomic analysis of the liver revealed 207 differentially expressed transcripts, from which 156 were up- and 51 were down-regulated, between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Gene set enrichment analysis of the 155 up-regulated mRNAs showed that the most enriched gene ontology (GO) biological process terms were dealing with cell cycle regulation and the most enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were p53 signaling and cell cycle. Functional analysis of the 43 down-regulated mRNAs revealed that a great part of these genes are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammatory processes. Accordingly, protein folding, response to unfolded protein, unfolded protein binding, chemokine activity and heat shock protein binding were identified as one of the most enriched GO biological process and molecular function terms assigned to the down-regulated genes. In line with the transcriptomics data the plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin were reduced in cows fed GSGME compared to control cows. Lipidomic analysis of plasma revealed no differences in the concentrations of individual species of major and minor lipid classes between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile in cows fed GSGME during the

  14. Beneficial effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on arterial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats via protecting against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Gao, Haiqing; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Jun; Qiu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Arterial remodeling is a pathogenic occurrence during hypertension and, in turn, is closely associated with the development and complications of hypertension. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to exhibit a protective effect on cardiovascular disease, however its effect on arterial remodeling remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of GSPE on arterial remodeling were analyzed by treating spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with GSPE (250 mg/kg·day). Arterial remodeling was quantified through morphological methods; thoracic aortas were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or sirius red‑victoria blue. The arterial ultrastructure was imaged using transmission electron microscopy. The content of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin‑1 (ET‑1) were examined to determine endothelial function. Oxidative stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Administration of GSPE markedly alleviated hypertension‑induced arterial remodeling, which was not associated with blood pressure control. ET‑1 production was reduced, while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which exhibited improved endothelial function. In addition, treatment with GSPE significantly ameliorated oxidative stress by improving SOD and CAT activities and reducing MDA formation. In conclusion, GSPE may attenuate hypertension‑induced arterial remodeling by repressing oxidative stress and is recommended as a potential anti‑arterial remodeling agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.

  15. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury via ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoyu; Lu, Fuhua; Zheng, Yanqun; Zeng, Yuqun; Zou, Chuan; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on indoxyl sulfate-induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) injury in vitro and study its mechanism. HUVECs were incubated with indoxyl sulfate at concentrations in the range found in uremic patients. Then we determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate on endothelial phenotype, endothelial function, ROS (reactive oxygen species), cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. In addition, we detected whether GSPE can suppress the injury of HUVECs induced by indoxyl sulfate and probe the mechanism underlying the protective effects of GSPE by analyzing mitochondrial dysfunction. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated indoxyl sulfate-induced HVUECs injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GSPE-enhanced eNOS and VE-cadherin expression, inhibited intracellular ROS level and cell apoptosis, adjust mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level induced by indoxyl sulfate. These results suggest that GSPE prevents HUVECs from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and may be a promising agent for treating uremia toxin-induced injury.

  16. Grape seed procyanidin extract attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting oxidative stress and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Mingcheng; Zhang, Xin; Pan, Jinjin; Han, Jinzhen; Wang, Yudong; Lei, Haixin; Ding, Yanchun; Yuan, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play important roles in the pathological process of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) possesses antioxidant properties and has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of GSPE on HPH remains unclear. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent chronic hypoxia for 4 weeks to mimic a severe HPH condition. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that chronic hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) ratio and median width of pulmonary arteries. GSPE attenuated the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV+S, and reduced the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling. GSPE also increased the levels of SOD and reduced the levels of MDA in hypoxia-induced HPH model. In addition, GSPE suppressed Nox4 mRNA levels, ROS production and PASMCs proliferation. Meanwhile, increased expression of phospho-STAT3, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Ki67 in PASMCs caused by hypoxia was down-regulated by GSPE. These results suggested that GSPE might potentially prevent HPH via antioxidant and antiproliferative mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Concentration effects of grape seed extracts in anti-oral cancer cells involving differential apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yang, Zhi-Wen; Tang, Jen-Yang; Li, Kun-Tzu; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Fu, Tzu-Fun; Hsieh, Che-Yu; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-03-29

    Grape seeds extract (GSE) is a famous health food supplement for its antioxidant property. Different concentrations of GSE may have different impacts on cellular oxidative/reduction homeostasis. Antiproliferative effect of GSE has been reported in many cancers but rarely in oral cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the antioral cancer effects of different concentrations of GSE in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial function, and DNA damage. High concentrations (50-400 μg/ml) of GSE dose-responsively inhibited proliferation of oral cancer Ca9-22 cells but low concentrations (1-10 μg/ml) of GSE showed a mild effect in a MTS assay. For apoptosis analyses, subG1 population and annexin V intensity in high concentrations of GSE-treated Ca9-22 cells was increased but less so at low concentrations. ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization increased dose-responsively at high concentrations but showed minor changes at low concentrations of GSE in Ca9-22 cells. Additionally, high concentrations of GSE dose-responsively induced more γH2AX-based DNA damage than low concentrations. Differential concentrations of GSE may have a differentially antiproliferative function against oral cancer cells via differential apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  18. Microbial metabolites, but not other phenolics derived from grape seed phenolic extract, are transported through differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongjie; Williams, Barbara A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; D'Arcy, Bruce R

    2013-06-01

    Grape seed phenolic extract (GSE) is predicted to have health benefits, even though its bioavailability, including digestibility, permeability and ultimate metabolism, are still poorly understood. In vitro gastric and pancreatic digestion and in vitro ileal and faecal fermentation were combined with Caco-2 cell permeability studies for GSE samples. Qualitatively, there was no change in type/number of GSE compounds following gastric and pancreatic digestion and LC-MS analysis. However, the monomers were significantly (P<0.05) increased after gastric digestion, along with a significant (P<0.05) decrease in polymers. In addition, all forms of phenolic compounds decreased following pancreatic digestion. However, none of the original GSE phenolic compounds passed the Caco-2 cell monolayer, since all were recovered in the apical compartment. In contrast, the two intestinal microbiota metabolites with deprotonated molecular weights of [M-H]-165/121 and 193/175, that were found both in the ileal and faecal fermented samples, passed the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety assessment of 4-week oral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi

    2017-10-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of oral doses of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in healthy Japanese adult volunteers. In an open-label, 4-week toxicity test, 29 subjects daily received 1000, 1500, or 2500 mg GSE orally. Serum Fe levels of two subjects in the 2500 mg GSE group decreased to 61 and 60 μg/100 mL from 205 and 182 μg/100 mL at baseline respectively, at second week of GSE consumption; these values are low but within the normal range for the Japanese population. Two weeks after completing the 4-week course of GSE ingestion, the serum Fe levels of both subjects returned to near baseline levels (210 and 189 μg/100 mL). No subject discontinued the study. Oral intake of GSE up to 2500 mg for 4 weeks was found to be generally safe and well tolerated in humans. Research with a larger number of subjects is required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Protective effects of grape seed and skin extract against high-fat-diet-induced lipotoxicity in rat lung.

    PubMed

    El Ayed, Mohamed; Kadri, Safwen; Smine, Selima; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2017-09-13

    Obesity is a public health problem characterized by increased fat accumulation in different tissues. Obesity is directly linked to breathing problems and medical complications with lung, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma….In the present work, we aimed to investigate the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, fatty acid composition and proportions in lung and implication in asthma development. The likely protection provided by grape seed extract (GSSE) was also investigated. In order to assess HFD effect on lung and GSSE protection we used a rat model. We analyzed the lipid plasma profile, lung peroxidation and antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT and POD). We also analyzed transition metals (Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and iron) and lung free fatty acids using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HFD induced lipid profile imbalance increasing cholesterol and VLDL-C. HFD also induced an oxidative stress assessed by elevated MDA level and the drop of antioxidant activities such as SOD, CAT and POD. Moreover, HFD induced mineral disturbances by decreasing magnesium level and increasing Calcium and iron levels. HFD induced also disturbances in lung fatty acid composition by increasing oleic, stearic and arachidonic acids. Interestingly, GSSE alleviated all these deleterious effects of HFD treatment. As a whole, GSSE had a significant preventive effect against HFD-induced obesity, and hence may be used as an anti-obesity agent, and a benefic agent with potential applications against damages in lung tissue.

  1. Increase of antioxidative potential of rat plasma by oral administration of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Moro, K; Nakamori, K; Yamakoshi, J; Hosoyama, H; Kataoka, S; Ariga, T

    1999-05-01

    The effect of a single oral administration of proanthocyanidins, oligomeric and polymeric polyhydroxyflavan-3-ol units, on the antioxidative potential of blood plasma was studied in rats. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was administered by intragastric intubation to fasted rats at 250 mg/kg of body weight. The plasma obtained from water- or proanthocyanidin-administered rats was oxidized by incubation with copper sulfate or 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) at 37 degrees C, and the formation of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) was followed. The plasma obtained from proanthocyanidin-administered rats was significantly more resistant against both copper ion-induced and AAPH-induced formation of CE-OOH than that from control rats. The lag phase in the copper ion-induced oxidation of rat plasma was remarkably increased at 15 min after administration of proanthocyanidins and reached a maximum level at 30 min. When the plasma from proanthocyanidin-administered rat was hydrolyzed by sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase following analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, metabolites of proanthocyanidins occurred in rat plasma at 15 min after administration, three peaks of which were identified as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin. These results suggest that the intake of proanthocyanidins, the major polyphenols in red wine, increases the resistance of blood plasma against oxidative stress and may contribute to physiological functions of plant food including wine through their in vivo antioxidative ability.

  2. Effects of chitosan edible coating containing grape seed extract on the shelf-life of refrigerated rainbow trout fillet

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Parviz; Moradi, Mehran; Vaezi, Nasim; Moosavy, Mir-Hassan; Mahmoudi, Razzagh

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, use of edible coatings as carriers of food additives and antimicrobial compounds has been considered in fishery products. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of 2.00% chitosan coating singly and combined with 0.10% grape seed extract (GSE) on microbial (mesophils and psychrophils counts), chemical (thiobarbituric acid; TBA), pH and peroxide value (PV) and sensorial properties of rainbow trout fillet stored at 4 °C over a period of 15 days. The coating had a significant effect in reducing aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria counts. The TBA, PV and pH of samples of chitosan coating alone and with GSE were lower than control ones indicating a significant influence of coating on fillet shelf-life. Moreover, chitosan coating represented an equal sensorial quality with controls. It can be concluded that chitosan coating containing GSE can help to maintain the sensorial quality and increase the shelf-life of rainbow trout fillets at refrigerated conditions. PMID:29719667

  3. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Low-fat beef patties with augmented omega-3 fatty acid and CLA levels and influence of grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Sarriés, María V; Insausti, Kizkitza; Mendizabal, José A

    2014-11-01

    The effects of raising the omega-3 fatty acid (FA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), or omega-3 FA plus CLA levels on beef by means of dietary supplementation and of adding grape seed extract (250 mg/kg meat product) in beef patties stored at 2 ± 1 °C in aerobic packaging under simulated retail display conditions for 6 d was evaluated by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pH, and instrumental color measurement values and by means of sensory analysis. The pH, instrumental color measurements, and sensory attribute values for patties made from beef with augmented omega-3 FA and/or CLA contents were similar to the values for the control patties made from beef from animals fed a conventional diet. Adding GSE lowered oxidation levels on day 6 (P < 0.001) and did not affect the instrumental color or sensory analysis results during the display period. This suggests that omega-3 FA and CLA-augmented beef could be used to make low-fat beef patties having characteristics similar to those of conventional beef patties while being more in keeping with currently recommended nutritional guidelines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H 2 O 2 . HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract regulates metabolic disturbance in rat liver exposed to lead associated with PPARα signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daqian; Jiang, Huijie; Lu, Jingjing; Lv, Yueying; Baiyun, Ruiqi; Li, Siyu; Liu, Biying; Lv, Zhanjun; Zhang, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Lead, a pervasive environmental hazard worldwide, causes a wide range of physiological and biochemical destruction, including metabolic dysfunction. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural production with potential metabolic regulation in liver. This study was performed to investigate the protective role of GSPE against lead-induced metabolic dysfunction in liver and elucidate the potential molecular mechanism of this event. Wistar rats received GSPE (200 mg/kg) daily with or without lead acetate (PbA, 0.5 g/L) exposure for 56 d. According to biochemical and histopathologic analysis, GSPE attenuated lead-induced metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and liver dysfunction. Liver gene expression profiling was assessed by RNA sequencing and validated by qRT-PCR. Expression of some genes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling pathway was significantly suppressed in PbA group and revived in PbA + GSPE group, which was manifested by Gene Ontology analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and validated by western blot analysis. This study supports that dietary GSPE ameliorates lead-induced fatty acids metabolic disturbance in rat liver associated with PPARα signaling pathway, and suggests that dietary GSPE may be a protector against lead-induced metabolic dysfunction and liver injury, providing a novel therapy to protect liver against lead exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A grape seed extract increases active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels after an oral glucose load in rats.

    PubMed

    González-Abuín, Noemi; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Margalef, Maria; Blay, Mayte; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-09-01

    We have previously reported that procyanidins, a class of flavonoids, improve glycemia and exert an incretin-like effect, which was linked to their proven inhibitory effect on the dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity. However, their actual effect on incretin levels has not been reported yet. Therefore, in the present study we have evaluated whether a grape seed extract enriched in procyanidins (GSPE) modulates plasma incretin levels and attempted to determine the mechanisms involved. An acute GSPE treatment in healthy Wistar female rats prior to an oral glucose load induced an increase in plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which was accompanied by an increase in the plasma insulin/glucose ratio and a simultaneous decrease in glucose levels. In agreement with our previous studies, the intestinal DPP4 activity was inhibited by the GSPE treatment. We have also assayed in vitro whether this inhibition occurs in inner intestinal tissues close to GLP-1-producing cells, such as the endothelium of the capillaries. We have found that the main compounds absorbed by intestinal CaCo-2 cells after an acute treatment with GSPE are catechin, epicatechin, B2 dimer and gallic acid, and that they inhibit the DPP4 activity in endothelial HUVEC cells in an additive way. Moreover, an increase in plasma total GLP-1 levels was found, suggesting an increase in GLP-1 secretion. In conclusion, our results show that GSPE improves glycemia through its action on GLP-1 secretion and on the inhibition of the inner intestinal DPP4 activity, leading to an increase in active GLP-1 levels, which, in turn, may affect the insulin release.

  9. In vivo anthelmintic activity of Dorycnium rectum and grape seed extract against Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, T S; Molan, A L; Deighton, M; Alexander, R A; Leathwick, D M; McNabb, W C; Meagher, L P

    2006-02-01

    To assess the in vivo anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins (CT) in the forage species Dorycnium rectum and Medicago sativa, and in an extract from grape (Vitus vinifera) seeds (GSE), against two species of parasite, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, at different stages of their life cycle, in sheep that were parasite-naïve or previously exposed to nematodes. In Trial 1, a factorial treatment structure was used to compare faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) and worm burdens in 40 weaned Romney lambs fed either the CT-containing forage D. rectum (12% dry matter; DM) or M. sativa (lucerne; 0.2% DM). Twenty naïve and 20 previously-exposed lambs were drenched free of parasites then reinfected with known species and numbers of parasites, and housed in pens indoors on a diet of lucerne pellets and chaffed hay. Groups of lambs (n=5 lambs per group) were fed one of the forages over one of two time periods within the parasite's life cycle. Six to nine days after the last feeding of fresh forages, faecal samples were collected for FEC, and all lambs were slaughtered and worm counts conducted. In Trial 2, 12 Suffolk x Romney lambs were surgically implanted with an abomasal cannula and then housed indoors in metabolism crates. After infection with parasites, six lambs were infused continuously over a 14-day period with a commercially available CT GSE (96% DM, made up to 34 g/L in water); the remaining lambs were infused with water. During infusion, samples were collected for egg hatch and larval development assays. After infusion, samples were collected for FEC, and all lambs were slaughtered and worm counts conducted. In Trial 1, there was a significant (p<0.001) difference in burdens of O. circumcincta between naïve lambs and those previously exposed to parasites, but no other differences were recorded. In Trial 2, lambs infused with GSE had significantly (p<0.05) fewer T. colubriformis at slaughter and significantly (p<0

  10. Chronic administration of dietary grape seed extract increases colonic expression of gut tight junction protein occludin and reduces fecal calprotectin: a secondary analysis of healthy Wistar Furth rats.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Fundaro, Gabrielle; Griffin, Laura E; Grant, Ar'quette; Hulver, Matthew W; Ponder, Monica A; Neilson, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated the potential of grape seed extract (GSE) to prevent metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Recently, metabolic endotoxemia induced by bacterial endotoxins produced in the colon has emerged as a possible factor in the etiology of metabolic syndrome. Improving colonic barrier function may control endotoxemia by reducing endotoxin uptake. However, the impact of GSE on colonic barrier integrity and endotoxin uptake has not been evaluated. We performed a secondary analysis of samples collected from a chronic GSE feeding study with pharmacokinetic end points to examine potential modulation of biomarkers of colonic integrity and endotoxin uptake. We hypothesized that a secondary analysis would indicate that chronic GSE administration increases colonic expression of intestinal tight junction proteins and reduces circulating endotoxin levels, even in the absence of an obesity-promoting stimulus. Wistar Furth rats were administered drinking water containing 0.1% GSE for 21 days. Grape seed extract significantly increased the expression of gut junction protein occludin in the proximal colon and reduced fecal levels of the neutrophil protein calprotectin, compared with control. Grape seed extract did not significantly reduce serum or fecal endotoxin levels compared with control, although the variability in serum levels was widely increased by GSE. These data suggest that the improvement of gut barrier integrity and potential modulation of endotoxemia warrant investigation as a possible mechanism by which GSE prevents metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. Further investigation of this mechanism in high-fat feeding metabolic syndrome and obesity models is therefore justified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (p<0.05), respectively, after use of marinades containing the highest extract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of local effects of Indian Daboia/Vipera russelli venom by the methanolic extract of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Devaraja, S; Kumar, M S; Goutham, Y N J; Kemparaju, K

    2009-04-01

    Although anti-venom therapy is available for the treatment of fatal bite by snakes, it offers less or no protection against the local effects such as dermo- and myonecrosis, edema, hemorrhage and inflammation at the bitten region. The viper species are known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation, the methanolic extract of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) seed was studied against the Indian Daboia/Vipera russelli venom-induced local effects. The extract abolished the proteolytic and hyaluronidase activities and also efficiently neutralized the hemorrhage, edema-inducing and myonecrotic properties of the venom. In addition, the extract also inhibited partially the pro-coagulant activity of the venom and abolished the degradation of Aalpha and Bbeta chains of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract possesses potent anti-snake venom property, especially against the local effects of viper bites.

  13. Comparative effect of grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) and ascorbic acid in oxidative stress induced by on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in both grape seed and Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  14. Comparative Effect of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera) and Ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients and Methods: In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in both grape seed and Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions: In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. PMID:28074795

  15. The polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds impair changes in the platelet adhesion and aggregation induced by a model of hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism action of the polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) and from grape seeds in the defence against homocysteine (Hcy) and its derivatives action in blood platelets is still unknown. In this study, the influence of the aronia extract and grape seeds extract (GSE) on the platelet adhesion to collagen and fibrinogen and the platelet aggregation during a model of hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated. The aim of our study in vitro was also to investigate superoxide anion radicals (O₂⁻•) production after incubation of platelets with Hcy, HTL and the aronia extract and GSE during a model of hyperhomocysteinemia (induced by reduced form of homocysteine at final dose of 100 μM) and the most reactive form of Hcy--its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL, 1 μM). Moreover, the additional aim of our study was also to establish and compare the influence of the aronia extract, GSE and resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilben), a phenolic compound, which has been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events, on selected steps of platelet activation. The effects of tested extracts on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen and fibrinogen were determined according to Tuszynski and Murphy. The platelet aggregation was determined by turbidimetry method using a Chrono-log Lumi-aggregometer. We have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of O₂⁻• (measured by the superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c) in platelets and caused an augmentation of the platelet adhesion and aggregation induced by the strong physiological agonist-thrombin. Our present results in vitro also demonstrated that the aronia extract and grape seeds extract reduced the toxicity action of Hcy and HTL on blood platelet adhesion to collagen and fibrinogen, the platelet aggregation and superoxide anion radicals production in platelets, suggesting its potential protective

  16. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  17. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M.; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A.; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity. PMID:25883748

  18. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  19. Novel Antihypertensive Prodrug from Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract via Acid-Mediated Depolymerization in the Presence of Captopril: Synthesis, Process Optimization, and Metabolism in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Can; Shi, Ailong; Bai, Shuang; Yan, Pengyu; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2018-04-11

    Grape seed extract contains a high content of proanthocyanidins that can be depolymerized into C-4-substituted (epi)catechin derivatives in the presence of nucleophiles. However, the biological and medicinal values of depolymerization products have been rarely investigated. Recently, we developed a novel depolymerization product (-)-epicatechin-4β- S-captopril methyl ester (ECC) derived from the reaction of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract with captopril in the presence of acidified methanol. A central composite design was employed to select the most appropriate depolymerization temperature and time to obtain the target product ECC with a high yield. A total of 16 metabolites of ECC in rat urine, feces, and plasma were identified using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The in vivo results suggested that ECC could release captopril methyl ester and epicatechin, followed by the generation of further metabolites captopril and epicatechin sulfate conjugates. Therefore, ECC may be used as a potential prodrug with synergistic or additive hypotensive effects.

  20. Characterization of seed and skin polyphenolic extracts of two red grape cultivars grown in Croatia and their sensory perception in a wine model medium.

    PubMed

    Ćurko, N; Kovačević Ganić, K; Gracin, L; Ðapić, M; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L

    2014-02-15

    A study of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin composition and concentrations in seed and skin extracts of two Croatian native red grape cultivars (Plavac mali and Babić) by HPLC-UV-Fluo/MS analysis was conducted in this work. A sensory analysis of extracts astringency and bitterness intensity was also performed. In the seeds, Babić showed generally higher concentrations of proanthocyanidins, while in the skins, Plavac mali showed higher concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Babić proanthocyanidin seed fractions, greater in polymer size and percentage of galloylation, were perceived to be significantly more astringent. Babić proanthocyanidin skin fractions, greater in polymer size and lower in percentage of galloylation and prodelphinidins, were perceived to be significantly bitterer, but only in polymeric fractions. A positive correlation was found between the degree of polymerization, the percentage of galloylation and astringency intensity in the seeds. A negative correlation was found between the percentage of prodelphinidins and bitterness intensity in the skins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Amy S; Black, Sherry R; Patel, Purvi R; So, James; Mathews, James M

    2007-07-01

    Drug-herb interactions can result from the modulation of the activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) and/or drug transporters. The effect of extracts and individual constituents of goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba (and its hydrolyzate), grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng on the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes were determined using enzyme-selective probe substrates, and their effect on human P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was determined using a baculovirus expression system by measuring the verapamil-stimulated, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC to standardize their concentration(s) of constituents associated with the pharmacological activity, and to allow comparison of their effects on P450 and Pgp with literature values. Many of the extracts/constituents exerted > or = 50 % inhibition of P450 activity. These include those from goldenseal (normalized to alkaloid content) inhibiting CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 at 20 microM, ginkgo inhibiting CYP2C8 at 10 microM, grape seed inhibiting CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 at 10 microM, milk thistle inhibiting CYP2C8 at 10 microM, and ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 (but not ginseng extract) inhibiting CYP3A4 at 10 microM. Goldenseal extracts/constituents (20 microM, particularly hydrastine) and ginsenoside Rh1 stimulated ATPase at about half of the activity of the model substrate, verapamil (20 microM). The data suggest that the clearance of a variety of drugs may be diminished by concomitant use of these herbs via inhibition of P450 enzymes, but less so by Pgp-mediated effects.

  2. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruit, skin, leaves and seed of the grape plant are used as medicine. Grape seeds are by- ... haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), mirtazapine (Remeron), naproxen (Naprosyn), nortriptyline (Pamelor), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propafenone ( ...

  3. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    PubMed

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  4. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  5. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Parris M

    2009-09-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly receiving attention as dietary supplements for the homeostatic management of inflammation, to support detoxication, and for anticancer, weight loss, and other benefits. Their pro-homeostatic effects on genes, transcription factors, enzymes, and cell signaling pathways are being intensively explored, but the poor bioavailability of some polyphenols likely contributes to poor clinical trial outcomes. This review covers four polyphenol preparations with poor bioavailability and their complexation into phytosomes to bypass this problem. Silybin and the other silymarin flavonolignans from milk thistle conserve tissue glutathione, are liver-protective, and have anticancer potential. Curcumin and its related diphenolic curcuminoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The green tea flavan-3-ol catechins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio- and neuro-protective effects, and anti-carcinogenic benefits, with fat oxidation effects coupled to weight loss. The complex grape seed proanthocyanidin mix (including catechin and epicatechin monomers and oligomers) counters oxidative stress and protects the circulatory system. For each of these preparations, conversion into phytosomes has improved efficacy without compromising safety. The phytosome technology creates intermolecular bonding between individual polyphenol molecules and one or more molecules of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular imaging suggests that PC molecule(s) enwrap each polyphenol; upon oral intake the amphipathic PC molecules likely usher the polyphenol through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream. PC itself has proven clinical efficacy that contributes to phytosome in vivo actions. As a molecular delivery vehicle, phytosome technology substantially improves the clinical applicabilities of polyphenols and other poorly absorbed plant medicinals.

  6. MicroRNA-19a/b mediates grape seed procyanidin extract-induced anti-neoplastic effects against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jenny T; Xue, Bingye; Smoake, Jane; Lu, Qing-Yi; Park, Heesung; Henning, Susanne M; Burns, Windie; Bernabei, Alvise; Elashoff, David; Serio, Kenneth J; Massie, Larry

    2016-08-01

    Oncomirs are microRNAs (miRNA) associated with carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. They have emerged as potential molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy. We hypothesize that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) exerts antineoplastic effects through modulations of oncomirs and their downstream targets. We found that GSE significantly down-regulated oncomirs miR-19a and -19b in a variety of lung neoplastic cells. GSE also increased mRNA and protein levels of insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-2R) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), both predicted targets of miR-19a and -19b. Furthermore, GSE significantly increased PTEN activity and decreased AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Transfection of miR-19a and -19b mimics reversed the up-regulations of IGF2R and PTEN gene expression and abrogated the GSE induced anti-proliferative response. Additionally, oral administration of leucoselect phytosome, comprised of standardized grape seed oligomeric procyanidins complexed with soy phospholipids, to athymic nude mice via gavage, significantly down-regulated miR-19a, -19b and the miR-17-92 cluster host gene (MIR17HG) expressions, increased IGF-2R, PTEN, decreased phosphorylated-AKT in A549 xenograft tumors, and markedly inhibited tumor growth. To confirm the absorption of orally administered GSE, plasma procyanidin B1 levels, between 60 and 90 min after gavage of leucoselect phytosome (400 mg/kg), were measured by LC/MS at week 2 and 8 of treatment; the estimated concentration that was associated with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) (1.3 μg/mL) in vitro was much higher than the IC50 (0.032-0.13 μg/ml) observed in vivo. Our findings reveal novel antineoplastic mechanisms by GSE and support the clinical translation of leucoselect phytosome as an anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on cerebral cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through modulating AGEs/RAGE/NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Xu, Ling; Li, Baoying; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Chengmei; Feng, Hong; Cui, Xiaopei; Gao, Haiqing

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a severe complication in patients with long-term hyperglycemia. Oxidative stress is thought to be closely implicated in this disorder, so in this study, we examined whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a naturally occurring antioxidant derived from grape seeds, could reduce the injuries in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats by modulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs)/the receptor for AGEs (RAGE)/nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-kappaB p65) pathway, which is crucial in oxidative stress. Body weight and serum AGEs were tested; cerebral cortexes were isolated for morphological observations and the pyramidal cell layers were immunohistochemically stained for the detection of RAGE, NF-kappaB p65, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as well. For RAGE and NF-kappaB p65, quantitative reverse transcriptase coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed for determination of mRNA levels, and western blot was used to detect protein expression. Our results showed that long term hyperglycemia in diabetic rats caused the degeneration of neurons and the up-regulation of serum AGEs, and also the up-regulation of RAGE, NF-kappaB p65, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the brain. We found that GSPE treatment improved the pathological changes of diabetic rats by modulating the AGEs/RAGE/NF-kappaB p65 pathway. This study enables us to further understand the key role that the AGEs/RAGE/NF-kappaB pathway plays in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy, and confirms that GSPE might be a therapeutical means to the prevention and treatment of this disorder.

  8. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  10. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract against high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis and zinc depletion in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a tremendous public health problem, characterized by ectopic deposition of fat into non-adipose tissues as liver generating an oxidative stress that could lead to steato-hepatitis. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a complex mixture of polyphenolics exhibiting robust antioxidative properties. We hypothesize that GSSE could protect the liver from fat-induced lipotoxicity and have a beneficial effect on liver function. Hepatoprotective effect of GSSE was measured by using an experimental model of fat-induced rat liver steatosis. Male rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) during 6 weeks and treated or not with 500 mg/kg bw GSSE. Lipid deposition into the liver was assessed by triglyceride, cholesterol and phospholipid measurements. Fat-induced lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, depletion of glutathione and of antioxidant enzyme activities were used as oxidative stress markers with a special emphasis on transition metal distribution. HFD induced liver hypertrophy and inflammation as assessed by high liver transaminases. HFD also induced an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipid and protein oxidation, a drop in glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a drastic depletion in liver zinc. Importantly, GSSE prevented all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Data suggest that GSSE could be used as a safe preventive agent against fat-induced liver lipotoxicity which could also have potential applications in other non-alcoholic liver diseases.

  13. Differential effect of grape seed extract against human non-small-cell lung cancer cells: the role of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alpna; Raina, Komal; Gangar, Subhash; Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy against a series of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines that differ in their Kras and p53 status to establish GSE potential as a cytotoxic agent against a wide range of lung cancer cells. GSE suppressed growth and induced apoptotic death in NSCLC cells irrespective of their k-Ras status, with more sensitivity toward H460 and H322 (wt k-Ras) than A549 and H1299 cells (mutated k-Ras). Mechanistic studies in A549 and H460 cells, selected, based on comparative efficacy of GSE at higher and lower doses, respectively, showed that apoptotic death involves cytochrome c release associated caspases 9 and 3 activation, and poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase cleavage, strong phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, downregulation of cell survival proteins, and upregulated proapoptotic Bak expression. Importantly, GSE treatment caused a strong superoxide radical-associated oxidative stress, significantly decreased intracellular reduced glutathione levels, suggesting, for the first time, the involvement of GSE-caused oxidative stress in its apoptotic inducing activity in these cells. Because GSE is a widely-consumed dietary agent with no known untoward effects, our results support future studies to establish GSE efficacy and usefulness against NSCLC control.

  14. Protective effects of grape seed extract on cadmium-induced testicular damage, apoptosis, and endothelial nitric oxide synthases expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Tascioglu, Simge

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular apoptosis, endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) expression, and toxicity in rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely, control, Cd (2.5 mg/kg), Cd + GSPE (100 mg/kg/day), and GSPE. Spermatogenesis and mean seminiferous tubule diameter were significantly decreased in the Cd groups. Furthermore, the GSPE-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance in the Cd group. The immunoreactivity of eNOS and the number of apoptotic cells were increased in Cd group. Our data indicate a significant reduction of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end-labeling staining and a decrease in the expression of eNOS in the testes tissue of the Cd group treated with GSPE therapy. Therefore, our results suggest that GSPE acts as a potent protective agent against Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Alleviative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on small artery vascular remodeling in spontaneous hypertensive rats via inhibition of collagen hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Gao, Haiqing; Wang, Jian; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhao, Shaohua; Zhang, Jun; Qiu, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Vascular remodeling is a primary contributor to the initiation and development of hypertension, which has a pathological association with subsequent multi-organ damage. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) exhibit protective cardiovascular effects, resulting from their anti‑oxidant and anti‑inflammatory properties. However, the function and mechanism underlying the effect of GSPE on small artery remodeling remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of GSPE on vascular remodeling in the mesenteric small arteries of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Parameters associated with hypertension, including systolic blood pressure, oxidative stress, morphological and ultrastructural alteration of vessels, deposition of collagen and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, were analyzed. The results revealed that GSPE alleviated hypertension-induced hypertrophic vascular remodeling in the small arteries of SHR, which was independent of blood pressure. GSPE decreased oxidative stress associated with hypertension in SHR and suppressed the increased expression of TGF‑β1, which blocked the translocation and differentiation of adventitia fibroblasts and eventually inhibited collagen hyperplasia in the blood vessel. The inhibitory effect of GSPE on small artery remodeling was achieved via its suppressive effect on oxidant production and the subsequent intercellular and intracellular cascades. The findings of the present study supported the potential therapeutic value of GSPE for the treatment of hypertension.

  16. The properties of chitosan and gelatin films incorporated with ethanolic red grape seed extract and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil as biodegradable materials for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve different characteristics including antibacterial, antioxidant, physical and mechanical properties of chitosan (Ch) and gelatin (Ge) films by incorporating Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0 and 1% v/w) and ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE; 0 and 1% v/w). The main compounds of the ZEO were carvacrol (65.22%) and thymol (19.51%). According to our findings, addition of aforementioned materials could improve total phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, thickness and also water vapor barrier property. ZEO and GSE reduces swelling index, tensile strength, puncture force and puncture deformation of Ch and Ge films. Pure Ch and Ge films had slightly yellow and white appearances, respectively, while films incorporated with GSE in combination with ZEO had grey appearances. This study indicated the some benefits of addition of ZEO and GSE into Ch and Ge films and their potentials for application as biodegradable active packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluoride-induced iron overload contributes to hepatic oxidative damage in mouse and the protective role of Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qiang; He, Ping; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Ruling; Ding, Yusong; Mu, Lati; Li, Shugang

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that iron overload plays an important role in oxidative stress in the liver. This study aimed to explore whether fluoride-induced hepatic oxidative stress is associated with iron overload and whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) alleviates oxidative stress by reducing iron overload. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated for 5 weeks with distilled water (control), sodium fluoride (NaF) (100 mg/L), GSPE (400 mg/kg bw), or NaF (100 mg/L) + GSPE (400 mg/kg bw). Mice exposed to NaF showed typical poisoning changes of morphology, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the liver. NaF treatment also increased MDA accumulation, decreased GSH-Px, SOD and T-AOC levels in liver, indicative of oxidative stress. Intriguingly, all these detrimental effects were alleviated by GSPE. Further study revealed that NaF induced disorders of iron metabolism, as manifested by elevated iron level with increased hepcidin but decreased ferroportin expression, which contributed to hepatic oxidative stress. Importantly, the iron dysregulation induced by NaF could be normalized by GSPE. Collectively, these data provide a novel insight into mechanisms underlying fluorosis and highlight the potential of GSPE as a naturally occurring prophylactic treatment for fluoride-induced hepatotoxicity associated with iron overload.

  18. Effectiveness of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and grape seed extract impregnated chitosan film on ready-to-eat mortadella-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mehran; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of chitosan films containing Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) (5 and 10 g kg(-1) ) and grape seed extract (GSE) (10 g kg(-1) ) on lipid oxidation and microbial (lactic acid bacteria, aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Listeria monocytogenes) characteristics of mortadella sausage at 4 °C for 21 days was evaluated. The release of total phenolics (TPs) into sausage was also assessed. All films exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes on agar culture media. Chitosan films containing ZEO were the most effective on the growth of bacteria. The growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by ZEO-GSE containing films especially during storage of the sausages for 6 days. Aerobic mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria were the most sensitive and resistant groups to films by 0.1-1.1 and 0.1-0.7 log cycles reduction, respectively. Sausages wrapped by 10 g kg(-1) GSE + 10 g kg(-1) ZEO films had the lowest degrees of lipid oxidation, which was 23% lower than the control. The TPs of ZEO films decreased to zero after 6 days, whereas TPs of GSE films followed a slight decrease during the storage. Antimicrobial/antioxidant chitosan film could be developed by incorporating GSE and ZEO for extending the shelf life of mortadella sausage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Grape seed extract triggers apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species and calcium increase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase involvement.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Morabito, Caterina; Guarnieri, Simone; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-09-14

    Grape seed extract (GSE) from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the mechanism(s) supporting the apoptotic process, we analysed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular Ca2+ handling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Upon exposure to GSE, ROS and intracellular Ca2+ levels increased in Caco-2 cells, concomitantly with ERK inactivation. As ERK activity is thought to be essential for promoting survival pathways, inhibition of this kinase is likely to play a relevant role in GSE-mediated anticancer effects. Indeed, pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, reversed GSE-induced apoptosis, and promoted ERK phosphorylation. This effect was strengthened by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-mediated inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx. ROS and Ca2+ influx inhibition, in turn, increased ERK phosphorylation, and hence almost entirely suppressed GSE-mediated apoptosis. These data suggested that GSE triggers a previously unrecognised ERK-based mechanism, involving both ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ increase, eventually leading to apoptosis in cancer cells.

  20. Topical grape seed proanthocyandin extract reduces sunburn cells and mutant p53 positive epidermal cell formation, and prevents depletion of Langerhans cells in an acute sunburn model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Wei; Hao, Jian-Chun; Gu, Wei-Jie; Zhao, Yan-Shuang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can provide photoprotection against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Study has shown that GSPE is a natural oxidant, and is used in many fields such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, chronic pancreatitis, and even cancer. However, the effect of GSPE on UV irradiation is as yet unknown. Cutaneous areas on the backs of normal volunteers were untreated or treated with GSPE solutions or vehicles 30 min before exposure to two minimal erythema doses (MED) of solar simulated radiation. Cutaneous areas at different sites were examined histologically for the number of sunburn cells, or immunohistochemically for Langerhans cells and mutant p53 epidermal cells. On histological and immunohistochemical examination, skin treated with GSPE before UV radiation showed fewer sunburn cells and mutant p53-positive epidermal cells and more Langerhans cells compared with skin treated with 2-MED UV radiation only (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.01, respectively). GSPE may be a possible preventive agent for photoprotection.

  1. Antilisterial activity and consumer acceptance of irradiated chicken breast meat vacuum-infused with grape seed and green tea extracts and tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Over, K F; Hettiarachchy, N S; Perumalla, A V S; Johnson, M G; Meullenet, J-F; Dickson, J S; Holtzbauer, M J; Niebuhr, S E; Davis, B

    2010-09-01

    Contamination of poultry with pathogenic bacteria contributes to human foodborne disease, causes damage to industry brand names, and has a significant economic impact on the food industry in the form of both damage to industry brand names and losses associated with recalls. Irradiation is a safe and effective means of decontaminating poultry products, but the maximum dose strengths allowed negatively impact poultry sensory quality characteristics. The 1st objective of this study was to investigate the potential interactive inhibitory effects of natural antimicrobials as components of a vacuum-marination in addition to various dose levels of irradiation. Tartaric acid (TA) at 2 levels and grape seed (GS) and green tea (GT) extracts were combined, vacuum-infused into chicken breast fillets, and irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy by electron beam irradiation. The 2nd objective was to use a consumer test group to evaluate TA and plant extract infusion into chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation at 2 kGy on overall impression, flavor, texture, appearance, and tenderness. The results showed that samples vacuum-infused with TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM and irradiated at 1 kGy significantly reduced Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) levels by 2 and 3 log CFU/g compared to the control after 12 d of refrigerated storage. Vacuum-infusion of TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM at 2 and 3 kGy irradiation, reduced L.m. to near nondetectable levels. The addition of TA and GS and GT to chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation did not significantly impact consumer preference, tenderness, appearance, or flavor. The addition of tartaric acid and natural plant extracts to chicken marinades could contribute to the prevention of L.m. contamination.

  2. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  3. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and domestic horse (Equus caballus) hindgut microflora demonstrate similar fermentation responses to grape seed extract supplementation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huntley, N F; Naumann, H D; Kenny, A L; Kerley, M S

    2017-10-01

    The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation. Equine nutrition knowledge is used to assess supplements for rhinoceros; therefore, the second objective was to evaluate the domestic horse model for black rhinoceros fermentation and compare fermentation responses to GSE using a continuous single-flow in vitro culture system. Two replicated continuous culture experiments were conducted using horse and black rhinoceros faeces as inoculum sources comparing four diets with increasing GSE inclusion (0.0%, 1.3%, 2.7% and 4.0% of diet dry matter). Diet and GSE polyphenolic compositions were determined, and sodium sulphite effect on neutral detergent fibre extraction of CT-containing forages was tested. Increasing GSE inclusion stimulated microbial growth and fermentation, and proportionally increased diet CT concentration and iron-binding capacity. Horse and black rhinoceros hindgut microflora nutrient digestibility and fermentation responses to GSE did not differ, and results supported equine fermentation as an adequate model for microbial fermentation in the black rhinoceros. Interpretation of these results is limited to hindgut fermentation and further research is needed to compare foregut digestibility and nutrient absorption between these two species. Supplementation of GSE in black rhinoceros diets up to 4% is unlikely to

  4. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared with those in the C and HF groups. The hepatic level of lipid peroxides decreased significantly in the grape seed groups compared with that in the C and HF groups. Superoxide dismutase activity in the G group increased significantly compared with that in the C group. Catalase activity tended to be higher by feeding grape seeds. The grape seed diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the C group. Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased significantly in the G group compared with that in the C group. Hepatic content of total glutathione increased significantly in the HG group but decreased significantly in the HF group. The ratio of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione increased by feeding the grape seed diet. Total vitamin A concentration was significantly higher in HG group than in other groups. Liver tocopherol content of the G and HG groups was significantly higher than that of the control groups. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with grape seeds is beneficial for suppressing lipid peroxidation in high fat-fed rats. PMID:22413034

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR

  7. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  8. Target Identification of Grape Seed Extract in Colorectal Cancer using Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS) Technique: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Molly M.; Somasagara, Ranganatha; Raina, Komal; Kumar, Sushil; Gomez, Joe; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2014-01-01

    Various natural agents, including grape seed extract (GSE), have shown considerable chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy against different cancers in pre-clinical studies; however, their specific protein targets are largely unknown and thus, their clinical usefulness is marred by limited scientific evidences about their direct cellular targets. Accordingly, herein, employing, for the first time, the recently developed drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) technique, we aimed to profile the potential protein targets of GSE in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Unlike other methods, which can cause chemical alteration of the drug components to allow for detection, this approach relies on the fact that a drug bound protein may become less susceptible to proteolysis and hence the enriched proteins can be detected by Mass Spectroscopy methods. Our results, utilizing the DARTS technique followed by examination of the spectral output by LC/MS and the MASCOT data, revealed that GSE targets endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response proteins resulting in overall down regulation of proteins involved in translation and that GSE also causes oxidative protein modifications, specifically on methionine amino acids residues on its protein targets. Corroborating these findings, mechanistic studies revealed that GSE indeed caused ER stress and strongly inhibited PI3k-Akt–mTOR pathway for its biological effects in CRC cells. Furthermore, bioenergetics studies indicated that GSE also interferes with glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism in CRC cells. Together, the present study identifying GSE molecular targets in CRC cells, combined with its efficacy in vast pre-clinical CRC models, further supports its usefulness for CRC prevention and treatment. PMID:24724981

  9. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Yazbeck, Roger; Wright, Tessa H; Whitford, Eleanor J; Payne, Caroline; Butler, Ross N; Bastian, Susan E P

    2009-02-01

    Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: GSE was administered to IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells prior to damage induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability was determined by neutral red assay. In vivo: Female Dark Agouti rats (130-180 g) were gavaged with 1 ml GSE (400 mg/kg) daily (day 3-11) and received 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection on day nine to induce mucositis. Rats were sacrificed at day 12 and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase and sucrase activity assays and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. GSE prevented the decrease in IEC-6 cell viability induced by 5-FU (p < 0.01). Compared with 5-FU controls, GSE significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity by 86% and 27% in the proximal jejunum (p < 0.001) and distal ileum (p < 0.05) respectively; decreased qualitative histological scores of damage (p < 0.05) in the proximal jejunum; increased villus height in the proximal jejunum (17%; p < 0.05) and distal ileum (50%; p < 0.01), and attenuated the 5-FU-induced reduction of mucosal thickness by 16% in the jejunum (p < 0.05) and 45% in the ileum (p < 0.01). GSE partially protected IEC-6 cells from 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and ameliorated intestinal damage induced by 5-FU in rats. GSE may represent a promising prophylactic adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal mucositis.

  10. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  11. Grape seed extract has superior beneficial effects than vitamin E on oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yonguc, Goksin Nilufer; Dodurga, Yavuz; Adiguzel, Esat; Gundogdu, Gulsah; Kucukatay, Vural; Ozbal, Seda; Yilmaz, Ismail; Cankurt, Ulker; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Akdogan, Ilgaz

    2015-01-25

    We aimed to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) and vitamin E (Vit E) on oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In Control, Diabetic, and Diabetic treated with GSE (Diabetic+GSE) and vitamin E (Diabetic+Vit E) groups, oxidative stress index (OSI), TUNEL staining and Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bax, caspase-3, -9, and -8, Cyt-c, TNF-α, and NF-κB gene expressions were evaluated. OSI was significantly increased in the plasma and hippocampus of the Diabetic compared to Control group and decreased in Diabetic+GSE and Diabetic+Vit E groups compared to Diabetic. TUNEL positive neurons significantly increased in the hippocampus of the Diabetic group compared to Control and decreased in Diabetic+GSE (more prominently) and Diabetic+Vit E groups compared to Diabetic. In the hippocampus of the Diabetic group, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL gene expressions were significantly decreased; Bax, caspase-3, -9, and -8, Cyt-c, TNF-α, and NF-κB gene expressions were significantly increased compared to Control. In Diabetic+GSE and Diabetic+Vit E groups, Bcl-2 gene expressions were significantly increased; Bcl-XL gene expressions did not differ compared to the Diabetic group. The expression of Bax, caspase-3, -9, and -8, Cyt-c, TNF-α, and NF-κB genes in the Diabetic+GSE group and the expression of caspase-3 and -9, TNF-α, and NF-κB genes in the Diabetic+Vit E group were significantly decreased compared to Diabetic. In conclusion, GSE (more prominently) and vitamin E decreased oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis occurring in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiviral effects of grape seed extract against feline calicivirus, murine norovirus, and hepatitis A virus in model food systems and under gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has antiviral activities against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) time and dose-dependence of GSE against FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV at room temperature (RT) and 37 °C over 24 h; and (2) GSE effects in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% milk) and simulated gastric conditions at 37 °C. Viruses at ∼5 log PFU/ml were treated with 0.5-8 mg/ml GSE prepared in water, AJ, milk or gastric juices, or water over 24 h at RT or 37 °C. Infectivity of triplicate treatments was evaluated using plaque assays. GSE effects increased with time and concentration. GSE at 1 mg/ml in AJ reduced MNV-1 to undetectable levels after 1 h and by 1 log in milk after 24 h. GSE at 1 and 2 mg/ml in AJ reduced HAV to undetectable levels after 1 h, while 2 and 4 mg/ml GSE in milk caused ∼1 log reduction after 24 h. GSE at 2 mg/ml in intestinal fluid reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1 and HAV to undetectable levels after 6 h. GSE appears to be a suitable natural option for foodborne viral reduction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract on the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Abdallah, F M; Ali, H A; Hernandez-Santana, A

    2017-05-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSE) contain several beneficial bioactive constituents; therefore, can be utilized as a potential feed additive in broiler chickens. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of broiler chicken diets with GSE as a natural antioxidant at levels of 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on the growth performance, serum lipid profile, liver glutathione-reduced, thigh muscle malondialdehyde and humoral immune response against Newcastle disease virus vaccines. This experiment was performed during the life-span of chickens from 0 to 42 days of age. The results of broilers fed on diet supplemented by GSE were compared with those fed on the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented by butylated hydroxytoluene as a synthetic antioxidant (BHT, 125 ppm). No significant differences were observed in the growth performance, percent livability, total lipid, high and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterols when the use of GSE or BHT were compared with the control. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased after intake of GSE compared with BHT in the feed diet. The glutathione-reduced level in liver tissues was significantly increased by inclusion of GSE, but not by BHT. Inclusion of GSE or BHT decreased significantly the malondialdehyde level found in meat tissue. The antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccines was significantly elevated in 28 and 35-day-old broiler chickens fed with a diet supplemented with GSE or BHT, the former providing a higher response. It can be concluded that GSE can be used as an effective natural antioxidant and immunostimulant agent in broiler chicken diets, and that 125 to 250 ppm can be considered as the optimum dosage.

  15. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  16. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract against high-fat diet-induced dyshomeostasis of energetic metabolism in rat lung.

    PubMed

    El Ayed, Mohamed; Kadri, Safwen; Mabrouk, Maha; Aouani, Ezzedine; Elkahoui, Salem

    2018-05-10

    Obesity is currently one of the major epidemics of this millennium and affects poeples throughout the world. It causes multiple systemic complications as it significantly interferes with respiratory function. We aimed in the present work to study the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung oxidative stress and energy metabolism alterations, as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). We started by characterizing the GSSE and its composition using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We used a rat model of high-fat-diet and we evaluated the effect of GSSE on oxidative stress and energetic disturbances induced by HFD. We analyzed the effect of HFD on lung oxidative status by assessing lipid oxidation level, non-protein thiols (NPSH) and superoxide anion level… We also evaluated the effect of HFD on creatine kinase (CK), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and mitochondrial complex IV. HFD induced body weight gain, increased lung weight and lipid content without affecting insulinemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked on lung oxidative stress characterized by increased carbonylation (+ 95%; p = 0.0045), decreased of NPSH (- 32%; p = 0.0291) and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (- 25%; p = 0.0074). HFD also altered lung intracellular mediators as superoxide anion O 2 ¯ (+ 59%; p = 0.0027) and increased lung xanthine oxidase activity (+ 27%; p = 0.0122). HFD induced copper depletion (- 24%; p = 0.0498) and lead (- 51%: p = 0.0490) from the lung. Correlatively HFD decreased the copper associated enzyme tyrosinase (- 29%; p = 0.0500) and decreased glutamine synthetase activity (- 31%; p = 0.0027). HFD altered also lung energy metabolism by increasing CK activity (+ 22%; p = 0.0108) and decreasing MDH and mitochondrial complex IV activities (- 28%; p = 0.0120, - 31%; p = 0.0086 respectively

  17. Transcriptome analyses of seed development in grape hybrids reveals a possible mechanism influencing seed size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Hu, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Chen; Li, Zhi; Fei, Zhangjun; Yan, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Chonghuai; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-11-09

    Seedlessness in grape (Vitis vinifera) is of considerable commercial importance for both the table grape and processing industries. Studies to date of grape seed development have been made certain progress, but many key genes have yet to be identified and characterized. In this study we analyzed the seed transcriptomes of progeny derived from the V. vinifera seeded maternal parent 'Red Globe' and the seedless paternal parent 'Centennial seedless' to identify genes associated with seedlessness. A total of 6,607 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and examined from multiple perspectives, including expression patterns, Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, pathway enrichment, inferred hormone influence and epigenetic regulation. The expression data of hormone-related genes and hormone level measurement reveals the differences during seed development between seedless and seeded progeny. Based on both our results and previous studies of A. thaliana seed development, we generated network maps of grape seed-related DEGs, with particular reference to hormone balance, seed coat and endosperm development, and seed identity complexes. In summary, the major differences identified during seed development of seedless and seeded progeny were associated with hormone and epigenetic regulation, the development of the seed coat and endosperm, and the formation of seed identity complexes. Overall the data provides insights into the possible molecular mechanism controlling grape seed size, which is of great importance for both basic research and future translation applications in the grape industry.

  18. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent plasma postprandial oxidative stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Belelli, Federica; Gentili, Vincenzo; Ursini, Fulvio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2002-12-18

    Postprandial hyperlipemia is a well-defined risk factor for atherosclerosis. A reasonable contributing mechanism could involve the postprandial increase of plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) affecting the oxidant/antioxidant balance and increasing the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. Wine has been shown to prevent both these events. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementing a meal with grape seed proanthocyanidins (the main phenolic antioxidant of red wine) on plasma postprandial oxidative stress. In two different sessions, 8 healthy volunteers consumed the same test meal rich in oxidized and oxidizable lipids without (control) or with 300 mg of a proanthocyanidin-rich grape seeds extract (GSE). Lipid hydroperoxide concentration, antioxidant status, and LDL resistance to oxidative modification were measured in postprandial plasma. The content of LPO in chylomicrons was 1.5-fold higher after the control meal than after the GSE-supplemented meal. Plasma LPO increased only after consumption of the control meal. The plasma antioxidant capacity increased in the postprandial phase only following the GSE supplemented meal. LDL isolated 3 h after the control meal tended to be more susceptible to oxidative modification (but the difference did not reach statistical significance). An opposite trend was observed following the GSE supplemented meal. In conclusion, the supplementation of a meal with GSE minimizes the postprandial oxidative stress by decreasing the oxidants and increasing the antioxidant levels in plasma, and, as a consequence, enhancing the resistance to oxidative modification of LDL.

  19. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those...

  20. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those...

  1. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those...

  2. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization. PMID:21143976

  3. Chemical investigation of commercial grape seed derived products to assess quality and detect adulteration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Tom S; Reichert, William; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental concerns in quality control arise due to increasing use of grape seed extract (GSE) and the complex chemical composition of GSE. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers are the major bioactive compounds in GSE. Given no standardized criteria for quality, large variation exists in the composition of commercial GSE supplements. Using HPLC/UV/MS, 21 commercial GSE containing products were purchased and chemically profiled, major compounds quantitated, and compared against authenticated grape seed extract, peanut skin extract, and pine bark extract. The antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content for each sample was also determined and compared using standard techniques. Nine products were adulterated, found to contain peanut skin extract. A wide degree of variability in chemical composition was detected in commercial products, demonstrating the need for development of quality control standards for GSE. A TLC method was developed to allow for rapid and inexpensive detection of adulteration in GSE by peanut skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Klančnik, A; Šikić Pogačar, M; Trošt, K; Tušek Žnidarič, M; Mozetič Vodopivec, B; Smole Možina, S

    2017-01-01

    To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition of adhesion of Camp. jejuni to these abiotic and biotic surfaces. Low doses of GSS extract can inhibit Camp. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene surfaces and to PSI and H4 cells, and can thus modulate Camp. jejuni invasion and intracellular survival. An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step towards the application of new innovative strategies to control Campylobacter contamination and infection via the food chain. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of seeds from different grape cultivars grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Vasigheh Sadat; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Yousef Elahi, Mostafa; Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Sedigheh

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of seed extracts from three grape cultivars grown in Iran. Folin Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of the total phenolic contents and GC-MS was used for the analysis of phenolic compositions. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents of seed extract were found in the black and green grape, respectively. The content of individual phenols such as Frulic acid, Gentistic acid, Syringic acid, (+) Catechin, Chlorogenic acid and (-)- Epicatchin gallate was cultivars dependent. The antioxidant activity of the seed extracts ranged from 34.03% (Green) to 53.63% (Black). Generally, the Black grape seed extract with the total phenolic content (3 ± 0.01 mg tannic acid/g DM), DPPH (53.63 ± 0.34%), IC 50 and AEAC (7.41 and 16.92 mg/mL) showed the highest level of total antioxidant capacity.

  6. Rat health status affects bioavailability, target tissue levels, and bioactivity of grape seed flavanols.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Quiñones, Mar; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2017-02-01

    Studying the flavanol metabolism is essential to identify bioactive compounds, as beneficial effects of flavanols have been attributed to their metabolic products. However, host-related factors, including pathological conditions, may affect flavanol metabolism and, thus, their bioactivity. This study aims to elucidate whether hypertension affects grape seed flavanol metabolism, influencing their bioactivity in relation to hypertension. Grape seed flavanols' effect on blood pressure (BP) was studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and healthy Wistar rats 6 h after grape seed extract administration (375 mg/kg). Animals were then sacrificed, and plasma bioavailability and aorta distribution of flavanol metabolites were studied by HPLC-MS/MS in both the groups. Grape seed flavanols were only able to decrease BP in SHR. Plasma total flavanol metabolites showed similar levels, being the difference noticed in specific metabolites' concentrations. Specifically, microbial metabolites showed quantitative and qualitative differences between both health states. Moreover, aorta total concentrations were found decreased in SHR. Interestingly, flavanol microbial metabolites were specifically increased SHR aortas, showing qualitative differences in small phenolic forms. This study demonstrates important differences in bioactivity and target tissue metabolite levels between healthy and diseased rats, indicating potential metabolites responsible of the anti-hypertensive effect. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  8. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  9. Degradation Kinetics of Grape Skin and Seed Proanthocyanidins in a Model Wine System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 degrees C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catechol. ...

  10. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative in vitro fermentations of cranberry and grape seed polyphenols with colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Barroso, Elvira; van de Wiele, Tom; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we have assessed the phenolic metabolism of a cranberry extract by microbiota obtained from the ascending colon and descending colon compartments of a dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (SHIME). For comparison, parallel fermentations with a grape seed extract were carried out. Extracts were used directly without previous intestinal digestion. Among the 60 phenolic compounds targeted, our results confirmed the formation of phenylacetic, phenylpropionic and benzoic acids as well as phenols such as catechol and its derivatives from the action of colonic microbiota on cranberry polyphenols. Benzoic acid (38.4μg/ml), 4-hydroxy-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid (26.2μg/ml) and phenylacetic acid (19.5μg/ml) reached the highest concentrations. Under the same conditions, microbial degradation of grape seed polyphenols took place to a lesser extent compared to cranberry polyphenols, which was consistent with the more pronounced antimicrobial effect observed for the grape seed polyphenols, particularly against Bacteroides, Prevotella and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a... removed. A small amount of sulphur dioxide may be present. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made... suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Grape skin extract (enocianina...

  13. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a... removed. A small amount of sulphur dioxide may be present. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made... suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Grape skin extract (enocianina...

  14. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a... removed. A small amount of sulphur dioxide may be present. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made... suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Grape skin extract (enocianina...

  15. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a... removed. A small amount of sulphur dioxide may be present. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made... suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Grape skin extract (enocianina...

  16. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a... removed. A small amount of sulphur dioxide may be present. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made... suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Grape skin extract (enocianina...

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  18. Influence of extraction methodology on grape composition values

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work demonstrated similarities and differences in quantifying many grape quality components (> 45 compounds) that were extracted from berries by three distinct preparations, and analyzed by eight spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. All sample extraction methods were appropriate for qualitative...

  19. Cardioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin against ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Maulik, G; Ray, P S; Bagchi, D; Das, D K

    1999-06-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate cardioprotective effects of red wine consumption. Such cardioprotective properties of wine have been attributed to certain polyphenolic constituents of grapes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds possess cardioprotective properties. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: grape-seed proanthocyanidin was administered orally to one group of rats (100 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks while the other group served as control. After 3 weeks, rats were killed, hearts excised, mounted on the perfusion apparatus and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer. After stabilization hearts were perfused in the working mode for baseline measurements of contractile functions. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Coronary perfusates were collected to monitor malonaldehyde formation, a presumptive marker for oxidative stress development. At the end of each experiment, the heart was processed for infarct size determination. Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of proanthocyanidin was determined by examining its ability to remove peroxyl radical generated by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride while hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was tested with its ability to reduce 7-OH.-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid. The results of our study demonstrated that proanthocyanidin-fed animals were resistant to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury as evidenced by improved recovery of post-ischemic contractile functions. The proanthocyanidin-fed group revealed reduced extent of myocardial infarction compared to the control group. Fluorimetric study demonstrated the antioxidant property of proanthocyanidin as judged by its ability to directly scavenge peroxyl radicals. Taken together, the results of this study showed that grape seed-proanthocyanidins possess a cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury. Such

  20. [Allelopathy of grape root aqueous extracts].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Guo, Xiu-wu; Guo, Yin-shan; Li, Cheng-xiang; Xie, Hong-gang; Hu, Xi-xi; Zhang, Li-heng; Sun, Ying-ni

    2010-07-01

    Taking the tissue-cultured seedlings of grape cultivar Red Globe as test objects, this paper examined the effects of their root aqueous extracts on seedling's growth, with the allelochemicals identified by LC-MS. The results showed that 0.02 g x ml(-1) (air-dried root mass in aqueous extracts volume; the same below), 0.1 g x ml(-1), and 0.2 g x ml(-1) of the aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of the seedlings significantly, and the inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The identified allelochemicals of the extracts included p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, phenylpropionic acid, and coumaric acid. Pot experiment showed that different concentration (0.1, 1, and 10 mmol x L(-1)) salicylic acid and phenylpropionic acid inhibited the seedling' s growth remarkably. With the increasing concentration of the two acids, the plant height, stem diameter, shoot- and root fresh mass, leaf net photosynthetic rate and starch content, and root activity of the seedlings decreased, while the leaf soluble sugar and MDA contents increased. No obvious change pattern was observed in leaf protein content.

  1. Effect of consuming a grape seed supplement with abundant phenolic compounds on the oxidative status of healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernández-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Sánchez, Ana M; Prodanov, Marin

    2015-09-09

    Diverse enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants provide protection against reactive oxygen species in humans and other organisms. The nonenzymatic antioxidants include low molecular mass molecules such as plant-derived phenols. This study identified the major phenolic compounds of a grape seed extract by HPLC and analyzed the effect of consumption of biscuits enriched with this extract on the urinary oxidative status of healthy subjects by measurement of urine redox potential. The major phenolic compounds were characterized in a red grape seed extract separated by HPLC with detection by a photodiode array (PDA), fluorescence (FL) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). A nutritional study in a healthy volunteers group was done. Each volunteer ate eight traditional biscuits with no red grape seed extract supplementation. The second day each volunteer ate eight traditional biscuits supplemented with 0.6% (wt/wt) of grape seed extract. An overnight urine sample was obtained for each treatment. The redox potential was measured at 25 °C using a potentiometer in each urine sample. Epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin dimers B1 to B4, and the procyanidin trimer C2 were the major phenolic components in the extract. Epicatechin gallate and procyanidin dimers B1-3-G and B2-3'-G were the major galloylated flavan-3-ols. The forty-six healthy volunteers each shown a reduction of the urine redox potential after the treatment by traditional biscuits supplemented with the grape seed extract. This simple dietary intervention significantly reduced (33%) the urine redox potential, reflecting an overall increase in antioxidant status. Incorporation of plant-derived phenols in the diet may increase anti-oxidative status.

  2. Modulation of the neurological and vascular complications by grape seed extract in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury by downregulation of both osteopontin and cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Hussein F; Abbas, Amr M; Bin-Jaliah, Ismaeel

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SC-IRI). Fifty male rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CON); control + GSE (CON + GSE) (received GSE for 28 days); sham operated (Sham); IRI; and IRI + GSE. SC-IRI was induced by clamping the aorta just above the bifurcation for 45 min, and then the clamp was released for 48 h for reperfusion. IRI + GSE group received GSE for 28 days before SC-IRI. Sensory, motor, and placing/stepping reflex assessment was performed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in spinal cord homogenate. Immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord for OPN and COX-2 were carried out. SC-IRI resulted in significant increase in plasma nitrite/nitrate level and spinal cord homogenate levels of TBARs and PGE2, and OPN and COX-2 expression with significant decrease in TAC. GSE improves the sensory and motor functions through decreasing OPN and COX-2 expression with reduction of oxidative stress parameters. We conclude a neuroprotective effect of GSE in SC-IRI through downregulating COX-2 and OPN expression plus its antioxidants effects.

  3. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Singer, Stacy D; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongjing; Gao, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe'), along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless'), following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  4. Effect of GA3 Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Singer, Stacy D.; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongjing; Gao, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. Methodology/Principal Findings In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars (‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’), along with a seedless cultivar (‘Thompson Seedless’), following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’ seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development. PMID:24224035

  5. Phytonutrients for controlling starch digestion: evaluation of grape skin extract.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Steve W; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the structure-function relationship between grape skin extract and human α-amylase. The grape skin extract was characterised as resveratrol-3-O-glucoside by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which showed strong inhibition towards α-amylase and the IC50 value was 1.35 mg/ml. The kinetic results demonstrated grape skin extract obeyed the non-competitive mode against amylase. Fluorescence data revealed the ability of grape skin binding to amylase belonged to static quenching mechanism with a complex formation and there was only one binding site in α-amylase for grape skin extract. Docking study showed a best pose with total energy value of -118.3 kJ/mol and grape skin extract interacted with side chain of Asp300 with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. This preliminary observation provides the basis for further evaluation of the suitability of grape skin extract as natural inhibitor with potential health benefits. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Over-evaluation of total flavonoids in grape skin extracts containing sulphur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Corona, Onofrio; Squadrito, Margherita; Vento, Giorgia; Tirelli, Antonio; Di Stefano, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) proved to increase absorbance at 280 nm of grape skin and seed extracts containing it, diluted with ethanol-HCl to assess total flavonoids and anthocyanins in the same analysis. Additional absorbance at 280 nm was also observed in acetone:H2O extracts, if the acetone had not completely evaporated before the extracts were diluted with a solvent. Flavonoids were correctly quantified in the extracts when SO2 or acetone were removed by solid-phase extraction with a C18 RP as sorbent and methanol as eluting solvent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzyme release of phenolics from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz; Lu, Jiang; Gu, Liwei; Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Marshall, Maurice R

    2014-08-15

    Enzyme degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides can potentially enhance the release of bioactive phenolics. The aim of this study was to evaluate various combinations of solvent and enzyme, enzyme type (cellulase, pectinase, ß-glucosidase), and hydrolysis time (1, 4, 8, 24 h) on the release of muscadine grape skin and seed phenolics, and their antioxidant activities. Results showed that pre-treated muscadine skins and seeds with enzymes decreased total phenolic yield compared with solvent (50% ethanol) alone. Enzyme release of phenolics from skins of different muscadine varieties was significantly different while release from seeds was similar. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to shorten extraction time. Most importantly, enzyme hydrolysis modified the galloylated form of polyphenols to low molecular weight phenolics, releasing phenolic acids (especially gallic acid), and enhancing antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Generation of reactive oxygen species by grape seed extract causes irreparable DNA damage leading to G2/M arrest and apoptosis selectively in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Deep, Gagan; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Kaur, Manjinder; Jain, Anil K; Inturi, Swetha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2012-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for 6% of all malignancies in USA and unfortunately the recurrence of secondary primary tumors and resistance against conventional treatments decrease the overall 5 year survival rate in HNSCC patients. Thus, additional approaches are needed to control HNSCC. Here, for the first time, employing human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells as well as normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we investigate grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy and associated mechanism in both cell culture and nude mice xenografts. GSE selectively inhibited the growth and caused cell cycle arrest and apoptotic death in both Detroit 562 and FaDu cells by activating DNA damage checkpoint cascade, including ataxia telangiectasia mutated/ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related-checkpoint kinase 1/2-cell division cycle 25C as well as caspases 8, 9 and 3. Consistent with these results, GSE treatment resulted in a strong DNA damage and a decrease in the levels of DNA repair molecules breast cancer gene 1 and Rad51 and DNA repair foci. GSE-caused accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was identified as a major mechanism of its effect for growth inhibition, DNA damage and apoptosis, which was remarkably reversed by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. GSE feeding to nude mice decreased Detroit 562 and FaDu xenograft tumor growth by 67 and 65% (P < 0.001), respectively. In immunohistochemical analysis, xenografts from GSE-fed groups showed decreased proliferation but increased DNA damage and apoptosis. Together, these findings show that GSE targets both DNA damage and repair and provide mechanistic insights for its efficacy selectively against HNSCC both in cell culture and mouse xenograft, supporting its translational potential against HNSCC.

  9. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds promote proliferation of mouse hair follicle cells in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kamiya, T; Yokoo, Y

    1998-11-01

    For the purpose of discovering natural products which possess hair growing activity, we examined about 1000 kinds of plant extracts concerning growth-promoting activity with respect to hair follicle cells. After an extensive search, we discovered that proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds promote proliferation of hair follicle cells isolated from mice by about 230% relative to controls (100%); and that proanthocyanidins possess remarkable hair-cycle-converting activity from the telogen phase to the anagen phase in C3H mice in vivo test systems. The profile of the active fraction of the proanthocyanidins was elucidated by thiolytic degradation and tannase hydrolysis. We found that the constitutive monomers were epicatechin and catechin; and that the degree of polymerization was 3.5. We demonstrated the possibility of using the proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds as agents inducing hair growth.

  10. Phytochemical Constituents, Health Benefits, and Industrial Applications of Grape Seeds: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (−)-epicatechin, and (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Studies have reported that grape seeds exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Their potential health benefits include protection against oxidative damage, and anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet functions. Recognition of such health benefits of proanthocyanidins has led to the use of grape seeds as a dietary supplement by the consumers. This paper summarizes the studies of the phytochemical compounds, pharmacological properties, and industrial applications of grape seeds. PMID:28914789

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-01-01

    Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of metabolomics and lipidomics to evaluate the hypocholestreolemic effect of Proanthocyanidins from grape seed in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Choy, Ying Yng; Calvert, Christopher C; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2016-10-01

    This work aims to evaluate changes in the fecal metabolomic profile due to grape seed extract (GSE) intake by untargeted and targeted analysis using high resolution mass spectrometry in conjunction with multivariate statistics. An intervention study with six crossbred female pigs was performed. The pigs followed a standard diet for 3 days, then they were fed with a supplemented diet containing 1% (w/w) of MegaNatural® Gold grape seed extract for 6 days. Fresh pig fecal samples were collected daily. A combination of untargeted high resolution mass spectrometry, multivariate analysis (PLS-DA), data-dependent MS/MS scan, and accurate mass database matching was used to measure the effect of the treatment on fecal composition. The resultant PLS-DA models showed a good discrimination among classes with great robustness and predictability. A total of 14 metabolites related to the GSE consumption were identified including biliary acid, dicarboxylic fatty acid, cholesterol metabolites, purine metabolites, and eicosanoid metabolites among others. Moreover, targeted metabolomics using GC-MS showed that cholesterol and its metabolites fecal excretion was increased due to the proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract. The results show that oligomeric procyanidins from GSE modifies bile acid and steroid excretion, which could exert a hypocholesterolemic effect. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  14. Distribution of grape seed flavanols and their metabolites in pregnant rats and their fetuses.

    PubMed

    Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Crescenti, Anna; del Bas, Josep Maria; Ras, Maria Rosa; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols have been demonstrated to provide health benefits affecting cellular and physiological processes. This study aims to evaluate the bioavailability and distribution of grape seed flavanol compounds during pregnancy and whether fetuses could be exposed to these compounds. The distribution of flavanols and their metabolites in rat plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, brain, amniotic fluid, placenta, and fetuses after 1 and 2 h of an acute intake of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract was examined by LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Flavanols and their metabolites were widely distributed in both pregnant and nonpregnant rat plasma and tissues. In liver, the conjugated forms of flavanols were less available in pregnant than nonpregnant rats. Flavanol metabolites were abundant in maternal placenta but detected at low levels in fetuses and amniotic fluid. Flavanol metabolization appears to be less active in the liver during pregnancy. Moreover, data indicated that transport across the placenta is not efficient and for flavanols and their metabolites, the placenta seems to act as a barrier. However, these compounds target the fetus and are excreted in the amniotic fluid. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

  16. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin–Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured. PMID:28208630

  17. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  18. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  19. Sensory and instrumental texture measurements for assessing grape seed parameters during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Maury, Chantal; Symoneaux, Ronan; Siret, René

    2013-08-15

    The evolution of the sensory and instrumental properties of grape seeds was investigated during berry development, with a focus on the effects of the harvest season and growing location. The sensory and instrumental texture analyses gave a consistent description of the ripening process. Moreover, the effect of maturation on the seed sensory descriptors was clearly influenced by the harvest season, and astringency was the most appropriate sensory attribute for the assessment of grape seed ripening. Except for seed cracking, which was positively correlated with fracturability (R = 0.69) and toughness (R = 0.68) in 2006, the compression parameters were generally not correlated with the sensory textural attributes but were more likely correlated with other sensory attributes such as astringency and vegetal aroma. The compression indices showed a logarithmic behaviour pattern during grape development, and seed stiffness was shown to be the most valuable textural index for parcel discrimination and identification of the optimal grape harvesting date. This research showed that both seed sensory attributes and instrumental texture properties are indicators of grape ripening. However, these properties could be affected by the harvest season and growing location. As no clear correlation was found between the seed sensory attributes and instrumental texture parameters, a revision of the sensory method available in the literature could be suggested. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape skin and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Grape is one of the most popular and widely cultivated fruits in the world. Although grape skin and seeds are waste product of the winery and grape juice industry, these wastes contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanidins, which play an important role as chemopreventive and anticancer agents. We evaluated efficacies of grape skin and seeds on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Treatment with DMN significantly increased levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin. Diet supplementation with grape skin or seeds (10% daily for 4 weeks) prevented these elevations. The grape skin and seeds also restored serum albumin and total protein levels, and reduced the hepatic level of hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde. Furthermore, grape skin and seeds reduced DMN-induced collagen accumulation, as estimated by histological analysis of liver tissue stained with Sirius red. Grape skin and seeds also reduced hepatic stellate cell activation, as assessed by α-smooth muscle actin staining. In conclusion, grape skin and seeds exhibited in vivo hepatoprotective and antifibrogenic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, suggesting that grape skin and seeds may be useful in preventing the development of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:21103082

  1. Longevity of Black Cherry, Wild Grape, and Sassafras Seed in the Forest Floor

    Treesearch

    G.W. Wendel

    1977-01-01

    The results of this study show that (1) black cherry seed remains viable in the forest floor for 3 years, with a small amount of seed germinating after 4 or 5 years; (2) sassafras seed remains viable for 6 years in the forest floor, and (3) some wild grape seed retains its viability for at least 8 years. These results are important to the forest manager in setting up...

  2. Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas.

    PubMed

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca

    2010-02-15

    Phenolic compounds, extractable from grape skins and seeds, have a notable influence on the quality of red wines. Many studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between the phenolic composition of the grape at harvest time and its influence on the phenolic composition of the red wine produced. In many previous works the evolution of phenolic composition and relative extractability was normally studied on grapes sampled at different times during ripening, but at the same date the physiological characteristics of grape berries in a vineyard are often very heterogeneous. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to investigate the differences among mechanical properties, phenolic composition and relative extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv Barbera grape berries, harvested at the same date from several vineyards, and calibrated according to their density at three levels of soluble solids (A=235+/-8, B=252+/-8 and C=269+/-8 g L(-1) sugar) with the aim of studying the influence of ripeness stages and growing locations on these parameters. Results on mechanical properties showed that the thickness of the berry skin (Sp(sk)) was the parameter most affected by the different level of sugars in the pulp, while different skin hardnesses, evaluated by the break skin force (F(sk)), were related to the cultivation sites. The latter were also observed to influence the mechanical characteristics of seeds. Generally, the anthocyanin content increased with the level of soluble solids, while the increase in the tannin content of the berry skin and seeds was less marked. However, significant changes in flavanols reactive to vanillin in the seeds were found. The cellular maturity index (EA%) was little influenced by the soluble solids content of grapes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela A; Salvador, Ana Augusta; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2013-04-10

    The possibility of increasing the aggregated value of the huge amount of residues generated by wineries around the world foment studies using the grape pomace - the residue from the wine production, composed by seed, skin and stems - to obtain functional ingredients. Nowadays, consumers in general prefer natural and safe products mainly for food and cosmetic fields, where the supercritical fluid extraction is of great importance due to the purity of the extracts provided. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the global extraction yield, the antimicrobial activity and the composition profile of Merlot and Syrah grape pomace extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and CO2 added with co-solvent at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures of 50 and 60 °C. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Soxhlet and by ultrasound-assisted leaching extraction methods. The main components from the extracts, identified by HPLC, were gallic acid, p-OH-benzoic acid, vanillic acid and epicatechin. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated using four strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei). Despite lower extraction yield results, the supercritical fluid extracts presented the highest antimicrobial effectiveness compared to the other grape pomace extracts due to the presence of antimicrobial active compounds. Syrah extracts were less efficient against the microorganisms tested and Merlot extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Ilker; Cetin, Recep; Candir, Ozden; Devrim, Erdinç; Kiliçoğlu, Bülent; Avci, Aslihan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the natural antioxidant foods, dried black grape and garlic, protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given Cyclosporine A (CsA) orally for 10 days, with the antioxidant food supplementation begun 3 days before CsA treatment and continued during the study period (totaling 13 days). In each group (control, CsA alone, CsA plus black grape, CsA plus aqueous garlic extract, aqueous garlic extract alone and black grape alone), there were 7 animals. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed; their kidneys were removed and prepared for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Oxidant (xanthine oxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes) parameters were measured in the kidney tissues of the groups. Histopathological examinations of the tissues were also performed. It has been found that CsA creates oxidant load to the kidneys through both xanthine oxidase activation and impaired antioxidant defense system, which accelerates oxidation reactions in the kidney tissue. Supplementation with either dried black grape or aqueous garlic extract led to reduced malondialdehyde level in the kidney tissue possibly, by preventing oxidant reactions. In conclusion, the results suggest that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance may play part in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, and some foods with high antioxidant power may ameliorate this toxicity, in agreement with studies with antioxidant vitamins.

  5. A mixed grape and blueberry extract is safe for dogs to consume.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Leray, Véronique; Lepoudere, Anne; Blanchard, Géraldine; Bensalem, Julien; Gaudout, David; Ouguerram, Khadija; Nguyen, Patrick

    2016-08-03

    Grape and blueberry extracts are known to protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, beneficial effects achieved by mixing grape and blueberry extracts have yet to be evaluated in dogs, or their bioavailability assessed. Of concern to us were cases of acute renal failure in dogs, after their ingestion of grapes or raisins. The European Pet Food Industry Federation (2013) considers only the grape or raisin itself to be potentially dangerous; grape-seed extracts per-se, are not considered to be a threat. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the renal and hepatic safety, and measure plasma derivatives of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) in dogs. Polyphenol expression was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS over 8 hours, for dogs given PEGB at 4 mg/kg. Safety was evaluated using four groups of 6 dogs. These groups received capsules containing no PEGB (control), or PEGB at 4, 20, or 40 mg/kg BW/d, for 24 weeks. Blood and urine samples were taken the week prior to study commencement, then at the end of the 24-wk study period. Routine markers of renal and liver damage, including creatinine (Creat), blood urea nitrogen, albumin, minerals, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. Biomarkers for early renal damage were also evaluated in plasma (cystatin C (CysC), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)), and urine (CysC, clusterin (Clu), and NGAL). Ratios of urinary biomarkers to Creat were calculated, and compared with acceptable maximal values obtained for healthy dogs, as reported in the literature. While several PEGB-specific polyphenols and metabolites were detected in dog plasma, at the end of the PEGB consumption period, our biomarker analyses presented no evidence of either renal or liver damage (Creat, BUN, ionogram, albumin and ALT, ALP). Similarly, no indication of early renal damage could be detected. Plasma CysC, urinary CysC/Creat, Clu/Creat, and NGAL

  6. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  7. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  8. FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil and quantum models of fatty acids triglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, K. V.; Antonova, E. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Dvoretskiy, K. N.; Grechukhina, O. N.; Vasilyeva, L. M.; Rybakov, A. V.; Likhter, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    FT-IR spectra of grape seed oil and glycerol were registered in the 650-4000 cm-1 range. Molecular models of glycerol and some fatty acids that compose the oil under study - linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids - as well as their triglycerides were developed within B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional model. A vibrating FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil was modeled on the basis of calculated values of vibrating wave numbers and IR intensities of the fatty acids triglycerides and with regard to their percentage. Triglyceride spectral bands that were formed by glycerol linkage vibrations were revealed. It was identified that triglycerol linkage has a small impact on the structure of fatty acids and, consequently, on vibrating wave numbers. The conducted molecular modeling became a basis for theoretical interpretation on 10 experimentally observed absorption bands in FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil.

  9. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-09-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu's assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower concentrations were effective compared to higher concentrations, whereas gluco-amylase enzyme did not show remarkable variations. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were significantly higher in the cellulase digested grape pomace compared to the gluco-amylase digested and the not digested grape pomace. It is notable that enzymatic digestions were efficient for extracting polyphenols from grape pomace. The underutilized grape pomace polyphenols can be further used for food safety as a natural antioxidant.

  11. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu’s assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower concentrations were effective compared to higher concentrations, whereas gluco-amylase enzyme did not show remarkable variations. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were significantly higher in the cellulase digested grape pomace compared to the gluco-amylase digested and the not digested grape pomace. It is notable that enzymatic digestions were efficient for extracting polyphenols from grape pomace. The underutilized grape pomace polyphenols can be further used for food safety as a natural antioxidant. PMID:26451359

  12. Protective effects of grape stem extract against UVB-induced damage in C57BL mice skin.

    PubMed

    Che, Denis Nchang; Xie, Guang Hua; Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Kang, Hyun Ju; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-08-01

    Humans have become exposed to another form of a trait which is ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation reaching the earth's surface. This has become a major source of oxidative stress that ultimately leads to inflammation, DNA damage, photoaging and pigmentation disorders etc. Although several studies have shown the photo-protective role of different grape parts like the fruits and seeds, little or no data demonstrating the in vivo photo-protective role of grape stem, which is the most discarded part of the grape are available. We evaluated the protective influence of grape stem extract against UVB-induced oxidative damage in C57BL mice characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, pigmentation, collagen degradation and inflammation. Grape stem extract was administered topically 1week before UVB irradiation (120mJ/cm 2 ) and continued until the termination of the experiment. A group of non-irradiated mice and a group of irradiated mice topically administered with propylene were used as a negative and positive control. Epidermal thickness, pigmentation, erythema, mast cell and neutrophil infiltration, collagen degradation and COX-2, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions were evaluated. Grape stem extract markedly recovered skin damage induced by the UVB radiation through the prevention of epidermal hyperplasia, pigmentation, erythema, mast cell and neutrophil infiltrations, collagen degradation and COX-2, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions. Our study demonstrated for the first time in C57BL mice that grape stem extract reduces UVB-induced oxidative damage and hence can play a protective role in skin photo-damage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Changes in Tannin Composition of Syrah Grape Skins and Seeds during Fruit Ripening under Contrasting Water Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Theodorou, Nikolaos; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos

    2017-09-01

    Tannin accumulation and composition were determined in skins and seeds isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah grapes submitted to contrasting water regimes under semiarid climatic conditions. Three irrigation treatments were conducted, starting at berry set through harvest of two growing seasons, 2011 and 2012: irrigation at 100% of crop evapotranspiration ETc (FI), irrigation at 50% of ETc (DI) and non-irrigated (NI). Seed total tannins did not vary with maturity but those of skins underwent a progressive decline (especially in 2011), expressed both on a fresh weight and on a per berry basis. Skin total tannin concentration and content per berry were increased under NI and DI conditions, mainly in 2012. In contrast, seed total tannins (in 2012) and flavan-3-ol monomers and tannin oligomers (both years) were higher in the fully irrigated vines (FI). Skin polymer size increased during ripening, NI and DI skins showing higher mean degree of polymerization (mDP) compared to FI at harvest. NI was also associated with a lower percentage of galloylation (%G) in skin oligomeric fraction (in 2012) and a lower percentage of prodelphinidins in the skin polymeric fraction (both years) at harvest. The mDP and %G of seed extracts did not vary during ripening and were higher in NI but only in 2012. According to the results, management of vine water status was shown to influence tannin amount and composition of Syrah grapes grown under semiarid conditions.

  14. INFLUENCE OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL AND GRAPE SEED OIL ON CHOLESTEROL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN LIVERS OF CHICKENS.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Agnieszka; Czerwonka, Malgorzata; Bialek, Malgorzata; Lepionka, Tomasz; Kaszperuk, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Teresa; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Oils are important food ingredients, mainly as a source of unsaturated fatty acids. The offer of novel edible oils from herbs, spices and fruit seeds has grown and many of them are used as functional food and dietary supplements but also as feed additives in animal feeding. Poultry meat is recommended.in properly balanced diet and its consumption in Poland has been growing. The objective of present study was to verify if the supplementation of chickens' diet with grape seed oil or pomegranate seed oil influences cholesterol content and fatty acids (FA) profile in their livers. Ross 308 chickens (n = 24) were fed with fodder enriched with grape seed oil (G group) or pomegranate seed oil (P group). Diet of control group (C group) was based on soybean oil. FA analysis in livers as well as cholesterol content was made with gas chromatography. We observed significant increase in fat content when part of soybean oil was replaced by grape seed oil (p = 0.0002). Its highest amount was detected in G group (4.44 ± 1.53%) whereas the lowest in C group (1.73 ± 0.53%). Applied supplementation did not change total cholesterol content. Its content ranged from 233.0 ± 12.2 mg/100 g in G group to 234.6 ± 29.7 mg1100 g in C group. However, chickens' diet modification with grape seed oil and pomegranate seed oil influenced the FA profile in livers. We detected the presence of punicic acid (cis-9, trans-11, cis-13 C18:3, PA) in livers of chicken fed with pomegranate seed oil. Pomegranate seed oil is one of natural sources of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA), which predominate in this oil (PA >70% of all FA). However, in livers PA constituted only 0.90 ± 0.10% of all fatty acids. Furthermore, we detected substantial amounts of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, RA) - the major isomer of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Its natural sources in diet are meat and milk of ruminants, but incorporation of pomegranate seed oil into chickens' diet caused a significant increase of its

  15. Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification.

    PubMed

    VenuGopal, K S; Cherita, Chris; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2018-03-01

    The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential ameliorative effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols against cadmium induced prostatic deficits.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yongfang; Chen, Qian; Chen, Jinglou; Liu, Dong

    2017-07-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) is consumed as fruit and wine for people. In this study, rat model of prostatic deficits was induced by orally receiving 60mg/L cadmium chlorine (CdCl 2 ) through drinking water for 20 weeks. Grape seed-derived polyphenols extract (GSP) was orally given for 20 weeks. Finally, the prostatic levels of E-cadherin, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were measured by immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis. The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione and enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the prostatic expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type I TGF-β receptor (TGF-βRI), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (p-Smad3), Smad7, nuclear related factor-2 (Nrf-2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC) were measured by western blot. The levels of microRNA (miR)-133a/b were measured by qPCR. It was observed that GSP ameliorated the prostatic oxidative stress and fibrosis induced by CdCl 2 . GSP also inhibited the over-generation of TGF-β1 and p-Smad3, as well as enhanced the levels of Smad7, Nrf-2, HO-1, γ-GCLC and miR-133a/b. These results showed that GSP could attenuate Cd-induced prostatic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  18. Preparative HSCCC isolation of phloroglucinolysis products from grape seed polymeric proanthocyanidins as new powerful antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Luo, Lanxin; Sun, Baoshan

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric proanthocyanidins isolated from a grape seed phenolic extract were hydrolysed in the presence of phloroglucinol into monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives. Each of the phloroglucinolysis products was successfully separated and isolated in large amount by semi-preparative HSCCC technique under the optimized conditions based on a selection of suitable solvent system. The optimized solvent system consisted of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1:80:80, v/v/v) with a combination of head-tail and tail-head elution modes. By only one-step HSCCC separation, the purity of each obtained phloroglucinolysis product, including monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives was above 76%, verified by UPLC. The structures of these products were tentatively identified by UPLC based on their retention time and further confirmed by MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Furthermore, by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, it was verified that all these phloroglucinolysis products possessed strong antioxidant activities, being catechin-nucleophile derivatives more powerful than free catechins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Yagiz, Yavuz; Xu, Changmou; Lu, Jiang; Chung, Soonkyu; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-07-01

    Tocotrienols are unsaturated forms of vitamin E previously shown to reduce adipogenesis and adipose inflammation. In this study, muscadine grape seed oil (MGSO) was identified as a novel source of tocotrienols containing significant amounts of α- and γ-tocotrienol (T3) with minor seasonal changes. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory potential of MGSO by using primary human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Differentiating hASCs were treated with MGSO and compared with rice bran and olive oil. Accumulation of triglyceride was significantly lower in MGSO-treated hASCs than rice bran and olive oils. A tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) from MGSO was prepared by solid phase extraction and eluted with 15% 1,4-dioxane in hexane. The MGSO-derived TRF treatment significantly reduced mRNA and protein expression that are crucial to adipogenesis (e.g., PPARγ and aP2) in hASCs. Furthermore, TRF from MGSO markedly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes and cytokine secretion to the medium (IL-6 and IL-8). Collectively, our work suggests that MGSO is a stable and reliable natural source of T3 and MGSO may constitute a new dietary strategy to attenuate obesity and its associated adipose inflammation.

  20. Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ksouda Moalla, Kamilia; Kammoun, Naziha Grati; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration. Uniform wound excision was induced on rats dorsum randomly divided into five groups: groups treated with “CICAFLORA®” and tested oils and untreated one. The posthealing biopsies were histologically assessed. Results. Wound biopsies treated with oils showed the best tissue regeneration compared to control groups. Groups treated with our oils and “CICAFLORA” had higher wound contraction percentage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in oils act as inflammatory mediators increasing neovascularization, extracellular remodeling, migration, and cell differentiation. Wound healing effect was attributed to antibacterial and antioxidant synergy. Conclusion. According to findings, oils showed better activity in wound healing compared to “CICAFLORA” due to a phytoconstituents synergy. However, clinical trials on humans are necessary to confirm efficacy on human pathology. PMID:27990170

  1. Characterisation of various grape seed oils by volatile compounds, triacylglycerol composition, total phenols and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bail, Stefanie; Stuebiger, Gerald; Krist, Sabine; Unterweger, Heidrun; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    Grape seed oil (Oleum vitis viniferae) representing a promising plant fat, mainly used for culinary and pharmaceutical purposes as well as for various technical applications, was subject of the present investigation. HS-SPME-GC-MS was applied to study volatile compounds in several seed oil samples from different grape oils. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of these oils was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. In addition the total phenol content and the antioxidant capacity (using TEAC) of these oils were determined. The headspace of virgin grape oils from white and red grapes was dominated by ethyl octanoate (up to 27.5% related to the total level of volatiles), ethylacetate (up to 25.0%), ethanol (up to 22.7%), acetic acid (up to 17.2%), ethyl hexanoate (up to 17.4%) and 3-methylbutanol (up to 11.0%). Triacylglycerol composition was found to be dominated by LLL (up to 41.8%), LLP (up to 24.3%), LLO (up to 16.3%) and LOO (up to 11.7%), followed by LOP (up to 9.3%) and LOS/OOO (up to 4.3%). Total phenol content ranged between 59μg/g and 115.5μg/g GAE. Antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was analyzed to range between 0.09μg/g and 1.16μg/g. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

  3. Impact of postharvest dehydration process of winegrapes on mechanical and acoustic properties of the seeds and their relationship with flavanol extraction during simulated maceration.

    PubMed

    Río Segade, Susana; Torchio, Fabrizio; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Giacosa, Simone; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rolle, Luca

    2016-05-15

    This study represents the first time that the extraction of phenolic compounds from the seeds is assessed from instrumental texture properties for dehydrated grapes. Nebbiolo winegrapes were postharvest dehydrated at 20°C and 41% relative humidity. During the dehydration process, sampling was performed at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% weight loss. The extractable fraction and extractability of phenolic compounds from the seeds were determined after simulated maceration. The evolution of mechanical and acoustic attributes of intact seeds was also determined during grape dehydration to evaluate how these changes affected the extraction of phenolic compounds. The extractable content and extractability of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins, as well as the galloylation percentage of flavanols, might be predicted easily and quickly from the mechanical and acoustic properties of intact seeds. This would help in decision-making on the optimal dehydration level of winegrapes and the best management of winemaking of dehydrated grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  6. Gallic acid is an active component for the anticarcinogenic action of grape seed procyanidins in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Macià, Alba; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Motilva, Maria-José; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on proliferation and apoptosis in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line MIA PaCa-2 and identify the components of the extract with higher activity. The effects of the extract were analyzed on the proliferation and apoptosis processes in MIA PaCa-2 cells, as well as in the levels of the apoptosis markers Bcl-2 and Bax, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species levels. Finally, the components of the extract with higher effects were elucidated using enriched fractions of the extract and pure compounds. The results showed that GSPE inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells, which is primarily mediated by the downregulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. GSPE also reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species. The component of the extract that possesses the highest antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity was gallic acid. In conclusion, GSPE acts as anticarcinogenic in MIA PaCa-2 cells, with gallic acid as the major single active constituent of the extract.

  7. Subchronic treatment with grape-seed phenolics inhibits ghrelin production despite a short-term stimulation of ghrelin secretion produced by bitter-sensing flavanols.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Depoortere, Inge; Blay, Maria Teresa; Terra, Ximena; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Grape-seed phenolic compounds have recently been described as satiating agents in rats when administered as a whole phenolic extract (GSPE). This satiating effect may involve the release of satiating gut hormones such as GLP-1, although a short-term increase in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin was also reported. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of GSPE in rats, focusing on the role of the main grape-seed phenolics in ghrelin secretion. GSPE produced a short-term increase in plasma ghrelin in rats after an acute treatment. A mouse ghrelinoma cell line was used to test the effects of the main pure grape-seed phenolic compounds on ghrelin release. Monomeric flavanols stimulated ghrelin secretion by activating bitter taste receptors. In contrast, gallic acid (GA) and oligomeric flavanols inhibited ghrelin release. The ghrelin-inhibiting effects of GA were confirmed in rats and in rat duodenal segments. One day after the last dose of a subchronic treatment, GSPE decreased plasma ghrelin in rats, ghrelin secretion in intestinal segments, and ghrelin mRNA expression in stomach. The sustained satiating effects of GSPE are related to a long-term decrease in ghrelin expression. GA and oligomeric flavanols play a ghrelin-inhibiting role in this process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Grape seed proanthocyanidins increase collagen biodegradation resistance in the dentin/adhesive interface when included in an adhesive.

    PubMed

    Green, Bradley; Yao, Xiaomei; Ganguly, Arindam; Xu, Changqi; Dusevich, Vladimir; Walker, Mary P; Wang, Yong

    2010-11-01

    Contemporary methods of dentin bonding could create hybrid layers (HLs) containing voids and exposed, demineralised collagen fibres. Proanthocyanidins (PA) have been shown to cross-link and strengthen demineralised dentin collagen, but their effects on collagen degradation within the HL have not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphological differences of HLs created by BisGMA/HEMA model adhesives with and without the addition of grape seed extract PA under conditions of enzymatic collagen degradation. Model adhesives formulated with and without 5% PA were bonded to the acid etched dentin. 5-μm-thick sections cut from the bonded specimens were stained with Goldner's trichrome. The specimens were then exposed to 0.1% collagenase solution for 0, 1, or 6 days. Following collagenase treatment, the specimens were analysed with SEM/TEM. Staining did not reveal a difference in the HLs created with the two adhesives. SEM showed the presence of intact collagen fibrils in all collagenase treatment conditions for specimens bonded with adhesive containing PA. These integral collagen fibrils were not observed in the specimens bonded with adhesive without PA after the same collagenase treatment. TEM confirmed that the specimens containing PA still showed normal collagen fibril organisation and dimensions after treatment with collagenase solution. In contrast, disorganised collagen fibrils in the interfacial zone lacked the typical cross-banding of normal collagen after collagenase treatment for specimens without PA. The presence of grape seed extract PA in dental adhesives may inhibit the biodegradation of unprotected collagen fibrils within the HL. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapidly differentiating grape seeds from different sources based on characteristic fingerprints using direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqiao; Liao, Jie; Dong, Junxing; Chen, Li

    2015-09-01

    The seeds of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are a byproduct of wine production. To examine the potential value of grape seeds, grape seeds from seven sources were subjected to fingerprinting using direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. Firstly, we listed all reported components (56 components) from grape seeds and calculated the precise m/z values of the deprotonated ions [M-H](-) . Secondly, the experimental conditions were systematically optimized based on the peak areas of total ion chromatograms of the samples. Thirdly, the seven grape seed samples were examined using the optimized method. Information about 20 grape seed components was utilized to represent characteristic fingerprints. Finally, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were performed to analyze the data. Grape seeds from seven different sources were classified into two clusters; hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis yielded similar results. The results of this study lay the foundation for appropriate utilization and exploitation of grape seed samples. Due to the absence of complicated sample preparation methods and chromatographic separation, the method developed in this study represents one of the simplest and least time-consuming methods for grape seed fingerprinting. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Fatty acid of Rkatsiteli grape seed oil, Phellodendron lavallei oil and Amaranthus seeds oil and its comparative byological activity].

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Zurabashvili, Z A; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study is individual qualitively and quantitatively identification of fatty acids in Pkatsiteli grape seed oil, Phellodendron lavallei oil and Amaranthus seed oil and prediction of its biological activity. Using high-effective liquid chromatogramphy fatty acids were franctionated. Their relative concentrations are expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. Identification of the fatty acids consituents is based on comparison of their retention time with that of known standards. The predominant fatty acids in the oils were palmitic, oleic and stearic acids. The investigation demonstrated that fatty acids composition takes marked part in lipid metabolism of biological necessary components. The most interesting result of the investigation was the detection of unusual for the essentain oil begenic acid.

  11. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  12. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  13. Nutraceutical delivery systems: resveratrol encapsulation in grape seed oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this work was to fabricate nanoemulsions-based delivery systems to encapsulate resveratrol. Nanoemulsions were formed using spontaneous emulsification method: 10% oil phase (grape seed oil plus orange oil) and 10% surfactant (Tween 80) were titrated into 80% aqueous phase. An optimum orange oil-to-grape seed oil ratio of 1:1(w/w) formed small droplets (d ≈ 100 nm) with good stability to droplet growth. The maximum amount of resveratrol that could be dissolved in the oil phase was 120 ± 10 μg/ml. The effect of droplet size on the chemical stability of encapsulated resveratrol was examined by preparing systems with different mean droplet diameters of 220 ± 2; 99 ± 3; and 45 ± 0.4 nm. Encapsulation of resveratrol improved its chemical stability after exposure to UV-light: 88% retention in nanoemulsions compared to 50% in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). This study showed that resveratrol could be encapsulated within low-energy nanoemulsion-based delivery systems and protected against degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: Inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (a) oxidative stress; (b) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways; and (c) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin. PMID:18384090

  15. Effect of Muscadine Grape Seed Supplementation on Vascular Function in Subjects with or at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mellen, Philip B.; Daniel, Kurt R.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Hansen, Kim J.; Herrington, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. Objectives To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. Design In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. Results There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Conclusions Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established

  16. Effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on vascular function in subjects with or at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mellen, Philip B; Daniel, Kurt R; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Hansen, Kim J; Herrington, David M

    2010-10-01

    Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established. More research is warranted to fully

  17. Optimization of extraction of bioactive compounds from different types of grape pomace produced at wineries and distilleries.

    PubMed

    Brazinha, Carla; Cadima, Mafalda; Crespo, João G

    2014-06-01

    Natural extracts obtained from grape pomace are particularly interesting, due to the substantial variety of valuable compounds present with health benefits, specifically phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, and proanthocyanidins. The production of such extracts has been recognized as a profitable way to valorize grape byproducts, which are low-value and most abundant. First, the effect of the solvent on the extraction of bioactive compounds from grape pomace is studied. The selected solvents are water and ethanol, biocompatible and available in wineries and distilleries. Then, different types of grape pomace obtained along the various stages of current industrial winemaking and distillation processes are analyzed. As a result, the best stage of the winemaking and distillation processes for pomace valorization is identified, corresponding to the grape byproduct with the highest potential as source of bioactive compounds. These studies were performed with Vitis vinifera variety of Tempranillo grapes (same year, same vineyard). This work optimizes the production of natural extracts from (byproduct) grape pomace with recognized health benefits, to be used as high value nutraceuticals ingredients. The process proposed uses renewable and low-cost resources existent in wineries and distilleries. The select solvent extracting is a mixture of the biocompatible water and ethanol. The selected fermented grape pomace was chosen from different and comparable types of grape pomace obtained at current winemaking and distillation processes, to be used in extraction without any pretreatment. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Design and optimization of a semicontinuous hot-cold extraction of polyphenols from grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Monrad, Jeana K; Srinivas, Keerthi; Howard, Luke R; King, Jerry W

    2012-06-06

    Grape pomace contains appreciable amounts of polyphenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and procyanidins which can be recovered for use as food supplements. The extraction of these polyphenols from the pomace is usually accomplished at slightly elevated temperatures, frequently employing hydroethanolic solvents. Due to governmental regulations and the cost involved in using ethanol as a solvent, as well as the loss in polyphenolics due to thermal degradation, improved extraction techniques are required. In this study, a semicontinuous extraction apparatus employing only water was developed to maximize the recovery of anthocyanins and procyanidins from red grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Water is preheated prior to its entry to the extraction cell containing the grape pomace sample, where it is allowed to then flow continuously through the unheated extraction vessel prior to its collection at ambient conditions. Extraction variables that impacted the polyphenolic recovery included pomace moisture content (crude or dried), sample mass, water flow rate, and extraction temperature. A response surface method was used to analyze the results from the extraction, and the optimal conditions were found to be 140 °C and 9 mL/min water flow rate. These conditions can produce an extract containing 130 mg/100 g DW of anthocyanins and 2077 mg/100 g DW of procyanidins. Higher yields of polyphenolics were observed using crude (wet) rather than dried pomace, hence avoiding the need to dry the pomace prior to extraction. The described semicontinuous extraction method using only water as the extraction solvent under subcritical conditions allowed the efficient extraction of polyphenols from red grape pomace without the attendant loss of polyphenolic content due to having to heat the extraction vessel prior to commencement of extraction.

  19. The effects of grape seeds polyphenols on SKH-1 mice skin irradiated with multiple doses of UV-B.

    PubMed

    Filip, Adriana; Daicoviciu, Doina; Clichici, Simona; Bolfa, Pompei; Catoi, Cornel; Baldea, Ioana; Bolojan, Laura; Olteanu, Diana; Muresan, Adriana; Postescu, I D

    2011-11-03

    The study investigated the protective activity of red grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety) (BM) extracts in vivo on multiple doses of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-B-induced deleterious effects in SKH-1 mice skin. Eighty 8-weeks-old female SKH-1 mice were divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle, UV-B irradiated, vehicle+UV-B irradiated, BM 2.5mg polyphenols (PF)/cm(2)+UV-B irradiated, BM 4 mg PF/cm(2)+UV-B irradiated, UV-B+BM 2.5mg PF/cm(2), UV-B+BM 4 mg PF/cm(2). The extract was applied topically before or after each UV-B exposure (240 mJ/cm(2)), for 10 days consecutively. The antioxidant activity of BM extract is higher than gallic acid (k(BM)=0.017, k(gallic acid)=0.013). Multiple doses of UV-B generated the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and sunburn cells, increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities respectively glutathione (GSH) and IL-1β levels in skin. In group treated with 2.5mg PF/cm(2) before UV-B irradiation BM extract inhibited UV-B-induced sunburn cells, restored the superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, increased insignificantly CAT and GPx activities and reduced IL-1β level. The BM 4.0 mg PF/cm(2) treatment decreased GSH level and reduced the percentage of CPDs positive cells in skin. Both doses of BM extract administered after UV-B irradiation increased the MnSOD and GPx activities and reduced the formation of sunburn cells in skin. Our results suggest that BM extract might be a potential chemo-preventive candidate in reducing the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by multiple doses of UV-B in skin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of genetic and vintage factors in flavan-3-ol composition of grape seeds of a segregating Vitis vinifera population.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maria M; Song, Shiren; Menéndez, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    Flavan-3-ol compounds are important secondary metabolites which show high antioxidant activity and are responsible for bitterness and astringency of food products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential for selecting grape materials with higher seed flavanol content from a breeding population. The composition and content of flavan-3-ols from 151 genotypes obtained from crossing wine grape varieties was evaluated by UPLC in three consecutive years. Chromatograms of flavan-3-ol compounds showed the same 12 compounds for all samples, but quantitative differences were observed between genotypes as well as parental varieties. The most abundant compounds were (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin followed by proanthocyanidins A2 and B2. Progeny showed higher values than the parental genotypes for every detected compound indicating directional transgressive segregation. With these results genotypes with as much as five times more flavanols than their parents could be identified. The year effect was significant; however, high correlations between years for each compound indicated that there is a strong genetic component in the determination of flavanol content. Higher contents of seed flavan-3-ols can be obtained by hybridisation, and those genotypes could be used for extracting healthy phytochemicals, adding value to seeds as a sub-product in wine elaboration. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The relationship between antiglycation activity and procyanidin and phenolic content in commercial grape seed products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cathy; McIntyre, Kristina; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Arnason, John Thor

    2012-02-01

    Eight commercial grape seed products (GSPs) were assessed for their inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. All 8 commercial GSPs included in this study were potent inhibitors of advanced glycation end-product formation with IC(50) values ranging from 2.93 to 20.0 µg/mL. Total procyanidin content ranged from 60% to 73%. HPLC-DAD-ELSD results indicate that (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and procyanidin B2 were predominant and ubiquitously present in all the products under study, while gallic acid and procyanidin B4 were present in relatively minor amounts. The IC(50) values correlated with total phenolic content, and multiple regression analysis indicated that IC(50) is a linear function of the concentration of gallic acid and procyanidins B1, B2, and B4. Based on this study, GSPs have the potential to complement conventional diabetes medication toward disease management and prevention.

  2. Free radical scavenging of grape pomace extracts from Cabernet sauvingnon (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    de Campos, Luanda M A S; Leimann, Fernanda V; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2008-11-01

    Pressed grape pomace obtained from the wine production of Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vintage was dried until 9.8% moisture content, ground and submitted to extraction of soluble components from different extraction techniques. Low pressure extractions were performed with ethanol maceration followed by fractionation with n-hexane, dichloromethane, butanol and ethyl acetate. These solvents were furthermore applied for soxhlet extraction. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was also performed to obtain grape pomace extracts by using pure CO2 and CO2 with ethanol as co-solvent in concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%w/w. The operating condition used in high pressure extractions was 150bar and 40 degrees C. The antioxidant activity of the grape pomace extracts was determined considering the free radical scavenging assay using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and was correlated with the total phenol content determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results obtained in DPPH tests indicate the highest antioxidant activity of 96.6+/-0.3%AA, with an IC50 value of 13+/-1, for the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate in solid-liquid extraction. The highest yield values were achieved in soxhlet extraction with ethanol (13.2%w/w) and with butanol (12.2%w/w), and also by SFE with 15% ethanol (9.2%w/w). The lipophilic composition of grape pomace extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the identification of components like linoleic acid and ethyl linoleate, with important therapeutic activities.

  3. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance, and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Clifford; Ross, Carolyn F

    2011-09-01

    Grape seed flour (GSF) from grape pomace, a waste product generated during winemaking, was explored for use in bread production due to its potential health benefits. This study evaluated the consumer acceptance and physical properties of bread, including total phenolic content (TPC), made with varying levels of GSF. Dough and breads were prepared using different levels of replacement of hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) with GSF (0 to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS) and stored for 0, 2, or 6 wk at -20 °C. Replacement of 10 g GSF/100 g HRS increased the bread TPC from 0.064 mg tannic acid/g dry weight to 4.25 mg tannic acid/g dry weight. Consumer acceptance and instrumental analyses were used to investigate changes in sensory and texture properties due to GSF replacement. Replacement above 5 g GSF/100 g HRS decreased the loaf brightness and volume, with an increase in the bread hardness and porosity. Generally, breads containing ≥ 7.5 g GSF/100 g HRS were characterized by lower consumer acceptance. A reduction in overall and bitterness acceptance was observed in bread at 10 g GSF/100 g HRS, with decreased acceptance of astringency and sweetness at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Based on these results, the replacement of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads with acceptable physical and sensory properties and high TPC activity compared to refined bread. This study shows that grape seed flour (GSF) can be used to replace hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) in bread production, with moderate impact on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Replacement of up to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS significantly decreased overall consumer acceptance of the bread, with lower consumer acceptance of sweetness and astringency at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Thus, a replacement value of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin.

  5. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin. PMID:27341398

  6. Anticarcinogenic activity of polyphenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, renal and thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sahpazidou, Despina; Geromichalos, George D; Stagos, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Anna; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Tzanakakis, George N; Hayes, A Wallace; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-10-15

    A major part of the wineries' wastes is composed of grape stems which are discarded mainly in open fields and cause environmental problems due mainly to their high polyphenolic content. The grape stem extracts' use as a source of high added value polyphenols presents great interest because this combines a profitable venture with environmental protection close to wine-producing zones. In the present study, at first, the Total Polyphenolic Content (TPC) and the polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts from four different Greek Vitis vinifera varieties were determined by HPLC methods. Afterwards, the grape stem extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit growth of colon (HT29), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-23), renal (786-0 and Caki-1) and thyroid (K1) cancer cells. The cancer cells were exposed to the extracts for 72 h and the effects on cell growth were evaluated using the SRB assay. The results indicated that all extracts inhibited cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of 121-230 μg/ml (MCF-7), 121-184 μg/ml (MDA-MD-23), 175-309 μg/ml (HT29), 159-314 μg/ml (K1), 180-225 μg/ml (786-0) and 134->400 μg/ml (Caki-1). This is the first study presenting the inhibitory activity of grape stem extracts against growth of colon, breast, renal and thyroid cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  8. Optimization of replacing pork back fat with grape seed oil and rice bran fiber for reduced-fat meat emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Ju-Woon; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% and partially substituting the pork fat with a mix of grape seed oil (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) and 2% rice bran fiber were investigated based on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, and viscosity of reduced-fat meat batters. For reduced-fat meat batters containing grape seed oil and rice bran fiber the moisture and ash contents, uncooked and cooked pH values, yellowness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility were higher than in the control samples. The reduced-fat samples with increasing grape seed oil concentrations had lower cooking loss, emulsion stability, and apparent viscosity. The incorporation of grape seed oil and rice bran fiber successfully reduced the animal fat content in the final products while improving other characteristics.

  9. Morphometric and histopathological evaluation of the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin on alveolar bone loss in experimental diabetes and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Toker, H; Balci Yuce, H; Lektemur Alpan, A; Gevrek, F; Elmastas, M

    2018-06-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidine extract (GSPE) is a strong antioxidant derived from the grape seeds (Vitis vinifera, Terral J.F.) and has a polyphenolic structure with a wide range of biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on alveolar bone loss and histopathological changes in rats with diabetes mellitus and ligature-induced periodontitis. Forty rats were divided into 6 study groups. Control (C, 6 rats) group, periodontitis (P, 6 rats) group, diabetes (D, 6 rats) group, diabetes and periodontitis (D+P, 6 rats) group, diabetes, periodontitis and 100 mg/kg/day GSPE (GSPE-100, 8 rats), and diabetes, periodontitis and 200 mg/kg/day GSPE (GSPE-200, 8 rats) group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Periodontitis was induced via ligation method. Silk ligatures were placed at the mandibular right first molars. GSPE was administered by oral gavage. After 30 days, all rats were killed. Alveolar bone loss was measured morphometrically via a stereomicroscope. For histopathological analyses, Alizarin red staining, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α immunohistochemistry were performed. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclast cells and relative total inflammatory cells were also determined. The highest alveolar bone loss was observed in the D+P group (P < .05). GSP-200 group decreased alveolar bone loss (P < .05). The D+P group had the highest osteoclast counts, but the difference was not significant compared to the P, GSPE-100 and GSPE-200 groups (P > .05). The inflammation in the D+P group was also higher than the other groups (P < .05). The osteoblast numbers increased in the GSPE-100 and GSPE-200 groups compared to the P and D+P groups (P < .05). MMP-8 and HIF-1α levels were highest in the D+P group and GSPE significantly decreased these levels (P < .05

  10. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  11. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  12. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent the cafeteria-diet-induced decrease of glucagon-like peptide-1 production.

    PubMed

    González-Abuín, Noemi; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-02-05

    Grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to improve insulin resistance in cafeteria rats. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in glucose homeostasis, the preventive effects of GSPE on GLP-1 production, secretion, and elimination were evaluated in a model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks, and 25 mg of GSPE/kg of body weight was administered concomitantly. Vehicle-treated cafeteria-fed rats and chow-fed rats were used as controls. The cafeteria diet decreased active GLP-1 plasma levels, which is attributed to a decreased intestinal GLP-1 production, linked to reduced colonic enteroendocrine cell populations. Such effects were prevented by GSPE. In the same context, GSPE avoided the decrease on intestinal dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity and modulated the gene expression of GLP-1 and its receptor in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, the preventive treatment with GSPE abrogates the effects of the cafeteria diet on intestinal GLP-1 production and DPP4 activity.

  13. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I

    2015-04-30

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  14. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle. PMID:25942487

  15. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted. PMID:22919383

  16. Biosynthesis of Oligomeric Anthocyanins from Grape Skin Extracts.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Natarajan, Sithranga Boopathy; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jae Woong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2017-03-21

    We synthesized oligomeric anthocyanins from grape skin-derived monomeric anthocyanins such as anthocyanidin and proanthocyanidin by a fermentation technique using Aspergillus niger, crude enzymes and glucosidase. The biosyntheses of the oligomeric anthocyanins carried out by the conventional method using Aspergillus niger and crude enzymes were confirmed by ESI-MS. The molecular weight of the synthesized anthocyanin oligomers was determined using MALDI-MS. The yield of anthocyanin oligomers using crude enzymes was higher than that of the synthesis using Aspergillus fermentation. Several studies have been demonstrated that oligomeric anthocyanins have higher antioxidant activity than monomeric anthocyanins. Fermentation-based synthesis of oligomeric anthocyanins is an alternative way of producing useful anthocyanins that could support the food industry.

  17. Protective role of extracts of grape skin and grape flesh on ethanol-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and histological alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sukhes; Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D M

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol consumption has deleterious effects on all organs and especially on brain. In our study, the radical scavenging properties of grape skin and grape flesh (contains natural antioxidants like polyphenols) was determined in vitro and for in vivo studies, male Wistar rats (16-18 week-old) and 100-120 gm weight were divided in five groups of six animals each. One group were fed with ethanol (1.6 gm/kg body weight), while second group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight) and grape skin extract (2.5 g/kg body weight), the third group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight) and grape flesh extract, daily once for 12 weeks, while the fourth group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight) and tocopheryl acetate (80 mg/kg/day) daily once for 12 weeks. Results of in vitro studies indicate that grape skin extracts showed significant radical scavenging properties (ROS). There was also significantly alteration of serum cytokines in our study.

  18. Color and polyphenolic stability in extracts produced from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Jorge A; Lee, Joon-Hee; Talcott, Stephen T

    2009-09-23

    The muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) industry of the southern United States is largely devoid of value-added processes that capture the phytochemical content of wine and juice byproducts. Methods to recover and stabilize polyphenolics from muscadine grape pomace following juice manufacture were evaluated in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials. In laboratory-scale trials using osmotic equilibration, water-based extracts from juice pomace initially extracted 31-42% of total polyphenolics, 26-32% of total ellagic acid, and 36-62% of total anthocyanins. When adsorbed onto Amberlite XAD-4 resin to concentrate polyphenolics, these extracts lost 10.5% of their total ellagic acid from inefficient adsorption to the solid phase support. Subsequent pilot-scale trials were evaluated using hot water extracts from grape juice pomace followed by aerobic yeast fermentation to remove sugars and comparison to reversed phase C(18) and Amberlite XAD-4. Extracts were also concentrated using spray-drying and vacuum evaporation. Fermentation had a minor impact on the retention of most polyphenolic compounds evaluated, yet resulted in a 16.3% decrease in antioxidant capacity. Spray-drying resulted in a 30.3% loss in total anthocyanins, a 21.5% loss in total phenolics, and a 23.3% decrease in antioxidant activity, whereas vacuum evaporation had no deleterious impact on these parameters. The physiology of the muscadine grape and its unique phytochemical composition has limited utilization of pomace from wine and juice manufacture. However, these studies demonstrated the potential to extract and concentrate polyphenolic-rich extracts for use in value-added applications.

  19. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  20. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-08-27

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following starch challenge. This is the

  1. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following

  2. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    PubMed

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  3. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  4. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, enhance unsaturated fatty acids in the milk of Sarda dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Correddu, F; Gaspa, G; Pulina, G; Nudda, A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone or in combination, on sheep milk fatty acids (FA) profile using 24 Sarda dairy ewes allocated to 4 isoproductive groups. Groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet including 300 g/d per animal of grape seed (GS), a diet including 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet including a mix of 300 g/d per animal of grape seed and 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with a 2-wk adaptation period and an 8-wk experimental period. Milk FA composition was analyzed in milk samples collected in the last 4 wk of the trial. The milk concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased and that of unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (UFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively) increased in GS, LIN, and MIX groups compared with CON. The MIX group showed the lowest values of SFA and the highest of UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. Milk from ewes fed linseed (LIN and MIX) showed an enrichment of vaccenic acid (VA), oleic acid (OA), α-linolenic acid (LNA), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) compared with milk from the CON group. The GS group showed a greater content of milk oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and tended to show a greater content of VA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA than the CON group. The inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, decreased the milk concentration of de novo synthesized FA C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0, with the MIX group showing the lowest values. In conclusion, grape seed and linseed could be useful to increase the concentration of FA with potential health benefits, especially when these ingredients are included in combination in the diet. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination of grape extract-silver nanoparticles and liposomes: A totally green approach.

    PubMed

    Castangia, Ines; Marongiu, Francesca; Manca, Maria Letizia; Pompei, Raffaello; Angius, Fabrizio; Ardu, Andrea; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria; Ennas, Guido

    2017-01-15

    In the present work, silver nanoparticles were prepared using a totally green procedure combining silver nitrate and an extract of grape pomace as a green source. Additionally, nanoparticles were stabilized using phospholipid and water and/or a mixture of water and propylene glycol (PG). To the best of our knowledge, grape-silver nanoparticle stabilized liposomes or PG-liposomes were formulated, for the first time, combining the residual products of wine-made industry, silver nitrate and phospholipids, avoiding the addition of hazardous substances to human health and the environment, in an easy, scalable and reproducible method. The structure and morphology of grape-silver nanoparticle stabilized vesicles were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. Samples were designed as possible carrier for skin protection because of their double function: the grape extract acts as antioxidant and the colloidal silver as antimicrobial agent, which might be helpful in eliminating dangerous free radicals and many pathogenic microorganisms. Obtained nanoparticles were small in size and their combination with phospholipids did not hamper the vesicle formation, which were multilamellar and sized ~100nm. TEM images shows a heterogeneous distribution of nanoparticles, which were located both in the intervesicular medium and in the vesicular structure. Further, grape-silver nanoparticles, when stabilized by liposomes, were able to inhibit the proliferation of both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and provided a great protection of keratinocytes and fibroblasts against oxidative stress avoiding their damage and death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender-related similarities and differences in the body distribution of grape seed flavanols in rats.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Arola, Lluís; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Dietary flavanols produce beneficial health effects, and once absorbed, they are recognized as xenobiotics and undergo phase-II enzymatic detoxification. Flavanols health-promoting properties are mainly attributed to their metabolic products. This work aimed to elucidate whether rats of the opposite sex exhibited differences in the metabolism and distribution of ingested flavanols. Acute doses of grape seed polyphenols were administered to male and female rats. After 1, 2 and 4 h, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain and hypothalamus flavanol metabolites were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. Results indicated important sex-related quantitative differences in plasma and brain. Moreover, remarkable sex-related differences in the distributions and types of flavanol metabolites were also observed between liver and brain. This study demonstrated that sex differentially influences the metabolism and distribution of flavanols throughout the bodies of rats, which may affect the physiological bioactivities of flavanols between males and females. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinfa; Qi, Fengjie; Ye, Liping; Yao, Suyan

    2016-03-17

    We investigated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Sixty SPF KM mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, CCl4-model group, bifendate group (DDB group), and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GSP groups. The following parameters were measured: serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin-6 (IL-6); high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1; body weight; liver, spleen, and thymus indexes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; HMGB1 mRNA; malondialdehyde (MDA) content; hepatocyte proliferation; and changes in liver histology. Compared to the CCl4-model group, decreases in liver index and increases in thymus index significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA content, and higher hepatocyte proliferative activity was found in all GSP dose groups and the DDB group (all P<0.001). Compared with the CCl4-model group, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and HMGB 1 mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly in the high GSP dose group (all P<0.05). Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  9. Antioxidant activity of hybrid grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural antioxidants to inhibit oxidation in edible oils are in high demand. Grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace is an abundant and inexpensive source of polyphenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for numerous health benefits. We examined pomace from eight varieties of Midwestern hybrid grapes for p...

  10. Antioxidant activity of grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Grape pomace is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We examined pomace from nine varieties of Midwestern grapes for total phenolic content and antioxidant acti...

  11. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of hemicelluloses from grape pomace using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Minjares-Fuentes, R; Femenia, A; Garau, M C; Candelas-Cadillo, M G; Simal, S; Rosselló, C

    2016-03-15

    An ultrasound-assisted procedure was applied to the extraction of hemicelluloses from grape pomace at a mild temperature (20°C). A Central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of hemicelluloses from grape pomace with the aim to maximize their extraction yield, and, also, the obtention of the main polymers forming this fraction: Xyloglucans (XLG), Mannans (MAN) and Xylans (XN). Extraction time (X1), solid:liquid ratio (X2) and KOH concentration (X3) were the variables used to optimize the process. The conditions that maximize (1) the extraction yield of hemicelluloses and the contents of (2) XLG, (3) MAN and (4) XN, were: (1) X1=2.6h; X2=1:48 (w/v); X3=0.4M, (2) X1=2.9h; X2=1:57 (w/v); X3=2.25M, (3) X1=2.7h; X2=1:58(w/v);X3=2.2M, and (4) X1=3h; X2=1:60 (w/v); X3=2.3M, respectively. Under these conditions, the maximum extraction yield of hemicelluloses, XLG, MAN and XN contents were: ∼7.9±0.2%, ∼3.6±0.02%, ∼1.1±0.04% and ∼1.2±0.02%, respectively. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values was found. The results suggest that the ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good option for the extraction of hemicellulosic polysaccharides from grape pomace at industrial level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intra-regional classification of grape seeds produced in Mendoza province (Argentina) by multi-elemental analysis and chemometrics tools.

    PubMed

    Canizo, Brenda V; Escudero, Leticia B; Pérez, María B; Pellerano, Roberto G; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2018-03-01

    The feasibility of the application of chemometric techniques associated with multi-element analysis for the classification of grape seeds according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated. Grape seed samples from different localities of Mendoza province (Argentina) were evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of twenty-nine elements (Ag, As, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, La, Lu, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pr, Rb, Sm, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr). Once the analytical data were collected, supervised pattern recognition techniques such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) were applied to construct classification/discrimination rules. The results indicated that nonlinear methods, RF and SVM, perform best with up to 98% and 93% accuracy rate, respectively, and therefore are excellent tools for classification of grapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of grape stem extract applied as disinfectant in fresh leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Armenta, F J; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; González-Aguilar, G A; Nazzaro, F; Fratianni, F; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2017-09-01

    In the present study total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties of grape (Vitis vinifera var. Red Globe) stem extract is reported. Also, the identification of main phenolic compounds was carried out by UPLC-PAD analysis. TPC and TFC of extract were 37.25 g GAE kg -1 and 98.07 g QE kg -1 , respectively. Extract showed an antioxidant capacity of 132.60 and 317 g TE kg -1 for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified were rutin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechin and ferulic acid. Extract inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes , Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157: H7 at MIC range 16-18 g L -1 . Extract affected the different phases of bacterial growth. In addition, application of Extract (25 g L -1 ) as a sanitizer was effective to reduce the populations of all bacteria inoculated in lettuce (0.859-1.884 log reduction) and spinach (0.843-2.605 log reduction). This study emphasizes the potential of grape processing byproducts as an emergent and attractive source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against important foodborne pathogens. The study demonstrated that stem extract could be used to control the presence of human pathogenic bacteria in fresh leafy vegetables.

  15. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  16. Production of antioxidant compounds of grape seed skin by fermentation and its optimization using response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andayani, D. G. S.; Risdian, C.; Saraswati, V.; Primadona, I.; Mawarda, P. C.

    2017-03-01

    Skins and seeds of grape are waste generated from food industry. These wastes contain nutrients of which able to be utilized as an important source for antioxidant metabolite production. Through an environmentally friendly process, natural antioxidant material was produced. This study aimed to generate antioxidant compounds by liquid fermentation. Optimization was carried out by using Schizosaccharomyces cerevisiae in Katu leaf substrate. Optimization variables through response surface methodology (RSM) were of sucrose concentration, skins and seeds of grape concentration, and pH. Results showed that the optimum conditions for antioxidant production were of 5 g/L sucrose, 5 g/L skins and seed at pH 5, respectively. The resulted antioxidant activity was of 1.62 mg/mL. Mathematical model of variance analysis using a second order polynomial corresponding to the resulted data for the antioxidant was of 20.70124 - 3.86997 A - 0.65996 B - 1.88367 C + 0.19634 A2 - 0.016638 B2 + 0.28848 C2 + 0.26980 AB - 0.068333 AC - 0.12367 BC. From the gained equation, the optimum yield from all variables was significant. Chemical analysis of the antioxidant was carried out using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  17. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  18. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  20. Acute administration of single oral dose of grape seed polyphenols restores blood pressure in a rat model of metabolic syndrome: role of nitric oxide and prostacyclin.

    PubMed

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness of different doses of grape seed polyphenols in cafeteria diet-fed hypertensive rats (CHRs) and to establish the mechanism involved in the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of these compounds in this experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS). Male 8-week-old Wistar rats were fed cafeteria or standard (ST) diet for 10 weeks. After this, the antihypertensive effect of a single oral administration of a polyphenol grape seed extract (GSPE) was tested at different doses (250, 375 and 500 mg/kg) in CHRs. BP was recorded before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-administration. The hypotensive effect of GSPE was also proved in ST diet-fed rats. Additionally, in other experiment, CHRs were orally administered 375 mg/kg GSPE. Four hours post-administration, the rats were intraperitoneally administrated 30 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 5 mg/kg indomethacin [inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin synthesis, respectively]. BP was recorded initially and 6 h post-administration. GSPE produced a decrease in SBP and DBP, the most effective dose (375 mg/kg) showing an antihypertensive effect in CHRs similar to the drug captopril, and did not affect BP of ST diet-fed rats. The antihypertensive effect was completely abolished by L-NAME and partially inhibited by indomethacin. GSPE acts as an antihypertensive agent in a rat model of hypertension associated with MS. The change in endothelium-derived NO availability is one of the mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effect of GSPE in CHRs. Additionally, endothelial prostacyclin contributes to the effect of GSPE on arterial BP.

  1. Phenolic content and in vitro antifungal activity of unripe grape extracts from agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Milella, Rosa Anna; Antonacci, Donato; Innocenti, Marzia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-12-07

    The antifungal activity of unripe grape extracts from agro-industrial wastes has been evaluated against several strains of Candida spp. and dermatophytes. All the extracts tested showed antifungal activity. The geometric mean MIC ranged from 53.58 to 214.31 μg/mL for Candida spp. and from 43.54 to 133.02 μg/mL for dermatophytes. The chemical analyses have been carried out using Liquid Chromatograph equipped with a DAD and MS detectors. Flavan-3-ols were the main metabolites within all samples ranged from 3.3 to 6.8 mg/g fresh weight. For Candida spp. highest negative significant correlation has been found between MICs and polymeric flavan-3-ols (r = -0.842; p < 0.001) and for dermatophytes between MICs and caffeoyl derivatives (r = -0.962; p < 0.01). The results indicate that total extracts obtained from unripe grapes, a large source of waste material derived from the wine industry, could be used as a cheap source of value-added products.

  2. Unsaponifiable fraction isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil attenuates oxidative and inflammatory responses in human primary monocytes.

    PubMed

    Millan-Linares, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Martin, Maria E; Muñoz, Ernesto; Abia, Rocio; Millan, Francisco; Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio

    2018-04-25

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed has well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Herein, we report that the unsaponifiable fraction (UF) isolated from grape seed oil (GSO) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties towards human primary monocytes. The UF isolated from GSO was phytochemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC. Freshly obtained human monocytes were used to analyse the effects of GSOUF (10-100 μg mL-1) on oxidative and inflammatory responses using FACS analysis, RT-qPCR, and ELISA procedures. GSOUF skewed the monocyte plasticity towards the anti-inflammatory non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes and reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human primary monocytes diminishing TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression and secretion. In addition, GSOUF showed a strong reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, reducing significantly nitrite levels with a significant decrease in Nos2 gene expression. Our results suggest that the UF isolated from GSO has significant potential for the management of inflammatory and oxidative conditions and offer novel benefits derived from the consumption of GSO in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    PubMed

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  4. Influence of berry ripeness on accumulation, composition and extractability of skin and seed flavonoids in cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Allegro, Gianluca; Pastore, Chiara; Valentini, Gabriele; Muzzi, Enrico; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2016-10-01

    The anthocyanin and tannin concentration and composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese berries were investigated from post-veraison to harvest. Exhaustive extraction with methanol and acetone was performed to determine the total flavonoid concentration, while a model hydroalcoholic solution was used to prepare extracts representing the winemaking process. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge of the phenolic maturity of Sangiovese grape. The total anthocyanin concentration increased during ripening, but the quantity of extractable anthocyanins increased more rapidly than the total. The total skin tannin concentration declined from post-veraison to harvest, whereas the extractable portion increased, with little difference in the composition of the fractions. Both the total and extractable seed tannin concentration diminished rapidly just after veraison, and only small fluctuations were detected until harvest. These results indicate that the extractability of anthocyanins and skin tannins increases during ripening, whereas there is no clear trend for seed tannins during the same period. This is the first survey to study the behavior of phenolic compounds during different steps of ripening of Sangiovese grape. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6.

  6. Autumn Royal and Ribier Grape Juice Extracts Reduced Viability and Metastatic Potential of Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Manuel; Bastias, Lorena; Montenegro, Iván; Werner, Enrique; Madrid, Alejandro; Godoy, Patricio; Párraga, Mario; Villena, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to be beneficial to health. This paper evaluates the potential chemopreventive and anticancer properties of phenolic compounds present in grape juice extracts (GJE) from Autumn Royal and Ribier varieties. The effects of these GJE on viability (SRB day assay) and metastatic potential (migration and invasion parameters) of colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-480 were evaluated. The effects of GJE on two matrix metalloproteinase gene expressions (MMP2 and MMP9) were also evaluated via qRT-PCR. In the former, GJE reduced cell viability in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. GJE treatment also reduced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression diminished depending on extract and on cell type. Conclusions . These results provide novel information concerning anticancer properties of selected GJE by revealing selective cytotoxicity and the ability to reduce invasiveness of colon cancer cells.

  7. Electronic structure and optical properties of some anthocyanins extracted from grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosub, Ion; Kajzar, Francois; Makowska-Janusik, Malgorzata; Meghea, Aurelia; Tane, Alexandrina; Rau, Ileana

    2012-08-01

    The pallet of applications of natural dyes and pigments is continuously extending as a stringent need to meet the challenges arisen from sustainable development, particularly related to replacing synthetic chemicals by eco-friendly renewable raw materials. In this respect, the well known nutritive and therapeutic properties demonstrated by anthocyanin compounds present in selective plant extracts of numerous fruits, vegetables and flowers could be largely complemented by their characteristics as chromophores and fluorophores with high potential in promising applications in bio-imaging for diagnostic and therapy, but also in electronic and photonic devices, solar cells, etc. In this context, this paper proposes an improved protocol for extraction and HPLC detection of anthocyanins from black grapes. Moreover, in order to exploit their potential to be applied as chromatic and fluorescence molecular probes, the electronic properties have been studied by correlating spectral characteristics with trichromatic parameters, combined with quantum chemistry computation.

  8. Autumn Royal and Ribier Grape Juice Extracts Reduced Viability and Metastatic Potential of Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Manuel; Bastias, Lorena; Montenegro, Iván; Werner, Enrique; Madrid, Alejandro; Godoy, Patricio

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to be beneficial to health. This paper evaluates the potential chemopreventive and anticancer properties of phenolic compounds present in grape juice extracts (GJE) from Autumn Royal and Ribier varieties. The effects of these GJE on viability (SRB day assay) and metastatic potential (migration and invasion parameters) of colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-480 were evaluated. The effects of GJE on two matrix metalloproteinase gene expressions (MMP2 and MMP9) were also evaluated via qRT-PCR. In the former, GJE reduced cell viability in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. GJE treatment also reduced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression diminished depending on extract and on cell type. Conclusions. These results provide novel information concerning anticancer properties of selected GJE by revealing selective cytotoxicity and the ability to reduce invasiveness of colon cancer cells. PMID:29552079

  9. Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-11-10

    Norton grape is one of the most important wine grapes in Southern and Midwestern states and generates massive pomace byproducts. The objective of this study is to characterize the antioxidant compounds and activity in Norton grape pomace extract (GPE) and further assess the potential health promoting properties of Norton GPE using an animal disease model. The total phenolic content and anthocyanins in Norton GPE were 475.4 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and 156.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/g, respectively. Catechin and epicatechin in GPE were 28.6 and 24.5 mg/g, respectively. Other major antioxidants in GPE included quercetin (1.6 mg/g), trans-resveratrol (60 μg/g), gallic acid (867.2 μg/g), coutaric acid (511.8 μg/g), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (408.3 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (371.5 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of GPE was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and was 4133 μmol of Trolox equiv/g. Male diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a normal diet (ND group), a high fat diet (HF group), and the high fat diet supplemented with GPE (HFGPE group). After 12-week treatment, mice in the high fat diet groups gained 29% more weight than the ND group. The GPE supplementation (estimated 250 mg/kg bw/d) lowered plasma C-reactive protein levels by 15.5% in the high fat diet fed mice (P < 0.05), suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect by dietary GPE. However, dietary GPE did not improve oxidative stress in DIO mice as determined by plasma ORAC, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. The results showed that GPE contained significant antioxidants and dietary GPE exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in diet induced obesity.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  11. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    PubMed

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.

  12. Preventive effects of an original combination of grape seed polyphenols with amine fluoride on dental biofilm formation and oxidative damage by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Furiga, A; Roques, C; Badet, C

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of an original combination of a grape seed extract (GSE) with an amine fluoride (Fluorinol(®) ) on dental plaque formation and oxidative damage caused by oral bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed using the broth macrodilution method, and their antiplaque activity was evaluated on a multispecies biofilm grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The effect on glucosyltransferases activity was analysed through reductions in the overall reaction and the quantity of insoluble glucan synthesized. The combination of 2000 μg ml(-1) of GSE with 10·2 mg ml(-1) of Fluorinol(®) significantly decreased the biofilm formation (up to 4·76 log10 of reduction) and inhibited by 97·4% the insoluble glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases. The antioxidant activity of this combination, alone or incorporated into a formulated mouthwash (Eludril daily(®) ), was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), and both showed significantly greater antioxidant capacity than vitamin C. The GSE/Fluorinol(®) combination showed both a significant antiplaque activity and an important antioxidant capacity in vitro, without any bactericidal effects. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on the properties of an original combination of a polyphenolic extract with amine fluoride that could be used for the prevention of oral diseases and oxidative damage associated. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  14. Extraction of Proanthocyanidins and Anthocyanins from Grape Skin by Using Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary In this study, eight different types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were applied as new solvents in the extraction of flavonoids from grape skin, and compared to the conventional organic solvent extraction that was not reported earlier. The structure of anions, cations and concentration of ILs significantly affected extraction yields. The highest mass fractions of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were obtained with 2.5 mol/L of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C4mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C2mim][Br], respectively. The studied ILs provided an excellent preliminary result in the extraction of anthocyanins. Significantly higher mass fractions of total and all free anthocyanins were extracted with 2.5 mol/L of [C2mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [mim][HSO4] than with conventional solvent with the exception of anthocyanin-3-O-acetylmonoglucosides in the latter. On the other hand, 2.5 mol/L of [C4mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [sC4mim][HSO4] showed significantly higher selectivity towards anthocyanin-3-O-acetylmonoglucosides and anthocyanin-3-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)monoglucosides. PMID:29089857

  15. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H.; Ibrahim, Faten M.; Mohafrash, Samia M. M.; Abou Baker, Doha H.; El Gengaihi, Souad

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity. PMID:26265923

  16. New insight into the unresolved HPLC broad peak of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed polymeric tannins by combining CPC and Q-ToF approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Alessandra Paissoni, Maria; Jourdes, Michäel; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-05-30

    Polymeric tannins from grapes have always been reported as an unresolved broad peak in HPLC chromatograms, and this has severely limited their identification to date. This study aimed to disassemble this broad peak and explore the polymeric tannin molecules inside. By applying centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), an efficient separation approach was developed to split the broad peak of grape seed tannins into fractions. Then, the fractions were analyzed by Q-ToF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to determine the corresponding structures of the tannins. The results suggest that grape seed polymeric tannins were eluted consecutively according to their degree of polymerization (DP). Condensed tannins identified in wine grape seed have a range of DP and degree of galloylation (DG) up to 20 and 11, respectively. The molecular mass of the largest molecule detected was 6067. To our knowledge, this is the first report to offer an insight into the broad peak of polymeric tannins found with HPLC and to characterize the tannins with a DP up to 20 as shown by HRMS and MS/MS data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  18. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travelet, Christophe; Stemmelen, Mylène; Lapinte, Vincent; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Borsali, Redouane

    2013-06-01

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters ( D h) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C19 to 19.2 nm for C57). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D h-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].

  19. Skin extracts from 2 Italian table grapes (Italia and Palieri) inhibit tissue factor expression by human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Milella, Rosa Anna; Antonacci, Donato; Crupi, Pasquale; Incampo, Francesca; Carrieri, Cosimo; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Grape and its products such as red wine and grape juice have well-known antithrombotic properties, which have been attributed to their high content in polyphenolic compounds. Most studies on the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, among which the suppression of tissue factor (TF) synthesis in blood mononuclear cells (MNC) and vascular endothelium is a prominent one, have been performed with purified polyphenols, while little is known about the effect of fresh grapes which contain a multitude of phytochemicals whose interaction may lead to different cell responses. In this study, we investigated the effect of grape skin extracts (GSEs) on TF expression in isolated blood MNC and in whole blood. Alcoholic extracts from skins of 2 grape varieties (Palieri and Italia) inhibited TF expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated MNC in a concentration-dependent manner with ≥90% inhibition of TF activity and antigen at 6 μg/mL of gallic acid equivalents. Noteworthy, GSEs were also able to inhibit the appearance of TF in whole blood challenged with LPS. The 2 grape varieties displayed a fairly similar TF-inhibiting capacity despite marked differences in phenolic profile. When selected purified polyphenols were tested, their ability to inhibit TF expression was markedly lower as compared to grape extracts, whereas a mixture of some representative polyphenols was much more efficient, supporting the occurrence of a synergistic effect. Given the key role of cell TF in thrombotic diseases, the inhibition of MNC-mediated clotting activation, if confirmed by in vivo studies, might represent an important antithrombotic mechanism. Our data indicate that the combination of different polyphenols, as in grape extracts, is much more efficient than the single constituents, a finding that might be useful as starting point for the development of new antithrombotic nutraceutics. In addition, our study validated a simple, inexpensive, and physiologically relevant in vitro

  20. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Excessive physical exercise overproduces reactive oxygen species. Even if elite sportsmen increase their antioxidant status by regular physical training, during the competition period, this improvement is not sufficient to limit free radical production which could be detrimental to the body. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, and crossover study on 20 elite sportsmen (handball = 10, basketball = 5, sprint = 4, and volleyball = 1) during the competition period was to determine if the consumption of a grape extract (GE; Vitis vinifera L.) was able to improve the parameters related to (i) anti-oxidative status and oxidative stress and (ii) physical performance. Specific biomarkers of antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, skeletal cell muscle damage, and other general biomarkers were determined in plasma and urine before (D0) and after one month (D30) of placebo or GE supplementation (400mg·d-1). Effort tests were conducted using the Optojump® system, which allows determining the total physical performance (EnRJ45), explosive power (RJ110), and fatigue (RJL5). The plasma ORAC value was not modified in the placebo group; however, GE increased the ORAC value compared to the placebo at D30 (14 966+/-335 vs 14 242+/-339 dµmol Teq·L-1; p < 0.05). The plasma FRAP value was significantly reduced in the placebo group, but not in the GE group. Therefore, GE limited the reduction of FRAP compared to the placebo at D30 (1 053.7+/-31.5 vs 993.7+/-26.7 µmol Teq·L-1; p < 0.05). Urinary isoprostane values were increased in the placebo group, but were not modified in the GE group. Consequently, GE limited the production of isoprostanes compared to the placebo at D30 (1.24+/-0.12 vs 1.26+/-0.13 ng·mg-1 creatinine; p < 0.05). GE administration, compared to the placebo at D30, reduced the plasmatic creatine phosphokinase concentration (CPK, 695.7+/-177.0 vs 480.0+/-81.1 IU·L-1, p = 0.1) and increased hemoglobin levels (Hb, 14.5+/-0.2 vs 14.8+/-0.2 vs

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectins from grape pomace using citric acid: a response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Minjares-Fuentes, R; Femenia, A; Garau, M C; Meza-Velázquez, J A; Simal, S; Rosselló, C

    2014-06-15

    An ultrasound-assisted procedure for the extraction of pectins from grape pomace with citric acid as the extracting agent was established. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction temperature (X1: 35-75°C), extraction time (X2: 20-60 min) and pH (X3: 1.0-2.0) to obtain a high yield of pectins with high average molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE) from grape pomace. Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield and for pectin MW whereas the DE of pectins was more influenced by a linear model. An optimization study using response surface methodology was performed and 3D response surfaces were plotted from the mathematical model. According to the RSM model, the highest pectin yield (∼32.3%) can be achieved when the UAE process is carried out at 75°C for 60 min using a citric acid solution of pH 2.0. These pectic polysaccharides, composed mainly by galacturonic acid units (<97% of total sugars), have an average MW of 163.9 kDa and a DE of 55.2%. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values was found. These results suggest that ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good option for the extraction of functional pectins with citric acid from grape pomace at industrial level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced NMR-based profiling of polyphenols in commercially available grape juices using solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Savage, Angela K; van Duynhoven, John P M; Tucker, Gregory; Daykin, Clare A

    2011-12-01

    Grapes and related products, such as juices, and in particular, their polyphenols, have previously been associated with many health benefits, such as protection against cardiovascular disease. Within grapes, a large range of structurally diverse polyphenols can be present, and their characterisation stands as a challenge. (1)H NMR spectroscopy in principle would provide a rapid, nondestructive and straightforward method for profiling of polyphenols. However, polyphenol profiling and identification in grape juices is hindered because of signals of prevailing carbohydrates causing spectral overlap and compromising dynamic range. This study describes the development of an extraction method prior to analysis using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can, potentially, significantly increase the number of detectable polyphenols and aid their identification, by reduction of signal overlap and selective removal of heavily dominating compounds such as sugars. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the effect on phenolic content, probiotic viability and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Karina Mo; de Oliveira, Isabel C; Lopes, Marcos Ac; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Buriti, Flávia Ca; Cabral, Lourdes M

    2017-03-01

    Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL -1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Influence of grape density and harvest date on changes in phenolic composition, phenol extractability indices, and instrumental texture properties during ripening.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Luca; Segade, Susana Río; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Cagnasso, Enzo; Marengo, Fabio; Gerbi, Vincenzo

    2011-08-24

    Changes in the phenolic composition, phenol extractability indices, and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. In this work, these changes were studied in Nebbiolo grapes harvested during five consecutive weeks and then separated according to three density classes. The changes observed in chemical and mechanical parameters through the ripening process are more related to berry density than harvest date. Therefore, the winemaker has to select the flotation density according to the objective quality properties of the wine to be elaborated. On the other hand, the stiffer grapes were associated with a higher accumulation of proanthocyanidins. The harder grapes provided the higher concentration and extractability of flavanols reactive to vanillin, whereas the thicker ones facilitated the extraction of proanthocyanidins.

  5. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  6. Sterculia guttata seeds extractives--an effective mosquito larvicide.

    PubMed

    Katade, Sushama R; Pawar, Pushpa V; Wakharkar, Radhika D; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2006-08-01

    The larvicidal activity of ethanol, chloroform and hexane soxhlet extracts obtained from S. guttata seeds was investigated against the IVth instar larvae of Dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. All extracts including fractions of ethanol extract exhibited 100% larval kill within 24 hr exposure period at 500 ppm concentration. Fraction A1 of ethanol was found to be most promising; its LC50 was 21.552 and 35.520 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti respectively. Naturally occurring S. guttata seed derived fractions merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or lead compounds.

  7. Kinetic modeling of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grape marc: influence of acoustic energy density and temperature.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The effects of acoustic energy density (6.8-47.4 W/L) and temperature (20-50 °C) on the extraction yields of total phenolics and tartaric esters during ultrasound-assisted extraction from grape marc were investigated in this study. The ultrasound treatment was performed in a 25-kHz ultrasound bath system and the 50% aqueous ethanol was used as the solvent. The initial extraction rate and final extraction yield increased with the increase of acoustic energy density and temperature. The two site kinetic model was used to simulate the kinetics of extraction process and the diffusion model based on the Fick's second law was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc. Both models gave satisfactory quality of data fit. The diffusion process was divided into one fast stage and one slow stage and the diffusion coefficients in both stages were calculated. Within the current experimental range, the diffusion coefficients of total phenolics and tartaric esters for both diffusion stages increased with acoustic energy density. Meanwhile, the rise of temperature also resulted in the increase of diffusion coefficients of phenolics except the diffusion coefficient of total phenolics in the fast stage, the value of which being the highest at 40 °C. Moreover, an empirical equation was suggested to correlate the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, the performance comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction and convention methods demonstrates that ultrasound is an effective and promising technology to extract bioactive substances from grape marc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats.

  9. In vivo bioavailability of polyphenols from grape by-product extracts, and effect on lipemia of normocholesterolemic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Ruiz-Roso, Maria Belen; Caporaso, Nicola; Perez-Olleros, Lourdes; De Las Heras, Natalia; Lahera, Vicente; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    2018-04-24

    The direct use of phenolic extracts from grape by-products can be useful to formulate functional food to improve consumers' health. The use of phenolic extracts instead of pure polyphenols as an ingredient is relevant in this context. The current work studied the bioavailability and absorption of polyphenols from grape by-product extracts and their health effect on cholesterolemia, by adding the extract (GE) to Wistar rats diet (50 g/kg) in vivo. GE caused the appearance of (+)-catechin, myricetin and quercetic acid in plasma and liver. (+)-Catechin was the most abundant compound, with 6 μg/mL in plasma and 0.7 μg/mg protein in liver, while no phenolic compounds were detected in plasma or liver in the control group. Similarly, 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC), a major product of polyphenol digestion, was detected in the plasma, liver and urine of the GE-group only. GE-group had significantly lower cholesterol level and lower total cholesterol/HDL ratio in plasma. Total bile acid (TBA) content significantly increased in faecal matter after 24 h administration of the GE-enriched diet. Grape extract polyphenols are partially bioavailable and showed improvement in lipid metabolism. Thus, the results suggest that GE is promising as a functional ingredient in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  11. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    PubMed

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  13. Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktiani, A.; Kusumanti, E.; Harjanti, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different protein and energy contents and supplementation ofZinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and grapes seed oil on milk production in dairy goat.Randomized block design(RBD) was used in this study. Twelve lactating Ettawah crossbreed goats divided into three groupsbased on milk production. The treatment ration were:T1 = ration containing 16% CPand 66% TDN; T2 = ration containing 14% CP and 63% TDN supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2 ppm; and T3 = T2 + 22 ml grapes seed oil/head/day. The ration wasa dry complete feed in the form of pellet. The feed ingredients used were rice bran, cassava, wheat pollard, soybean meal, coconut meal, molasses, coffee husk and corn straw.Experiment was conducted over 30 days. Results revealed that the goat fed the ration supplemented with Zn and Cr(T2) producehigher milk yield (1012.29 g/day) and better in milk fat production (P<0.05)compared to those fedT1 and T3. Feed intake was decreased in treatment supplemented with grapes seed oil in the T3 (P<0.05), but no significant in milk fat production compared with T1. In conclusion,drycomplete feed containingof CP 14%, TDN 63% supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2ppm is recommended for lactating dairy goat.

  14. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  15. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  16. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-10-15

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  17. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  18. Inhibition of advanced glycation end products by red grape skin extract and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jariyapamornkoon, Nattha; Yibchok-anun, Sirintorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-07-12

    The objective of the present study was to determine the phytochemical content and the protective effect of red grape skin extract (RGSE) against fructose-mediated protein oxidation. In addition, RGSE was screened for its potential as an antioxidant using various in vitro models. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating power. The total phenols content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, and the level of fructosamine. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. The results showed that the content of total phenolics, flavonoids and total anthocyanins in RGSE was 246.3 ± 0.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, 215.9 ± 1.3 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract, and 36.7 ± 0.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging activity, RGSE had the IC50 values of 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml, 5.40 ± 0.01 mg/ml, and 0.58 ± 0.01 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, RGSE had trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (395.65 ± 1.61 mg trolox equivalent/g dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (114.24 ± 0.03 mM FeSO4/g dried extract), and ferrous ion chelating power (3,474.05 ± 5.55 mg EDTA/g dried extract), respectively. The results showed that RGSE at different concentrations (0.031-0.500 mg/ml) has significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs in terms of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA during 4 weeks of study. The RGSE markedly decreased the level of fructosamine, which is directly

  19. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Archana, P; Tandan, S K; Chandra, S; Lal, J

    2005-05-01

    Ethanolic extract (70%) of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel has been subjected for its antipyretic and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats or mice of either sex at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally. The extract demonstrated marked antipyretic activity against Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract had significant central analgesic activity in hot plate and tail flick methods. It also exhibited marked peripheral analgesic effect in both acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and Randall-Selitto assay in rats. It also significantly inhibited the formalin-induced hind paw licking in mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel possesses potent antipyretic and antinociceptive activities and thus, validates its use in the treatment of pain and pyretic disorders. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Waste grape skins: evaluation of safety aspects for the production of functional powders and extracts for the food sector.

    PubMed

    Moncalvo, Alessandro; Marinoni, Laura; Dordoni, Roberta; Duserm Garrido, Guillermo; Lavelli, Vera; Spigno, Giorgia

    2016-07-01

    Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in extracts at very low levels, while potential allergenic amines, tyramine and histamine, were never detected. Different pesticides were present in both skins and extracts. Pb and Cd were found in trace only in the powders, and K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in both skin powders and extracts. Concentrations of the different contaminants were related to fibre content or total phenolics content of powders and extracts, respectively, in order to evaluate their use in the food sector.

  1. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  2. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  3. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  4. Antidiarrhoeal activity of seed extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth.

    PubMed

    Besra, S E; Gomes, A; Chaudhury, L; Vedasiromoni, J R; Ganguly, D K

    2002-09-01

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of the seed extract of Albizzia lebbeck (Benth.) was investigated employing conventional rodent models of diarrhoea, i.e. castor oil-induced diarrhoea, upper gastrointestinal transit (u.g.t.) and fluid secretion. It was found that the aqueous methanol extract of Albizzia lebbeck seeds (2.5-5 mg/kg i.p.) possessed antidiarrhoeal activity which strengthens the earlier use of the seeds in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The antidiarrhoeal dose of the extract was at least 10-30 times less than the LD(50) dose. The extract (2.5-5 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidiarrhoeal activity of loperamide (1 mg/kg i.p.). Nalaxone (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) significantly inhibited the antidiarrhoeal activity of the extract as well as loperamide, thus indicating a role of the opioid system in the antidiarrhoeal activity of the extract. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Quantitative description of the effect of stratification on dormancy release of grape seeds in response to various temperatures and water contents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. Q.; Song, S. Q.; Li, S. H.; Gan, Y. Y.; Wu, J. H.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of stratification on dormancy release of grape seeds crossing from the sub- to the supraoptimal range of temperatures and water contents was analysed by modified threshold models. The stratification impacted on dormancy release in three different ways: (i) dormancy was consistently released with prolonged stratification time when stratified at temperatures of <15 °C; (ii) at 15 °C and 20 °C, the stratification effect initially increased, and then decreased with extended time; and (iii) stratification at 25 °C only reduced germinable seeds. These behaviours indicated that stratification could not only release primary dormancy but also induce secondary dormancy in grape seed. The rate of dormancy release changed linearly in two phases, while induction increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The thermal time approaches effectively quantified dormancy release only at suboptimal temperature, but a quantitative method to integrate the occurrence of dormancy release and induction at the same time could describe it well at either sub- or supraoptimal temperatures. The regression with the percentage of germinable seeds versus stratification temperature or water content within both the sub- and supraoptimal range revealed how the optimal temperature (Tso) and water content (Wso) for stratification changed. The Tso moved from 10.6 °C to 5.3 °C with prolonged time, while Wso declined from >0.40 g H2O g DW−1 at 5 °C to ∼0.23 g H2O g DW−1 at 30 °C. Dormancy release in grape seeds can occur across a very wide range of conditions, which has important implications for their ability to adapt to a changeable environment in the wild. PMID:19491305

  6. Preheated milk proteins improve the stability of grape skin anthocyanins extracts.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effects of casein and whey proteins, preheated at 40-100°C and 45-60°C for 15min, respectively, on color loss and anthocyanins degradation in grape skin anthocyanins extracts (GSAE) at pH 3.2 and 6.3 were evaluated. Preheating milk proteins effectively improved their protective effects against color loss and anthocyanins degradation in GSAE solutions during thermal treatment (at 80°C for 2h), H2O2 oxidation (0.005% H2O2 for 1h) and illumination (at 5000lx for 5 d). Whey proteins and casein, preheated at 50°C and 60°C for 15min, respectively, demonstrated the optimal protective effects. However, preheated whey proteins had a better protective effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE, decreasing the thermal, oxidative and photo degradation of anthocyanins in GSAE 71.59%, 32.22% and 56.92% at pH 3.2 and 54.91%, 22.89% and 46.68% at pH 6.3, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro protective effect of a Jacquez grapes wine extract on UVB-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Tomaino, A; Cristani, M; Cimino, F; Speciale, A; Trombetta, D; Bonina, F; Saija, A

    2006-12-01

    Several studies have shown that UV radiation on the skin results in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that interact with proteins, lipids and DNA, thus altering cellular functions. The epidermis is composed mainly of keratinocytes, rich in ROS detoxifying enzymes and in low-molecular-mass antioxidant molecules. However, the increased generation of ROS can overwhelm the natural defences against oxidative stress. Therefore treatment of the skin with products containing plant-derived antioxidant ingredients may be a useful strategy for the prevention of UV-mediated cutaneous damage. In the present study we have investigated the in vitro capability of a Jacquez grapes wine extract (containing a significant level of proanthocyanidins, together with lower amounts of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids; JW-E), to protect skin against UVB-induced oxidative damage by using a three-dimensional tissue culture model of human epidermis. The endpoints of our experiments were cell viability, release of interleukin-1alpha and prostaglandin E(2) (well-known mediators of cutaneous inflammatory processes), accumulation in the epidermis of malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal and protein carbonyl groups (derived by the oxidative damage respectively of lipids and proteins) and tissue redox balance (expressed by the levels of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase). Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the JW-E is an efficient botanical mixture able to prevent skin oxidative damage induced by UV-B exposure and may thus be a potential promising candidate as a skin photoprotective agent.

  8. Inhibition of α-amylase and glucoamylase by tannins extracted from cocoa, pomegranates, cranberries, and grapes.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Ann; Ndou, Tshinanne; Hughey, Christine A; Straut, Christine; Howell, Amy; Dai, Zifei; Kaletunc, Gonul

    2013-02-20

    Proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins, referred to as "tannins", exist in many plant sources. These compounds interact with proteins due to their numerous hydroxyl groups, which are suitable for hydrophobic associations. It was hypothesized that tannins could bind to the digestive enzymes α-amylase and glucoamylase, thereby inhibiting starch hydrolysis. Slowed starch digestion can theoretically increase satiety by modulating glucose "spiking" and depletion that occurs after carbohydrate-rich meals. Tannins were isolated from extracts of pomegranate, cranberry, grape, and cocoa and these isolates tested for effectiveness to inhibit the activity of α-amylase and glucoamylase in vitro. The compositions of the isolates were confirmed by NMR and LC/MS analysis, and tannin-protein interactions were investigated using relevant enzyme assays and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated inhibition of each enzyme by each tannin, but with variation in magnitude. In general, larger and more complex tannins, such as those in pomegranate and cranberry, more effectively inhibited the enzymes than did less polymerized cocoa tannins. Interaction of the tannins with the enzymes was confirmed through calorimetric measurements of changes in enzyme thermal stability.

  9. Identification of oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2) isolated from grape seeds as a formyl peptide receptor 1 partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Ruijun; Sun, Baoshan; Wang, Lihui; Hou, Yue; Li, Xiaoqin; Wu, Chunfu

    2013-04-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in the rapid progression of glioblastoma and has been considered as a molecular target for the treatment. Previously, we have shown that oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2, degree of polymerization 2-15), isolated from grape seeds, inhibited FPR1-mediated chemotaxis of U-87 glioblastoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of F2 to interact with FPR1. The cross attenuation of chemotaxis revealed that F2 shared FPR1 with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), which is a prototype agonist of FPR1. F2 was chemotactic for U-87 cells, and the chemotactic response was abolished when FPR1 gene was silenced or FPR1 was competitively occupied. We further show that F2 specifically blocked the binding of fluorescent agonist to FPR1. Interestingly, F2 exhibited the characteristic of a partial agonist for FPR1, as shown by its capacity to activate FPR1-mediated PI3K-PKC-MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, F2 also attenuated fMLF-triggered MAPK activation, suggesting that F2 could antagonize the effect of an agonist. Furthermore, F2 abolished the invasion of U-87 cells induced by fMLF. Thus, we have identified F2 as a novel, partial agonist for FPR1, which may be useful for glioblastoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways. PMID:27213339

  11. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  12. Physicochemical, nutritional, and antimicrobial properties of wine grape (cv. Merlot) pomace extract-based films.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yanyun

    2011-04-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) (cv. Merlot) extract-based films were studied in terms of their physicochemical, mechanical, water barrier, nutritional, and antibacterial properties. Pomace extract (PE) was obtained by hot water extraction and had a total soluble solid of 3.6% and pH 3.65. Plant-based polysaccharides, low methoxyl pectin (LMP, 0.75% w/w), sodium alginate (SA, 0.3% w/w), or Ticafilm (TF, 2% w/w), was added into PE for film formation, respectively. Elongation at break and tensile strength were 23% and 4.04 MPa for TF-PE film, 25% and 1.12 MPa for SA-PE film, and 9.89% and 1.56 MPa for LMP-PE film. Water vapor permeability of LMP-PE and SA-PE films was 63 and 60 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa, respectively, lower than that of TF-PE film (70 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa) (P<0.05). LMP-PE film had higher water solubility, indicated by the haze percentage of water after 24 h of film immersion (52.8%) than that of TF-PE (25.7%) and SA-PE (15.9%) films, and also had higher amount of released phenolics (96.6%) than that of TF-PE (93.8%) and SA-PE (80.5%) films. PE films showed antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, in which approximate 5-log reductions in E. coli and 1.7- to 3.0-log reductions in L. innocua were observed at the end of 24 h incubation test compared with control. This study demonstrated the possibility of utilizing WGP extracts as natural, antimicrobial, and antioxidant promoting film-forming material for various food applications.   WGP extract-based edible films with the addition of a small amount of commercial polysaccharides showed attractive color and comparable mechanical and water barrier properties to other edible films. The films also demonstrated their potential antioxidant and antimicrobial functions. Hence, they may be used as colorful wraps or coatings for food, pharmaceutical, or other similar applications.

  13. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol.

  14. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Simone N.M.; Salazar, Marcela M.; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2–6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4–8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  15. Relationship between skin cell wall composition and anthocyanin extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo at different grape ripeness degree.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between cell wall composition and extractability of anthocyanins from red grape skins was assessed in Tempranillo grape samples harvested at three stages of ripening (pre-harvest, harvest and over-ripening) and three different contents of soluble solids (22, 24 and 26 °Brix) within each stage. Cell wall material was isolated and analysed in order to determine cellulose, lignin, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, protein, total polyphenols index and the degree of esterification of pectins. Results showed the influence of ripeness degree and contents of soluble solids on cell wall composition. Furthermore, principal components analysis was applied to the obtained data set in order to establish relationships between cell wall composition and extractability of anthocyanins. Total insoluble material exhibits the biggest opposition to anthocyanin extraction, while the highest amounts of cellulose, rhamnogalacturonans-II and polyphenols were positively correlated with anthocyanin extraction. Moreover, multiple linear regression was performed to assess the influence of the cell wall composition on the extraction of anthocyanin compounds. A model connecting cell wall composition and anthocyanin extractabilities was built, explaining 96.2% of the observed variability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent in micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A in coffee, grape juice and urine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien Ping; Saad, Bahruddin; Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2012-01-15

    A simple, environmental friendly and selective sample preparation technique employing porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) loaded with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) is described. After the extraction, the analyte was desorbed using ultrasonication and was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee, grape juice and urine were 0.06 ng g(-1), 0.02 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively while the quantification limits were 0.19 ng g(-1), 0.06 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA from coffee spiked at 1, 25 and 50 ng g(-1), grape juice and urine samples at 1, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1) ranged from 90.6 to 101.5%. The proposed method was applied to thirty-eight samples of coffee, grape juice and urine and the presence of OTA was found in eighteen samples. The levels found, however, were all below the legal limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  18. Procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds regulate ARE-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1-F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  19. Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds Regulate ARE-Mediated Enzyme Expression via Nrf2 Coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt Pathway in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1–F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:22312287

  20. Towards integral utilization of grape pomace from winemaking process: A review.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Costa, Gislaine N S; Cabezudo, Ignacio; da Silva-James, Nina K; Teles, Aline S C; Cruz, Ana P G; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Tonon, Renata V; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-10-01

    Grape is the main fruit crop in several countries. Although many grape-based food products can be found in the market, studies have shown that around 75% of the world grape production is destined for the wine industry. Grape pomace is an abundant by-product from the wine industry, which consists of the remaining skin, seeds and stalks and represents around 25% of total grape weight used in the winemaking process. In countries such as Italy, France and Spain, where wine production is more relevant, the annual grape pomace generation can reach nearly 1200 tonnes per year. In order to reach a sustainable winemaking process there is a need of a waste reduction policy. Several studies explore this subject using grape pomace as a source of healthy and technological compounds that could be applied in animal feed, pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industry to improve stability and nutritional characteristics, and in cosmetic industry, where grape seeds oil is widely used. This review aims to approach the recent winemaking scenario and the benefits achieved when a waste management policy is implemented, as well as to compare available extractive technologies and a wide alternative of uses for grape pomace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-response optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovery of flavonoids from red grape skins using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tomaz, Ivana; Maslov, Luna; Stupić, Domagoj; Preiner, Darko; Ašperger, Danijela; Karoglan Kontić, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    For the characterisation of grape cultivars, the profile and content of flavonoids are important because these compounds impact grape and wine quality. To determine the correct profile and content of flavonoids, the use of robust, sensitive and reliable methods is necessary. The object of this research is to develop a new ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method for the recovery of flavonoids from grape skins using response surface methodology. Optimisation of UAE was performed using a complementary study combining a Box-Behnken experimental design with qualitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Optimal extraction conditions were obtained using the extraction solvent composed of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (26:73:1, v/v/v) at an extraction temperature of 50 °C, an extraction time of 15 min in a single-extraction step and with a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:80 g/mL. The calculated relative standard deviations for the optimal extraction method were very low, measuring less than 5%. This study demonstrates that numerous factors have strong effects on the extraction efficiency, including the type of organic modifier and its percentage in the extraction solvent, the number of extraction steps, the solid-to-solvent ratio, the extraction time and temperature and, finally, the particular nature of analyte and their position within the grape skin cell. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).

  3. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seed extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of different Codonopsis pilosula caltiver].

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng-Xia; Wu, Zhi-Jiang; Chen, Yuan; Xi, Zhuo-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yao, Li-Rong; Chen, Xiang

    2012-11-01

    To reveal the allelopathy effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds and provide information for the intercrop production. The A. membranaceus. var. mongholicus seeds were soaked in distilled water for different time (12, 24, 36, 48, 60 h) , and then the seed extracts were used to study their effects on the seed germination, seedling growth and development of two Codonopsis pilosula. The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds contained some allelopathy compounds. Their soaked liquid had significantly influence on the seed germination and seedling growth of C. pilosula. The seed germination rate, germination power, germination index and vigor index of two C. pilosula calrivar were improved and then inhabited with soaking time elongation. The extract soaking for 24 h significantly improved the germination traits but the extract for 60 h appeared different degrees of inhibiting vigor. The seed extracts soaking ranging between 12 and 60 h all significantly improved the above plant growth of C. pilosula but significant inhibited their radicle growth in length. And with the soaking time elongation the facilitation effect weakened and the inhibiting effect enhanced, especially more significant in the C. pilosula caltivar (Baitiaodangshen). The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds have allelopathic compounds and the endogenous inhibitor can be extracted when soaked for more than 24 h in water with intact seeds, resulting in improvement of seed germination rate. The C. pilosula could be intercropped in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus field, however, when intercroped it should notice that the intercrop proportion should vary with the caltivar.

  4. Utilization of a freeze-thaw treatment to enhance phenolic ripening and tannin oxidation of grape seeds in red (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Cola, Gabriele; VanderWeide, Josh; Murad, Patrick; Failla, Osvaldo; Sabbatini, Paolo

    2018-09-01

    Phenolic ripening represents a major interest for quality wine producers. Nevertheless, climatic or genotypical limitations can often prevent optimal maturation process. During winemaking seeds can be easily separated and technologically processed to improve their quality. Relying on the key role of oxidation for phenolic ripening, a freeze-thaw treatment was proposed to improve the fruit quality for potential use in challenging growing conditions. The experiment was carried on in two distinctive viticultural areas, Michigan and Italy. Five cultivars (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir and Chambourcin) and six cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese, Syrah, Croatina, Barbera and Nebbiolo) were used in Michigan and Italy, respectively. Samples were collected at different phenological stages, to describe the natural ripening process and grape seeds were characterized before and after a freeze-thaw treatment. Colorimetric and spectrophotometric data highlighted similarities among natural and artificial seed ripening promising future applications for the wine industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversal of radiocontrast medium toxicity in human renal proximal tubular cells by white grape juice extract.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Navarra, Michele; Michael, Ashour

    2015-03-05

    Radiocontrast media (RCM)-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is a major clinical problem accounting for 12% of all hospital-acquired cases of acute kidney injury. The pathophysiology of CIN is not well understood, but direct toxic effects on renal cells have been postulated as contributing to CIN. We have investigated the effect of a white grape (Vitis vinifera) juice extract (WGJe) on human renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells treated with the radiocontrast medium (RCM) sodium diatrizoate. WGJe caused an increase in phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinases Akt and ERK1/2 in HK-2 cells. Treatment of HK-2 cells with 75 mgI/ml sodium diatrizoate for 2.5h and then further incubation (for 27.5h) after removal of the RCM caused a drastic decrease in cell viability. However, pre-treatment with WGJe, prior to incubation with diatrizoate, dramatically improved cell viability. Analysis of key signaling molecules by Western blotting showed that diatrizoate caused a drastic decrease in phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), FOXO1 (Thr24) and FOXO3a (Thr32) during the initial 2.5h incubation period, and WGJe pre-treatment caused a reversal of these effects. Further analysis by Western blotting of samples from HK-2 cells cultured for longer periods of time (for up to 27.5h after an initial 2.5h exposure to diatrizoate with or without WGJe pre-treatment) showed that WGJe pre-treatment caused a negative effect on phosphorylation of p38, NF-κB (Ser276) and pERK1/2 whilst having a positive effect on the phosphorylation of Akt, FOXO1/FOXO3a and maintained levels of Pim-1 kinase. WGJe may alleviate RCM toxicity through modulation of signaling molecules that are known to be involved in cell death and cell survival and its possible beneficial effects should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  7. Inhibition of advanced glycation end products by red grape skin extract and its antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the phytochemical content and the protective effect of red grape skin extract (RGSE) against fructose-mediated protein oxidation. In addition, RGSE was screened for its potential as an antioxidant using various in vitro models. Methods Antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating power. The total phenols content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine, and the level of fructosamine. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results The results showed that the content of total phenolics, flavonoids and total anthocyanins in RGSE was 246.3 ± 0.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, 215.9 ± 1.3 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract, and 36.7 ± 0.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging activity, RGSE had the IC50 values of 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml, 5.40 ± 0.01 mg/ml, and 0.58 ± 0.01 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, RGSE had trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (395.65 ± 1.61 mg trolox equivalent/g dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (114.24 ± 0.03 mM FeSO4/g dried extract), and ferrous ion chelating power (3,474.05 ± 5.55 mg EDTA/g dried extract), respectively. The results showed that RGSE at different concentrations (0.031–0.500 mg/ml) has significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs in terms of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA during 4 weeks of study. The

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of lupin seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Siger, Aleksander; Trojanowska, Krystyna; Nogala-Kalucka, Małgorzata; Malecka, Maria; Pacholek, Bogdan

    2003-10-01

    Determination of influence of lupin natural phenolic compounds on antibacterial properties of its seeds was carried out. Raw material were seeds of Lupinus albus, L. luteus, and L. angustifolius. The methods included the determination of the content of proteins, total phenolic compounds, free phenolic acids, and tannins as well as antibacterial properties with ethanol extracts. The content of total phenolic compounds was smaller in testas than in cotyledons and the highest levels are observed in bitter cultivars of Lupinus albus cv. Bac and L. angustifolius cv. Mirela. Lupin tannins mainly occurred in cotyledons of the white lupin, predominantly in the bitter cultivar Bac. Free phenolic acids were mainly found in testas. Only extracts from the testas displayed antibacterial properties, which excludes the possibility of alkaloid influence on the results. The results suggest that inhibition of test bacteria growth depended mainly upon the content of the total phenolic compounds.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of grape seed oil against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in liver of γ-irradiated rat.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Salem, Asmaa A M; Eassawy, Mamdouh M T

    2016-07-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ionizing radiation are well known environmental pollutants that generate free radicals and induce oxidative stress. The liver is the primary and major target organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs, toxic chemicals and affected by irradiation. This study investigated the effect of grape seed oil (GSO) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in γ-irradiated rats (7Gy). CCl4-intoxicated rats exhibited an elevation of ALT, AST activities, IL-6 and TNF-α level in the serum. Further, the levels of MDA, NO, NF-κB and the gene expression of CYP2E1, iNOS and Caspase-3 were increased, and SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST activities and GSH content were decreased. Furthermore, silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1) gene expression was markedly down-regulated. Additionally, alterations of the trace elements; copper, manganese, zinc and DNA fragmentation was observed in the hepatic tissues of the intoxicated group. These effects were augmented in CCl4-intoxicated-γ-irradiated rats. However, the administration of GSO ameliorated these parameters. GSO exhibit protective effects on CCl4 induced acute liver injury in γ-irradiated rats that could be attributed to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. The induction of the antioxidant enzymes activities, down-regulation of the CYP2E1, iNOS, Caspase-3 and NF-κB expression, up-regulation of the trace elements concentration levels and activation of SIRT1 gene expression are responsible for the improvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in the hepatic tissues and could be claimed to be the hepatoprotective mechanism of GSO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress induced by cadmium in the plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats: Attenuation by grape seed proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Nazima, B; Manoharan, V; Miltonprabu, S

    2016-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, GSP-treated group (100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)), Cd-treated group (cadmium chloride, 5 mg kg(-1) BW), and GSP + Cd-treated group in which GSP was orally pre-administered 90 min before Cd intoxication for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were processed for various biochemical estimations. The extent of oxidative damage in isolated rat erythrocyte membrane was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic content, calcium ion (Ca(2+))/magnesium ion (Mg(2+))-ATPase and sodium ion (Na(+))/potassium ion (K(+))-ATPase activities, free iron, calcium, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, and osmotic fragility. Our results unveiled that Cd intoxication significantly increased the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation markers and decreased the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers in erythrocytes. Conversely, GSP pretreatment significantly prevented the decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and membrane-bound ATPases. GSP also restored the levels of iron, calcium, and H2O2 in Cd-treated rats. Conformational changes in erythrocytes of various groups were also determined using morphological and ultrastructural electron microscopic analysis. The findings of our study clearly revealed that GSP affords superior protection against Cd-induced reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and free radical generation in Cd-treated rats, which presumably reflects the ability of this flavonoid to protect erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats from the toxic effects of Cd. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on tumor vasculogenic mimicry in human triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yun-Yan; Liu, Zi-Min; Zhong, Jin-Yi; Yao, Ru-Yong; Yu, Hong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique ability of highly aggressive tumor cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenesis, which was associated with invasion and metastasis. The grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) had attracted much attention as a potential bioactive anti-carcinogenic agent. However, GSPs regulation of VM and its possible mechanisms in a triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs) remain not clear. Therefore, we examined the effect of GSPs on VM information in HCC1937 cell model. In this study, we identified the VM structure via the three-dimensional (3D) matrix in vitro. Cell viability was measured using the CCK8 assay. The effects of GSPs on human triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs) HCC1937 in terms of related proteins of VM information were determined using western blot analysis. In vitro, the tubular networks were found in highly invasive HCC1937 cells but not in the non-invasive MCF-7 cells when plated on matrigel. The number of vascular channels was significantly reduced when cells were exposed in GSPs (100 μg/ml) and GSPs (200 μg/ml) groups (all p<0.001). Furthermore, we found that treatment with GSPs promoted transition of the mesenchymal state to the epithelial state in HCC1937 cells as well as reducing the expression of Twist1 protein, a master EMT regulator.GSPs has the ability to inhibit VM information by the suppression of Twist1 protein that could be related to the reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) process. It is firstly concluded that GSPs may be an potential anti-VM botanical agent for human TNBCs.

  12. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression ofmore » tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol.« less

  13. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterialmore » populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.« less

  14. Determination of total iron-reactive phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins in wine grapes of skins and seeds based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Xu; Jin, Xiaoduo; Li, Chen; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Shuqin; Ning, Jifeng; Yanne, Paul

    2017-12-15

    Phenolics contents in wine grapes are key indicators for assessing ripeness. Near-infrared hyperspectral images during ripening have been explored to achieve an effective method for predicting phenolics contents. Principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were built, respectively. The results show that SVR behaves globally better than PLSR and PCR, except in predicting tannins content of seeds. For the best prediction results, the squared correlation coefficient and root mean square error reached 0.8960 and 0.1069g/L (+)-catechin equivalents (CE), respectively, for tannins in skins, 0.9065 and 0.1776 (g/L CE) for total iron-reactive phenolics (TIRP) in skins, 0.8789 and 0.1442 (g/L M3G) for anthocyanins in skins, 0.9243 and 0.2401 (g/L CE) for tannins in seeds, and 0.8790 and 0.5190 (g/L CE) for TIRP in seeds. Our results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging has good prospects for evaluation of phenolics in wine grapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  16. Effect of temperature on the anthocyanin extraction and color evolution during controlled dehydration of Tempranillo grapes.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Ana; Perez-Serratosa, Maria; Varo, M Angeles; Merida, Julieta

    2014-08-06

    In this paper, the influence of temperature during the controlled dehydration of Tempranillo red grapes has been studied. Two experiments at fixed temperatures of 30 and 40 °C, and a third experiment alternating temperatures of 40 and 15 °C every 12 h were carried out. The must from grapes dried at 40 °C presented the reddest color, and the highest anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant activity. A possible hypothesis could be that the high temperature induced a continuous water evaporation from the grapes, preventing the oxygen entry. At the same time, the dehydration resulted in broken skins, which facilitated the transfer of colored compounds to the pulp, increasing the red color of the musts. However, when the temperature dropped, oxygen could penetrate through the skin and the browning reactions started. As a result, the must obtained from gra pes dehydrated by alternating high and low temperatures presented the least anthocyanin content and the least red color.

  17. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1994-10-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed extracts are known to activate the local cell-mediated immune reactions after a single intrauterine administration, leading to a long term reversible block of fertility. In order to identify and characterize the active fraction responsible for this activity, neem seeds were extracted by both mechanical expression and solvent extraction using a range of polar to non-polar solvents which yielded 3 broad fractions. The mechanically expressed oil was fractionated using different approaches and studied for antifertility activity. The hexane extract and a corresponding column fraction showed potent and reproducible antifertility activity. Other fractions were less stable with regard to reproducibility of effects and composition. It is our conclusion that for subsequent fractionation to reach the last active fraction, the hexane extract is the most useful starting material.

  19. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  20. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. White grape pomace extracts, obtained by a sequential enzymatic plus ethanol-based extraction, exert antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Maura; Rondini, Greta; Calabretta, Maria Maddalena; Michelini, Elisa; Vallini, Veronica; Fava, Fabio; Roda, Aldo; Minnucci, Giordano; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-10-25

    The present work aimed at optimizing a two-step enzymatic plus solvent-based process for the recovery of bioactive compounds from white grape (Vitis vinifera L., mix of Trebbiano and Verdicchio cultivars) pomace, the winemaking primary by-product. Phenolic compounds solubilised by water enzyme-assisted and ethanol-based extractions of wet (WP) and dried (DP) pomace were characterised for composition and tested for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Ethanol treatment led to higher phenol yields than water extraction, while DP samples showed the highest capacity of releasing polyphenols, most probably as a positive consequence of the pomace drying process. Different compositions and bioactivities were observed between water and ethanol extracts and among different treatments and for the first time the anti-tyrosinase activity of V. vinifera pomace extracts, was here reported. Enzymatic treatments did not significantly improve the total amount of solubilised compounds; Celluclast in DP led to the recovery of extracts enriched in specific compounds, when compared to control. The best extracts (enzymatic plus ethanol treatment total levels) were obtained from DP showing significantly higher amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols and tannins and exerted higher antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities than WP total extracts. Conversely, anti-inflammatory capacity was only detected in water (with and without enzyme) extracts, with WP samples showing on average a higher activity than DP. The present findings demonstrate that white grape pomace constitute a sustainable source for the extraction of phytochemicals that might be exploited as functional ingredients in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant.

    PubMed

    Dabas, Deepti; Elias, Ryan J; Lambert, Joshua D; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing consumer demand for and scientific interest in new natural colorants. Avocado (Persea americana) seed when crushed with water develops an orange color (= 480 nm) in a time-dependent manner. Heat treatment of the seed prevented color development, whereas the addition of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but not peroxidase restored color development. Color development was also inhibited by the addition of tropolone, an inhibitor of PPO. Color formation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols indicating utilization for color formation. The orange color intensified as the pH was adjusted from 2.0 to 11.0, and these changes were only partially reversible when pH was adjusted from 7.5 to 11.0 in the presence of oxygen, but completely reversible when the pH was changed in the absence of oxygen. The color was found to be stable in solution at -18 °C for 2 mo. These results suggest that the avocado seed may be a potential source of natural colorant, and that color development is PPO-dependent. There is growing public and scientific interest in the development of natural alternatives to synthetic colorants in foods. Extracts of turmeric, paprika, and beets are examples of food-derived natural colorants. Avocado seeds, which represent an under-utilized waste stream, form a stable orange color when crushed in the presence of air. Our data indicate that avocado seed represents a potential source of new natural colorants for use in foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent DOCA-salt hypertension-induced renal injury and its mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chao-Zong; Ding, Ling; Su, Yi-Lin; Guo, Kun; Wang, Li; Kan, Hong-Wei; Ou, Yu-Rong; Gao, Shan

    2015-07-01

    Renal dysfunction is one of the major effects of DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt hypertension and there is an increasing amount of evidence that oxidative stress damages the function of the kidney. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) have been reported to be potent anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers. The present study sought to investigate the ability of GSPE to prevent renal injury in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying its protective effects. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: Sham group (n = 7), UnX-sham group (n = 8), DOCA-salt group (n = 8), GSPE150 group (150 mg kg(-1), n = 7), GSPE240 group (240 mg kg(-1), n = 8), GSPE384 group (384 mg kg(-1), n = 8) and ALM (amlodipine besylate tablets) group (5 mg kg(-1), n = 8), and treated for 4 weeks. Compared to sham group rats, renal injury was observed in DOCA-salt hypertensive group rats as the urine protein, KW/BW (kidney weight/body weight), degree of renal fibrosis, renal MDA (malondialdehyde) and Hyp (hydroxyproline) contents significantly increased (P < 0.01). Moreover, SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) activities decreased in the model group (P < 0.01). In contrast, DOCA-salt hypertensive rats treated with different dose of GSPE or ALM showed a significant improvement of renal injury with decreased urine protein, KW/BW, degree of renal fibrosis, renal total MDA and Hyp contents compared to the untreated group. In addition, SOD activities increased in the treatment group. Since the experimental modeling time was short, kidney damage occurs to a lesser extent. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen), Scr (Serum Creatinine) and UA (Uric Acid) contents did not appear significantly changed in all groups. Finally, the activation of JNK and p38 kinases in the kidney was suppressed in rats treated with GSPEs or ALM compared to the untreated group, suggesting that the inhibition of these kinase pathways by GSPE contributes to the improvement

  4. Ultrasound extracted flavonoids from four varieties of Portuguese red grape skins determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Novak, Ivana; Janeiro, Patricia; Seruga, Marijan; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2008-12-23

    Several flavonoids present in red grape skins from four varieties of Portuguese grapes were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD). Extraction of flavonoids from red grape skins was performed by ultrasonication, and hydrochloric acid in methanol was used as extraction solvent. The developed RP-HPLC method used combined isocratic and gradient elution with amperometric detection with a glassy carbon-working electrode. Good peak resolution was obtained following direct injection of a sample of red grape extract in a pH 2.20 mobile phase. Eleven different flavonoids: cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (kuromanin), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (myrtillin), petunidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside (oenin), (+)-catechin, rutin, fisetin, myricetin, morin and quercetin, can be separated in a single run by direct injection of sample solution. The limit of detection obtained for these compounds by ECD was 20-90 pg/L, 1000 times lower when compared with photodiode array (PDA) limit of detection of 12-55 ng/L. RP-HPLC-ECD was characterized by an excellent sensitivity and selectivity, and appropriate for the simultaneous determination of these electroactive phenolic compounds present in red grape skins.

  5. Dietary supplementation of grape seed and skin flour mitigates brain oxidative damage induced by a high-fat diet in rat: Gender dependency.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Mahmoudi, Mohamed; Bedhiafi, Takwa; Kadri, Safwen; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2017-03-01

    It is unknown whether gender has an impact on brain injury in obesity, and, if so, whether treatment with grape seed and skin flour could exert a protective effect. Both male and female rats were fed a standard diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) during eight weeks and treated with high dosage grape seed and skin flour (GSSF). Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated into the brain with a special emphasis on transition metals determination. HFD induced male-cholesterol overload (+78.12%) and an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation (+68.97%), carbonylation (+40.28%), decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as glutathione peroxidase (-61.07%) and manganese-superoxide dismutase (-35.47%) but not catalase. Additionally HFD depleted the brain from manganese (-71.31%) and dropped glutamine synthetase activity (-36.16%), without affecting copper nor iron nor their associated enzymes. HFD also altered intracellular mediators as superoxide anion (+36.12%), calcium (+44.41%) and also calpain (+76.54%) a calcium dependent protease. Importantly all these alterations were detected exclusively in male brain and were efficiently corrected upon GSSF treatment. In conclusion, GSSF has the potential to alleviate the deleterious lipotoxic effect of HFD treatment that occurred in male brain and perhaps in post-menauposal female brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats by stabilizing mitochondrial and lysosomal enzymes: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, K; Sarala Bai, B R; Niranjali Devaraj, S

    2007-11-30

    This study was designed to examine the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against myocardial injury (MI) induced by isoproterenol (ISO), in a rat model. Induction of rats with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) for 2 days resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of heart mitochondrial enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase). The activities of lysosomal enzymes (alpha-d-glucuronidase, alpha-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase, cathepsin-D, acid phosphatases and alpha-d-galactosidase) were increased significantly in the heart and serum of ISO-induced rats. The prior administration of GSP for 6 days a week for 5 weeks significantly increased the activities of mitochondrial and respiratory chain enzymes and significantly decreased the activities of lysosomal enzymes in the heart tissues of ISO-induced rats, which proves the stress stabilizing action of GSP. Oral administration of grape seed proanthocyanidins alone (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) to normal rats did not show any significant effect in all the parameters studied. These biochemical functional alterations were supported by the macroscopic enzyme mapping assay of ischemic myocardium. Thus, this study shows that 100 and 150 mg/kg of GSP gives protection against ISO-induced MI and demonstrates that GSP has a significant effect in the protection of heart.

  7. [Supercritical CO2 extraction and component analysis of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Yu; Shi, Zhao-Hua; Li, Hai-Chi; Ge, Fa-Huan; Zhan, Hua-Shu

    2013-03-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsonii seed. Using the yield of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil as the index, optimized supercritical CO2 extraction parameter by orthogonal experiment methodology and analysed the compounds of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil by GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsoniit seed were determined: the extraction pressure was 28 MPa and the temperature was 38 degrees C, the separation I pressure was 12 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the separation II pressure was 5 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the extraction time was 110 min. The average extraction rate of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil was 1.264%. 26 kinds of compounds were identified by GC-MS in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2. The main components were fatty acids. Comparing with the petroleum ether extraction, the supercritical CO2 extraction has higher extraction rate, shorter extraction time, more clarity oil. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil have differences.

  8. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  9. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3more » phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines

  10. Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd) or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks in order to determine whether ChrSd improved insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of hepatic ...

  11. Grape skin extracts from winemaking by-products as a source of trapping agents for reactive carbonyl species.

    PubMed

    Sri Harsha, Pedapati S C; Mesias, Marta; Lavelli, Vera; Morales, Francisco J

    2016-01-30

    Clinical evidence supports the relationship between carbonyl stress and type II diabetes and its related pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is the major dicarbonyl compound involved in carbonyl stress. Efforts are therefore being made to find dietary compounds from natural sources that could exert an MGO trapping response. The in vitro MGO trapping capacity of six red and seven white grape skin extracts (GSE) obtained from winemaking by-products was investigated. Methanolic GSE exhibited a promising MGO trapping capacity that was higher in red GSE (IC50 2.8 mg mL(-1)) when compared with white GSE (IC50 3.2 mg mL(-1)). The trapping ability for red GSE correlated significantly with total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. However, no correlations were observed for white GSE, which suggests that other compounds were involved in the trapping activity. GSE may be considered a natural source of carbonyl stress inhibitors, thus opening up its possible utilization as a nutraceutical ingredient. Further investigations are required to understand the mechanism involved in the carbonyl trapping ability of red and white grape skin samples and their relationship with glycation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Novel Procedure for Extraction of a Latent Grape Polyphenoloxidase Using Temperature-Induced Phase Separation in Triton X-114 1

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro; Bru, Roque; Garcia-Carmona, Francisco

    1989-01-01

    Polyphenoloxidase from grape berries is extracted only by nonionic detergents with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance between 12.4 and 13.5. The enzyme was partially purified in latent form, free of phenolics and chlorophylls, by using temperature phase partitioning in a solution of Triton X-114. This method permits the purification of the enzyme with the same fold purification as the commonly used method, but with a yield three times higher and a 90% reduction in time needed. The latent enzyme can be activated by different treatments, including trypsin and cationic and anionic detergents. Cetyltrimethylamonium bromide was found to be the most effective detergent activator, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate. Polyphenoloxidase in grape berries, in spite of being an integral membrane protein, had an anomalous interaction with Triton X-114, remaining in the detergent-poor phase after phase separation. This could be explained by its having a short hydrophobic tail that anchors it to the membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:16667205

  13. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Doris M; Fuhrmann, Jens C; van Dorsten, Ferdinand A; Rein, Dietrich; Peters, Sonja; van Velzen, Ewoud J J; Hollebrands, Boudewijn; Draijer, Richard; van Duynhoven, John; Garczarek, Ursula

    2012-03-28

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from healthy male adults consuming a mix of red wine and grape juice extracts (WGM) for 4 days in a placebo-controlled, crossover study. Syringic acid, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, pyrogallol, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were confirmed as the strongest urinary markers of WGM intake. Overall, WGM had a mild impact on the endogenous metabolism. Most noticeable were changes in several amino acids deriving from tyrosine and tryptophan. Reductions in the microbial metabolites p-cresol sulfate and 3-indoxylsulfuric acid and increases in indole-3-lactic acid and nicotinic acid were observed in urine. In plasma, tyrosine was reduced. The results suggest that short-term intake of WGM altered microbial protein fermentation and/or amino acid metabolism.

  14. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  15. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  16. Experimental design for extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and organic acids in white "Vinho Verde" grapes.

    PubMed

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-01-30

    An experimental design was applied for the optimization of extraction and clean-up processes of phenolic compounds and organic acids from white "Vinho Verde" grapes. The developed analytical method consisted in two steps: first a solid-liquid extraction of both phenolic compounds and organic acids and then a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Afterwards, phenolic compounds and organic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-UV, respectively. Plackett-Burman design was carried out to select the significant experimental parameters affecting both the extraction and the clean-up steps. The identified and quantified phenolic compounds were: quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol and epicatechin. The determined organic acids were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The obtained results showed that the most important variables were the temperature (40 degrees C) and the solvent (acid water at pH 2 with 5% methanol) for the extraction step and the type of sorbent (C18 non end-capped) for the clean-up step.

  17. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of grape seed, alone or in combination with linseed, on milk production traits, immune response, and liver and kidney metabolic activity of lactating ewes. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet containing 300 g/d per head of grape seed (GS), a diet containing 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet containing a mix of 300 g/d per head of grape seed and 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with 2 wk of adaptation period and 8 wk of experimental period. Milk yield was measured and samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk by jugular vein puncture and analyzed for hematological parameters, for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, protein, blood urea nitrogen, and for anti-albumin IgG, IL-6, and lymphocyte T-helper (CD4(+)) and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) cells. On d 0, 45, and 60 of the trial, lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was determined in vivo on each animal by measuring skin-fold thickness (SFT) at the site of phytohemagglutinin injection. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin was stimulated by a subcutaneous injection with albumin. Dietary treatments did not affect milk yield and composition. Milk urea nitrogen and lactose were affected by diet × period. Diets did not influence hematological, kidney, and liver parameters, except for blood urea nitrogen, which decreased in LIN and increased in MIX compared with CON and GS. Dietary treatments did not alter CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio. The SFT was reduced in GS and MIX and increased in LIN compared with CON. The IgG and IL-6 were affected by diet × period. The reduction in Ig

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2 in Rats With Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenli; Zhang, Zemin; Du, Ning; Wang, Kai; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Infectious hepatitis is a serious problem affecting millions of people worldwide, particularly in China and other developing countries, and it is the major risk factor for hepatic cirrhosis. To date, the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis is complex and unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used in its treatment; however, little is known to date about the effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) on liver fibrosis. Using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, the study intended to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of GSPB2 and to determine the possible pathway by which GSPB2 exerts its activities. Design • Thirty-six male, Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Rats in a model (CCl4 only) group and the GSPB2 group were given CCl4 to induce hepatic fibrosis. Simultaneously, animals in the GSPB2 group were treated with GSPB2 by intragastric administration for 12 wk. In addition, the rat's Kupffer cells were cultured with CCl4 and GSPB2. The study took place at the central laboratory of Qilu Hospital at Shandong University in Jinan, China. The following parameters were investigated: (1) hepatic function; (2) the liver fibrosis index-serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type 3 procollagen (PC-3), collagen 4, and hepatic hydroxyproline; (3) the expression in the liver of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1); (4) inflammatory cytokines in the liver and cell culture medium-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1-β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-17; (5) oxidative stress markers in the liver and cell culture medium-malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC); and (6) levels of angiotensin 2 (Ang 2) in the liver. The CCl4 induced (1) significant hepatic-function damage; (2) elevated levels of the measures of the liver fibrosis index, TGF-β1, inflammatory cytokines, MDA, and 8-OHdG; (3) a reduction in

  19. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  1. Improved method for extraction of castor seed for toxin determination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effort to identify castor seeds with low ricin content is considered to be a key to increasing cultivation of the castor plant for industrial applications. The procedure used to obtain soluble protein from the seed is a limiting factor for screening large numbers of seeds. Usually, the seed is...

  2. Determination of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp, seed, cane and leaf of five native grape cultivars in West Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Khalil; Esmaeilzadeh, Forough; Hatami, Mehdi; Forough, Mehrdad; Molaie, Rahim

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in the skin, pulp, seed, cane and leaf of one international (Muscat) and five native (Hosseini, Ghara Shira, Agh Shani, Ghara Shani and Ghara Ghandome) grape cultivated in West Azerbaijan, Iran were investigated. Ghara Shani grape skin was found to contain the highest content of total phenolic and anthocyanin and cane of Ghara Shani contains the highest amount of flavonoid. A remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity up to 95% and consequently, the lowest IC50 was found for skin of Ghara Shani. According to RP-HPLC experiments, the highest concentration of phenolic compounds was identified as catechin (945 μg/g), epicatechin (482 μg/g), gallic acid (319 μg/g) and resveratrol (29.8 μg/g) in skin of Ghara Shani, quercetin in cane of Ghara Shani (956 μg/g), rutin in skin of Ghara Shira (298 μg/g) and caffeic acid in cane of Ghara Shira (17.4 μg/g). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro antitumor activity of broccolini seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2011-01-01

    Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica × Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no report on antitumor activity of Broccolini (NOT Broccoli) is available. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of broccolini seeds extract (BSE) on human lung and ovarian cancer cells. It was found that BSE induces A549 and OVCAR-3 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay. The IC(50) values of BSE in A549 and OVCAR-3 cells were estimated to be 81.94 and 78.6 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the phase contrast microscope showed that in high-dose group (90∼120 µg/ml), the morphology structure of OVCAR-3 cells become irregular and exhibited characteristics of apoptosis such as cell membrane shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-05-01

    To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

  5. Bioactivities in the tamarind seed extracts: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Sukant; Muangman, Thanchanok; Huifu, He; Ling, Li; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a state that triggers change in normal physiology and recognized by human body and brain as an unfavorable event causing concern, worry or anxiety. It may vary from physical, metabolic, physiological or emotional often culminating into wide range of ailments that may range from common cold, decline in functional efficacy of body systems or even cancer. Skin is the largest tissue of the body and makes the first interface with the environment. Skin color and characteristics are highly influenced by environment stress. A variety of natural compounds have been used for anti-stress and disease preventive potentials in worldwide traditional home medicine systems. They have recently attracted attention in research laboratories to dissect their mode of action to promote safe and economic drug development. We have earlier identified anti-stress and anti-aging activities in Withania somnifera, Helicteres angustifolia and honeybee propolis using human cultured normal and cancer cells. In the present study, we explored the effect of tamarind seed extracts prepared in water or 95% ethanol. In cell-based assays, we found that the extracts were safe to use in viable cells (in the range of 0.01-1.0%, for at least 4 weeks). Consistently, molecular studies revealed no effect on the expression/activity of cancer promoting proteins. We recruited oxidative stress models, such as, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Investigation on anti-stress potential of the extracts revealed that they do not offer remarkable protection against stress caused by either H2O2 or UV, however, significantly compromised OAG-induced melanogenesis. The preliminary data warrant further investigations on the active components and mechanism of action to develop useful natural compounds/extracts for manipulation of melanogenesis that plays important role in response of cells to UV and its consequences including DNA damage

  6. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  7. Oriented Growth of α-MnO2 Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Botero, Lina; Herrera, Adriana P.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO2) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica ‘Cortland’ apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO4 in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO2 nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO2 nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water. PMID:28531147

  8. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the

  9. Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Antonacci, Donato; Angiolella, Letizia; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Valletta, Alessio; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali-quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = -0.7639 and r = -0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = -0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A comparative mass spectrometric study of fatty acids and metals in some seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Suvar, Sonia Niculina; Bleiziffer, R; Podea, P; Iordache, A; Voica, C; Zgavarogea, R; Culea, M

    A major cause of cardiovascular diseases and cancer is diet content, so the optimization of micronutrients in food is very important. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for patients had beneficial effects on subjective global assessment score and metabolic profiles. Fatty acids content and the metal ions in different seeds (e.g. linseed, poppy, grape, hemp, nuts, pumpkin, sesame, watermelon, chia) recommended as food supplements, purchased on the Romanian market, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as an excellent technique for fatty acids identification and quantitation, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for analytical measurements of metals.

  11. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    PubMed

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  12. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Free the tannins: the role of grape pathogenesis-related proteins in limiting condensed tannin extraction during winemaking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grape-derived condensed tannins (CT) are important to the mouthfeel of red wines, but CT concentrations in red wines produced from wild Vitis species or their hybrids are often lower than corresponding wines produced from European wine grapes (V. vinifera), potentially decreasing their utility. Thes...

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Innocenti, Marzia; Gabrielli, Elena; Panella, Simona; Antonacci, Donato; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs), obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis. PMID:24864227

  15. Extraction and identification of isothiocyanates from broccolini seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2011-01-01

    Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica x Alboglabra) is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan (Chinese broccoli), which contains abundant glucosinolates. The intact glucosinolates are believed to be inactive, while their hydrolysis products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), are found to have bacteriocidal and anticarcinogenic activities. So far, no report is available about generation of ITCs during the process of glucosinolate hydrolysis in broccolini. In this study, the hydrolysis of broccolini seed glucosinolates was investigated under controlled conditions of pH, time and temperature, and the ITCs produced were determined. The results showed that an optimum hydrolysis of glucosinolates could be achieved at a temperature of 250C, at pH 7.0, and a reaction time of eight hours. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that the extracted ITCs primarily were: 3-BITC (3-benzyl-ITC) (10.8%), 4-methylpentyl-ITC (0.5%), 1-isothiocyanato-butane (26.8%), PEITC (phenethyl-ITC) (22.6%) and SFN (sulforaphane) (19.2%).

  16. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops.

  17. β-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Ličková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

  18. β-Sitosterol: supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Licková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zdenek

    2010-04-22

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15-60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 degrees C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 degrees C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 degrees C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide.

  19. Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation.

    PubMed

    Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C

    2018-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Effect of acoustic frequency and power density on the aqueous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.) - a response surface approach.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Knoerzer, Kai; Sabarez, Henry; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Femenia, Antoni

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of grape pomace was investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to evaluate the effect of acoustic frequency (40, 80, 120kHz), ultrasonic power density (50, 100, 150W/L) and extraction time (5, 15, 25min) on total phenolics, total flavonols and antioxidant capacity. All the process variables showed a significant effect on the aqueous UAE of grape pomace (p<0.05). The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) generated satisfactory mathematical models which accurately explain the behavior of the system; allowing to predict both the extraction yield of phenolic and flavonol compounds, and also the antioxidant capacity of the grape pomace extracts. The optimal UAE conditions for all response factors were a frequency of 40kHz, a power density of 150W/L and 25min of extraction time. Under these conditions, the aqueous UAE would achieve a maximum of 32.31mg GA/100g fw for total phenolics and 2.04mg quercetin/100g fw for total flavonols. Regarding the antioxidant capacity, the maximum predicted values were 53.47 and 43.66mg Trolox/100g fw for CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively. When comparing with organic UAE, in the present research, from 12% to 38% of total phenolic bibliographic values were obtained, but using only water as the extraction solvent, and applying lower temperatures and shorter extraction times. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies specifically addressing the optimization of both acoustic frequency and power density during aqueous-UAE of plant materials have been previously published. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New materials for solid-phase extraction and multiclass high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pesticides in grapes.

    PubMed

    Melo, Lucio F C; Collins, Carol H; Jardim, Isabel C S F

    2004-04-02

    Sample preparation procedures which included the use of new aminopropyl (NH2) and octadecyl (C18) solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents are proposed for the simultaneous multiclass determination of the fungicide benomyl and of the herbicides tebuthiuron, diuron, simazine, atrazine, and ametryn in grapes, using single wavelength high-performance liquid chromatography. Sorbent preparation uses a fast, easy, and effective procedure to obtain silica-based materials, made by depositing polysiloxanes on a silica support followed by thermal immobilization. Recovery results of the compounds, after elution from the SPE cartridges, indicate that the most efficient system employed silica loaded with 40% of an aminofunctional polydimethylsiloxane as sorbent, using dichloromethane:methanol (95:5, v/v) as eluent. Method validation, carried out in agreement with International Conference on Harmonization directives, was performed at three fortification levels (100, 200, and 1000 microg kg(-1)). Limits of detection and quantification show that the method developed can be used to detect the pesticides at concentrations below the maximum residue levels established by Codex Alimentarius, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Union, and Brazilian legislation.

  2. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Effect on Biofilm Production of a White Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera) Extract.

    PubMed

    Filocamo, Angela; Bisignano, Carlo; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a white grape juice extract (WGJe) against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and the fungus Aspergillus niger. WGJe was also tested on the production of bacterial biofilms in vitro. Results. WGJe inhibited in vitro most Gram-positive bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P being the most sensitive strain (MIC values of 3.9 μg/mL). The effect was bactericidal at the concentration of 500 μg/mL. Amongst the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the only susceptible strain (MIC and MBC of 2000 μg/mL). No effect on the growth of Candida sp. and the fungus Aspergillus niger was detected (MIC values > 2000 μg/mL). WGJe inhibited the biofilms formation of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions. WGJe exerted both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity in vitro. The presented results could be used to develop novel strategies for the treatment of skin infections and against potential respiratory pathogens.

  3. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    PubMed

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  5. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 °C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 °C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  7. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  8. Effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on oxidative stress in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Saburo; Hamada, Atsuhide; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Onogawa, Masahide; Kyotani, Shojiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with the deposition of lipid droplets in the liver, and is characterised histologically by the infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatocellular degeneration and liver fibrosis. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the onset and deterioration of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We previously reported that an Eriobotrya japonica seed extract, extracted in 70% ethanol, exhibited antioxidant actions in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of this extract in a rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The seed extract was given in the drinking water to fats being fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet for 15 weeks. Increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly inhibited in rats fed the seed extract compared with the group on the diet alone. Formation of fatty droplets in the liver was also inhibited. Antioxidant enzyme activity in liver tissue was higher than in the diet-only group and lipid peroxidation was reduced compared with rats that also received the extract. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was lower in the rats given the seed extract than in the diet-only group. In the former, liver tissue levels of transforming growth factor-beta and collagen were also decreased. Thus, the E. japonica seed extract inhibited fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  9. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly ( P  < 0.05) affected by all the variables. Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  10. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.

    PubMed

    von Woedtke, T; Schlüter, B; Pflegel, P; Lindequist, U; Jülich, W D

    1999-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present.

  11. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora; Wilkens, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  12. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant potential of different grape cultivars against Fenton-like reagent-induced liver damage ex-vivo.

    PubMed

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The phytochemicals present in the grapes are responsible for nutraceutical and health benfits due to their antioxidant properties. These phytochemicals, however, vary greatly among different cultivars. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and protective role of four different Indian grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars extracts, namely Flame seedless (Black grapes), Kishmish chorni (Black with reddish brown), Red globe (Red) and Thompson seedless mutant (Sonaka, Green) against the Fenton-like reagent (200 μmole H2O2, 2 mmole ascorbate, 25 μmole FeSO4)-induced liver damage. Non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were highest in the grape seed, followed by skin and pulp. Among edible parts of different cultivars, skin of Flame seedless (Black) cultivar showed highest antioxidant potential, while the Thompson seedless the least potential. These antioxidants were found to be significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with the levels of total phenol, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. Fenton-like reagent treatment significantly (P < 0.001) decreased GSH content by 39.1% and activities of catalase (CAT) by 43.2% and glutathione reductase (GR) by 60%, while increasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide levels by 2.13-fold and 0.64-fold, respectively and GST activity by 0.81-fold. Pre-treatment with grape seed extracts showed the best hepatoprotective action against Fenton-like reagent-induced damage, followed by the extracts of skin and pulp of any cultivar. Thus, our study showed the significant amounts of antioxidants were in grape seed, followed by its skin and pulp, which varied among the cultivars and was associated with the protective action of grape extracts against Fenton-like reagent-induced liver damage ex-vivo.

  14. Determination colchicine content in aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed from Sukoharjo and Gunung Kidul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Colchicine is a toxic alkaloid compound from the Colchicum autumnale plant. Colchicine can be used in agriculture as anti-mitosis in the procurement of plants with polyploid cells. Gloriosa superba is an herb contains colchicine as a mutagen (polyploid) potential in its parts, especially in the seeds. The aims of this research were to determine colchicine content from aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed obtained from Sukoharjo and Gunung Kidul. Gloriosa superba seed samples were obtained naturally in January - April 2017. Samples were divided into immature seed samples from Mulur, Sukoharjo, Central Java and old seed samples from Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. Extraction seeds of Gloriosa superba using the maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). Determination content of colchicine extract using TLC-Densitometry method. The results indicated that colchicine content of old seed Gloriosa superba samples 37,6 μg/μl (± 6,63) higher than colchicine content of immature seed Gloriosa superba samples 12,84 μg/μl (± 2,88)

  15. Extraction and the Fatty Acid Profile of Rosa acicularis Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Du, Huanan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Ruchun; Zhang, Lu; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2017-12-01

    Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work. The tocopherol content was 200.6±0.3 mg/100 g oil. The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid (56.5%) and oleic acid (34.2%). The saturated fatty acids included palmitic acid (4%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid (60.6%), oleic acid (33.6%) and linolenic acid (3.2%). According to the 1,3-random-2-random hypothesis, the dominant triacylglycerols were LLL (18%), LLnL (1%), LLP (2%), LOL (10%), LLSt (1.2%), PLP (0.2%), LLnP (0.1%), LLnO (0.6%) and LOP (1.1%). This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.

  16. A magical biological insecticide extracted from seeds of Millettia pachyarpa to kill cabbage aphids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tianxing; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan

    2018-04-01

    Millettia pachycarpa Benth is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the genus Millettia, as it is widely used in traditional practices like agricultural pesticides, blood tonics, fish poison, and treatments for cancer and infertility. The crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa had insecticidal activity on cabbage aphids. The conventional extract approach with three kinds of organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone was used for extracting of crude extract of seeds of M. pachycarpa. The leaf immersion method in a petri dish was used to measure contact activity on cabbage aphids. The field measurement method in a cabbage field was used to measure the control effect. The result indicated that the average mortality rate of cabbage aphids reached 91.3 percent under the action of crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa, indicating that contacting activity against cabbage aphid was strong. After the crude extract was sprayed for 2 days, the proofread control effect of 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract against cabbage aphid was 85.0 percent. After 7 days of spraying, this number increased to 92.2 percent. The study concluded that crude extract of the seeds of M. pachyarpa extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone had demonstrable contact activity against cabbage aphid and 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract had significant control effect against the larvae of cabbage aphid.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Truong, Van Long; Kang, Hey-Sook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect and underlying mechanisms of wild grape seeds procyanidins (WGP) were examined using lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We used nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays to examine inhibitory effect of WGP and further investigated the mechanisms of WGP suppressed LPS-mediated genes and upstream expression by Western blot and confocal microscopy analysis. Our data indicate that WGP significantly reduced NO, PGE2, and ROS production and also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Consistently, WGP significantly reduced LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 1 β . Moreover, WGP prevented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- κ B (NF κ B) p65 subunit by reducing inhibitory κ B- α (I κ B α) and NF κ B phosphorylation. Furthermore, we found that WGP inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our results demonstrated that WGP exerts potent anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 by regulating NF κ B and p38 MAPK pathway.

  18. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2015-02-01

    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Pre-fermentative addition of an enzymatic grape seed hydrolysate in warm climate winemaking. Effect on the differential colorimetry, copigmentation and polyphenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Jara-Palacios, M José; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-10-15

    The effect of adding an enzymatic hydrolysate of grape seeds (EH-GS) during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been evaluated. We focused on the polyphenolic composition as well as the application of differential and tristimulus colorimetry to colour data. This is the first attempt at using this oenological alternative to avoid common colour losses of red wines elaborated in a warm climate. The addition of 250g (simple dose, SW) of EH-GS to 120kg of fermentation material promoted a significant (p<0.05) increase in the polyphenolic content of stored wines, especially in benzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, flavonol and anthocyanin levels. This increase could promote a higher copigmentation percentage and maximum colour stabilization (C(∗)ab) without significantly changing the wine tonality. Unexpectedly, the use of a double quantity (DW) of EH-GS resulted in significantly less chroma than for control wines (CW), demonstrating visually perceptible colour changes (ΔE(∗)ab>3 CIELAB units). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  1. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  2. Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-07-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed.

  3. Grape pomace extract exerts antioxidant effects through an increase in GCS levels and GST activity in muscle and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    GOUTZOURELAS, NIKOLAOS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; HOUSMEKERIDOU, ANASTASIA; KARAPOULIOU, CHRISTINA; KERASIOTI, EFTHALIA; ALIGIANNIS, NEKTARIOS; SKALTSOUNIS, ALEXIOS L; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a grape pomace extract (GPE) exerted antioxidant activity in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells through an increase in glutathione (GSH) levels. In the present study, in order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of GPE, its effects on the expression of critical antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) were assessed in EA.hy926 and C2C12 cells. Moreover, the effects of GPE on CAT, SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymatic activity were evaluated. For this purpose, the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells were treated with GPE at low and non-cytotoxic concentrations (2.5 and 10 µg/ml for the C2C12 cells; 0.068 and 0.250 µg/ml for the EA.hy926 cells) for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Following incubation, enzymatic expression and activity were assessed. The results revealed that treatment with GPE significantly increased GCS levels and GST activity in both the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells. However, GPE significantly decreased CAT levels and activity, but only in the muscle cells, while it had no effect on CAT levels and activity in the endothelial cells. Moreover, treatment with GPE had no effect on HO-1 and SOD expression and activity in both cell lines. Therefore, the present results provide further evidence of the crucial role of GSH systems in the antioxidant effects exerted by GPE. Thus, GPE may prove to be effective for use as a food supplement for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions of the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems, particularly those associated with low GSH levels. PMID:26082074

  4. Pharmacokinetics of resveratrol metabolic profile in healthy humans after moderate consumption of red wine and grape extract tablets.

    PubMed

    Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Escribano, Elvira; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia

    2012-11-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of the metabolic profile of resveratrol has been performed in healthy men after moderate red wine (RW) consumption. The bioavailability of resveratrol is highly influenced by several factors such as the food matrix and, therefore, this study has been compared with a pilot study in which men ingested grape extract (GE) tablets as a nutraceutical, containing similar total amounts of resveratrol than RW. Blood and urine samples were taken before and at several time points after intervention and then analyzed by SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Up to 17 resveratrol and piceid derivatives were identified, including those formed by the intestinal microbiota. Resveratrol glucosides were found in plasma as intact forms and reached the lowest maximum concentrations 1h after both interventions. Higher plasma concentrations and longer times (t(max)) were observed for resveratrol glucuronides due to phase II metabolism and even higher values for conjugates derived from microbiota, such as dihydroresveratrol-glucuronides. The same trend was observed for total excreted amounts in urine samples. When both treatments were compared, statistically significant differences for some metabolites were obtained, which may be due to the different composition of resveratrol and piceid in both sources. However, GE formulation seems to delay resveratrol absorption, staying longer in the gut where could be metabolized to a greater degree, since 2.1-3.6-fold higher urinary concentrations of microbial metabolites were observed after GE intervention at 12-24h urinary fraction. Therefore, supplement intake could be also a way to bring resveratrol benefits to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Red grape leaf extract improves endurance capacity by facilitating fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Improving endurance capacity leads to increased athletic performance and active lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intake of red grape leaf extract (RGLE), used as a traditional herbal medicine in the Mediterranean area, on endurance capacity in mice. Male BALB/c mice were divided into three experimental groups with similar swimming times and body weights; control group, 0.2% (w/w) and 0.5% RGLE group. Swimming times were measured for evaluation of endurance capacity once a week during the 10-week experimental period. Blood and tissues were collected from anesthetized mice immediately after 30 min of swimming exercise, and analyzed blood component and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity, and gene expression in soleus muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue. Endurance capacity was improved by RGLE in a dose-related manner, and was significantly longer in the 0.5% RGLE group than in the control group at week 10. Plasma lactate levels after exercise in the 0.5% RGLE group were significantly lower than that in the control group. RGLE induced the upregulation of hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA in mesenteric adipose tissue, increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration after exercise, and enhanced fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in the soleus muscle. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (Pgc1α) and its downstream target genes were also significantly upregulated in the soleus muscle in the 0.5% RGLE group. Intake of RGLE upregulated Pgc1α expression and facilitated fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, and these effects contributed, in part, to improve endurance capacity.

  6. Grape pomace extract induced beige cells in white adipose tissue from rats and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Perdicaro, Diahann Jeanette; Landa, María Silvina; Fontana, Ariel; Antoniolli, Andrea; Miatello, Roberto Miguel; Oteiza, Patricia Isabel; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela Alejandra

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a grape pomace extract (GPE) rich in phenolic compounds on brown-like adipocyte induction and adiposity in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD consumption for 10 weeks significantly increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in WKY but not in SHR rats. Supplementation with GPE (300 mg/kg body weight/day) reduced adipocyte diameter and increased levels of proteins that participate in adipogenesis and angiogenesis, i.e., peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), vascular endothelial grow factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptor 2 (VEGF-R2), and partially increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in WKY. In both strains, GPE attenuated adipose inflammation. In eWAT from SHR, GPE increased the expression of proteins involved in adipose tissue "browning," i.e., PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), PPARγ, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and UCP-1. In primary cultures of SHR adipocytes, GPE-induced UCP-1 up-regulation was dependent on p38 and ERK activation. Accordingly, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with palmitate, the addition of GPE (30 μM) activated the β-adrenergic signaling cascade (PKA, AMPK, p38, ERK). This led to the associated up-regulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PPARγ, PRDM16 and UCP-1) and fatty acid oxidation (ATGL). These effects were similar to those exerted by (-)-epicatechin and quercetin, major phenolic compounds in GPE. Overall, in HFD-fed rats, supplementation with GPE promoted brown-like cell formation in eWAT and diminished adipose dysfunction. Thus, winemaking residues, rich in bioactive compounds, could be useful to mitigate the adverse effects of HFD-induced adipose dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  8. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  9. An extract from date seeds having a hypoglycemic effect. Is it safe to use?

    PubMed

    El Fouhil, Ahmed F; Ahmed, Aly M; Darwish, Hasem H; Atteya, Muhammad; Al-Roalle, Ali H

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the safety of date seed extract administration, and to compare between toxic effects of diabetes on rats treated with insulin versus rats treated with insulin-seed extract. This study was performed in the Anatomy Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from August to December 2010. One hundred rats were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 was given daily ingestions of 10 ml of date seed extract. Animals of groups 3 and 4 were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection, and were given daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks. Group 4 received, in addition, daily ingestions of 10 ml of seed extract. Group 5 were made diabetic with streptozotocin and then given the seed extract only. At the end of experiment, rats were decapitated, and the sera were separated for estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels. Livers and kidneys were processed for light microscopic study. The mean values of all tested serum levels were significantly higher in Group 3 compared to Groups 1, 2 and 4 (with the exception of ALT in the case of Group 4). There was no significant change when comparing the mean values of Groups 1, 2, and 4. Livers and kidneys of rats in Groups 1, 2, and 4 showed normal histology, while those of Group 3 showed histopathological changes. Date seed extract administration is safe on the liver and kidney. In addition, insulin-date seed extract combination minimizes the toxic effects of diabetes on these organs.

  10. Rapid separation and identification of phenolics in crude red grape skin extracts by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mei; Li, Chen; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-02

    A rapid and efficient method was established for the simultaneous determination of structures and configurations for 45 phenolics isolated from crude red grape skin extracts without extensive sample preparation. Separation and compound assignments were achieved using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS(2)). A Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (100mm×3.0mm, 2.7μm) column was employed to separate the phenolics, which were eluted using a gradient of acetonitrile and water acidified with 0.2% formic acid. Phenolics were identified by comparison of their UV-vis spectra, mass spectra and MS(2) data with those in the literature. Using this procedure, five compounds were detected for the first time in Vitis amurensis. Good separation of most phenolics was achieved in 26min. The methods described here can be used for the characterization of phenolics in a variety of grapes and grape products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  12. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Nathalia F F; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Carneiro, Talita I A; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Oliveira, Felipe L; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Torres, Alexandre G; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2018-03-08

    Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  13. The Microvine, a plant model to study the effect of vine-shoot extract on the accumulation of glycosylated aroma precursors in grapes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Torregrosa, Laurent; Zalacain, Amaya; Ojeda, Hernán; Bouckenooghe, Virginie; Schneider, Rémi; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, María Rosario

    2018-06-01

    The Microvine plant model displays unique reproductive organ behavior and is suitable for grapevine fruit physiological studies, allowing one to undertake studies up to five times more rapidly than the current situation with grapevines. Recently, vine-shoot aqueous extracts, which have an interesting phenolic and aroma composition, have been proposed as viticultural biostimulants, since their post-veraison foliar application to grapevines impacts the wine aroma profile. Using Microvines, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of vine-shoot extract foliar application on 21 stages of grape development. The application was carried out from BBCH 53 (inflorescences clearly visible) to BBCH 85 (softening of berries) to reveal stage-specific responses of the accumulation of glycosylated aroma precursors at BBCH 89 (berries ripe for harvest), the phenological stage selected to study the treatment effect. Microvine use made it possible to carry out 15 sampling time points during 86 days of the experiment, which were established by the cumulative degree days (CDD) parameter. The results confirmed that vine-shoot extract treatment had a positive impact on total glycosylated compounds, especially aglycones such as alcohols, terpenes and C 13 -norisoprenoids, with a higher effect when the treatment was applied during ripening. Extrapolation of the results to grapevines suggests that vine-shoot extract treatment could modulate the synthesis of grape glycosylated aroma precursors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  15. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Vidhya, V G; Ramya, M

    2008-12-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pririens (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood glucose levels after an oral glucose load from 127.5+/-3.2 to 75.6+/-4.8 mg% 2 h after oral administration of seed extract. It also significantly lowered the blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats from 240.5+/-7.2 to 90.6+/-5.6 mg% after 21 days of daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Thus, this study shows that M. pruriens has an anti-hyperglycemic action and it could be a source of hypoglycemic compounds.

  17. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  18. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  19. Bioherbicidal activity of Sinapis alba seed meal extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although seed meal from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is a potential tool for controlling weeds as a consequence of contained glucosinolate substrates that are enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce phytotoxic products, use is limited by batch-to-batch variability and logistical constraints. Our obj...

  20. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  1. Grape seed procyanidins administered at physiological doses to rats during pregnancy and lactation promote lipid oxidation and up-regulate AMPK in the muscle of male offspring in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Anna; del Bas, Josep Maria; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) during pregnancy and lactation, at doses extrapolated to human consumption, programs male offspring toward improved metabolism in adulthood. For this purpose, female rats were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD) and treated with either GSPE (25 mg kg(-1) of body weight/day) or vehicle during gestation and lactation. The metabolic programming effects of GSPE were evaluated in the male offspring fed NFD from 30 to 170 days of life. No changes were observed in body weight, adiposity, circulating lipid profile and insulin sensitivity between the offspring of dams treated with GSPE (STD-GSPE group) and their counterparts (STD-veh). However, the STD-GSPE offspring had lower circulating levels of C-reactive protein and lower respiratory quotient values, shifting whole-body energy catabolism from carbohydrate to fat oxidation. Furthermore, the STD-GSPE animals also exhibited increased levels of total and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and an over-expression of the mRNA levels of key genes related to fatty acid uptake (Fatp1 and CD36) and β-oxidation (pparα and had) in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that GSPE programs healthy male offspring towards a better circulating inflammatory profile and greater lipid utilisation in adulthood. The metabolic programming effects of GSPE that are related to the enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle seem to be mediated, at least in part, by AMPK. These findings could be of relevance in the prevention of pathologies associated to lifestyle and aging, such as obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of aucubin from seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hu, Jiangyu; Ouyang, Hui; Li, Yanan; Shi, Hui; Ma, Chengjin; Zhang, Yongkang

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used as solvent for the extraction of aucubin from the seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. The co-solvent composition was tested and extraction conditions were optimized. Results showed that the best co-solvent was a water-ethanol mixture (1 + 3, v/v), and the highest yield was obtained when the extraction was performed under 26 MPa at extraction and separation temperatures of 55 and 30 degrees C for 120 min, using 6 mL co-solvent/g material at a CO2 flow rate of 20 L/h. In a co