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Sample records for grape seed oil

  1. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  3. Characteristics of grape seed and oil from nine Turkish cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Unver, Ahmet; Gümüş, Tuncay; Akın, Aydın

    2012-11-01

    Percentages of crude oil, protein, fibre and ash of grape seeds obtained from Turkish cultivars were of the ranges 5.40-10.79, 5.24-7.54, 17.6-27.1, and 1.2-2.6, respectively. The highest crude oil, crude protein and crude fibre were determined in Siyah pekmezlik, Karadimrit and Antep grape seeds. The energy values of seeds were established to be between 102.28 and 148.07 kcal g(-1). Potassium and calcium contents of seed samples were found to be at high levels compared to sodium. The seeds contained 686-967 ppm of Na, 2468-3618 ppm of K and 2373-4127 ppm of Ca. The refractive index, relative density, acidity, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and iodine value of seed oils were determined to be in the ranges 1.474-1.477 [Formula: see text], 0.909-0.934 25/25°C, 0.74-1.24%, 181-197, 0.91-1.66%, and 126-135, respectively. The main fatty acids were of the ranges 60.7-68.5% linoleic, 16.1-23.4% oleic and 8.0-10.2% palmitic. The highest percentages of linoleic acid (68.5%) was determined in Siyah pekmezlik seed oil.

  4. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  5. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).

  6. Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ksouda Moalla, Kamilia; Kammoun, Naziha Grati; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration. Uniform wound excision was induced on rats dorsum randomly divided into five groups: groups treated with “CICAFLORA®” and tested oils and untreated one. The posthealing biopsies were histologically assessed. Results. Wound biopsies treated with oils showed the best tissue regeneration compared to control groups. Groups treated with our oils and “CICAFLORA” had higher wound contraction percentage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in oils act as inflammatory mediators increasing neovascularization, extracellular remodeling, migration, and cell differentiation. Wound healing effect was attributed to antibacterial and antioxidant synergy. Conclusion. According to findings, oils showed better activity in wound healing compared to “CICAFLORA” due to a phytoconstituents synergy. However, clinical trials on humans are necessary to confirm efficacy on human pathology. PMID:27990170

  7. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat.

  8. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils.

  9. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  10. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  11. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective.

  12. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  13. Protective mechanism of grape seed oil on carbon tetrachloride-induced brain damage in γ-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Moawed, Fatma S M; Mohamed, Marwa Abdelhameed

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the possible beneficial effects of grape seed oil (GSO) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute neurotoxicity in γ-irradiated rats. A statistical significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were exhibited. Further, a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) levels was observed. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were elevated in the γ-irradiated animals treated with an acute dose of CCl4. The pretreatment of GSO exerts significant amelioration of the studied parameters. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that GSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in γ-irradiated rats, which is likely attributed to its ability to scavenge the free radicals, suppress the inflammatory responses, improve the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and inhibit the XO and iNOS gene expression levels.

  14. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  15. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; de la Rosa, Laura A.; Vázquez-Flores, Alma A.; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; González-Arellanes, Rogelio; López-Díaz, José A.; González-Córdova, Aarón F.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Molina-Corral, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05); but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO. PMID:28117688

  16. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; de la Rosa, Laura A; Vázquez-Flores, Alma A; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; González-Arellanes, Rogelio; López-Díaz, José A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Molina-Corral, Francisco J

    2017-01-20

    Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05); but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO.

  17. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, F.; Bertussi, R. A.; Agostini, G.; Atti dos Santos, A. C.; Rossato, M.; Vanderlinde, R.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives. PMID:22593706

  18. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... degeneration (AMD), poor night vision, liver disorders, and hay fever. Dried grapes, raisins, or sultanas (white raisins) are ... help decrease stress on the eyes from glare.Hay fever. Taking grape seed extract for 8 weeks before ...

  19. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  20. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  1. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  2. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M.; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A.; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity. PMID:25883748

  3. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  4. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  5. Degradation Kinetics of Grape Skin and Seed Proanthocyanidins in a Model Wine System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 degrees C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catechol. ...

  6. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape juice processing by-products, namely grape seed and pomace, are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monom...

  7. Cardioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin against ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Maulik, G; Ray, P S; Bagchi, D; Das, D K

    1999-06-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate cardioprotective effects of red wine consumption. Such cardioprotective properties of wine have been attributed to certain polyphenolic constituents of grapes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds possess cardioprotective properties. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: grape-seed proanthocyanidin was administered orally to one group of rats (100 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks while the other group served as control. After 3 weeks, rats were killed, hearts excised, mounted on the perfusion apparatus and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer. After stabilization hearts were perfused in the working mode for baseline measurements of contractile functions. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Coronary perfusates were collected to monitor malonaldehyde formation, a presumptive marker for oxidative stress development. At the end of each experiment, the heart was processed for infarct size determination. Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of proanthocyanidin was determined by examining its ability to remove peroxyl radical generated by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride while hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was tested with its ability to reduce 7-OH.-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid. The results of our study demonstrated that proanthocyanidin-fed animals were resistant to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury as evidenced by improved recovery of post-ischemic contractile functions. The proanthocyanidin-fed group revealed reduced extent of myocardial infarction compared to the control group. Fluorimetric study demonstrated the antioxidant property of proanthocyanidin as judged by its ability to directly scavenge peroxyl radicals. Taken together, the results of this study showed that grape seed-proanthocyanidins possess a cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury. Such

  8. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  9. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-11-19

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  10. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  11. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-09-23

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  12. Lipophilized Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Derivatives as Novel Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Yu, Shujuan

    2017-03-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) is a natural food antioxidant. Natural proanthocyanidins (PC) in grape seed are usually polyhydroxy derivatives which exhibit hydrophilic character. GSP was modified structurally to improve its lipophilicity, expand its application in lipophilic media, and enhance its cellular absorption in vivo. Esterification of the water-soluble GSP was prepared by immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM with lauric acid, and their enhanced lipophilicity was confirmed by the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient. The presence of mono-, di-, and trilauroylated derivatives in GSP derivatives was confirmed by HPLC-MS-MS, and four lauroylated derivatives were identified as 3',5'-2-O-lauroyl epigallocatechin, 3'-O-lauroyl catechin, 3'-O-lauroyl epicatechin, and 3',3″,5″-3-O-lauroyl epicatechin gallate by NMR. GSP derivatives exhibited the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (IC50 of 41 μg/mL) compared to that of GSP, hydroxytoluene (BHT), and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ). The results suggest that GSP derivatives may be used as potential lipophilic antioxidants in the food industry.

  13. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-08-20

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  14. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  15. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  16. Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, K.J.; D'Arch-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

  17. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  18. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  19. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  20. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  2. Evaluation of the influence of white grape seed extracts as copigment sources on the anthocyanin extraction from grape skins previously classified by near infrared hyperspectral tools.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José

    2017-04-15

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations.

  3. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Estrogen Levels of Postmenopausal Women - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Bauer, Brent A.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Cha, Stephen S.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Olson, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The roll of estrogens in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is well documented and has lead to the development of Selective Estrogene Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. However these agents are associated with significant side effects and are therefore not well accepted by healthy women who are at high risk for breast cancer. There has been some evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies that grapes have an aromatase inhibiting effect resulting in a decrease in estrogen synthesis and increase in androstenedione and testosterone. Method We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose finding early phase trial. Eligible partici-pants were randomly assigned to one of 4 doses of grape seed extract (200, 400, 600, or 800 mg) to be taken daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change of plasma hormone levels (estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment with grape seed extract). Results Forty-six women were enrolled, 39 (84.8%) completed the study. In this pilot study grape-seed extract given in daily doses of 200, 400, 600 or 800 mg for 12 weeks to postmenopausal women did not decrease plasma estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate) and did not increase precursors of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione). There were large variations in pre- and posttreatment estrone, estradiol and estrone sulfate and androgen precursors. Conclusion Future research should carefully consider BMI and changes in BMI as well as higher dosing of grape seed extract in their design. PMID:24670122

  4. Statistical correlation between flavanolic composition, colour and sensorial parameters in grape seed during ripening.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this work has been to determine the correlations between sensory analysis, colour and content of main flavanols present in seeds. For this, the flavanic composition of grape seeds with different degrees of maturity was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS and the obtained results were correlated with CIELab colour parameters, perceived colour (C), hardness of the seed (HS), tannic intensity (TI) and astringency (A). Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) with the variables showing significant correlations (p<0.05) was also performed. Grape seeds undergo important decreases in the content of catechins and procyanidin oligomers during ripening. Epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (B2G) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) are the flavanolic compounds whose contents decrease most. The changes in the phenolic composition accompany changes in TI, A and HS. The total content of flavanols in the seed is not the only factor affecting these attributes, since samples containing higher contents in flavanols can exhibit less astringency and tannic intensity than others with lower ones. The qualitative profile of the seeds is, therefore, also responsible for the sensations elicited in the mouth. A and HS parameters are more affected by the presence of galloylated dimeric procyanidins in the molecule than TI. CIELab colour parameters of seeds have high correlation coefficients with many flavanolic compounds. ECG was the compound most related to these parameters.

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of seeds from different grape cultivars grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Vasigheh Sadat; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Yousef Elahi, Mostafa; Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Sedigheh

    2017-04-10

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of seed extracts from three grape cultivars grown in Iran. Folin Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of the total phenolic contents and GC-MS was used for the analysis of phenolic compositions. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents of seed extract were found in the black and green grape, respectively. The content of individual phenols such as Frulic acid, Gentistic acid, Syringic acid, (+) Catechin, Chlorogenic acid and (-)- Epicatchin gallate was cultivars dependent. The antioxidant activity of the seed extracts ranged from 34.03% (Green) to 53.63% (Black). Generally, the Black grape seed extract with the total phenolic content (3 ± 0.01 mg tannic acid/g DM), DPPH (53.63 ± 0.34%), IC50 and AEAC (7.41 and 16.92 mg/mL) showed the highest level of total antioxidant capacity.

  6. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  7. Effects of grape pomace in growing lamb diets compared with vitamin E and grape seed extract on meat shelf life.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rivas, C; Vieira, C; Rubio, B; Martínez, B; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; Manso, T

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dietary treatment (CTRL, control; VIT-E, 500 mg kg(-1) vitamin E; GSE, 50 mg grape seed extract kg(-1); GP-5, 5% dried red grape pomace kg(-1)) on shelf life of lamb meat was studied. After slaughter (27 kg LBW), m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sliced, packaged under modified atmosphere (80:20%/O2:CO2) and stored in retail conditions for 14 days. At each sampling day (0, 4, 7, 11, 14), microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were analysed. Meat from VIT-E presented lower microbial counts than CTRL, GSE and GP-5, without differences between polyphenol treatments (GSE and GP-5) and CTRL. Vitamin E reduced meat discoloration and lipid oxidation (TBARS values) from day 7 with respect to the other treatments. Although not significant, an improvement in TBARS values of about 20% was observed for GSE and GP-5, compared with CTRL, from day 7 of storage. VIT-E dietary treatment was more effective in preventing sensory spoilage than the other treatments.

  8. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  9. Chemical investigation of commercial grape seed derived products to assess quality and detect adulteration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Tom S; Reichert, William; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental concerns in quality control arise due to increasing use of grape seed extract (GSE) and the complex chemical composition of GSE. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers are the major bioactive compounds in GSE. Given no standardized criteria for quality, large variation exists in the composition of commercial GSE supplements. Using HPLC/UV/MS, 21 commercial GSE containing products were purchased and chemically profiled, major compounds quantitated, and compared against authenticated grape seed extract, peanut skin extract, and pine bark extract. The antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content for each sample was also determined and compared using standard techniques. Nine products were adulterated, found to contain peanut skin extract. A wide degree of variability in chemical composition was detected in commercial products, demonstrating the need for development of quality control standards for GSE. A TLC method was developed to allow for rapid and inexpensive detection of adulteration in GSE by peanut skin.

  10. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions.

  11. A case study of apple seed and grape allergy with sensitisation to nonspecific lipid transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    Katelaris, Constance H; Baumgart, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins can be an important cause of allergy given their stability and high degree of protein sequence homology. We describe the case of a child who developed two separate episodes of anaphylaxis after consuming apple seed and grape, with evidence that nonspecific lipid transfer proteins may have been responsible for these reactions. Lipid transfer protein allergy should be considered when anaphylaxis is inconsistent, such as in patients who can tolerate fruit pulp but react to fresh whole fruit juices. PMID:27141487

  12. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

    2013-12-15

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV.

  13. Comparative in vitro fermentations of cranberry and grape seed polyphenols with colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Barroso, Elvira; van de Wiele, Tom; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we have assessed the phenolic metabolism of a cranberry extract by microbiota obtained from the ascending colon and descending colon compartments of a dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (SHIME). For comparison, parallel fermentations with a grape seed extract were carried out. Extracts were used directly without previous intestinal digestion. Among the 60 phenolic compounds targeted, our results confirmed the formation of phenylacetic, phenylpropionic and benzoic acids as well as phenols such as catechol and its derivatives from the action of colonic microbiota on cranberry polyphenols. Benzoic acid (38.4μg/ml), 4-hydroxy-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid (26.2μg/ml) and phenylacetic acid (19.5μg/ml) reached the highest concentrations. Under the same conditions, microbial degradation of grape seed polyphenols took place to a lesser extent compared to cranberry polyphenols, which was consistent with the more pronounced antimicrobial effect observed for the grape seed polyphenols, particularly against Bacteroides, Prevotella and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale.

  14. Determination of oil in sunflower seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kochlar, S.P.; Rossell, J.B.

    1987-06-01

    Oil content measurement in sunflower seeds on an ''as is'' basis by current official methods is often associated with poor reproducibility. This study shows that the main factor contributing to this poor agreement is the particle size to which seeds are ground. This invariably influences the homogeneity of the bulk ground sample from which subsequent subsamples are taken. It is therefore suggested that oil content determinations on sunflower seeds should be carried out on seed samples that have been evenly and finely ground, to a particle size not greater than 2.0 mm, in a mechanical mill such as the Ultra-Centrifugal mill. Other factors investigated were seed composition (free husk, empty husk, crude fiber and seed meats) and structural differences in the seeds by light microscopy. (Refs. 16).

  15. Compression ignition performance using sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, C.M.; LePori, W.A.; Engler, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil subjected to various levels of processing and blends with diesel fuel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results from short duration performance tests and longer duration load tests are reported. 8 refs.

  16. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  17. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay.

  18. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  19. Rapidly differentiating grape seeds from different sources based on characteristic fingerprints using direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqiao; Liao, Jie; Dong, Junxing; Chen, Li

    2015-09-01

    The seeds of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are a byproduct of wine production. To examine the potential value of grape seeds, grape seeds from seven sources were subjected to fingerprinting using direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. Firstly, we listed all reported components (56 components) from grape seeds and calculated the precise m/z values of the deprotonated ions [M-H](-) . Secondly, the experimental conditions were systematically optimized based on the peak areas of total ion chromatograms of the samples. Thirdly, the seven grape seed samples were examined using the optimized method. Information about 20 grape seed components was utilized to represent characteristic fingerprints. Finally, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were performed to analyze the data. Grape seeds from seven different sources were classified into two clusters; hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis yielded similar results. The results of this study lay the foundation for appropriate utilization and exploitation of grape seed samples. Due to the absence of complicated sample preparation methods and chromatographic separation, the method developed in this study represents one of the simplest and least time-consuming methods for grape seed fingerprinting.

  20. Enzyme release of phenolics from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz; Lu, Jiang; Gu, Liwei; Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Marshall, Maurice R

    2014-08-15

    Enzyme degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides can potentially enhance the release of bioactive phenolics. The aim of this study was to evaluate various combinations of solvent and enzyme, enzyme type (cellulase, pectinase, ß-glucosidase), and hydrolysis time (1, 4, 8, 24 h) on the release of muscadine grape skin and seed phenolics, and their antioxidant activities. Results showed that pre-treated muscadine skins and seeds with enzymes decreased total phenolic yield compared with solvent (50% ethanol) alone. Enzyme release of phenolics from skins of different muscadine varieties was significantly different while release from seeds was similar. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to shorten extraction time. Most importantly, enzyme hydrolysis modified the galloylated form of polyphenols to low molecular weight phenolics, releasing phenolic acids (especially gallic acid), and enhancing antioxidant activity.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (p<0.05), respectively, after use of marinades containing the highest extract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples.

  2. Temperature-dependent kinetics of grape seed phenolic compounds extraction: experiment and model.

    PubMed

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Sovová, Helena; Planinić, Mirela; Tomas, Srećko

    2013-02-15

    The kinetics of a batch solid-liquid extraction of total phenolic compounds (PC) from milled grape seed (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Frankovka") using 50% ethanol at different extraction temperatures (25-80°C) was studied. The maximum yield of PC was 0.13 kg(GAE)/kg(db) after 200 min of extraction in agitated vessel at 80°C. A new model based on the assumptions of a first order kinetics mechanism for the solid-liquid extraction and a linear equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface was developed. The model involves the concept of broken and intact cells in order to describe two successive extraction periods: a very fast surface washing process followed by slow diffusion of phenolic compounds from grape seeds to the solvent. The proposed model is suited to fit experimental data and to simulate the extraction of phenolic compounds, which was confirmed by the correlation coefficient (r≥0.965), the root mean square error (RMSE≤0.003 kg(GAE)/kg(db)) and the mean relative deviation modulus (E≤2.149%). The temperature influenced both equilibrium partition coefficients of phenolic compounds and transport properties, which is manifested by a relatively high value of activation energy (23-24) kJ/mol and by values of effective diffusivity in seed particles.

  3. In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

  4. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  5. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. Aim To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Materials and methods Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Results Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Conclusion Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. How to cite this article Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185. PMID:27843246

  6. Trying to set up the flavanolic phases during grape seed ripening: A spectral and chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Heredia, Francisco J; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Grape seeds were collected in ten different dates and classified in seven groups according to their individual hyperspectral imaging characteristics. Proanthocyanidin composition was studied using HPLC-MS for oligomers and acid catalyzed cleavage for polymers characterization. The combination of both analysis provided a complete description of the flavanols. Chemometric analysis was performed to summarize the analytical results. None of the considered variables presented statistical differences among all groups. From one to five groups were found for each variable, while three was the most frequent value, consequently three putative stages might be considered the real number of different analytical stages since it is the number of statistically significant groups for the majority of the compounds. This classification could be considered as the first step to optimize the use of seeds in winemaking to minimize the gap between sugar and phenolic maturities, consequence of the global climate change, mainly observed in warm climate.

  7. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-29

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  8. Feasibility study on the use of near infrared spectroscopy to determine flavanols in grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2010-10-15

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy to determine the content of flavanols directly recording the infrared spectra of grape seeds has been evaluated. Moreover, the study shows the potential of this technique to obtain qualitative information related to the samples. In this case, the feasibility to discriminate between possible vineyards of origin has also been evaluated. Modified Partial Least Squares (MPLS) regression was used to develop the quantitative models in order to predict the content of flavanols. These models have been validated showing differences between 3.5% and 14.3% in the external validation. Moreover, Discriminant Partial Least Squares algorithm was used in the qualitative analysis to distinguish between two possible vineyards of origin and showed a high degree of accuracy. Prediction rates of samples correctly classified with a mean of 95% in internal validation and 97% in external validation were obtained. The procedure reported here seems to have an excellent potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive analysis of these flavanols in grape seeds and could also be a tool to distinguish between possible vineyards of origin.

  9. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

  10. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin–Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured. PMID:28208630

  11. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits.

  12. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages. PMID:27433100

  13. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.

  14. Influence of Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement on Lipid Profile in Normal and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. Aims: To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Results: Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. PMID:25653967

  15. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  16. Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

  17. Anatomical, histological, and histochemical changes in grape seeds from Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet franc during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Yves; Miñana-Castelló, Maria Teresa; Chevalier, Michel

    2006-11-29

    Cabernet franc berries were sampled at five stages from berry set to harvest from an experimental vineyard in mid Loire Valley. Seeds were collected from representative berries in term of stage of development. The evolution of seed was followed both macro- and microscopically. For microscopy analysis, seeds were cut, put in a fixation solution, and cut into thin sections with a microtome. Five staining solutions were used for each seed sample: toluidine blue O, phloroglucinol, periodic acid-Schiff's reagent and naphtol blue black, vanillin, and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde. Toluidine blue O staining revealed the evolution of tissue structures during grape seed development. We studied the changes in chemical compounds (lignin, polysaccharides, proteins, and tannins) with the other reagents. Seed lignification was achieved at veraison. Proanthocyanidins were localized in epidermis, inner cells of the soft seed coat, and inner cell layer of the inner integument. Finally, the localization of flavan-3-ols was linked with changes in cell walls of the outer integument.

  18. Grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, enhance unsaturated fatty acids in the milk of Sarda dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Correddu, F; Gaspa, G; Pulina, G; Nudda, A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone or in combination, on sheep milk fatty acids (FA) profile using 24 Sarda dairy ewes allocated to 4 isoproductive groups. Groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet including 300 g/d per animal of grape seed (GS), a diet including 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet including a mix of 300 g/d per animal of grape seed and 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with a 2-wk adaptation period and an 8-wk experimental period. Milk FA composition was analyzed in milk samples collected in the last 4 wk of the trial. The milk concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased and that of unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (UFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively) increased in GS, LIN, and MIX groups compared with CON. The MIX group showed the lowest values of SFA and the highest of UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. Milk from ewes fed linseed (LIN and MIX) showed an enrichment of vaccenic acid (VA), oleic acid (OA), α-linolenic acid (LNA), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) compared with milk from the CON group. The GS group showed a greater content of milk oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and tended to show a greater content of VA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA than the CON group. The inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, decreased the milk concentration of de novo synthesized FA C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0, with the MIX group showing the lowest values. In conclusion, grape seed and linseed could be useful to increase the concentration of FA with potential health benefits, especially when these ingredients are included in combination in the diet.

  19. Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Kondo, Maki; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-05-01

    Regulation of oil biosynthesis in plant seeds has been extensively studied, and biotechnological approaches have been designed to increase seed oil content. Oil and protein synthesis is negatively correlated in seeds, but the mechanisms controlling interactions between these two pathways are unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism controlling oil and protein content in seeds. We utilized transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a master transcription factor regulating seed oil biosynthesis, and knockout mutants of major seed storage proteins. Oil and protein biosynthesis in wild-type plants was sequentially activated during early and late seed development, respectively. The negative correlation between oil and protein contents in seeds arises from competition between the pathways. Extension of WRI1 expression during mid-phase of seed development significantly enhanced seed oil content. This study demonstrates that temporal activation of genes involved in oil or storage protein biosynthesis determines the oil/protein ratio in Arabidopsis seeds. These results provide novel insights into potential breeding strategies to generate crops with high oil contents in seeds.

  20. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  1. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  2. Silencing of chaperonin 21, that was differentially expressed in inflorescence of seedless and seeded grapes, promoted seed abortion in tobacco and tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Or, Etti; Flaishman, Moshe; Sahar, Nachman; Perl, Avihai

    2007-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Thompson Seedless' presents a type of stenospermocarpy in grape where fertilization occurs but seeds abort and fail to develop. To unravel the molecular basis for stenospermocarpy in grapes, subtractive hybridization was carried out in order to isolate differentially regulated genes that participate in the seedlessness machinery. Two 'Thompson' lines, a seeded and a seedless, were screened during different flower developmental stages. One of the genes, that was differentially expressed between the seeded and seedless lines, was the chloroplast chaperonin 21 (ch-Cpn21). ch-Cpn21 is a 21-kDa co-chaperonin polypeptide formed by two GroES-like domains fused together in tandem. Silencing of ch-Cpn21 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants resulted in leaf stunting, chlorosis, as well as ovary necrogenesis leading to seed abortion. Moreover, organ-specific silencing of ch-Cpn21 only in Lycopersicum esculentum fruits resulted in the development of seedless tomatoes. These results suggest that ch-Cpn21 may play a role in seed abortion in stenospermocarpic grapes.

  3. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  4. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  5. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  6. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  7. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  8. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  9. Effects of grape seed extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Başaralı, Kemal

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on exercise performance and oxidative stress in acutely and chronically exercised rats. A total of sixty-four male rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into six groups: control, chronic exercise control, acute exercise control (AEC), GSE-supplemented control, GSE-supplemented chronic exercise and GSE-supplemented acute exercise groups. Chronic exercise consisted of treadmill running at 25 m/min, 45 min/d, 5 d a week for 6 weeks. Rats in the acute exercise groups were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. GSE were given at 100 mg/kg of body weight with drinking water for 6 weeks. Plasma was separated from blood samples for the analysis of oxidative stress markers. There was no significant difference in time of exhaustion between the acute exercise groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the acute exercise groups and lower in the chronic exercise groups. GSE supplementation decreased MDA levels. Xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase activities were higher in the AEC group compared to all the other groups. NO levels were increased with both chronic exercise and GSE supplementation. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in the acute exercised groups and higher in the chronic exercised groups. GSE supplementation caused an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, GSE supplementation prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress by preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.

  10. Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jinfa; Qi, Fengjie; Ye, Liping; Yao, Suyan

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Material/Methods Sixty SPF KM mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, CCl4-model group, bifendate group (DDB group), and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GSP groups. The following parameters were measured: serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin-6 (IL-6); high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1; body weight; liver, spleen, and thymus indexes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; HMGB1 mRNA; malondialdehyde (MDA) content; hepatocyte proliferation; and changes in liver histology. Results Compared to the CCl4-model group, decreases in liver index and increases in thymus index significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA content, and higher hepatocyte proliferative activity was found in all GSP dose groups and the DDB group (all P<0.001). Compared with the CCl4-model group, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and HMGB 1 mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly in the high GSP dose group (all P<0.05). Conclusions Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:26986029

  11. Preparative HSCCC isolation of phloroglucinolysis products from grape seed polymeric proanthocyanidins as new powerful antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Luo, Lanxin; Sun, Baoshan

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric proanthocyanidins isolated from a grape seed phenolic extract were hydrolysed in the presence of phloroglucinol into monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives. Each of the phloroglucinolysis products was successfully separated and isolated in large amount by semi-preparative HSCCC technique under the optimized conditions based on a selection of suitable solvent system. The optimized solvent system consisted of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1:80:80, v/v/v) with a combination of head-tail and tail-head elution modes. By only one-step HSCCC separation, the purity of each obtained phloroglucinolysis product, including monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives was above 76%, verified by UPLC. The structures of these products were tentatively identified by UPLC based on their retention time and further confirmed by MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Furthermore, by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, it was verified that all these phloroglucinolysis products possessed strong antioxidant activities, being catechin-nucleophile derivatives more powerful than free catechins.

  12. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (p<0.05) and reduced the AGEs and MDA of diabetic rats (p<0.05). After being treated by GSPE, the severe segmental demyelination was decreased and Schwann cells were improved. In conclusion, GSPE plays an important role against DPN. With the decreasing of AGEs and MDA, it can ameliorate oxidation-associated nerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  13. Grape Seed Extract Attenuates Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Virus-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a causative factor leading to hepatocellular carcinoma due to chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was first to explore the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) in HCV replication, and then to study mechanisms. The results indicated that a GSE treatment showed significant anti-HCV activity and suppressed HCV-elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In contrast, exogenous COX-2 expression gradually attenuated antiviral effects of GSE, suggesting that GSE inhibited HCV replication by suppressing an aberrant COX-2 expression caused by HCV, which was correlated with the inactivation of IKK-regulated NF-κB and MAPK/ERK/JNK signaling pathways. In addition, GSE also attenuated HCV-induced inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Notably, a combined administration of GSE with interferon or other FDA-approved antiviral drugs revealed a synergistic anti-HCV effect. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the possibility of developing GSE as a dietary supplement to treat patients with a chronic HCV infection. PMID:28066241

  14. Oral administration of grape seed polyphenol extract restores memory deficits in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zheng, Yake; Wu, Tianwen; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated. Here, CCH-related memory impairment was modeled in rats using permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. A Morris water maze task was used to evaluate memory, the levels of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine were used to evaluate cholinergic function, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonic dialdehyde, and catalase. We found that oral administration of GSPE for 1 month can rescue memory deficits. We also found that GSPE restores cholinergic neuronal function and represses oxidative damage in the hippocampus of CCH rats. We propose that GSPE protects memory in CCH rats by reducing ischemia-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. These findings provide a novel application of GSPE in CCH-related memory impairments.

  15. Effect of grape seed extract on descriptive sensory analysis of ground chicken during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Brannan, R G

    2009-04-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis, instrumental color, yield, pH, water activity, and binding strength were determined on ground chicken breast and thigh with or without grape seed extract (GSE) during refrigerated storage. In chicken breast, GSE inhibited the intensity of musty and rancid odor, and rancid flavor compared to control patties, but GSE caused significantly darker (L(∗)), redder (a(∗)), and less yellow (b(∗)) patties. No differences were observed for pH, water activity, or yield, though differences were observed for binding strength. In chicken thigh, sensory scores were significantly different for 14 of 15 sensory attributes, although the differences were due to storage time or precooking, not the presence of GSE. GSE caused significantly darker sensory scores and L(∗) values, and redder (a(∗)) and less yellow (b(∗)) patties. Differences in binding strength and yield were attributable to precooking, not the presence of GSE. GSE may be an effective antioxidant in precooked chicken breast systems.

  16. Cardioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Razmaraii, Nasser; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Assadnassab, Gholamreza; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Azarmi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE) as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days) and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days) plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results: DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX. Conclusion: Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment. PMID:27766227

  17. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on cardiovascular remodeling in DOCA-salt hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-ling; Pan, Chen; Wang, Li; Ding, Ling; Guo, Kun; Wang, Hong-zhi; Xu, A-Man; Gao, Shan

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular remodeling, as a hallmark of hypertension-induced pathophysiology, causes substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence that has demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, 180- to 200-g SD rats treated with DOCA (120 mg/week sc with 1% NaCl and 0.2% KCl in drinking water) and GSP (150, 240, 384 mg/kg) or amlodipine (ALM) (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks were recruited. The protective effects of GSP on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in rats with DOCA-salt-induced hypertension were investigated. Our results indicated that DOCA-salt could induce hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction, oxidative stress and the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and could increase JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. GSP or ALM treatments significantly improved hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction and oxidative stress, restrained the release of ET-1 and down-regulated the JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that GSP has protective effects against increase of blood pressure induced by DOCA-salt hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via restraining the release of ET-1.

  18. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%.

  19. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg-1 body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p < 0.05) heart weight, blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid peroxidation level, but increased (p < 0.05) body weight and activities antioxidant enzymes when compared to diabetic group. The results indicated that GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes. PMID:26261706

  20. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells by Grape Seed Extract Occurs via Activation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ning; Budhraja, Amit; Cheng, Senping; Yao, Hua; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the functional role of JNK and other apoptotic pathways in grape seed extract (GSE)-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by using pharmacologic and genetic approaches. Experimental Design Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of GSE for 12 h and 24 h, or with 50 μg/ml of GSE for various time intervals, after which apoptosis, caspase activation, and cell signaling pathways were evaluated. Parallel studies were performed in U937 and HL-60 human leukemia cells. Results Exposure of Jurkat cells to GSE resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis and caspase activation, events associated with the pronounced increase in Cip1/p21 protein level. Furthermore, treatment of Jurkat cells with GSE resulted in marked increase in levels of phospho-JNK. Conversely, interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological inhibitor (e.g. SP600125) or genetic (e.g. siRNA) approaches displayed significant protection against GSE mediated lethality in Jurkat cells. Conclusions The result of the present study showed that GSE induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a process that involves sustained JNK activation and Cip1/p21 up-regulation, culminating in caspase activation. PMID:19118041

  1. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Qingwang; Nie, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Tan, Bo; Cao, Hongying; Chen, Wenling; Gao, Weiming; Chen, Jiayi; Liang, Zhijian; Lai, Huangling; Huang, Siming; Xu, Yifei; Jiang, Weiwen; Huang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD. PMID:27588088

  2. Water-dispersible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solution containing grape seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruchao; Si, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Qiyi

    2012-02-01

    A novel and effective method for the preparation of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles was reported. nHAp was prepared in the presence of grape seed polyphenol (GSP) solution with different concentrations. Chemical precipitation method was adopted to produce pure nHAp and modified nHAp (nHAp-GSP) at 60 °C for 2 h. The chemical nature of the products was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the crystal structure and morphology of particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the spherical nHAp particles with a diameter of 20-50 nm could be synthesized at 60 °C. The zeta potential values of pure nHAp and nHAp-GSP are -0.36 mV and -26.1 mV respectively. According to the sedimentary time, the colloidal stability of nHAp-GSP in water could be improved dramatically with the increase of GSP content and the particles tended to exist as dispersive nanoparticles without aggregation. All the results indicated that GSP exhibited strong binding to nHAp and enhanced the colloidal stability of nHAp particles.

  3. Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Debasis; Swaroop, Anand; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi

    2014-10-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular dysfunctions, acute and chronic stress, gastrointestinal distress, neurological disorders, pancreatitis, various stages of neoplastic processes and carcinogenesis including detoxification of carcinogenic metabolites. GSP exhibited potent free radical scavenging abilities in both in vitro and in vivo models. GSP exerted significant in vivo protection against structurally diverse drug and chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and spleentoxicity. GSP also protected against idarubicin and 4-hydroxyperoxy-cyclophosphamide-induced cytotoxicity toward human normal liver cells. GSP exhibited selective cytotoxicity toward selected human cancer cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal cells. GSP exhibited potent modulatory effects of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic regulatory bcl-XL, p53, c-myc, c-JUN, JNK-1 and CD36 genes. Long-term exposure to GSP may serve as a novel chemoprotectant against three stages of DMN-induced liver carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis including initiation, promotion and progression. GSP may selectively protect against oxidative stress, genomic integrity and cell death patterns in vivo. These results demonstrate that GSP may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention against carcinogenesis.

  4. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p < 0.05) heart weight, blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid peroxidation level, but increased (p < 0.05) body weight and activities antioxidant enzymes when compared to diabetic group. The results indicated that GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes.

  5. Ascorbate, green tea and grape seed extracts increase the shelf life of low sulphite beef patties.

    PubMed

    Bañón, Sancho; Díaz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Mariano; Garrido, María Dolores; Price, Alejandra

    2007-12-01

    Green tea (GTE) and grape seed (GSE) extracts are proposed as preservatives for increasing the shelf life of low sulphite raw beef patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both extracts were compared with ascorbate. Five groups were established for the patties: Control (with no additives), S (100 SO(2)), SA (100 SO(2)+400 sodium ascorbate), ST (100 SO(2)+300 GTE) and SG (100 SO(2)+300 GSE) (mg per kg of meat). Patties were stored at 4°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 3, 6 or 9 days under retail display conditions. Meat spoilage (total viable and coliform counts, pH, lightness, chroma, hue angle, metmyoglobin and TBARS) was determined. The sensory contribution of the extracts to cooked patties was evaluated (colour, odour, flavour and texture). The results pointed to the possibility of using low SO(2)-vegetable extract combinations to preserve raw meat products. ST, SG and SA delayed microbial spoilage, redness loss and lipid oxidation, thus increasing the shelf life of the raw sulphite beef patties by 3 days. ST, SG and SA also delayed the onset of rancid flavours in cooked patties. No anomalous sensory traits were caused by either extract. Ascorbate, GTE and GSE improved the preservative effects of SO(2) on beef patties, especially against meat oxidation. This suggested that the quantity of SO(2) added can be reduced to obtain healthier raw meat products.

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects lymphocytes against histone-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ping; Mo, Bing; Cauvi, David M.; Yu, Ying; Guo, Zhenhui; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Yan, Qitao; Chen, Guiming

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis of lymphocytes is associated with immunosuppression and poor prognosis in sepsis. Our previous report showed that histones, nuclear proteins released from damaged or dying cells in sepsis, can mediate lymphocyte apoptosis via mitochondria damage. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a natural substance with protective properties against oxidative stress, plays a vital role in cell and mitochondria protection. We thus hypothesized that GSPE may play a protective role in histone-induced lymphocyte apoptosis through its anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of GSPE on lymphocyte apoptosis induced by extracellular histones, a main contributor of death in sepsis. Human blood lymphocytes were treated with 50 μg/ml histones, 2 μg/ml GSPE, or a combination of both. A total of 100 μM N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, was used as a positive control for GSPE. Apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 cleavage were measured. Our data clearly indicate that GSPE significantly inhibited lymphocyte apoptosis, generation of ROS, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the decrease in Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activation induced by extracellular histones. In conclusion, we show that GSPE has a protective effect on lymphocyte apoptosis induced by extracellular histones. This study suggests GSPE as a potential therapeutic agent that could help reduce lymphocyte apoptosis, and thus the state of immunosuppression was observed in septic patients. PMID:28344907

  7. Effect of grape seed powder on oxidative stability of precooked chicken nuggets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Cagdas, Ece; Kumcuoglu, Seher

    2015-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of grape seed powder (GSP) on lipid oxidation in chicken nuggets during frozen storage for 5 months was investigated. Chicken nuggets were prepared by dipping into batter containing GSP and pre-fried at 180 °C and then stored at -18 °C. Prefried chicken nugget crusts showed antioxidant properties. Primary oxidation products, determined by the peroxide value (POV) and conjugated diene (CD) concentration, gradually increased until month 2 and then declined, which is an indication of secondary lipid oxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values slowly increased during the first 2 months of storage and then slightly decreased. However, at the end of the storage period, the levels were increased to 0.4 mg MDA/kg meat and were lowest in 10 % GSP (0.104 mg MDA/kg meat). The para-anisidine values (pAV) increased in all samples during storage. Generally, samples treated with GSP had lower POV, pAV, TBARS, and CD values compared to the control. These findings indicated that GSP significantly (p < 0.05) retarded lipid oxidation in precooked chicken nuggets.

  8. Grape seed and skin extract protects against arsenic trioxide induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Sfaxi, Ichraf; Charradi, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; El May, Michèle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-07-29

    Arsenic is a metalloid found in water, soil, and air from natural and anthropogenic sources, and is commonly found in inorganic as well as organic forms. The clinical use of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is limited by its cardiotoxic side effects. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a polyphenolic mixture with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of GSSE on arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and injury. Animals exposed to 2.5 mg/kg As2O3 for 21 days exhibited a relevant increase in heart lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation, and inflammation, as well as a drop in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, As2O3 disturbed heart lipidemia and lipase activity, transition metals distribution and the associated enzymes, intracellular mediators such as calcium and the associated calpain activity, as well as myocardial architecture. Treatment with 4 g/kg GSSE protected against most of the deleterious effects provoked by As2O3. Our data suggest that GSSE has the potential to protect against As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity.

  9. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-08-01

    Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao; Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya; AlMaadeed, Mariam A; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4μgml(-1) & 5μgml(-1) of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines.

  11. Grape seed powder improves renal failure of chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Turki, Khaoula; Charradi, Kamel; Boukhalfa, Habib; Belhaj, Monia; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a syndrome characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function linked to slow destruction of renal parenchyma, eventually terminating in death when sufficient number of nephrons are damaged. Oxidative stress is commonly observed in CKD patients resulting from an imbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairment of defence mechanisms. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a polyphenolic mixture exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We conducted an interventional pilot study of supplementation with GSE capsules (GSE group, n = 23) or placebo (control group, n = 10) on CKD patients. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and after a six-month-long supplementation period to determine some renal function biomarkers, as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and haematological parameters. GSE improved glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria, increased the anti-oxidant status as assessed by high plasma catalase and superoxide dismutase and also lowered lipoperoxidation and carbonylation. GSE ameliorated inflammation by decreasing CRP, triglyceridemia and counteracted anemia and thrombocytopenia. Supplementation with 2 g GSE/day for six months improved some kidney function parameters of CKD patients and this beneficial effect of GSE seems to be mediated at least partly by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27822171

  12. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10-37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24-43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  13. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content. PMID:28265278

  14. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  15. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  16. Biodiesel from Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to seek non-conventional seed oil sources for biodiesel production due to issues such as supply and availability, as well as food versus fuel. In this context, Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil was investigated for the first time as a potential non-conventional feedstock for the ...

  17. Continuous hydrolysis of Cuphea seed oil in subcritical water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a source of medium chain fatty acids for use in chemical manufacturing, including detergents, shampoos and lubricants. Cuphea seed oil is high in decanoic acid and this fatty acid is especially useful in the preparation of estolide biobased lubricants, which have excellent ...

  18. Biological Networks Underlying Soybean Seed Oil Composition and Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is the most important oil crop in the United States. Production of soybean seed oil requires coordinated expression of many biological components and pathways, which is further regulated by seed development and phyto-hormones. A new research project is initiated in my laboratory to delineat...

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  20. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  1. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  4. Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacin-bound chromium in a hamster atherosclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Vinson, J A; Mandarano, M A; Shuta, D L; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2002-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty plaques develop on the inner arterial wall, which eventually obstructs blood flow. Identified risk factors for atherosclerosis include genetics, diet, lifestyle, smoking, circulating lipid and cholesterol levels, and molecular and circulating signals of chronic vascular inflammation. The link between flavonoids and atherosclerosis is based partly on the evidence that some flavonoids possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation in vitro. Hypercholesterolemia, a significant cardiovascular risk factor is prevalent in the American population. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and cardioprotective properties against oxidative stress. A recent study has shown that a combination of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) and a niacin-bound chromium (NBC) can decrease total cholesterol, LDL and oxidized LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic human subjects. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of GSPE supplementation in hamsters, singly and in combination with NBC, since these animals have a similar lipid profile to hypercholesterolemic humans when fed a hypercholesterolemic diet of 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (HCD). After 10 weeks of feeding HCD, these animals developed foam cells, which is a biomarker of early stages of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis (% of aorta covered with foam cells) was reduced by approximately 50% and 63% following supplementation of these animals with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of GSPE, respectively, in conjunction with a HCD, while approximately 32% reduction was observed following supplementation of GSPE plus NBC. A range of 7-9 animals was used in each study group. GSPE alone and in combination with NBC exerted a pronounced effect on the cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as oxidative lipid damage as demonstrated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid

  5. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Bozan, Berrin; Temelli, Feral

    2008-09-01

    Three seeds of Turkish origin, flax, poppy and safflower were analyzed for their proximate, fatty acids, tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and total phenolic composition, and oxidative stability of their oil. The major fatty acid in the flax oil was alpha-linolenic acid, comprising 58.3% of total fatty acids, whereas poppy and safflower oils were rich in linoleic acid at 74.5% and 70.5% level, respectively. The amount of total tocols was 14.6 mg/100g flax, 11.0mg/100g poppy and 12.1mg/100g safflower seed. Flax and poppy oil were rich in gamma-tocopherol as 79.4 mg/100g oil and 30.9 mg/100g oil, respectively, while alpha-tocopherol (44.1g/100g oil) was dominant in safflower oil. Only alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were found in the oils. Oxidative stability of oils was measured at 110 degrees C at the rate of 20 L/h air flow rate, and poppy oil (5.56 h) was most stabile oil followed by safflower oil (2.87 h) and flax oil (1.57). There were no correlation between oxidative stability and unsaturation degree of fatty acids and tocol levels of the oils. All of the seeds investigated provide a healthy oil profile and may have potential as a source of specialty oils on a commercial scale.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 on a diabetic pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenbin; Li, Baoying; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Fei; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Haiqing

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased considerably in recent years, highlighting the importance of developing new therapeutic strategies. Insulin-resistance and gradual dysfunction of pancreatic islets are the mainstay in the progression of T2DM. Therefore, preserving the function of the pancreas may lead to new prospective approaches. Our previous studies suggested that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol product, exhibited protective effects on diabetic vasculopathy. However, effects of GSPB2 on a diabetic pancreas remain unknown. In this study, we provided strong evidence that GSPB2 exerted protective effects on a diabetic pancreas. GSPB2 attenuated the elevated body weights, food intake and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels in db/db mice (p < 0.05), though it had no significant effect on glucose levels. The increased islet sizes, insulin levels, as well as HOMA-IR were also improved by GSPB2 treatment in db/db mice (p < 0.05). Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8), an estimated target of GSPB2 in our previous studies, was up-regulated in pancreatic tissues whereas GSPB2 treatment down-regulated the protein level (p < 0.05). Since MFG-E8 is highly involved in inflammation, we further investigate pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and NLRP3 levels. We found that levels of IL-1β and NLRP3 increased in a diabetic pancreas while GSPB2 treatment notably attenuated these alterations (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that inflammation is involved in the damage of a diabetic pancreas and GSPB2 provides protective effects at least in part through anti-inflammation.

  7. Ultrastructural alterations of Alzheimer's disease paired helical filaments by grape seed-derived polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Ho, Lap; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal folding of the microtubule-associated protein tau leads to aggregation of tau into paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, the major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently shown that grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) reduces tau pathology in the TMHT mouse model of tauopathy (Wang et al., 2010). In the present studies we assessed the impact of GSPE exposure on the ultrastructure of PHFs isolated from Alzheimer's disease brain. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that GSPE induced profound dose- and time-dependent alterations in the morphology of PHFs with partial disintegration of filaments. Filaments showed ∼2-fold enlargement in width and displayed numerous protrusions and splayed ends consistent with unfolding of tau and diminished structural stability. In addition, GSPE induced a reduction in immunogold labeling with antibodies against the C-terminal half (12E8, PHF-1) and the middle region of tau (AT8, Tau5, pSer214 tau, and AT180) but not the C-terminal end (Tau46). In comparison, labeling of N-terminus (Alz50) was enhanced. It is unlikely that alterations in immunogold labeling were due to biochemical alterations, e.g., protein phosphatase or proteolytic activities potentially stimulated by GSPE, because western blotting studies have shown the preservation of full length polypeptides of tau and their phospho-epitopes in GSPE-treated samples. The GSPE mechanism may include a noncovalent interaction of polyphenols with proline residues in the proline-rich domain of tau, with Pin1 sites at P213 and P232 most seriously affected as judged by suppression of labeling. Collectively, our results suggest that GSPE has a significant potential for therapeutic development by neutralizing phospho-epitopes and disrupting fibrillary conformation leading to disintegration of PHFs.

  8. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) improve weaned intestinal microbiota and mucosal barrier using a piglet model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meng; Song, Peixia; Huang, Chang; Rezaei, Arash; Farrar, Shabnam; Brown, Michael A.; Ma, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins have been suggested as an effective antibiotic alternative, however their mechanisms are still unknown. The present study investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on gut microbiota and mucosal barrier using a weaned piglet model in comparison with colistin. Piglets weaned at 28 day were randomly assigned to four groups treated with a control ration, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins, kitasamycin/colistin, or 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins and half-dose antibiotics, respectively. On day 28, the gut chyme and tissue samples were collected to test intestinal microbiota and barrier function, respectively. Proanthocyanidins treated piglets had better growth performance and reduced diarrhea incidence (P < 0.05), accompanied with decreased intestinal permeability and improved mucosal morphology. Gene sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that dietary proanthocyanidins improved the microbial diversity in ileal and colonic digesta, and the most abundant OTUs belong to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes spp. Proanthocyanidins treatment decreased the abundance of Lactobacillaceae, and increased the abundance of Clostridiaceae in both ileal and colonic lumen, which suggests that proanthocyanidins treatment changed the bacterial composition and distribution. Administration of proanthocyanidins increased the concentration of propionic acid and butyric acid in the ileum and colon, which may activate the expression of GPR41. In addition, dietary proanthocyanidins improved the antioxidant indices in serum and intestinal mucosa, accompanied with increasing expression of barrier occludin. Our findings indicated that proanthocyanidins with half-dose colistin was equivalent to the antibiotic treatment and assisted weaned animals in resisting intestinal oxidative stress by increasing diversity and improving balance of gut microbes. PMID:27880936

  9. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1α protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan; Wen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a widely consumed dietary supplement that has antitumor activity. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of GSE on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the mechanism underlying this action. We found that GSE inhibited VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in U251 human glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. GSE inhibited transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene through reducing protein but not mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. The inhibitory effect of GSE on HIF-1α expression was mainly through inhibiting HIF-1α protein synthesis rather than promoting protein degradation. Consistent with this result, GSE-suppressed phosphorylation of several important components involved in HIF-1α protein synthesis, such as Akt, S6 kinase and S6 protein. Furthermore, in the MDA-MB-231 tumor, we found that GSE treatment inhibited the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of S6 kinase without altering the subcellular localization of HIF-1α, correlating with reduced vessel density and tumor size. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the inhibitory activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the inhibitory activity. Taken together, our results indicate that GSE inhibits VEGF expression by reducing HIF-1α protein synthesis through blocking Akt activation. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of anticancer activity of GSE and reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic action of GSE. PMID:19131542

  10. Ovariectomy lowers urine levels of unconjugated (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their methylated metabolites in rats fed grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Cutts, John K; Peavy, Thomas R; Moore, Doyle R; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Kim, Helen

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Steroid hormones modulate expression of enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics, including dietary supplements. Half of the human population undergoes menopause, yet the effect of this age-related loss of ovarian steroid hormones on the metabolism of dietary supplements has yet to be determined. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement comprised of monomeric and oligomeric catechins and has health benefits in models of age-related diseases. We hypothesized that surgically-induced loss of ovarian hormones would increase methylation, glucuronidation, and/or sulfation of the grape seed polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Fourteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-OVX. At 17 weeks of age, SHRs were gavaged with vehicle (water) or GSE (300 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 6 days. Urinary excretion of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their metabolites was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although total urinary output of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their methylated metabolites was unaffected by OVX, the amounts of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their methylated metabolites that were not conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulfate were lowered by OVX. Specifically, urine from OVX SHRs administered GSE contained 30% higher proportions (91.8% vs. 62.3%) of glucuronidated (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin and glucuronidated methyl (+)-catechin and methyl (-)-epicatechin than urine from sham-OVX SHRs. However, there were no differences in urinary levels of total methylated or sulfated catechins in OVX SHRs. This is the first quantitative characterization of metabolites of grape seed polyphenols in a model of menopause; it indicates that ovariectomy causes either an increase in expression and/or activity of select uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase(s).

  11. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage.

  12. Transesterified sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Saydut, Abdurrahman; Duz, M Zahir; Kaya, Canan; Kafadar, Aylin Beycar; Hamamci, Candan

    2008-09-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil was extracted from the seeds of the sesame that grows in Diyarbakir, SE Anatolia of Turkey. Sesame seed oil was obtained in 58wt/wt%, by traditional solvent extraction. The methylester of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil. Transesterification shows improvement in fuel properties of sesame seed oil. This study supports the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel.

  13. Increasing the flow of carbon into seed oil.

    PubMed

    Weselake, Randall J; Taylor, David C; Rahman, M Habibur; Shah, Saleh; Laroche, André; McVetty, Peter B E; Harwood, John L

    2009-01-01

    The demand for vegetable oils for food, fuel (bio-diesel) and bio-product applications is increasing rapidly. In Canada alone, it is estimated that a 50 to 75% increase in canola oil production will be required to meet the demand for seed oil in the next 7-10years. Plant breeding and genetics have demonstrated that seed oil content is a quantitative trait based on a number of contributing factors including embryo genetic effects, cytoplasmic effects, maternal genetic effects, and genotype-environment interactions. Despite the involvement of numerous quantitative trait loci in determining seed oil content, genetic engineering to over-express/repress specific genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in the flow of carbon into seed oil has led to the development of transgenic lines with significant increases in seed oil content. Proteins encoded by these genes include enzymes catalyzing the production of building blocks for oil assembly, enzymes involved in oil assembly, enzymes regulating metabolic carbon partitioning between oil, carbohydrate and secondary metabolite fractions, and transcription factors which orchestrate metabolism at a more general level.

  14. Grape seed extract and Zinc containing nutritional food supplement delays onset and progression of Streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminaryana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai; Vaishnav, Rajdip Lalit

    2015-05-01

    Prevention of hyperglycemia and enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanisms remain major goals in the treatment of diabetic cataract. Earlier, we reported strong anti-hyperglycemic and in vitro antioxidant potential of the combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate effects of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets against streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were selected and diabetes was induced by streptozocin (35 mg/kg, i.p) and divided into four groups (group II-V). The normal control (group I) and streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract control rats received only vehicle. Groups III, IV and V animals received orally 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg of combined formulation of Zincovit tablets with grape seed extract respectively for a period of 150 days. The biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress, polyol pathway and alterations in adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and blood glucose were investigated, to understand the possible mechanism of action of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Rats treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets delayed the progression of diabetic cataract as well as it showed significant alterations in oxidative stress markers along with blood glucose, aldose reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphate level in lens. Over all, the results suggest that single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets may be of great value in delaying diabetic cataract of human subjects as nutritional food supplement.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils.

  16. Effect of low molecular grape seed proanthocyanidins on blood pressure and lipid homeostasis in cafeteria diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Pons, Z; Guerrero, L; Margalef, M; Arola, L; Arola-Arnal, A; Muguerza, B

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related pathologies are the leading cause of death worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are known to improve CVD, an effect that has been associated with flavonoid intake. The aim of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the acute effect of a low molecular grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (LM-GSPE) on two of the main risk factors of CVD, high blood pressure (BP) and dyslipidaemia, using high-fat diet-fed rats. Therefore, male Wistar rats that were cafeteria diet fed for 10 weeks were administered with 375 mg/kg of body weight of LM-GSPE, and the BP as well as plasmatic and hepatic parameters were determined at 6 h post-administration. The BP and plasmatic and hepatic lipid were decreased 6 h after the LM-GSPE administration. Moreover, the liver lipid peroxidation products decreased after the LM-GSPE treatment, indicating a reduction in oxidative stress. However, hepatic-reduced glutathione or plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity was not altered by the LM-GSPE. In conclusion, grape proanthocyanidins is able to simultaneously reduce more than one risk factor for CVD by decreasing the BP and improving hypertriglyceridaemia at least in part due to an improvement in oxidative stress. These results open up the possibility of using grape proanthocyanidins in functional foods for CVD improvement.

  17. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  18. Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa canina L.) seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2002-01-01

    Rose seeds were evaluated for weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude oil, energy, and mineral content. Also, fatty acid composition was determined in the seed oils. The weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude oil, energy, and iron (Fe) content of Ermenek rose seeds were found to be higher than those of other regions. The major fatty acids identified by gas chromatography of rose seed oils growing wild in the Hadim, Taskent, and Ermenek regions in Turkey were, respectively, as follows: palmitic (3.17%, 1.71%, and 2.14%), stearic (2.47%, 2.14%, and 1.69%), oleic (16.73%, 18.42%, and 14.71%), linoleic (54.41%, 51.71%, and 48,64%), linolenic (17.14%, 16.42%, and 18.41%), and arachidic (2.11%, 1.87%, and 2.61%). The seeds were rich in oil and minerals. The oil may be valuable for food and other uses because of its high unsaturated content.

  19. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  20. Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer's disease mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Jiang; Thomas, Philip; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Bi, Fang-Fang; Kosaraju, Shantha; Pollard, Anthony; Fenech, Michael; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols extracted from grape seeds are able to inhibit amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregation, reduce Abeta production and protect against Abeta neurotoxicity in vitro. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. APP(Swe)/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were fed with normal AIN-93G diet (control diet), AIN-93G diet with 0.07% curcumin or diet with 2% GSE beginning at 3 months of age for 9 months. Total phenolic content of GSE was 592.5 mg/g dry weight, including gallic acid (49 mg/g), catechin (41 mg/g), epicatechin (66 mg/g) and proanthocyanidins (436.6 mg catechin equivalents/g). Long-term feeding of GSE diet was well tolerated without fatality, behavioural abnormality, changes in food consumption, body weight or liver function. The Abeta levels in the brain and serum of the mice fed with GSE were reduced by 33% and 44%, respectively, compared with the Alzheimer's mice fed with the control diet. Amyloid plaques and microgliosis in the brain of Alzheimer's mice fed with GSE were also reduced by 49% and 70%, respectively. Curcumin also significantly reduced brain Abeta burden and microglia activation. Conclusively, polyphenol-rich GSE prevents the Abeta deposition and attenuates the inflammation in the brain of a transgenic mouse model, and this thus is promising in delaying development of AD.

  1. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Braicu, Cornelia; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B 41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  2. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  3. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    PubMed

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  4. Modeling of the devolatilization kinetics during pyrolysis of grape residues.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Lorenzi, Denis; Fambri, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed on grape seeds, skins, stalks, marc, vine-branches, grape seed oil and grape seeds depleted of their oil. The TGA data was modeled through Gaussian, logistic and Miura-Maki distributed activation energy models (DAEMs) and a simpler two-parameter model. All DAEMs allowed an accurate prediction of the TGA data; however, the Miura-Maki model could not account for the complete range of conversion for some substrates, while the Gaussian and logistic DAEMs suffered from the interrelation between the pre-exponential factor k0 and the mean activation energy E0--an obstacle that can be overcome by fixing the value of k0 a priori. The results confirmed the capabilities of DAEMs but also highlighted some drawbacks in their application to certain thermodegradation experimental data.

  5. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; ALSHEHRI, ZAFER SAAD; SABRY, AYMAN; ABDEL-GHAFFAR, TULIP; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; ATTIA, HOSSAM

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2–4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory

  6. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented.

  7. Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.

    PubMed

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Poudyal, Shital; Saleh, Osama; Astatkie, Tess; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2016-06-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and β-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil.

  8. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.

  9. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  10. Characterization and viscosity parameters of seed oils from wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, C O; Paschal, N H

    2003-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of Spondias mombin seed oil and the viscosity-temperature profiles of six seed oils from other plants which grow in the wild: Balanites aegytiaca, Lophira lanceolata, Sterculia setigera, Khaya senegalensis, Ximenia americana and Sclereocarya birrea, were investigated. The oil content of S. mombin seed was significant at 31.5% (w/w). The oil appeared stable as deduced from its low peroxide and acid values of 6.0 mEq kg(-1) and 1.68 mg KOH, respectively. The X. americana oil was denser than the other ones, with a value of 0.9625 g cm(-3) at 30 degrees C. The kinematic viscosities of the oils and their temperature dependence in the range 30-70 degrees C suggested a potential industrial application of the oils as lubricating base stock. Specifically, the kinematic viscosities of the oils were in the range 59.8-938.2 cst at 30 degrees C with X. americana having the highest value. At 70 degrees C, the reduction in viscosities of the oils was marked: reduction by over 70% of their values at 30 degrees C for S. setigera, K. senegalensis, X. americana and S. birrea oils.

  11. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles.

  12. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  13. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  14. Grape seed polyphenols and curcumin reduce genomic instability events in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Kosaraju, Shantha; O'Callaghan, Nathan J; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Fenech, Michael

    2009-02-10

    The study set out to determine (a) whether DNA damage is elevated in mice that carry mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP695swe) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1-dE9) that predispose to Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to non-transgenic control mice, and (b) whether increasing the intake of dietary polyphenols from curcumin or grape seed extract could reduce genomic instability events in a transgenic mouse model for AD. DNA damage was measured using the micronucleus (MN) assay in both buccal mucosa and erythrocytes and an absolute telomere length assay for both buccal mucosa and olfactory bulb tissue. MN frequency tended to be higher in AD mice in both buccal mucosa (1.7-fold) and polychromatic erythrocytes (1.3-fold) relative to controls. Telomere length was significantly reduced by 91% (p=0.04) and non-significantly reduced by 50% in buccal mucosa and olfactory bulbs respectively in AD mice relative to controls. A significant 10-fold decrease in buccal MN frequency (p=0.01) was found for AD mice fed diets containing curcumin (CUR) or micro-encapsulated grape seed extract (MGSE) and a 7-fold decrease (p=0.02) for AD mice fed unencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) compared to the AD group on control diet. Similarly, in polychromatic erythrocytes a significant reduction in MN frequency was found for the MGSE cohort (65.3%) (p<0.05), whereas the AD CUR and AD GSE groups were non-significantly reduced by 39.2 and 34.8% respectively compared to the AD Control. A non-significant 2-fold increase in buccal cell telomere length was evident for the CUR, GSE and MGSE groups compared to the AD control group. Olfactory bulb telomere length was found to be non-significantly 2-fold longer in mice fed on the CUR diet compared to controls. These results suggest potential protective effects of polyphenols against genomic instability events in different somatic tissues of a transgenic mouse model for AD.

  15. Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil and related cosmetic ingredients are derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and hydrogenated sesame seed oil function as conditioning agents. Sodium sesameseedate functions as a cleansing agent, emulsifying agent, and a nonaqueous viscosity increasing agent. These ingredients are neither skin irritants, sensitizers, teratogens, nor carcinogens at exposures that would result from cosmetic use. Both animal and human data relevant to the cosmetic use of these ingredients were reviewed. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  16. Grape seed proanthocyanidins increase collagen biodegradation resistance in the dentin/adhesive interface when included in an adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bradley; Yao, Xiaomei; Ganguly, Arindam; Xu, Changqi; Dusevich, Vladimir; Walker, Mary P; Wang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Contemporary methods of dentin bonding could create hybrid layers (HLs) containing voids and exposed, demineralized collagen fibers. Proanthocyanidins (PA) have been shown to crosslink and strengthen demineralized dentin collagen, but their effects on collagen degradation within the HL have not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphological differences of HLs created by BisGMA/HEMA model adhesives with and without the addition of grape seed extract PA under conditions of enzymatic collagen degradation. Methods Model adhesives formulated with and without 5% PA were bonded to the acid etched dentin. Five-μm-thick sections cut from the bonded specimens were stained with Goldner’s trichrome. The specimens were then exposed to 0.1% collagenase solution for zero, one, or six days. Following collagenase treatment, the specimens were analyzed with SEM/TEM. Results Staining did not reveal a difference in the HLs created with the two adhesives. SEM showed the presence of intact collagen fibrils in all collagenase treatment conditions for specimens bonded with adhesive containing PA. These integral collagen fibrils were not observed in the specimens bonded with adhesive without PA after the same collagenase treatment. TEM confirmed that the specimens containing PA still showed normal collagen fibril organization and dimensions after treatment with collagenase solution. In contrast, disorganized collagen fibrils in the interfacial zone lacked the typical cross-banding of normal collagen after collagenase treatment for specimens without PA. Conclusions The presence of grape seed extract PA in dental adhesives may inhibit the biodegradation of unprotected collagen fibrils within the HL. PMID:20709136

  17. Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tsaknis, J; Lalas, S; Gergis, V; Dourtoglou, V; Spiliotis, V

    1999-11-01

    The oil from Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seeds from Kenya was extracted using three different procedures including cold press (CP), extraction with n-hexane (H), and extraction with a mixture of chloroform/methanol (50:50) (CM). The oil concentration ranged from 25.8% (CP) to 31.2% (CM). The density, refractive index, color, smoke point, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, sterols, tocopherols (by HPLC), peroxide value, and at 232 and 270 nm and the susceptibility to oxidation measured with the Rancimat method were determined. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 75.39%). The dominant saturated acids were behenic (up to 6. 73%) and palmitic (up to 6.04%). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol (up to 50.07%), stigmasterol (up to 17.27%), and campesterol (up to 15.13%). alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols were detected up to levels of 105.0, 39.54, and 77. 60 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The induction period (at 120 degrees C) of M. oleifera seed oil was reduced from 44.6 to 64.3% after degumming. The M. oleifera seed oil showed high stability to oxidative rancidity. The results of all the above determinations were compared with those of a commercial virgin olive oil.

  18. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and at decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts or compounds.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Manijeh; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Urban, Nelly; Descomps, Bernard; Leger, Claude L

    2003-05-01

    A large body of evidence supports the key role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of natural polyphenols (PP) from Vitis vinifera and Olea europea at protecting LDL against oxidation brought about by Cu2+, oxygen-centered radical-generating AAPH, or peroxynitrite-generating SIN-1 in vitro systems, or at impairing superoxide production in promonocyte cells (THP-1) conveniently differentiated into adherent macrophages. PP were either from the whole grape (fraction A) containing mainly procyanidins, (epi)-catechin and anthocyanins, or from grape seed extracts (fractions B and C) consisting of tannins and procyanidin oligomers with a higher content in B than in C, or from a grape skin extract (fraction D) consisting mainly of anthocyanins, or from a hydrosoluble olive mill wastewater PP extract (fraction E) containing hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein. Chlorogenic acid (F) and catechin (G) were taken as archetypes of PP preventing oxidation partly as copper scavenger and as radical scavenger only, respectively. All grape fractions were efficient towards Cu2+ system (equally or more efficient than F), whereas they were rather poorly efficient towards AAPH and SIN-1 (less efficient than G but as efficient as F). Among the PP fractions, B was the most effective at protecting LDL in the SIN-1 system and at impairing THP-1 superoxide production. Taken together, these data suggest that the PP fraction from grape seed rich in procyanidins achieves the best compromise between the direct and indirect (i.e. cell-mediated) types of action in protecting LDL against oxidation, strengthening the need for improving the knowledge of its bioavailability in humans.

  19. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  20. Chemical composition of seed oils in native Taiwanese Camellia species.

    PubMed

    Su, Mong Huai; Shih, Ming Chih; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the fatty acid (FA) composition and levels in seeds of twelve native Camellia species collected in different populations of major producing regions in Taiwan. The constituents of FAs varied within and among populations. Oleic acid (OA) was found to be the predominant FA constituent in all species. Remarkably high levels of unsaturated OA and linoleic acid (LA), found in two populations of Camellia tenuiflora (CT), C. transarisanensis (CTA), and C. furfuracea (CFA), were similar to those reported for olive oil. The levels of saturated palmitic acid (PA) from most of the tested seed oils were less than 13%. Among the different fats, some FAs can be used as functional ingredients for topical applications. The seed oils of CT, CTA, and CFA possess chemical compounds that make them useful in health-oriented cooking due to their high OA and LA contents and low PA content.

  1. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  2. Analytical characterization of Salicornia bigelovii seed oil cultivated in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I; Nasir, M Khalil A; Ismail, Sarwat

    2002-07-17

    Seeds of Salicornia bigelovii (hybrid variety sos-10) were collected from five coastal areas of Pakistan on the Arabian Sea. Hexane-extracted oil content was 27.2-32.0%. Results of other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 128.0-130.5; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4680-1.4695; unsaponifiable matter, 1.63-2.00%; saponification value, 178.6-189.0; density (30 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9074. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil ranged up to 200 mg/kg. The S. bigelovii seed oil was found to contain high levels of linoleic acid (74.66-79.49%) and less oleic acid (12.33-16.83%). Saturated fatty acids, palmitic and stearic acids, ranged from 7 to 8.50% and from 1.24 to 1.69%, respectively. Linolenic acid (C(18:3) omega-3) was found within the range of 1.50-2.31%. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 1.40-1.70 h. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.90-2.40 and 0.40-0.62, respectively. Many parameters of S. bigelovii seed oil were quite compatible with those of safflower oil.

  3. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100 µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol.

  4. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  5. A new method for seed oil body purification and examination of oil body integrity following germination.

    PubMed

    Tzen, J T; Peng, C C; Cheng, D J; Chen, E C; Chiu, J M

    1997-04-01

    Plant seeds store triacylglycerols as energy sources for germination and postgerminative growth of seedlings. The triacylglycerols are preserved in small, discrete, intracellular organelles called oil bodies. A new method was developed to purify seed oil bodies. The method included extraction, flotation by centrifugation, detergent washing, ionic elution, treatment with a chaotropic agent, and integrity testing by use of hexane. These processes subsequently removed non-specifically associated or trapped proteins within the oil bodies. Oil bodies purified by this method maintained their integrity and displayed electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance on their surface. Compared with the previous procedure, this method allowed higher purification of oil bodies, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE using five species of oilseeds. Oil bodies purified from sesame were further analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and revealed two potential oleosin isoforms. The integrity of oil bodies in germinating sesame seedlings was examined by hexane extraction. Our results indicated that consumption of triacylglycerols reduced gradually the total amount of oil bodies in seedlings, whereas no alteration was observed in the integrity of remaining oil bodies. This observation implies that oil bodies in germinating seeds are not degraded simultaneously. It is suggested that glyoxisomes, with the assistance of mitochondria, fuse and digest oil bodies one at a time, while the remaining oil bodies are preserved intact during the whole period of germination.

  6. Diversity of Sterol Composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Mezni, Faten; Labidi, Arbia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Martine, Lucy; Berdeaux, Olivier; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2016-05-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from 13 different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to quantify sterols and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β-sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24-methylene-cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils.

  7. Characteristics, composition and oxidative stability of Lannea microcarpa seed and seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bazongo, Patrice; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Nielsen, Søren; Hilou, Adama; Dicko, Mamoudou Hama; Shukla, Vijai K S

    2014-02-24

    The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%), crude oil (64.90%), protein (21.14%), total carbohydrate (10.85%) and moisture (3.24%). Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%), palmitic (34.45%), linoleic (11.20%) and stearic (8.35%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN) 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively). The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO) (21.23%), followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP) (16.47%), palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO) (12.03%), dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP) (10.85%) and dioleoyl linolein (LOO) (9.30%). The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g-1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm). These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

  8. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  9. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  10. The physico-chemical properties of some citrus seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad A L; Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2016-03-01

    The chemical properties, mineral contents, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of seed and seed oils of some citrus genus provided from several locations in Turkey and Saudi Arabia were determined. While Ca contents of seeds were between 5018 mg/kg (Kütdiken lemon) and 7619 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin), K contents of seeds varied between 7007 mg/kg (Orlando orange) and 10334 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin). Glucose and fructose contents of citrus seed samples varied between 3.75 g/kg and 5.75 g/kg, and 4.09 g/kg and 6.03 g/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were established as dominant fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents of citrus seed oils varied between 19.6% (Kütdiken lemon) and 26.2% (pineapple orange), 21.3% (kinnow mandarin) and 31.4% (Kütdiken lemon) and 32.3% (Kütdiken lemon) and 43.7% (kinnow mandarin), respectively. The total amount of tocopherols of Turkish citrus oil varied between 0.5 mg/100 g (Fremont mandarin) and 18.8 mg/100 g (bitter orange).

  11. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Ouilly, Judicaël Thomas; Bazongo, Patrice; Bougma, Adjima; Kaboré, Nèbpawindé; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ouédraogo, Amadé

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C), 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX) value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C), 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%), lutein (80%), and β-sitosterol (93%) were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications. PMID:28255501

  12. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Ouilly, Judicaël Thomas; Bazongo, Patrice; Bougma, Adjima; Kaboré, Nèbpawindé; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ouédraogo, Amadé; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C), 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX) value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C), 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%), lutein (80%), and β-sitosterol (93%) were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  13. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  14. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from Pachyrhizus erosus seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for additional or alternative feedstocks is one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, the fuel properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (commonly known as yam bean or Mexican potato or jicama) seed oil methyl esters were investigated by methods prescribed in biodiesel...

  15. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  16. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  17. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity.

  18. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  19. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  20. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  1. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  2. Lipogenesis Is Decreased by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins According to Liver Proteomics of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Baiges, Isabel; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bladé, Cinta; Gregersen, Niels; Arola, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). This is the first study of the effects of flavonoids on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. Three groups of rats were fed over a period of 13 weeks either a chow diet (control), an HFD, or a high fat diet supplemented for the last 10 days with GSPE (HFD + GSPE). The liver proteome was fractionated, using a Triton X-114-based two-phase separation, into soluble and membrane protein fractions so that total proteome coverage was considerably improved. The data from isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 90 proteins with a significant (p < 0.05) minimal expression difference of 20% due to metabolic syndrome (HFD versus control) and 75 proteins due to GSPE treatment (HFD + GSPE versus HFD). The same animals have previously been studied (Quesada, H., del Bas, J. M., Pajuelo, D., Díaz, S., Fernandez-Larrea, J., Pinent, M., Arola, L., Salvadó, M. J., and Bladé, C. (2009) Grape seed proanthocyanidins correct dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet in rats and repress genes controlling lipogenesis and VLDL assembling in liver. Int. J. Obes. 33, 1007–1012), and GSPE was shown to correct dyslipidemia observed in HFD-fed rats probably through the repression of hepatic lipogenesis. Our data corroborate those findings with an extensive list of proteins describing the induction of hepatic glycogenesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in HFD, whereas the opposite pattern was observed to a large extent in GSPE-treated animals. GSPE was shown to have a wider effect than previously thought, and putative targets of GSPE involved in the reversal of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome were revealed. Some

  3. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Montamarry, S; Echard, B; Scheckenbach, R; Bagchi, D

    2001-07-01

    Progressive insulin resistance may contribute to both enhanced glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids and augmented free radical damage commonly associated with aging. Accordingly, ingestion of chromium and antioxidants which improve insulin sensitivity and/or lessen free radical formation could theoretically ameliorate these basic disorders and lessen signs and symptoms of chronic age-related disorders. However, this supposition is based primarily upon acute rather than chronic data. Therefore, we divided 104 F344/BN rats into 2 groups: a control group receiving a basic diet and a test group receiving the same diet with added chromium polynicotinate (5 ppm), zinc monomethionine (18 ppm elemental zinc), and a grape seed extract high in flavonoids (250 ppm). Initial mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) of both control and test groups were 122 mm Hg. Over the first 7 months, the SBP of the control animals steadily increased to 140 mm Hg and remained at this level for the next 7-8 months. In contrast, the SBP of the test animals initially decreased over the first 4 months to as low as 110-114 mm Hg. The SBP then increased over the following months, essentially reaching the starting value of 120 mm Hg. This was still significantly lower than control (p < 0.001). In 12 control and 12 test rats, hepatic TBARS formation, an estimate of lipid peroxidation/free radical formation, was significantly lower after 1 year ingesting the test diet (p < 0.04); and HbA1C was also statistically significantly lower in the test group (5.4 vs. 4.8%, p < 0.003). Circulating levels of cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides were similar between the two groups. Body, kidney, and liver weights were not different after 1 year ingesting the different diets; but epididymal fat pad weight was less in the group receiving supplements. We conclude that after prolonged supplementation a combination of agents known to sensitize insulin response and act as antioxidants (chromium polynicotinate, grape

  4. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  5. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  6. Quantitative description of the effect of stratification on dormancy release of grape seeds in response to various temperatures and water contents.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Q; Song, S Q; Li, S H; Gan, Y Y; Wu, J H; Cheng, H Y

    2009-01-01

    The effect of stratification on dormancy release of grape seeds crossing from the sub- to the supraoptimal range of temperatures and water contents was analysed by modified threshold models. The stratification impacted on dormancy release in three different ways: (i) dormancy was consistently released with prolonged stratification time when stratified at temperatures of <15 degrees C; (ii) at 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the stratification effect initially increased, and then decreased with extended time; and (iii) stratification at 25 degrees C only reduced germinable seeds. These behaviours indicated that stratification could not only release primary dormancy but also induce secondary dormancy in grape seed. The rate of dormancy release changed linearly in two phases, while induction increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The thermal time approaches effectively quantified dormancy release only at suboptimal temperature, but a quantitative method to integrate the occurrence of dormancy release and induction at the same time could describe it well at either sub- or supraoptimal temperatures. The regression with the percentage of germinable seeds versus stratification temperature or water content within both the sub- and supraoptimal range revealed how the optimal temperature (T(so)) and water content (W(so)) for stratification changed. The T(so) moved from 10.6 degrees C to 5.3 degrees C with prolonged time, while W(so) declined from >0.40 g H2O g DW(-1) at 5 degrees C to approximately 0.23 g H2O g DW(-1) at 30 degrees C. Dormancy release in grape seeds can occur across a very wide range of conditions, which has important implications for their ability to adapt to a changeable environment in the wild.

  7. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  8. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress by a grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extract in normal and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Postescu, Ion Dan; Chereches, Gabriela; Tatomir, Corina; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2012-07-01

    The major limitation of Doxorubicin (Dox) clinical use is the development of chronic and acute toxic side effects induced through the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present work was designated to investigate in vitro effects of a red grape-seed hydroethanolic extract Burgund Mare (BM), in associated administration with Dox (30 min before drug administration) in normal (Hfl-1) and tumor cell lines (HepG2 and Mls). The BM concentrations administered were below the level of the extract cytotoxiciy threshold (40 μg gallic acid [GA] Eq/mL; 37.5, 25.0, and 12.5 μg GA Eq/mL). The antioxidant capacity of the BM extract was assessed by measuring the acute toxicity at 24 h, lipid peroxides (LP), and protein oxidation. In normal cells, the product statistically decreased cytotoxicity and markedly inhibited LP and protein carbonyl (PC) formation, in a dose-dependent relationship. On contrary, in tumor cells, such treatment resulted in a reversed effect, cell death, malondialdehyde, and PC contents increasing with BM dose enhancement. BM extract treatment prior to subsequent administration of Dox afforded a differential protection against Dox-negative toxic side effects in normal cells without weakening (even enhancing) Dox's antitumor activity.

  9. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  10. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Improved some of Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Disturbances of Red Blood Cells in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Zare Moaiedi, Maasoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has a broad spectrum of biologic properties against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GSPE on biochemical factors and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocyte in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg.Kg-1, i.p). Forty Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four Groups: Group 1, healthy control group; Group 2, healthy group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1); Group 3, diabetic control group; Group 4, diabetic group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1) for 4 weeks. At the end, the experimental animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected and plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. The results show, treatment with GSPE significantly reduced (P<0.001) urine volume, proteinuria and biochemical factors such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein as well as malondialdehyde. Also GSPE treatment significantly (P<0.005) increased high density lipoprotein, total protein and albumin. Moreover GSPE significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity such as: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. These results suggest that GSPE can ameliorate biochemical abnormalities and antioxidant system status in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats probably by its potent antioxidant features. PMID:25561939

  11. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuangsheng; Yang, Ninggang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Lamei; Zhao, Jin; Li, Yongquan; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiaosu

    2012-12-01

    Tumor cells trigger angiogenesis through overexpression of various angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1). Therefore, inhibition of the expression of both VEGF and Ang1, the initial step of tumor angiogenesis, is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements that have antitumor activity. Due to their polymeric structure, GSPs are poorly absorbed along the gastrointestinal tract and can reach the colon at high concentrations, allowing these chemicals to act as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. In the present study, we found that GSPs inhibited colon tumor-induced angiogenesis and, thus, the growth of colon tumor xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membranes. The mechanisms of their action were related to inhibiting the expression of both VEGF and Ang1 through scavenging reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have demonstrated that the chemopreventive effects of GSPs on colon cancer are associated with their growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects. Our results demonstrate another mechanism by which GSPs inhibit colon tumor growth, which will be helpful for developing GSPs as a pharmacologically safe angiopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  12. Back-regulation of six oxidative stress proteins with grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts in rat diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Ying; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Hai-Qing; Ma, Ya-Bing; Xu, Ling; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Xiao-Li; You, Bei-An

    2008-05-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. To prevent the development of this disease and to improve advanced kidney injury, effective therapies directed toward the key molecular target are required. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) have been reported to be effective in treating DN, while little is known about the functional protein changes. In this study, we used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPE (250 mg/kg body weight/day) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and advanced glycation end products were determined. Consequently, 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to investigate kidney protein profiles among the control, untreated and GSPE treated diabetic rats. Twenty-five proteins were found either up-regulated or down-regulated in the kidneys of untreated diabetic rats. Only nine proteins in the kidneys of diabetic rats were found to be back-regulated to normal levels after GSPE therapy. These back-regulated proteins are involved in oxidative stress, glycosylation damage, and amino acids metabolism. Our findings might help to better understanding of the mechanism of DN, and provide novel targets for estimating the effects of GSPE therapy.

  13. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction.

  14. The Protective Effect of Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Oxidative Damage Induced by Zearalenone in Kunming Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Yang, Shu-Hua; Han, Jian-Xin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Xinliang; Guo, Jiayi; Wang, Jun; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) demonstrates strong anti-oxidant activity, little research has been done to clearly reveal the protective effects on the hepatotoxicity caused by zearalenone (ZEN). This study is to explore the protective effect of GSPE on ZEN-induced oxidative damage of liver in Kunming mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism of GSPE. The results indicated that GSPE could greatly reduce the ZEN-induced increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. GSPE also significantly decreased the content of MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. The analysis indicated that ZEN decreased both mRNA expression levels and protein expression levels of nuclear erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 is considered to be an essential antioxidative transcription factor, as downstream GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased simultaneously, whereas the pre-administration of GSPE groups was shown to elevate these expressions. The results indicated that GSPE exerted a protective effect on ZEN-induced hepatic injury and the mechanism might be related to the activation of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. PMID:27231898

  15. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  16. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. PMID:27775601

  17. Grape seed extract Vitis vinifera protects against radiation-induced oxidative damage and metabolic disorders in rats.

    PubMed

    Saada, Helen N; Said, Ussama Z; Meky, Nefissa H; Abd El Azime, Afrag S

    2009-03-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different tissues provoking oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in heart and pancreas tissues associated with serum metabolic disturbances. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 5 Gy gamma-radiation. GSE-treated irradiated rats received 100 mg GSE/kg/day, by gavage, for 14 days before irradiation. The animals were killed on days 1, 14 and 28 after irradiation. Significant decreases of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities associated with significant increases of TBARS levels were recorded in both tissues after irradiation. GSE administration pre-irradiation significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress in heart tissues which was substantiated by a significant amelioration of serum LDH, CPK and AST activities. GSE treatment also attenuated the oxidative stress in pancreas tissues which was associated with a significant improvement in radiation-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE would protect the heart and pancreas tissues from oxidative damage induced by ionizing irradiation.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders.

  19. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-05-18

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways.

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways. PMID:27213339

  1. Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2017-01-19

    Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years. Analysis of the extract's flavanol composition emerged from unspecific colorimetric assays to precise high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting techniques. The early recognition of the preparation's auspicious effects on the permeability of vascular capillaries directed research to unravel the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Recent clinical data revealed a multitude of favorable alterations in the vasculature upon an 8 weeks supplementation which summed up in a health benefit of the extract in healthy humans. Changes in gene expression of inflammatory pathways in the volunteers' leukocytes were suggested to be involved in this benefit. The historically grown scientific evidence for the preparation's health effects paves the way to further elucidate its metabolic fate and molecular action in humans.

  2. Gastroprotective Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts against Nonsteroid Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Eun Jeong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Chang Whan; Kim, Sung Soo; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Sok Won; Kim, Myung Jun; Lee, Youn Soo; Cho, Mi-La; Chang, Jae Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the gastroprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) against nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the normal control, indomethacin, low-dose GSPE, high-dose GSPE and misoprostol groups. All groups except the normal control group received pretreatment drugs for 6 consecutive days. On the 5th and 6th day, indomethacin was administered orally to all groups except for normal control group. The microscopic features of injury were analyzed. The levels of gastric mucosal glutathione, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated. Results The total areas of ulceration in the GSPE and misoprostol groups were significantly decreased compared with the indomethacin group (p<0.05). However, a difference in ulcer formation among the drug treatment groups was not observed. Meanwhile, the glutathione levels in the high-dose GSPE group were higher than those of both the indomethacin and misoprostol groups (p<0.05) and were similar to those of the normal control group. Additionally, there was no difference among the groups in the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions High-dose GSPE has a strong protective effect against NSAID-induced gastric mucosal injury, which may be associated with the antioxidant effects of GSPE. PMID:23710308

  3. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes.

  4. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  5. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  6. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements.

  7. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L.; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14–0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7–10.3% range), γ-cymene (5–7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8–7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50–66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8–16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12–20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5–60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240–600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0–5 and at 5–7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved

  8. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  9. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  10. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels.

  11. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  12. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  13. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  14. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-10-01

    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.

  15. Dehulling of cuphea seed for the production of crude oil with low chlorophyll content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (PSR23) seed oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). MCFAs are used in soaps, detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, and food applications. Currently, cuphea is being grown to provide oil needed for research. The oil can be extracted effectively by screw pressing flaked whole seeds. ...

  16. Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

  17. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry.

  18. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1. PMID:27070584

  19. Grape seed proanthocyanidin reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting ischemia/reperfusion-induced activation of JNK-1 and C-JUN.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Bagchi, D; Tosaki, A; Das, D K

    2001-09-15

    The mechanism of cardioprotection with red wine consumption was studied by examining the antideath signaling cascade of one of the principle components of red wine, proanthocyanidins. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) was administered orally (100 mg/kg/d) supplemented with regular diet for 3 weeks to a group of rats while the other group was given the regular diet only for the same period of time. After 3 weeks, rats were sacrificed, hearts excised, and perfused via Langendorff mode. After stabilization, hearts were perfused in the working mode for baseline measurement of contractile function. Hearts were then made globally ischemic for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Contractile function was continuously monitored during reperfusion, and free radical production was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL staining in conjunction with an antibody against myocin heavy chain to specifically detect myocytes. Induction of JNK-1 and c-fos proteins was studied by Western blot analysis using respective antibodies followed by densitometric scanning. The results indicated significant induction of JNK-1 and c-fos proteins in the ischemic/reperfused myocardium, which was inhibited by the proanthocyanidin extract. In concert, GSPE significantly reduced the appearance of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in the ischemic/reperfused hearts. GSPE also significantly reduced the appearance of the reactive oxygen species in the hearts. Improved postischemic contractile recovery was achieved with GSPE suggesting its cardioprotective action. The results of this study indicated that GSPE functioned as an in vivo antioxidant, and its cardioprotective properties may be at least partially attributed to its ability to block antideath signal through the inhibition of proapoptotic transcription factor and gene, JNK-1 and c-Jun.

  20. Molecular weight and galloylation affect grape seed extract constituents’ ability to cross-link dentin collagen in clinically relevant time

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Bai, Xinyan; Li, Shaohua; Liu, Ying; Keightley, Andrew; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the structures of polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed extract (GSE) and their activity in cross-linking dentin collagen in clinically relevant settings. Methods Representative monomeric and dimeric GSE constituents including (+)-catechin (pCT), (−)-catechin (CT), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), procyanidin B2 and a pCT-pCT dimer were purchased or synthesized. GSE was separated into low (PALM) and high molecular weight (PAHM) fractions. Human molars were processed into dentin films and beams. After demineralization, 11 groups of films (n=5) were treated for 1 min with the aforementioned reagents (1 wt% in 50/50 ethanol/water) and 1 group remained untreated. The films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) followed by a quantitative mass spectroscopy-based digestion assay. Tensile properties of demineralized dentin beams were evaluated (n=7) after treatments (2h and 24h) with selective GSE species that were found to protect dentin collagen from collagenase. Results Efficacy of GSE constituents in cross-linking dentin collagen was dependent on molecular size and galloylation. Non-galloylated species with degree of polymerization up to two, including pCT, CT, EC, EGC, procyanidin B2 and pCT-pCT dimer were not active. Galloylated species were active starting from monomeric form, including ECG, EGCG, PALM, GSE and PAHM. PALM induced the best overall improvement in tensile properties of dentin collagen. Significance Identification under clinically relevant settings of structural features that contribute to GSE constituents’ efficacy in stabilizing demineralized dentin matrix has immediate impact on optimizing GSE’s use in dentin bonding. PMID:25958268

  1. Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta-protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kenjiro; Condron, Margaret M; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Teplow, David B

    2008-11-21

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the protective effects of red wine, experiments recently were executed in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. These studies showed that a commercially available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition (Wang, J., Ho, L., Zhao, W., Ono, K., Rosensweig, C., Chen, L., Humala, N., Teplow, D. B., and Pasinetti, G. M. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28, 6388-6392). To elucidate the mechanistic bases for these observations, here we used CD spectroscopy, photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, thioflavin T fluorescence, size exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy to examine the effects of MN on the assembly of the two predominant disease-related amyloid beta-protein alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42. We also examined the effects of MN on Abeta-induced cytotoxicity by assaying 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase activity in Abeta-treated, differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Initial studies revealed that MN blocked Abeta fibril formation. Subsequent evaluation of the assembly stage specificity of the effect showed that MN was able to inhibit protofibril formation, pre-protofibrillar oligomerization, and initial coil --> alpha-helix/beta-sheet secondary structure transitions. Importantly, MN had protective effects in assays of cytotoxicity in which MN was mixed with Abeta prior to peptide assembly or following assembly and just prior to peptide addition to cells. These data suggest that MN is worthy of consideration as a therapeutic agent for AD.

  2. Synergistic radiation protective effect of purified Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP IV) with grape seed procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haina; Wang, Zhenyu; Cui, Jie; Yun, Keli; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Rui Hai; Fan, Ziluan; Cheng, Cuilin

    2014-12-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP) in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV) on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.005), reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.01); cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (p < 0.01), catalase (CAT) (p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (p < 0.05), activity and glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.01) levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. "GSP + AAP IV" treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of "GSP (0.3 μg/mL) + AAP IV (50 μg/mL)" displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001) concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.005), GSH-PX (p < 0.01) and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that "GSP + AAP IV" significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005) and spleen GSH (p < 0.005) levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005) levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  3. Oxidative stress induced by cadmium in the plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats: Attenuation by grape seed proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Nazima, B; Manoharan, V; Miltonprabu, S

    2016-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, GSP-treated group (100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)), Cd-treated group (cadmium chloride, 5 mg kg(-1) BW), and GSP + Cd-treated group in which GSP was orally pre-administered 90 min before Cd intoxication for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were processed for various biochemical estimations. The extent of oxidative damage in isolated rat erythrocyte membrane was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic content, calcium ion (Ca(2+))/magnesium ion (Mg(2+))-ATPase and sodium ion (Na(+))/potassium ion (K(+))-ATPase activities, free iron, calcium, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, and osmotic fragility. Our results unveiled that Cd intoxication significantly increased the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation markers and decreased the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers in erythrocytes. Conversely, GSP pretreatment significantly prevented the decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and membrane-bound ATPases. GSP also restored the levels of iron, calcium, and H2O2 in Cd-treated rats. Conformational changes in erythrocytes of various groups were also determined using morphological and ultrastructural electron microscopic analysis. The findings of our study clearly revealed that GSP affords superior protection against Cd-induced reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and free radical generation in Cd-treated rats, which presumably reflects the ability of this flavonoid to protect erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats from the toxic effects of Cd.

  4. Grape seed proanthocyanidins and metformin act by different mechanisms to promote insulin signaling in rats fed high calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Bhuvaneswari, Saravanan; Sreeja, S; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-03-01

    Key pathways like insulin signaling, AMP activated kinase (AMPK) activation and inflammatory signaling are involved in the complex pathological network of hepatic insulin resistance. Our aim is to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) and metformin (MET) target any of these pathways in insulin resistant rat liver. Albino Wistar rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). Either GSP (100 mg/kg b.w), MET(50 mg/kg b.w) or both were administered to insulin resistant rats as therapeutic options. HFFD-feeding caused hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased gluconeogenesis, decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β(IR-β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. The association of p85α subunit of phosphotidyl inositol 3 kinase(PI3K) with IRS-1 and subsequent Akt phosphorylation were reduced while the expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) were increased in HFFD rats. Both MET and GSP reduced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and improved glycolysis, tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-β and IRS-1, IRS-1-PI3K association and Akt activation. However, activation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, leptin and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and reduction in adiponectin caused by chronic HFFD feeding were reversed by GSP better than by MET. Activation of AMPK by GSP was much less compared to that by MET. These findings suggest that GSP might activate PI3K pathway and promote insulin action by reducing serine kinase activation and cytokine signaling and MET by targeting AMPK. The beneficial effects were enhanced during combination therapy. Thus, combination therapy with MET and GSP may be considered for the management of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Protective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins against Liver Ischemic Reperfusion Injury: Particularly in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoyu; Xu, Hongde; Feng, Yanling; Li, Xiaoman; Lin, Meina; Cao, Liu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver surgery, and hepatic steatosis is a primary factor aggravating cellular injury during IRI. Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of hepatic IRI. Ischemic preconditioning (IpreC), remote ischemia preconditioning (RIPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IpostC) have offered protections on hepatic IRI, but all these methods have their own shortcomings. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) has a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Thus, GSP has potential protective effects against hepatic IRI. Methods: C57BL/6 mice suffering 30mins hepatic ischemia process were sacrificed after 1h reperfusion to build murine warm hepatic IRI model. The mice were injected GSP intraperitoneally 10, 20, 40mg/kg/day for 3 weeks as pharmacological preconditioning. Obese mice fed with high-fat diet for 24 weeks before used. Three pathways related to IRI, including ROS elimination, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined. Results: Our data show that GSP could significantly reduce hepatic IRI by protecting hepatocyte function and increasing the activity of ROS scavengers, as well as decreasing cytokines levels. At the same time, GSP also enhance the hypoxia tolerance response. Combined GSP and postconditioning can provided synergistic protection. In the obese mice suffering hepatic IRI group, GSP was more effective than postconditioning on protecting liver against IRI, and the combined strategy was obviously superior to the solo treatment. Conclusion: GSP could protect liver against IRI: particularly in high-fat diet induced obese mice. GSP used as pharmacological preconditioning and combined with other protocols have huge potential to be used in clinical. PMID:23139633

  6. Dietary-feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Balaiya; Singh, Rana P.; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention by dietary agents/supplements has emerged as a novel approach to control various malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assessed dietary grape seed extract (GSE) effectiveness in preventing azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and associated mechanisms in Fischer 344 rats. Six-week old rats were injected with AOM, and fed control diet or the one supplemented with 0.25% or 0.5% (w/w) GSE in pre- and post-AOM or only post-AOM experimental protocols. At 16 weeks of age, rats were sacrificed and colons were evaluated for ACF formation followed by cell proliferation, apoptosis and molecular analyses by immunohistochemistry. GSE-feeding caused strong chemopreventive efficacy against AOM-induced ACF formation in terms of upto 60% (P<0.001) reduction in number of ACF and 66% (P<0.001) reduction in crypt multiplicity. Mechanistic studies showed that GSE-feeding inhibited AOM-induced cell proliferation but enhanced apoptosis in colon including ACF, together with a strong decrease in cyclin D1, COX-2, iNOS and survivin levels. Additional studies showed that GSE-feeding also decreased AOM-caused increase in β-catenin and NF-κB levels in colon tissues. Compared to control animals, GSE alone treatment did not show any considerable change in these biological and molecular events in colon, and was non-toxic. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive efficacy of GSE against the early steps of colon carcinogenesis in rats via likely targeting of β-catenin and NF-κB signaling, and suggest its potential usefulness for the prevention of human CRC. PMID:20564341

  7. Comparative Effect of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera) and Ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients and Methods: In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in both grape seed and Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions: In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. PMID:28074795

  8. Ameliorating Effects of Exogenously Applied Proline on Seed Composition, Seed Oil Quality and Oil Antioxidant Activity of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Qasim; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saari, Nazamid; Perveen, Rashida

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil, protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. Water stress increased the oil oleic acid content with a subsequent decrease in the amount of linoleic acid, resulting in an increased oil oleic/linoleic ratio for both maize cultivars. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress. A considerable drought induced an increase in seed oil α-, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols and flavonoids were observed in both maize cultivars. However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil, protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions. PMID:23344043

  9. Ameliorating effects of exogenously applied proline on seed composition, seed oil quality and oil antioxidant activity of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ali, Qasim; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saari, Nazamid; Perveen, Rashida

    2013-01-04

    This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil, protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. Water stress increased the oil oleic acid content with a subsequent decrease in the amount of linoleic acid, resulting in an increased oil oleic/linoleic ratio for both maize cultivars. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress. A considerable drought induced an increase in seed oil α-, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols and flavonoids were observed in both maize cultivars. However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil, protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions.

  10. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this

  11. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  12. Characterisation and some possible uses of Plukenetia conophora and Adenopus breviflorus seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Akintayo, E T; Bayer, E

    2002-10-01

    Two non-conventional seeds, Plukenetia conophora (PKCP) and Adenopus breviflorus (ADB) were analysed for their proximate, fatty acids, sterols composition and physico-chemical characteristics. Crude protein was 25.65% for PKCP and 28.25% for ADB. ADB had lower moisture content (4.5%) than PKCP (8.0%) indicating that the former has better shelf life. Oil yields of the seeds were 49.58% for PKCP and 56.22% for ADB. The major sterols were stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in PKCP and ADB respectively. PKCP oil had 98.8% unsaturated fatty acids with linolenic acid predominating (70.1%) while ADB had 85.1% unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic acid being most abundant (65.3%). The very high saponification and iodine values of PKCP oil suggest its utilisation in alkyd resin, shoe polish, liquid soap and shampoo production. There is the possibility of using ADB oil in these regards as well as for edible purposes.

  13. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    PubMed

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield.

  14. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  15. [Study on porous maize starch preparation and powdering coix seed oil].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Sun, E; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-07-01

    To optimize the preparation conditions of porous starch The porous starch was used to powder coix seed oil. Porous starch was made of maize starch by using compound enzymes of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase. The preparation process was optimized through orthogonal test design with oil absorption rate to salad oil as indexes. The effect of different dosages of porous starch on yield of triglyceride by powdering coix seed oil was studied. The triglyceride release behaviors and fluidity of powdered coix seed oil were also studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for preparation of porous maize starch were as follows, the mass radio of glucoamylase to a-amylase was 3:1, the temperatures was 55 degrees C, pH was 5.0, and hydrolysis time was 12 h. Under these conditions, the oil absorption rate to salad oil was 98.5% for porous maize starch. Porous starch was used to power coix seed oil. When porous starch to coix seed oil was 4:1, the triglyceride yield of powering coix seed oil was up to 97.02%. The fluidity of powdered coix seed oil was favorable and control released. The preparation of powdered liquid oil with porous starch had many advantages such as simple production technology, convenient operation, low cost and was worth generalizing.

  16. Improved Estimation of Oil, Linoleic and Oleic Acid and Seed Hull Fractions in Safflower by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Sabine; Becker, Heiko C; Schierholt, Antje; von Witzke-Ehbrecht, Sabine

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) of intact seeds allows the non-destructive estimation of seed quality parameters which is highly desirable in plant breeding. Together with yield, oil content and quality, a main aim in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) breeding is the selection of genotypes with a low percentage of empty seeds even under cooler climates. We developed NIRS calibrations for seed oil content, oleic and linoleic acid content, the seed hull fraction and the percentage of empty seeds using seed meal and intact seeds. For the different calibrations 108-534 samples from a safflower breeding program with lines adapted to German conditions, were analyzed with reference analyses (Soxhlet, gas chromatography), and scanned by NIRS as intact seeds and seed meal. Calibration equations were developed and tested through cross validation. The coefficient of determination of the calibration (R(2)) for intact seeds ranged from 0.91(oil content), 0.90 (seed hull fraction), 0.84 (empty seeds), 0.73 (linoleic acid) to 0.68 (oleic acid). The coefficient of determination of the cross validation was higher for seed meal than for intact seeds except for the parameter seed hull fraction. The results show that NIRS calibrations are applicable in safflower breeding programs for a fast screening.

  17. Biodiesel from Forsythia suspense [(Thunb.) Vahl (Oleaceae)] seed oil.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wei, Fu-Yao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, Forsythia suspense seed oil (FSSO) was investigated for the first time as an alternative non-conventional feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel. The FSSO yield is 30.08±2.35% (dry weight of F. suspense seed basis), and the oil has low acid value (1.07 mg KOH/g). The fatty acid composition of FSSO exhibits the predominance of linoleic acid (72.89%) along with oleic acid (18.68%) and palmitic acid (5.65%), which is quite similar to that of sunflower oil. Moreover, microwave-assisted transesterification process of FSSO with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst was optimized and an optimal biodiesel yield (90.74±2.02%) was obtained. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the biodiesel product were evaluated as against ASTM D-6751 biodiesel standards and an acceptable agreement was observed except the cetane number. Overall, this study revealed the possibility of FSSO as a potential resource of biodiesel feedstock.

  18. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  19. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  20. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  1. Simulated digestion of proanthocyanidins in grape skin and seed extracts and the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Labra, Javiera

    2013-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and composition of flavan-3-ols from red grape skin and seed extracts (raw and purified, which are high in proanthocyanidins (PAs)). In addition, the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of these extracts were evaluated. The extracts were digested with a mixture of pepsin-HCl for 2 h, followed by a 2 h incubation with pancreatin and bile salts including a cellulose dialysis tubing (molecular weight cut-off 12 kDa) at 37°C with shaking in the dark and under N2. Under gastric conditions, the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of seed extracts, raw (mDP≈6, p<0.05), and purified (mDP≈10, p<0.05) was stable. The mDP of the raw skin extracts increased from 19 to 25 towards the end of the digestion. The PAs were significantly degraded (up to 80%) during the pancreatic digestion, yielding low-molecular-weight compounds that diffused into the serum-available fraction (mDP≈2). The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of the seed extracts was 10(-7) m(2)/s. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, over 80% of ACE inhibition by raw seed and skin extracts was preserved. However, the purified seed and skin extracts lost their ability to inhibit ACE after intestinal digestion.

  2. Selection for a zinc-finger protein contributes to seed oil increase during soybean domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qingxin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-02-09

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, the knowledge of regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that seed-preferred gene GmZF351 encoding tandem CCCH zinc finger protein is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRI1, BCCP2, KASIII, TAG1 and OLEO2 in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. ZF351 haplotype from Glycine max group and Glycine soja subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation and manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops.

  3. Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David G; Eller, Fred J; Wang, Liping; Jane, Jay-Lin; Wang, Tong; Inglett, George E

    2007-05-16

    Twelve pumpkin cultivars (Cucurbita maxima D.), cultivated in Iowa, were studied for their seed oil content, fatty acid composition, and tocopherol content. Oil content ranged from 10.9 to 30.9%. Total unsaturated fatty acid content ranged from 73.1 to 80.5%. The predominant fatty acids present were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Significant differences were observed among the cultivars for stearic, oleic, linoleic, and gadoleic acid content of oil. Low linolenic acid levels were observed (<1%). The tocopherol content of the oils ranged from 27.1 to 75.1 microg/g of oil for alpha-tocopherol, from 74.9 to 492.8 microg/g for gamma-tocopherol, and from 35.3 to 1109.7 microg/g for delta-tocopherol. The study showed potential for pumpkin seed oil from all 12 cultivars to have high oxidative stability that would be suitable for food and industrial applications, as well as high unsaturation and tocopherol content that could potentially improve the nutrition of human diets.

  4. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds.

  5. The polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds inhibits platelet signaling pathways triggered by both proteolytic and non-proteolytic agonists.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in the reduction of blood platelet functions by various plant extract, including the grape seeds extract (rich in phenolic compounds, a mixture of about 95% oligomeric phenols; GSE) are still unclear. In the literature there are few papers describing studies on the effects of GSE on selected element of hemostasis. The aim of our study was to establish and compare the influence of GSE (at final dose of 0.625-50 µg/ml) and resveratrol (3,4',5 - trihydroxystilben), a phenolic compound synthesized in grapes and vegetables and presents in wine, which has been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events, on different steps of platelet activation. We measured the effects of GSE and resveratrol on platelet aggregation, the surface expression of P-selectin, platelet microparticle formation (PMP), and superoxide anion radicals ([Formula: see text]) production in blood platelets stimulated by TRAP and thrombin. P-selectin expression and PMP formation were measured by a flow cytometer. In gel-filtered platelets activated by thrombin or TRAP and treated with different concentrations of GSE (1.25-50 µg/ml) a significant decrease of P-selectin expression, PMP formation and platelet aggregation was observed. GSE caused also a dose-dependent reduction of [Formula: see text] produced in platelets activated by TRAP or thrombin. Our present results indicate that GSE inhibits platelet signaling pathways trigged by both proteolytic (thrombin) and non-proteolytic agonist (TRAP). In the comparative studies, GSE was found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the solution of pure resveratrol. Thus, the polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds can be useful as the protecting factor against cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Effect of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats exposed to x-radiation.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Hüseyin; Cemek, Mustafa; Karaca, Turan; Unak, Perihan

    2007-11-01

    The present studies were designed to evaluate supplemental grape seed extract (GSE) and vitamin E supplements on lipid peroxidation, on antioxidant systems and peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats exposed to x-rays. Three groups of rats were investigated: a control group (CG) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) physiological serum 1 mL/day (n=10), i.p.; a vitamin E group (VG) received 50 mg/kg/day (n=10); an i.p. grape seed extract group received 50 mg/kg/day (n=10). Four weeks later, a 6 Gy radiation dose was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken 24 h later after irradiation and lymphocyte, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitrate, nitrite, reduced ascorbic acid, retinol, beta-carotene and ceruloplasmin concentrations were analysed. The levels of GSH (p<0.05), retinol (p<0.001), beta-carotene (p<0.05) and ceruloplasmin concentration (p<0.001) in the GSE group were found to be higher than in the control group but the level of MDA (p<0.001) and nitrite concentration (p<0.05) in rats supplemented with GSE were found to be lower than in the control group. The results indicate that GSE enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the incidence of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in blood samples of rats exposed to x-radiation. The antioxidant effect of GSE given to animals was more effective than vitamin E administered before whole-body irradiation in rats.

  7. Biochemical changes induced by grape seed extract and low level laser therapy administration during intraoral wound healing in rat liver: an experimental and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Erdemli, Mehmet Erman; Ekhteiari Salmas, Ramin; Durdagi, Serdar; Akgul, Hasan; Demirkol, Mehmet; Aksungur, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Zeliha

    2017-04-05

    In the present study, the changes that occur in rat liver tissue as a result of the use of grape seed extract (GSE) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) in intraoral wound (IW) healing are analyzed using biochemical parameters. Diode laser application groups received 8 J/cm(2) dose LLLT once a day for 4 days (810 nm wavelength, continuous mode, 0.25 W, 9 s). As a result of the biological parameter analysis, it was determined that the oxidative damage caused by the IWs and recovery period on 7th and 14th days could be substantially removed with GSE applications that have antioxidant capacity especially in rat liver tissue. In addition, the active compound of grape seed, catechin is studied in the active site of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) target using molecular modeling approaches. Post-processing molecular dynamics (MD) results for catechin is compared with a standard GSK3 inhibitor. MD simulations assisted for better understanding of inhibition mechanism and the crucial amino acids contributing in the ligand binding. These results along with a through free energy analysis of ligands using sophisticated simulations methods are quite striking and it suggests a greater future role for simulation in deciphering complex patterns of molecular mechanism in combination with methods for understanding drug-receptor interactions.

  8. Dietary supplementation of grape seed and skin flour mitigates brain oxidative damage induced by a high-fat diet in rat: Gender dependency.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Mahmoudi, Mohamed; Bedhiafi, Takwa; Kadri, Safwen; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2017-03-01

    It is unknown whether gender has an impact on brain injury in obesity, and, if so, whether treatment with grape seed and skin flour could exert a protective effect. Both male and female rats were fed a standard diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) during eight weeks and treated with high dosage grape seed and skin flour (GSSF). Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated into the brain with a special emphasis on transition metals determination. HFD induced male-cholesterol overload (+78.12%) and an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation (+68.97%), carbonylation (+40.28%), decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as glutathione peroxidase (-61.07%) and manganese-superoxide dismutase (-35.47%) but not catalase. Additionally HFD depleted the brain from manganese (-71.31%) and dropped glutamine synthetase activity (-36.16%), without affecting copper nor iron nor their associated enzymes. HFD also altered intracellular mediators as superoxide anion (+36.12%), calcium (+44.41%) and also calpain (+76.54%) a calcium dependent protease. Importantly all these alterations were detected exclusively in male brain and were efficiently corrected upon GSSF treatment. In conclusion, GSSF has the potential to alleviate the deleterious lipotoxic effect of HFD treatment that occurred in male brain and perhaps in post-menauposal female brain.

  9. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent DOCA-salt hypertension-induced renal injury and its mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chao-Zong; Ding, Ling; Su, Yi-Lin; Guo, Kun; Wang, Li; Kan, Hong-Wei; Ou, Yu-Rong; Gao, Shan

    2015-07-01

    Renal dysfunction is one of the major effects of DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt hypertension and there is an increasing amount of evidence that oxidative stress damages the function of the kidney. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) have been reported to be potent anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers. The present study sought to investigate the ability of GSPE to prevent renal injury in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying its protective effects. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: Sham group (n = 7), UnX-sham group (n = 8), DOCA-salt group (n = 8), GSPE150 group (150 mg kg(-1), n = 7), GSPE240 group (240 mg kg(-1), n = 8), GSPE384 group (384 mg kg(-1), n = 8) and ALM (amlodipine besylate tablets) group (5 mg kg(-1), n = 8), and treated for 4 weeks. Compared to sham group rats, renal injury was observed in DOCA-salt hypertensive group rats as the urine protein, KW/BW (kidney weight/body weight), degree of renal fibrosis, renal MDA (malondialdehyde) and Hyp (hydroxyproline) contents significantly increased (P < 0.01). Moreover, SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) activities decreased in the model group (P < 0.01). In contrast, DOCA-salt hypertensive rats treated with different dose of GSPE or ALM showed a significant improvement of renal injury with decreased urine protein, KW/BW, degree of renal fibrosis, renal total MDA and Hyp contents compared to the untreated group. In addition, SOD activities increased in the treatment group. Since the experimental modeling time was short, kidney damage occurs to a lesser extent. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen), Scr (Serum Creatinine) and UA (Uric Acid) contents did not appear significantly changed in all groups. Finally, the activation of JNK and p38 kinases in the kidney was suppressed in rats treated with GSPEs or ALM compared to the untreated group, suggesting that the inhibition of these kinase pathways by GSPE contributes to the improvement

  10. Grape seed extract supplementation attenuates the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells in Simmental × Qinchuan steers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Yang, You; Liu, Shimin; Yang, Jing; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong

    2014-08-14

    Grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of polyphenols, is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of the present study was to determine whether GSE could attenuate the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells (JEC) in cattle. The JEC of a steer (Simmental × Qinchuan) were exposed to heat stress for 2 h in the absence (0 μg/ml) or presence (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) of GSE in the culture medium. When cultured at 40°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased glutathione peroxidase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P= 0·004), and mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF; P= 0·03) and EGF receptor (EGFR; P = 0·01). Under the same conditions, the cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of IL-8 (P= 0·01) and TNF-α (P= 0·03) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P= 0·02), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; P= 0·04) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; P< 0·001). When cultured at 43°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased catalase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P< 0·001), and mRNA expression of EGF (P< 0·001) and EGFR (P< 0·001) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·03) and HSP70 (P< 0·001), as well as mRNA expression of IL-8 (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·002) and TNF-α (P< 0·001). Temperature × GSE concentration interactions were also observed for the concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), IL-8 (P< 0·001), TNF-α (P= 0·01) and HSP70 (P= 0·04) and viability (P< 0·001) of JEC. The results of the present study indicate that GSE can attenuate the responses of JEC induced by heat stress within a certain range of temperatures.

  11. Therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in rats with TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Li; Cai, Yong-Qing; Qin, Hong; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Rats were intragastrically administered different doses of GSPE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after UC was twice-induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP) at 200 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and changes in weight/length ratio (mg/mm) of colon segments were analyzed. The levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the colon tissues and MPO activity in the serum were all measured by biochemical methods or double antibody sandwich ELISA methods. Compared with the TNBS control group, GSPE treatment facilitated recovery of pathologic changes in the colon after insult with TNBS, as demonstrated by increased body weight (p < 0.01) and decreased colonic weight/length ratio (p < 0.01); GSPE also notably reduced the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores (p < 0.01). The MPO activity in colon tissues and serum of rats treated with GSPE was significantly lower than that in the TNBS control group. The MDA and IL-1beta levels of colon tissues were also decreased in GSPE groups. The intestinal antiinflammatory effect of GSPE was accompanied by a significant improvement of IL-2 and IL-4 levels in the colon tissues of rats in the high-dose GSPE group (p < 0.05). Compared with the SASP group, GSPE groups had no significant difference in the therapeutic effect (p > 0.05). GSPE exerts a beneficial antiinflammatory effect in the acute phase of TNBS-induced colitis in rats by downregulating some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration and antioxidation damage, promoting damaged tissue repair to improve colonic oxidative stress

  12. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  13. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  14. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of Manihot species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the genus, cultivated mainly for its starchy tuber roots. Cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats. However, there are very scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives, which usu...

  15. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...

  16. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices such as seeding rate (SR), planting date (PD), and row-type (RT: single- and twin-rows) may alter seed nutrition in soybean. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of SR and PD on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral...

  17. Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd) or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks in order to determine whether ChrSd improved insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of hepatic ...

  18. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  19. Genetic analysis of seed yield, oil content and their components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Ramachandram, M; Goud, J V

    1981-05-01

    The genetic architecture of seed yield, oil content and their components was studied in a diallel cross of F1 and F2: eleven parents, representing an adequate diversity for all considered characters in safflower were used. Combining ability analysis revealed the predominance of gca variance for plant height, total capitula, seed weight, seed number and seed yield in F1 and F2 generations and for days to flowering and oil content in F1. The analysis of components of variance indicated that the non-additive factor was the major influence on total capitula and seed yield in F1s, and F2s, and on plant height, seed weight and seed number in the F2 alone. The heterogeneity of the dominance component over generations has been attributed to coupling phase linkage. All four Indian parents, namely S 144, A1, MS 49 and 6 spl, together with G 1157 and US 104 in the exotic group, were the best combiners for seed yield and/or for one of its components while the remainder of the exotic parents were characterized by high gca effects for oil content. VFstp 1 and Frio were the only parents approximating both properties of oil content and seed yield. Breeding methods, such as biparental mating followed by reciprocal recurrent selection, were suggested for the simultaneous improvement of seed yield and oil content.

  20. Determination of antimicrobial activity and resistance to oxidation of moringa peregrina seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-02-24

    The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  1. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-κB and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-κB and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P < 0.05). Concentrations of α-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and plasma and total antioxidant capacity of plasma and relative mRNA abundances of NF-κB and Nrf2 target genes in the liver did not differ between the two groups. However, the ratio of villus height:crypt depth and the gain:feed ratio was higher in the pigs fed GSGME than in control pigs (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation of a polyphenol rich GSGME suppresses the activity of NF-κB in the duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  2. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism.

  3. New vitamin E isomers (gamma-tocomonoenol and alpha-tocomonoenol) in seeds, roasted seeds and roasted seed oil from the Slovenian pumpkin variety 'Slovenska golica'.

    PubMed

    Butinar, Bojan; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Mariani, Carlo; Raspor, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The Štajerska region in north-eastern Slovenia and the Styria region in southern Austria have a long tradition of growing pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) as an oil crop. GC-MS determination of the free and esterified minor compounds in oil of roasted pumpkin seeds from the Slovenian C. pepo L. variety 'Slovenska golica' revealed the presence of two previously unreported compounds: alpha-tocomonoenol and gamma-tocomonoenol. Using the GC-MS data, reference samples (Crude Palm Oil) and tocopherol and tocotrienol standards it was possible to assign and quantify alpha-tocomonoenol (17.6±0.6μg/g) and gamma-tocomonoenol (118.7±1.0μg/g) compounds in roasted 'S. golica' seed oil using HPLC. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were 77.9±1.9μg/g and 586.0±4.6μg/g, respectively. Surprisingly the gamma-tocotrienol concentration found was only 6.9±0.2μg/g. Analysis of the seeds from which the oil was pressed showed the initial gamma-tocotrienol amount was even lower (1.6±0.1 and 2.2±0.1μg/g in the ground and roasted seeds, respectively) than in the roasted seed oil.

  4. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  5. Multigene Engineering of Triacylglycerol Metabolism Boosts Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Kelly, Amélie A.; Menard, Guillaume; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered. However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as an experimental system, we show that seed-specific overexpression of WRINKLED1 (a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis) and DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (a triacylglycerol biosynthetic enzyme) combined with suppression of the triacylglycerol lipase SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 results in a higher percentage seed oil content and greater seed mass than manipulation of each gene individually. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased. PMID:24696520

  6. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  7. Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) tissue and seed.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R; Olosunde, O O; Adegbite, J A; Omolola, O A

    2014-10-01

    Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) tissue and seed were determined. Oil was extracted from the seed using standard methods while the fatty acids of the oil, chemical and anti-nutritional properties of defatted seed flour were determined. Total fat yield of the seed flour was 12.20%. Defatted seed flour had higher crude fibre (36.92%), carbohydrate (40.07%) and ash (8.17%) contents. Major mineral contents were potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium. The tissue contain appreciable amount of vitamin C (8.10 mg/100 g). Oleic acid (42.59%) was the major fatty acid in the seed oil and the total unsaturated fatty acid was 62.38%. The seed oil had higher acid and saponification values and low iodine value. Oxalate (11.09 mg/100 g) content was the major anti-nutrient in the defatted seed flour. Defatted T. danielli seed flour serves as good source of dietary fibre and energy.

  8. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  9. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  10. Antimelanoma Potential of Eruca sativa Seed Oil and its Bioactive Principles.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Prachi; Medhe, S; Ganesh, N; Srivastava, M M

    2015-01-01

    The present communication reports the comparison of in vivo antioxidant, antimelanoma and antimutagenic activities of Eruca sativa seed oil and its bio principles (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane) against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice model. Among the various treatments considered for the study, isothiocyanates combination (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane; 1:1:1; 10 µM) exhibited optimum antioxidant activity, 51.95±1.14 µM glutathione per mg protein compared to seed oil 25.91±1.26 µM. Lipid peroxidation value was 9.97±1.72 µM malondialdehyde per mg wet weight for isothiocyanates combination against seed oil, 28.45±1.87 µM and rendered significant protection against oxidative stress induced by melanoma in liver tissue. Isothiocyanates combination significantly suppressed various parameters, such as tumor growth, isothiocyanates combination by 36.36% while the seed oil by 15.23%; tumor weight, isothiocyanates combination by 45.9% and seed oil by 19.6%; tumor volume, isothiocyanates combination by 41.7% while the seed oil by 32.3%, measured for antimelanoma activity at a concentration of 10 µM. Isothiocyanates combination has been found to be more cytotoxic bioagent against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice compared to naturally occurring Eruca sativa seed oil.

  11. Antimelanoma Potential of Eruca sativa Seed Oil and its Bioactive Principles

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Prachi; Medhe, S.; Ganesh, N.; Srivastava, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present communication reports the comparison of in vivo antioxidant, antimelanoma and antimutagenic activities of Eruca sativa seed oil and its bio principles (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane) against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice model. Among the various treatments considered for the study, isothiocyanates combination (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane; 1:1:1; 10 µM) exhibited optimum antioxidant activity, 51.95±1.14 µM glutathione per mg protein compared to seed oil 25.91±1.26 µM. Lipid peroxidation value was 9.97±1.72 µM malondialdehyde per mg wet weight for isothiocyanates combination against seed oil, 28.45±1.87 µM and rendered significant protection against oxidative stress induced by melanoma in liver tissue. Isothiocyanates combination significantly suppressed various parameters, such as tumor growth, isothiocyanates combination by 36.36% while the seed oil by 15.23%; tumor weight, isothiocyanates combination by 45.9% and seed oil by 19.6%; tumor volume, isothiocyanates combination by 41.7% while the seed oil by 32.3%, measured for antimelanoma activity at a concentration of 10 µM. Isothiocyanates combination has been found to be more cytotoxic bioagent against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice compared to naturally occurring Eruca sativa seed oil. PMID:26009655

  12. Enhanced seed oil content by overexpressing genes related to triacylglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xia, Yuping; Wu, Lei; Fu, Donghui; Hayward, Alice; Luo, Junling; Yan, Xiaohong; Xiong, Xiaojuan; Fu, Ping; Wu, Gang; Lu, Changming

    2015-02-25

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oilseed crops globally. To meet increasing demand for oil-based products, the ability to enhance desirable oil content in the seed is required. This study assessed the capability of five genes in the triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis pathway to enhance oil content. The genes BnGPDH, BnGPAT, BnDGAT, ScGPDH and ScLPAAT were overexpressed separately in a tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) model system, and simultaneously by pyramiding in B. napus, under the control of a seed specific Napin promoter. ScLPAAT transgenic plants showed a significant increase of 6.84% to 8.55% in oil content in tobacco seeds, while a ~4% increase was noted for BnGPDH and BnGPAT transgenic seeds. Seed-specific overexpression of all four genes in B. napus resulted in as high a 12.57% to 14.46% increased in seed oil content when compared to WT, equaling close to the sum of the single-gene overexpression increases in tobacco. Taken together, our study demonstrates that BnGPDH, BnGPAT and ScLPAAT may effectively increase seed oil content, and that simultaneous overexpression of these in transgenic B. napus may further enhance the desirable oil content relative to single-gene overexpressors.

  13. [Comparison of seed oil physicochemical characteristics among three cultivars of Jatropha curcas L].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-miao; Liu, Lian; Liu, Zhao-pu; Long, Xiao-hua; Zheng, Qing-song; Mao, Yi-qing

    2009-12-01

    Taking the cultivars Nanyou 1, 2, and 3 of barbadosnut (Jatropha curcas L. ) with different genotypes that can grow and seed normally at the inshore land in Hainan as test materials, the characters of their seeds and the physicochemical characteristics of their seed oils were analyzed and compared. No significant differences were observed in the seed length, width, thickness, and surface area among the cultivars, but Nanyou 2 had greater 1000 seed mass and lower unsound kernel percentage than Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3, suggesting that the seed satiation of Nanyou 2 was good and the fecundity was excellent. The kernel oil content of Nanyou 3 was significantly higher than that of Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 2, and there was no significant difference between Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 2. The seed oil peroxide value, refractive index, and saponification value of the three cultivars had no significant differences, but the acid value for Nanyou 2 was much lower than that for Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3. The seed oil iodine value of the three cultivars was all below 100, and was significantly lower for Nanyou 2 than for Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3. The fatty acids in the three cultivars seed oils were mainly oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, and margaric acid, and dominated by unsaturated fatty acids. The contents of saturated fatty acids in Nanyou 2 seed oil were relatively higher than those in Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3 seed oils, indicating that comparing with Nanyou 1, cultivars Nanyou 2 and Nanyou 3 had relatively good potential for application.

  14. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  15. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  16. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  17. The relationship of antioxidant components and antioxidant activity of sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yin; Li, Huixiao; Fu, Guiming; Chen, Xueyang; Chen, Feng; Xie, Mingyong

    2015-10-01

    Although sesame seed oil contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and even a small amount of free fatty acids in its unrefined flavored form, it shows markedly greater stability than other dietary vegetable oils. The good stability of sesame seed oil against autoxidation has been ascribed not only to its inherent lignans and tocopherols but also to browning reaction products generated when sesame seeds are roasted. Also, there is a strong synergistic effect among these components. The lignans in sesame seed oil can be categorized into two types, i.e. inherent lignans (sesamin, sesamolin) and lignans mainly formed during the oil production process (sesamol, sesamolinol, etc.). The most abundant tocopherol in sesame seed oil is γ-tocopherol. This article reviews the antioxidant activities of lignans and tocopherols as well as the browning reaction and its products in sesame seed and/or its oil. It is concluded that the composition and structure of browning reaction products and their impacts on sesame ingredients need to be further studied to better explain the remaining mysteries of sesame oil.

  18. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  19. Accumulation of tocopherols and tocotrienols during seed development of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallée).

    PubMed

    Horvath, G; Wessjohann, L; Bigirimana, J; Monica, H; Jansen, M; Guisez, Y; Caubergs, R; Horemans, N

    2006-01-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols are present in mature seeds. Yet, little is known about the physiological role and the metabolism of these compounds during seed development. Here we present data on tocopherol and tocotrienol accumulation during seed development in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallée (Royal). This species was chosen for its ability to synthesize both tocopherols and tocotrienols. It is shown here for the first time that during seed development there are significant differences in localization and accumulation kinetics of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are found homogeneously dispersed throughout all tissues of the seed, in concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 microg tocopherol per g dry weight. Tocopherol levels decrease gradually during seed development. In contrast, tocotrienols are only found in the endosperm of the seeds, accumulating in a sigmoid fashion during the maturation period of seed development. Tocotrienol levels were found to be (54+/-7.4) microg/g dry seed in 90-day-old seeds of V. vinifera L. Furthermore, tocotrienol biosynthesis is demonstrated in these seeds during tocotrienol accumulation and in an endosperm fraction isolated at 75 days after flowering.

  20. Physicochemical characterisation and radical-scavenging activity of Cucurbitaceae seed oils.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; da Silva, Ana Carolina; Malacrida, Cassia Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Oils extracted from Cucurbitaceae seeds were characterised for their fatty acid and tocopherol compositions. In addition, some physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic contents and the radical-scavenging activities were determined. Oil content amounted to 23.9% and 27.1% in melon and watermelon seeds, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oils showed significant antioxidant activities. Fatty acid composition showed total unsaturated fatty acid content of 85.2-83.5%, with linoleic acid being the dominant fatty acid (62.4-72.5%), followed by oleic acid (10.8-22.7%) and palmitic acid (9.2-9.8%). The oils, especially watermelon seed oil, showed high total tocopherol and phenolic contents. The γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in both oils representing 90.9 and 95.6% of the total tocopherols in melon and watermelon seed oils, respectively. The potential utilisation of melon and watermelon seed oils as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries appears to be favourable.

  1. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaohui; Wu, Qian; Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O; Sederoff, Heike W; Qu, Rongda

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  2. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O.; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production. PMID:28212406

  3. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment.

  4. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones.

  5. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils.

  6. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates. PMID:27422938

  7. Effects of oil extraction on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seed and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biodiesel production. The seed also has notable protein content (33% db). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were determined to identify potential...

  8. Decreased seed oil production in FUSCA3 Brassica napus mutant plants.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) oil is extensively utilized for human consumption and industrial applications. Among the genes regulating seed development and participating in oil accumulation is FUSCA3 (FUS3), a member of the plant-specific B3-domain family of transcription factors. To evaluate the role of this gene during seed storage deposition, three BnFUSCA3 (BnFUS3) TILLING mutants were generated. Mutations occurring downstream of the B3 domain reduced silique number and repressed seed oil level resulting in increased protein content in developing seeds. BnFUS3 mutant seeds also had increased levels of linoleic acid, possibly due to the reduced expression of ω-3 FA DESATURASE (FAD3). These observed phenotypic alterations were accompanied by the decreased expression of genes encoding transcription factors stimulating fatty acid (FA) synthesis: LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 (LEC1 and 2) ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3 (BnABI3) and WRINKLED1 (WRI1). Additionally, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA modifications were down-regulated in developing seeds of the mutant plants. Collectively, these transcriptional changes support altered sucrose metabolism and reduced glycolytic activity, diminishing the carbon pool available for the synthesis of FA and ultimately seed oil production. Based on these observations, it is suggested that targeted manipulations of BnFUS3 can be used as a tool to influence oil accumulation in the economically important species B. napus.

  9. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  10. Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones altered by potassium fertilizer rates in the midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the effect of potassium fertilizer on soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of potassium application on seed p...

  11. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  12. Protective effects of proanthocyanidins of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds on DNA damage induced by Doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Alexandre Azenha Alves; Graf, Ulrich; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2009-07-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are naturally occurring oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ol monomer units widely found in the leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, nuts and barks of many plants. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been used as nutritional supplements, as antioxidants, in preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and for dislipidemy treatment. The anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin (Doxorubicin, DXR) is a cancer chemotherapeutic agent that interferes with the topoisomerase II enzyme and generates free radicals. In the present study, GSPs (1.680, 3.375, or 6.750 mg/mL) alone were examined for genotoxicity, and combined with DXR (0.125 mg/mL) for antigenotoxicity, using the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) versions of the wing somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. The results observed in both crosses were rather similar. GSPs themselves did not show genotoxicity at the doses used. GSPs suppressed the DNA damage induced by DXR in a dose-dependent manner. Comparison of the frequencies of wing spots in the marker-heterozygous (MH) flies and balancer-heterozygous (BH) flies from both crosses, indicated that induced recombination was the major response for the treatments with DXR alone. The co-treatments demonstrated that GSPs have some anti-mutagenic activity; however, anti-recombinagenic activity was the major response.

  13. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Poppy Seed Oil on Quality of Turkish Sucuk

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (p<0.5) treatment × ripening time interaction for moisture, pH (p<0.05) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values (p<0.01). Increasing poppy seed oil level decreased (p<0.05) TBARS values. Addition of poppy seed oil to the sucuks had a significant effect (p<0.01) on hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness values. Cholesterol content of sucuks decreased (p<0.05) with poppy seed oil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits. PMID:26761834

  14. Solubilization of Tea Seed Oil in a Food-Grade Water-Dilutable Microemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingli; Que, Fei; Wei, Hewen; Xu, Guangwei; Dong, Xiaowei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.). The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w) as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil) could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase (< 35% water) to the bicontinuous phase (40–45% water) and finally to the oil-in-water phase (> 45% water) along the dilution line. PMID:25996147

  15. Effects of grape pomace on the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang-Sook; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Choi, Mi-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grape seeds extract and grape peels extract prepared from grape pomace on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, degree of lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue were investigated in rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet. New Zealand white rabbits were divided as follows ; 1) NOR (normal group); 2) CHOL (cholesterol group); 3) GSH (cholesterol + grape seed extract group); 4) GPE (cholesterol + grape peel extract); 5) GSP (cholesterol + grape seed powder); 6) GPP (cholesterol + grape peel powder); 7) GE (cholesterol + grape seed and peel extract); 8) GP (cholesterol + grape seed and peel powder). Eight groups of rabbits were studied for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, rabbits were sacrificed and the liver tissue were removed. Then, GSH, GPx, GST, CAT and MDA in the liver were measured. In liver tissues, total glutathione contents (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, which was significantly higher by grape seed extract supplementation. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the serum of rabbits fed grape seed extract or grape peel powder plus cholesterol than in the serum of rabbits fed cholesterol alone. It is therefore likely that grape seed extract prepared from grape pomace functioned as antioxidants in vivo, negating the effects of the oxidative stress induced by 1% cholesterol diet. The grape seed extract was found effective in converting the oxidized glutathione into reduced glutathione, and in removing H2O2 that is created by oxidative stress. The grape peel powder was found to have small influence on reduced glutathione content, CAT and GPX activity, but it increased GST activity in liver tissues, resulting in promoting the combination of lipid peroxide and glutathione (GSH), and further, lowering the formation of lipid peroxide in the serum. Therefore, grape pomace (grape seed extract and grape peel powder) supplementation is considered to activate the antioxidant enzyme system and

  16. Effects of the heating process of soybean oil and seeds on fatty acid biohydrogenation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Puaut, S; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2014-09-01

    Heating fat is an efficient way to alter ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and milk fat quality. Nevertheless, results are variable among studies and this could be due to various heating conditions differently affecting BH. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of type and duration of heating of soybean oil or seeds on BH in vitro. Ruminal content cultures were incubated to first investigate the effects of roasting duration (no heating, and 0.5- and 6-h roasting) at 125°C and its interaction with fat source (soybean seeds vs. soybean oil), focusing on linoleic acid BH and its intermediates: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-C18:1. Additionally, we compared the effects of seed extrusion with the 6 combinations of unheated and roasted oils and seeds. None of the treatments was efficient to protect linoleic acid from BH. Soybean oil resulted in higher trans-11 isomer production than seeds: 5.7 and 1.2 times higher for cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1, respectively. A 125°C, 0.5-h roasting increased trans-11 isomer production by 11% compared with no heating and 6-h roasted fat. Extrusion of seeds was more efficient to increase trans-11 C18:1 production than seed roasting, leading to values similar to oils. For other fatty acids, including cis-9,trans-11 CLA, extrusion resulted in similar balances to seeds (mainly 0.5-h-roasted seeds). Extruded oilseeds would be more efficient than roasted seeds to produce trans-11 C18:1; nevertheless, effects of conditions of extrusion need to be explored.

  17. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  18. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  19. Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 μl/cm² essential oil and 3.144 μl/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC₅₀ = 0.118 μl/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC₅₀ = 0.044 μl/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD₅₀ = 0.137 μl/g) than the essential oil alone (LD₅₀ = 0.193 μl/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F₁ insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans.

  20. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids sugars and minerals as affected by seeding rates and row spacing in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the effects of seeding rates (SDR) and row spacing (RS) on soybean seed composition is almost non-existent. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of SDR and RS on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals using two soybean cultivars, P 93M90 (ear...

  1. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nasirullah; Latha, R Baby

    2009-01-01

    Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28 degrees C) and elevated (37 degrees C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures.

  2. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  3. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  4. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  5. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated...

  6. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  7. Design of new genome- and gene-sourced primers and identification of QTL for seed oil content in a specially high-oil Brassica napus cultivar.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiyu; Hua, Wei; Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future.

  8. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidences for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Rekha; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil, commonly known as Malkangni or Jyotishmati, was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders. Celastrus paniculatus seed oil has significant antidepressant-like activity in chronic unpredictable stressed mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil in unstressed mice and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The seed oil (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, PO) and fluoxetine per se were administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On the 14th day, 60 min after drug administration, animals were subjected to Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swim Test (FST). The mechanism of action was also studied. Results: The oil significantly decreased immobility period of mice in both tail suspension test and forced swim test, indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (P<0.0001). ED50 value of celastrus seed oil using FST and TST were 17.38 and 31.62 mg/kg, respectively. The oil did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. It significantly inhibited brain MAO–A activity and decreased plasma corticosterone levels. Sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor), and baclofen (GABAB agonist) significantly attenuated the oil-induced antidepressant-like effect, when assessed during TST. Discussion: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice possibly through interaction with dopamine D2, serotonergic, and GABAB receptors; as well as inhibition of MAO–A activity and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:27303599

  9. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  10. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  11. Metabolic control analysis is helpful for informed genetic manipulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to increase seed oil content.

    PubMed

    Weselake, Randall J; Shah, Saleh; Tang, Mingguo; Quant, Patti A; Snyder, Crystal L; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara L; Zhu, Weiming; Taylor, David C; Zou, Jitao; Kumar, Arvind; Hall, Linda; Laroche, Andre; Rakow, Gerhard; Raney, Phillip; Moloney, Maurice M; Harwood, John L

    2008-01-01

    Top-down control analysis (TDCA) is a useful tool for quantifying constraints on metabolic pathways that might be overcome by biotechnological approaches. Previous studies on lipid accumulation in oilseed rape have suggested that diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which catalyses the final step in seed oil biosynthesis, might be an effective target for enhancing seed oil content. Here, increased seed oil content, increased DGAT activity, and reduced substrate:product ratio are demonstrated, as well as reduced flux control by complex lipid assembly, as determined by TDCA in Brassica napus (canola) lines which overexpress the gene encoding type-1 DGAT. Lines overexpressing DGAT1 also exhibited considerably enhanced seed oil content under drought conditions. These results support the use of TDCA in guiding the rational selection of molecular targets for oilseed modification. The most effective lines had a seed oil increase of 14%. Moreover, overexpression of DGAT1 under drought conditions reduced this environmental penalty on seed oil content.

  12. Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and tocopherols in seed oils recovered from different Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-10-31

    Seed oils recovered from Rosaceae species such as dessert and cider apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and rose hip (Rosa canina L.) were analyzed for their tocopherol and carotenoid contents using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) following saponification. Qualitative and quantitative tocopherol and carotenoid compositions significantly differed, not only among the different genera but also among cultivars of one species. In particular, seed oils of cider apples were shown to contain higher amounts of both antioxidant classes than that of dessert apples. Total contents of tocopherols of the investigated Rosaceous seed oils ranged from 597.7 to 1099.9 mg/kg oil, while total carotenoid contents varied between 0.48 and 39.15 mg/kg oil. Thus, these seed oils were found to contain appreciable amounts of lipohilic antioxidants having health beneficial potential. The results of the present study contribute to a more economical and exhaustive exploitation of seed byproducts arising from the processing of these Rosaceous fruits.

  13. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Pu; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-02-08

    The oil of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is used extensively in China as cooking oil. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidant activity of tea seed oil and its active compounds. Of the five solvent extracts, methanol extract of tea seed oil exhibited the highest yield and the strongest antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Two peaks separated from the methanol extract by HPLC contributed the most significant antioxidant activity. These two peaks were further identified as sesamin and a novel compound: 2,5-bis-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-tetrahydro-furo [3,4-d][1,3]dioxine (named compound B) by UV absorption and characterized by MS, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR techniques. Sesamin and compound B decreased H2O2-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species in red blood cells (RBCs), inhibited RBCs hemolysis induced by AAPH, and increased the lag time of conjugated dienes formation in human low-density lipoprotein. The results indicate that both compounds isolated from tea seed oil exhibit remarkable antioxidant activity. Apart from the traditional pharmacological effects of Camellia oleifera, the oil of tea seed may also act as a prophylactic agent to prevent free radical related diseases.

  14. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds.

  15. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  16. Spectroscopic and thermooxidative analysis of organic okra oil and seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

    2012-01-01

    With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2 °C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption.

  17. Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

    2012-01-01

    With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2°C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption. PMID:22645459

  18. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  19. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p < 0.05). Moreover, the analyses of thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  20. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils.

  1. Hemp-seed and olive oils: their stability against oxidation and use in O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sapino, S; Carlotti, M E; Peira, E; Gallarate, M

    2005-01-01

    Hemp-seed oil has several positive effects on the skin: thanks to its unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content it alleviates skin problems such as dryness and those related to the aging process. We present a comparative study of hemp-seed and olive oils, determining some physicochemical indices and evaluating their stability against oxidation. The peroxide value of hemp-seed oil was below 20, the threshold limit for edible oils. Hemp-seed oil was less stable against peroxidation than olive oil, but MDA and MONO assays showed its stability to be above expectations. The chlorophyll contained in extra virgin olive oil had a higher photostability than that contained in hemp-seed oil, possibly due to the larger amount of antioxidant in the olive oil. A certain amount of Vitamin E was found in hemp-seed oil. Since quality analyses indicated that hemp-seed oil is relatively stable, emulsions were prepared with the two oils, and their stability and rheological characteristics were tested. Some of the resulting gel-emulsions were suitable for spraying on the skin.

  2. Histidine Regulates Seed Oil Deposition through Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and β-Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huimin; Wang, Shui

    2016-10-01

    The storage compounds are deposited into plant seeds during maturation. As the model oilseed species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has long been studied for seed oil deposition. However, the regulation of this process remains unclear. Through genetic screen with a seed oil body-specific reporter, we isolated low oil1 (loo1) mutant. LOO1 was mapped to HISTIDINE BIOSYNTHESIS NUMBER 1A (HISN1A). HISN1A catalyzes the first step of His biosynthesis. Oil significantly decreased, and conversely proteins markedly increased in hisn1a mutants, indicating that HISN1A regulates both oil accumulation and the oil-protein balance. HISN1A was predominantly expressed in embryos and root tips. Accordingly, the hisn1a mutants exhibited developmental phenotype especially of seeds and roots. Transcriptional profiling displayed that β-oxidation was the major metabolic pathway downstream of HISN1A β-Oxidation was induced in hisn1a mutants, whereas it was reduced in 35S:HISN1A-transgenic plants. In plants, seed storage oil is broken-down by β-oxidation, which is controlled by abscisic acid (ABA). We found that His activated genes of ABA biosynthesis and correspondingly advanced ABA accumulation. Exogenous ABA rescued the defects of hisn1a mutants, whereas mutation of ABA DEFICIENT2, a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, blocked the effect of His on β-oxidation, indicating that ABA mediates His regulation in β-oxidation. Intriguingly, structural analysis showed that a potential His-binding domain was present in the general amino acid sensors GENERAL CONTROL NON-DEREPRESSIBLE2 and PII, suggesting that His may serve as a signal molecule. Taken together, our study reveals that His promotes plant seed oil deposition through ABA biosynthesis and β-oxidation.

  3. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    PubMed

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  4. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  5. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  6. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  7. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:20098586

  8. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  9. Bioavailability of gallic acid and catechins from grape seed polyphenol extract is improved by repeated dosing in rats: implications for treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lobo, Jessica K; Janle, Elsa M; Cooper, Bruce; Simon, James E; Wu, Qing-Li; Welch, Cara; Ho, Lap; Weaver, Connie; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the bioavailability and brain deposition of a grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) previously found to attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plasma pharmacokinetic response of major GSPE phenolic components was measured following intragastric gavage of 50, 100, and 150 mg GSPE per kg body weight. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis identified gallic acid (GA), catechin (C), and epicatechin (EC) in plasma of rats gavaged acutely with GSPE. Additionally, 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA), 3'-methylcatechin (3'-OMeC), and 3'-methylepicatechin (3'-OMeEC) were identified as circulating metabolites of GSPE phenolic constituents. Cmax for individual GSPE constituents and their metabolites increased in a dose-dependent fashion (with increasing GSPE oral dose). Repeated daily exposure to GSPE was found to significantly increase bioavailability (defined as plasma AUC0-8h) of GA, C, and EC by 198, 253, and 282% relative to animals receiving only a single acute GSPE dose. EC and C were not detectable in brain tissues of rats receiving a single GSPE dose but reached levels of 290.7 +/-45.9 and 576.7 +/- 227.7 pg/g in brain tissues from rats administered GSPE for 10 days. This study suggests that brain deposition of GA, C, and EC is affected by repeated dosing of GSPE.

  10. Olive and grape seed extract prevents post-traumatic osteoarthritis damages and exhibits in vitro anti IL-1β activities before and after oral consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mével, Elsa; Merceron, Christophe; Vinatier, Claire; Krisa, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Hivernaud, Vincent; Gauthier, Olivier; Abadie, Jérôme; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Houard, Xavier; Wittrant, Yohann; Urban, Nelly; Beck, Laurent; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols exert a large range of beneficial effects in the prevention of age-related diseases. We sought to determine whether an extract of olive and grape seed standardized according to hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy) content, exerts preventive anti-osteoathritic effects. To this aim, we evaluated whether the HT/PCy mix could (i) have in vitro anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions, (ii) exert anti-osteoarthritis effects in two post-traumatic animal models and (iii) retain its bioactivity after oral administration. Anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of HT/PCy were tested on primary cultured rabbit chondrocytes stimulated by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). The results showed that HT/PCy exerts anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions in vitro. The preventive effect of HT/PCy association was assessed in two animal models of post-traumatic OA in mice and rabbits. Diet supplementation with HT/PCy significantly decreased the severity of post-traumatic osteoarthritis in two complementary mice and rabbit models. The bioavailability and bioactivity was evaluated following gavage with HT/PCy in rabbits. Regular metabolites from HT/PCy extract were found in sera from rabbits following oral intake. Finally, sera from rabbits force-fed with HT/PCy conserved anti-IL-1β effect, suggesting the bioactivity of this extract. To conclude, HT/PCy extract may be of clinical significance for the preventive treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27640363

  11. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  12. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Qing; Gao, Bin-Wen; Wang, Jing; Ren, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Jun-Feng; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xing, Bao-Song

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases. PMID:27057282

  13. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats.

  14. Pre-fermentative addition of an enzymatic grape seed hydrolysate in warm climate winemaking. Effect on the differential colorimetry, copigmentation and polyphenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Jara-Palacios, M José; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-10-15

    The effect of adding an enzymatic hydrolysate of grape seeds (EH-GS) during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been evaluated. We focused on the polyphenolic composition as well as the application of differential and tristimulus colorimetry to colour data. This is the first attempt at using this oenological alternative to avoid common colour losses of red wines elaborated in a warm climate. The addition of 250g (simple dose, SW) of EH-GS to 120kg of fermentation material promoted a significant (p<0.05) increase in the polyphenolic content of stored wines, especially in benzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, flavonol and anthocyanin levels. This increase could promote a higher copigmentation percentage and maximum colour stabilization (C(∗)ab) without significantly changing the wine tonality. Unexpectedly, the use of a double quantity (DW) of EH-GS resulted in significantly less chroma than for control wines (CW), demonstrating visually perceptible colour changes (ΔE(∗)ab>3 CIELAB units).

  15. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2015-02-01

    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Truong, Van Long; Kang, Hey-Sook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect and underlying mechanisms of wild grape seeds procyanidins (WGP) were examined using lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We used nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays to examine inhibitory effect of WGP and further investigated the mechanisms of WGP suppressed LPS-mediated genes and upstream expression by Western blot and confocal microscopy analysis. Our data indicate that WGP significantly reduced NO, PGE2, and ROS production and also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Consistently, WGP significantly reduced LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 1 β . Moreover, WGP prevented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- κ B (NF κ B) p65 subunit by reducing inhibitory κ B- α (I κ B α) and NF κ B phosphorylation. Furthermore, we found that WGP inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our results demonstrated that WGP exerts potent anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 by regulating NF κ B and p38 MAPK pathway.

  17. Grape seed proanthocyanidins protects against cadmium induced oxidative pancreatitis in rats by attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis via Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Nazima; Manoharan, Vaihundam; Miltonprabu, Selvaraj

    2016-06-01

    The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) in the pancreas of cadmium (Cd)-induced cellular oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in rats. Four groups of healthy rats were given oral doses of Cd (5-mg/kg BW) and to identify the possible mechanism of action of GSP 100-mg/kg BW was selected and was given 90 min before Cd intoxication. The causative molecular and cellular mechanism of Cd was determined using various biochemical assays, histology, western blotting and ELISA. Cd intoxication revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1β and IFN-γ), reduced levels of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4) along with the enhanced levels of signaling molecules of apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in the pancreas of Cd-intoxicated rats. Results suggested that the treatment with GSP reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress-related markers. GSP protects pancreatic tissue by attenuated inflammatory responses and inhibited apoptosis. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect of GSP proposes the possibility of using it as an effective protector in the oxidative stress-mediated pancreatic dysfunction in rats.

  18. Hypocholesterolemic activity of grape seed proanthocyanidin is mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Rui; Zhang, Zesheng; Yu, Hongjian; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2010-11-01

    Interest in grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) as a cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical is growing. This study was to investigate the effect of GSP on blood cholesterol level and gene expression of cholesterol-regulating enzymes in Golden Syrian hamsters maintained on a 0.1% cholesterol diet. Results affirmed supplementation of 0.5% or 1.0% GSP could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated GSP did not affect sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and low-density lipoprotein receptor; however, it increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. GSP had no effect on the protein mass of liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) but it decreased mRNA LXRα. Most importantly, GSP increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of GSP was most likely mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  19. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds inhibit UV-radiation-induced immune suppression in mice: detection and analysis of molecular and cellular targets.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-radiation-induced immunosuppression has been linked with the risk of skin carcinogenesis. Approximately, 2 million new cases of skin cancers, including melanoma and nonmelanoma, diagnosed each year in the USA and therefore have a tremendous bad impact on public health. Dietary phytochemicals are promising options for the development of effective strategy for the prevention of photodamaging effects of UV radiation including the risk of skin cancer. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are such phytochemicals. Dietary administration of GSPs with AIN76A control diet significantly inhibits UV-induced skin tumor development as well as suppression of immune system. UV-induced suppression of immune system is commonly determined using contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model which is a prototype of T-cell-mediated immune response. We present evidence that inhibition of UV-induced suppression of immune system by GSPs is mediated through: (i) the alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12, (ii) DNA repair, (iii) stimulation of effector T cells and (iv) DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mouse model. These information have important implications for the use of GSPs as a dietary supplement in chemoprevention of UV-induced immunosuppression as well as photocarcinogenesis.

  20. Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Modulate the NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways in Rats with TNBS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yang, Xiaolai; Cai, Yongqing; Qin, Hong; Wang, Li; Wang, Yanhong; Huang, Yanhui; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Xin; Li, Wan; Li, Sijia; Chen, Jiajia; Wu, Yongjie

    2011-08-08

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE), we explore whether GSPE regulates the inflammatory response of TNBS-induced colitis in rats at the levels of NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Rats were intragastrically administered of different doses of GSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg·kg-1) per day for seven days after ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP) at 400 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phospho-I kappaB-alpha (pIκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IκK) in the colon tissues were all measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Treatment with GSPE reduced the expression of NF-κB, pIκBα and IκK in the colon. The results of this study show that GSPE exerts beneficial effects in inflammatory bowel disease by inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

  1. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  2. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  3. Populus seed fibers as a natural source for production of oil super absorbents.

    PubMed

    Likon, Marko; Remškar, Maja; Ducman, Vilma; Švegl, Franc

    2013-01-15

    The genus Populus, which includes poplars, cottonwoods and aspen trees, represents a huge natural source of fibers with exceptional physical properties. In this study, the oil absorption properties of poplar seed hair fibers obtained from Populus nigra italica when tested with high-density motor oil and diesel fuel are reported. Poplar seed hair fibers are hollow hydrophobic microtubes with an external diameter between 3 and 12 μm, an average length of 4±1 mm and average tube wall thickness of 400±100 nm. The solid skeleton of the hollow fibers consists of lignocellulosic material coated by a hydrophobic waxy coating. The exceptional chemical, physical and microstructural properties of poplar seed hair fibers enable super-absorbent behavior with high absorption capacity for heavy motor oil and diesel fuel. The absorption values of 182-211 g heavy oil/g fiber and 55-60 g heavy oil/g fiber for packing densities of 0.005 g/cm(3) and 0.02 g/cm(3), respectively, surpass all known natural absorbents. Thus, poplar seed hair fibers obtained from Populus nigra italica and other trees of the genus Populus are an extremely promising natural source for the production of oil super absorbents.

  4. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated.

  5. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  6. [Effect of conditions and duration of storage on composition of essential oil from coriander seeds].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A

    2001-01-01

    The composition of volatile components of the essential oil extracted from seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) grown in different years in either Russia or Georgia was studied by capillary gas chromatography. Climatic conditions had a weaker effect on the essential oil composition than the region of growth. After one-year storage in the dark, minor changes were observed in the oil composition, and its organoleptic properties were virtually unchanged. However, the essential oil underwent significant chemical transformation of monoterpenes when stored in the light.

  7. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (∼23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ∼30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus.

  8. Expression of Umbelopsis ramanniana DGAT2A in seed increases oil in soybean.

    PubMed

    Lardizabal, Kathryn; Effertz, Roger; Levering, Charlene; Mai, Jennifer; Pedroso, M C; Jury, Tom; Aasen, Eric; Gruys, Ken; Bennett, Kristen

    2008-09-01

    Oilseeds are the main source of lipids used in both food and biofuels. The growing demand for vegetable oil has focused research toward increasing the amount of this valuable component in oilseed crops. Globally, soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important oilseed crops grown, contributing about 30% of the vegetable oil used for food, feed, and industrial applications. Breeding efforts in soy have shown that multiple loci contribute to the final content of oil and protein stored in seeds. Genetically, the levels of these two storage products appear to be inversely correlated with an increase in oil coming at the expense of protein and vice versa. One way to overcome the linkage between oil and protein is to introduce a transgene that can specifically modulate one pathway without disrupting the other. We describe the first, to our knowledge, transgenic soy crop with increased oil that shows no major impact on protein content or yield. This was achieved by expressing a codon-optimized version of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2A from the soil fungus Umbelopsis (formerly Mortierella) ramanniana in soybean seed during development, resulting in an absolute increase in oil of 1.5% (by weight) in the mature seed.

  9. Expression of Umbelopsis ramanniana DGAT2A in Seed Increases Oil in Soybean1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Lardizabal, Kathryn; Effertz, Roger; Levering, Charlene; Mai, Jennifer; Pedroso, M.C.; Jury, Tom; Aasen, Eric; Gruys, Ken; Bennett, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Oilseeds are the main source of lipids used in both food and biofuels. The growing demand for vegetable oil has focused research toward increasing the amount of this valuable component in oilseed crops. Globally, soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important oilseed crops grown, contributing about 30% of the vegetable oil used for food, feed, and industrial applications. Breeding efforts in soy have shown that multiple loci contribute to the final content of oil and protein stored in seeds. Genetically, the levels of these two storage products appear to be inversely correlated with an increase in oil coming at the expense of protein and vice versa. One way to overcome the linkage between oil and protein is to introduce a transgene that can specifically modulate one pathway without disrupting the other. We describe the first, to our knowledge, transgenic soy crop with increased oil that shows no major impact on protein content or yield. This was achieved by expressing a codon-optimized version of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2A from the soil fungus Umbelopsis (formerly Mortierella) ramanniana in soybean seed during development, resulting in an absolute increase in oil of 1.5% (by weight) in the mature seed. PMID:18633120

  10. Fatty acid profile in the seeds and seed tissues of Paeonia L. species as new oil plant resources

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuiyan; Du, Shaobo; Yuan, Junhui; Hu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Most common plant oils have little α-linolenic acid (C18:3Δ9,12,15, ALA) and an unhealthy ω6/ω3 ratio. Here, fatty acids (FAs) in the seeds of 11 species of Paeonia L., including 10 tree peony and one herbaceous species, were explored using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer. Results indicated that all Paeonia had a ω6/ω3 ratio less than 1.0, and high amounts of ALA (26.7–50%), oleic acid (C18:1Δ9, OA) (20.8–46%) and linoleic acid (C18:2Δ9,12, LA) (10–38%). ALA was a dominant component in oils of seven subsection Vaginatae species, whereas OA was predominant in two subsection Delavayanae species. LA was a subdominant oil component in P. ostii and P. obovata. Moreover, the FA composition and distribution of embryo (22 FAs), endosperm (14 FAs) and seed coat (6 FAs) in P. ostii, P. rockii and P. ludlowii were first reported. Peony species, particularly P. decomposita and P. rockii, can be excellent plant resources for edible oil because they provide abundant ALA to balance the ω6/ω3 ratio. The differences in the ALA, LA and OA content proportion also make the peony species a good system for detailed investigation of FA biosynthesis pathway and ALA accumulation. PMID:27240678

  11. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil. PMID:27999405

  12. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-12-20

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil.

  13. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use.

  14. Analysis of oil content of Jatropha curcas seeds under storage condition.

    PubMed

    Sushma

    2014-05-01

    Jatropha curcas has been recognized as an ideal plant for biodiesel. There are unlimited reasons to consider Jatropha curcas a better tree borne oilseed plants than any other as it grows well on arid soils and entail minimal investment. The present study evaluates the effect of seed storage on quality and quantity of oil content such that it can be used for oil extraction and ensures availability of biodiesel throughout the year. The seeds were collected and stored at four temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C, 5 °C and room temperature (open air condition) for 15 months of storage durations and evaluated at every three months interval. There was a significant decrease in oil content and oil quality with increase in storage duration. Although, the seed stored at temperature 5 °C gave the highest quality and quantity attributes at all durations. The first 3 months of storage account for the least decline as in the initial oil content in Kernel weight basis (54.61%) and seed weight basis (36.12%), there was a only decrease of 4.67% and 4.97% respectively at 5 °C whereas in other temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C and room temperature (open air condition), there was a decline of 18.11, 14.48 and 9.06% in kernel weight basis and 18.36, 15.14 and 9.30% in seed weight basis respectively which accelerated with duration. Similarly, quality parameters viz. moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index (30 °C), relative viscosity and specific gravity were initially as 7.59%, 1.42 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 108.61 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 189.37 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.466, 21.30 and 0.911 respectively which change to 13.71%, 1.74 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 107.95 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 191.48 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.470, 23.45 and 0.918, respectively after 3 months of storage. Hence, change in quality and quantity parameters indicated the importance of proper seed storage on availability of bio-diesel throughout the year and economics in its processing i e

  15. Fatty acid profiles of Garuga floribunda, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Melanolepis multiglandulosa and Premna odorata seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of four species from four plant families for which no or only sparse information on the fatty acid profiles is available are reported. The five seed oils are Garuga floribunda of the Burseraceae family, Ipomoea pes-caprae of the Convolvulaceae family, Melanol...

  16. Safety and healing efficacy of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil on burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, N K; Kumar, R; Mandotra, S K; Meena, R N; Siddiqui, M S; Sawhney, R C; Gupta, A

    2009-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of supercritical CO2-extracted Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) (SBT) seed oil on burn wound model. SBT seed oil was co-administered by two routes at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg body weight (p.o.) and 200 microl (topical) for 7 days on experimental burn wounds in rats. The SBT seed oil augmented the wound healing process as indicated by significant increase in wound contraction, hydroxyproline, hexosamine, DNA and total protein contents in comparison to control and reference control treated with silver sulfadiazine (SS) ointment. Histopathological findings further confirmed the healing potential of SBT seed oil. SBT seed oil treatment up-regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9), collagen type-III and VEGF in granulation tissue. It was observed that SBT seed oil also possesses antioxidant properties as evidenced by significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wound granulation tissue. In acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies, no adverse effects were observed in any of the groups administered with SBT seed oil. These results suggest that the supercritical CO2-extracted Sea buckthorn seed oil possesses significant wound healing activity and have no associated toxicity or side effects.

  17. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  18. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage.

  19. Protection and viability of fruit seeds oils by nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Krasodomska, Olga; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Jungnickel, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we focused on the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for dermal application. The NLC matrix was designed as a protective reservoir of biological active compounds that naturally occur in domestic fruit seed oils. Over the years, emulsions, as a popular physicochemical form of personal care products, were refined in order to obtain the best possible penetration into the skin of any bioactive compound introduced in the formulation, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the bioactive components are useful only if they are able to penetrate the skin unchanged. Therefore, an alternate way to deliver naturally occurring PUFAs is needed. NLCs present a novel delivery and protection system for the PUFAs. The cold pressed fruit seed oils obtained from waste material were used in this paper: blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and plum. Thermodynamic (DSC) and structural techniques ((1)H NMR) were applied in order to characterize the obtained systems in terms of seed oil incorporation into the NLC, and oxidative stability tests were used to confirm the protective quality of the systems. During the formulation optimization process the most stable nanosuspension with the best seed oil incorporation was a mixture of 4% nonionic emulsifiers, 88% water and 6% lipids with a ratio of 6:2, wax:oil. The oxidative stability tests showed that the NLC was an effective method of protection of the PUFAs.

  20. Grape Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  1. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  2. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  3. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-03

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  4. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods.

  5. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Kroh, Lothar W; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-11-19

    Crude vegetable oils are usually oxidatively more stable than the corresponding refined oils. Tocopherols, phospholipids (PL), phytosterols, and phenols are the most important natural antioxidants in crude oils. Processing of vegetable oils, moreover, could induce the formation of antioxidants. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils were extracted with n-hexane and the oils were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and PL. Crude oils and their fractions were investigated for their radical scavenging activity (RSA) toward the stable galvinoxyl radical by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by spectrophotometric method. Coriander seed oil and its fractions exhibited the strongest RSA compared to black cumin and niger seed oils. The data correlated well with the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, unsaponifiables, and PL, as well as the initial peroxide values of crude oils. In overall ranking, RSA of oil fractions showed similar patterns wherein the PL exhibited greater activity to scavenge both free radicals followed by GL and NL, respectively. The positive relationship observed between the RSA of crude oils and their color intensity suggests the Maillard reaction products may have contributed to the RSA of seed oils and their polar fractions. The results demonstrate the importance of minor components in crude seed oils on their oxidative stability, which will reflect on their food value and shelf life. As part of the effort to assess the potential of these seed oils, the information is also of importance in processing and utilizing the crude oils and their byproducts.

  6. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed.

  7. Camelina seed transcriptome: a tool for meal and oil improvement and translational research.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu T; Silva, Jillian E; Podicheti, Ram; Macrander, Jason; Yang, Wenyu; Nazarenus, Tara J; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G; Lu, Chaofu; Scheffler, Brian E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa), a Brassicaceae oilseed, has received recent interest as a biofuel crop and production platform for industrial oils. Limiting wider production of camelina for these uses is the need to improve the quality and content of the seed protein-rich meal and oil, which is enriched in oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids that are deleterious for biodiesel. To identify candidate genes for meal and oil quality improvement, a transcriptome reference was built from 2047 Sanger ESTs and more than 2 million 454-derived sequence reads, representing genes expressed in developing camelina seeds. The transcriptome of approximately 60K transcripts from 22 597 putative genes includes camelina homologues of nearly all known seed-expressed genes, suggesting a high level of completeness and usefulness of the reference. These sequences included candidates for 12S (cruciferins) and 2S (napins) seed storage proteins (SSPs) and nearly all known lipid genes, which have been compiled into an accessible database. To demonstrate the utility of the transcriptome for seed quality modification, seed-specific RNAi lines deficient in napins were generated by targeting 2S SSP genes, and high oleic acid oil lines were obtained by targeting FATTY ACID DESATURASE 2 (FAD2) and FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 (FAE1). The high sequence identity between Arabidopsis thaliana and camelina genes was also exploited to engineer high oleic lines by RNAi with Arabidopsis FAD2 and FAE1 sequences. It is expected that these transcriptomic data will be useful for breeding and engineering of additional camelina seed traits and for translating findings from the model Arabidopsis to an oilseed crop.

  8. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Ping; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2010-06-01

    In this study, eight cultivars of hempseed were collected from different regions of China for analysis of physiochemical properties and chemical composition, as well as for seed indexes and proximate composition of seed kernel. The results indicated that Yunma No. 1 and Bama Huoma, with more than 50% oil and 30% protein in dehulled seed, could be considered as oil extraction material and protein source with respect to kernel yield. Iodine values ranging from 153.6 to 169.1 g/100 g reflected the high degree of unsaturation. The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 90%, higher than most conventional vegetable oils. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 76.26% to 82.75% and were mainly composed of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid with a ratio close to 3:1. γ-Tocopherol was found at an average concentration of 28.23 mg/100 g of hempseed oil. The results indicated that hempseed oil is a potentially valuable vegetable oil.

  9. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat’s Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat’s sperm. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Results Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. Conclusion This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26816914

  10. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-01-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  11. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  12. Effect of substitution of a soybean hull and grape seed meal mixture for traditional fiber sources on digestion and performance of growing rabbits and lactating does.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus, N; García, J; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine what concentration of a mixture of soybean hulls and defatted grape seed meal (SHDG) could be included in diets that meet or exceed ADL and particle size requirements for rabbits. Four isonitrogenous and isofibrous pelleted diets were formulated, with similar ADL concentration and particle size (18.3% CP, 42.6% NDF, 7.1% ADL, and 34.9% of particles larger than 0.315 mm, on a DM basis). Diets contained a constant ratio of soybean hulls:defatted grape seed meal (81:19) provided at 0, 13.3, 26.7, or 40% SHDG, which was substituted for a 35:35:30 mixture of alfalfa hay, sunflower hulls, and wheat straw. Thirty-six rabbits were used to determine nutrient digestibility and cecotrophy traits. A feeding trial was carried out using 160 weanling rabbits (30 d of age; 536 +/- 7.1 g). Milk production was measured in 56 rabbit does. Increasing concentrations of SHDG in the diet did not affect digestibilities of DM, GE, or NDF or DE that were on average 54.7, 55.2, and 21.6% and 10.2 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Digestibility of CP decreased in diets containing 40% (P = 0.002) and 26.7% (P = 0.054) SHDG compared with diets containing a lower percent of SHDG. Daily recycling of CP through cecotrophy, an indicator of microbial protein production, was not affected by SHDG inclusion. Growing rabbits fed 40% SHDG had reduced ADFI and ADG compared with rabbits fed 26.7% SHDG or less (106 vs. 113, 111, or 111 g/d, and 35.8 vs. 37.8, 36.6, or 37.6 g/d, respectively). There was no effect on G:F from adding SHDG to the diets. In the 2-wk period after weaning, ADG decreased (P = 0.031) for rabbits fed 40% SHDG compared with rabbits fed 26.7% SHDG or less (28.4 vs. 32.2, 30.8, of 32.2 g/d), with no effect on ADFI or G:F. Type of diet did not influence mortality during the fattening period, which averaged 6.25%. Rabbit does fed 40% SHDG had reduced ADFI (411 vs. 430 g/d; P = 0.023) compared with rabbits fed 26.7% SHDG or less, with no effect (P > 0.11) on

  13. Antiviral effects of grape seed extract against feline calicivirus, murine norovirus, and hepatitis A virus in model food systems and under gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has antiviral activities against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) time and dose-dependence of GSE against FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV at room temperature (RT) and 37 °C over 24 h; and (2) GSE effects in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% milk) and simulated gastric conditions at 37 °C. Viruses at ∼5 log PFU/ml were treated with 0.5-8 mg/ml GSE prepared in water, AJ, milk or gastric juices, or water over 24 h at RT or 37 °C. Infectivity of triplicate treatments was evaluated using plaque assays. GSE effects increased with time and concentration. GSE at 1 mg/ml in AJ reduced MNV-1 to undetectable levels after 1 h and by 1 log in milk after 24 h. GSE at 1 and 2 mg/ml in AJ reduced HAV to undetectable levels after 1 h, while 2 and 4 mg/ml GSE in milk caused ∼1 log reduction after 24 h. GSE at 2 mg/ml in intestinal fluid reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1 and HAV to undetectable levels after 6 h. GSE appears to be a suitable natural option for foodborne viral reduction.

  14. Selective inhibition by grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts of cell adhesion molecule expression induced by advanced glycation end products in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Lei; Gao, Hai-Qing; Wu, Jian-Min; Ma, Ya-Bing; You, Bei-An; Li, Bao-Ying; Xuan, Jun-Hua

    2006-08-01

    The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGE) with their cell surface receptors for AGEs (RAGE) has been causally implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications and has been shown to stimulate cell adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells via induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Alternatively, grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE), which are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds, have been reported to possess potent radical scavenging and antioxidant properties and to display significant cardiovascular protective action. In this study, we investigated whether GSPE could inhibit AGE-induced cell adhesion molecule expression through interference with ROS generations in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) was prepared by incubating BSA with a high concentration of glucose. Stimulation of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 200 microg/mL of AGE-BSA significantly enhanced intracellular ROS formation and subsequently upregulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), whereas both unmodified BSA and GSPE alone were without effect. However, preincubation of different concentrations of GSPE markedly downregulated AGE-BSA-induced VCAM-1 expression at the surface protein and mRNA level in a concentration-dependent manner, but the increased ICAM-1 expression was not affected by GSPE treatment. Meanwhile, the inhibition by GSPE of intracellular ROS generation was also observed at defined time periods. These results demonstrate that GSPE can inhibit the enhanced VCAM-1 expression but not ICAM-1 in AGE-exposed endothelial cells by suppressing ROS generation. Hence, GSPE may have therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of vascular complications in patients with diabetes.

  15. Effect of grape seed extract on physicochemical properties of ground, salted, chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels.

    PubMed

    Brannan, R G

    2008-01-01

    The effect of grape seed extract (GSE, 0.1%) +/- NaCl (1%) in ground chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at 59%, 76%, 88%, and 99% relative humidity (RH) was examined. Compared to the untreated control, GSE (0.1%) delayed the reduction of water activity (a(w)) that occurred during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels but had no effect on moisture content or pH compared to the untreated control. GSE inhibited the formation of a secondary marker of lipid oxidation (TBARS) compared to the untreated control and altered the effect of NaCl on TBARS formation. The formation of TBARS was affected by RH level across all treatment groups in the order of 99% > 88% > 76% > 59%. Further analysis revealed that this effect likely is due to the presence of NaCl, which suggests that RH storage does not affect the formation of TBARS except in salted patties, the effect of which is mitigated by the addition of GSE. NaCl, but not GSE, increased both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility after 12 d of refrigerated storage, suggesting increased protein denaturation. This study shows that GSE is an effective antioxidant in ground chicken thigh meat that does not affect moisture content or pH during storage, inhibits TBARS formation, helps to mitigate the prooxidative effects of NaCl, and may alter the effect of NaCl on protein solubility in salted chicken patties. Future work is needed to determine how the physicochemical interactions of GSE affect important cooked meat quality attributes.

  16. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract has potent anti-arthritic effects on collagen-induced arthritis by modifying the T cell balance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Abdel-Hamied, Hala E; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Bakheet, Saleh A; Attia, Sabry M; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2013-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, joint malformations, and disability. The continuous use of conventional anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with severe adverse effects. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is considered to have protective effects against several diseases. In this study based on the mouse adjuvant-induced-arthritis (AIA) model, we examined the effects of GSPE on the key mediators of arthritic inflammation, namely T cell subsets, glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) expressing cells, CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, Th17 cells, Th1/Th2 cytokines, and inflammatory mediator gene expression. We treated BALB/c mice with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg GSPE or saline daily (14 days) per orally (p.o.) at the onset of AIA. At the peak phase of AIA (day 14), the heparinised whole blood and ankle joints of all groups were collected and tested. GSPE-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in the levels of T cell subsets, GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines as well as the inflammatory mediators (MCP-1, MIP-2, and ICAM-1) that induce them compared with the vehicle-treated (saline) and arthritic mice. However, GSPE significantly upregulated the number of Tregs and Th2 cytokine producing cell number or it also induced Th17/Treg rebalance and orchestrated various pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the gene expression of their mediators that mediate cellular infiltration into the joints. This might, contribute to its anti-arthritic activity. Our results suggest that p.o. treatment with GSPE attenuated AIA in mice might offer a promising alternative/adjunct treatment for RA.

  17. Antilisterial activity and consumer acceptance of irradiated chicken breast meat vacuum-infused with grape seed and green tea extracts and tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Over, K F; Hettiarachchy, N S; Perumalla, A V S; Johnson, M G; Meullenet, J-F; Dickson, J S; Holtzbauer, M J; Niebuhr, S E; Davis, B

    2010-09-01

    Contamination of poultry with pathogenic bacteria contributes to human foodborne disease, causes damage to industry brand names, and has a significant economic impact on the food industry in the form of both damage to industry brand names and losses associated with recalls. Irradiation is a safe and effective means of decontaminating poultry products, but the maximum dose strengths allowed negatively impact poultry sensory quality characteristics. The 1st objective of this study was to investigate the potential interactive inhibitory effects of natural antimicrobials as components of a vacuum-marination in addition to various dose levels of irradiation. Tartaric acid (TA) at 2 levels and grape seed (GS) and green tea (GT) extracts were combined, vacuum-infused into chicken breast fillets, and irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy by electron beam irradiation. The 2nd objective was to use a consumer test group to evaluate TA and plant extract infusion into chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation at 2 kGy on overall impression, flavor, texture, appearance, and tenderness. The results showed that samples vacuum-infused with TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM and irradiated at 1 kGy significantly reduced Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) levels by 2 and 3 log CFU/g compared to the control after 12 d of refrigerated storage. Vacuum-infusion of TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM at 2 and 3 kGy irradiation, reduced L.m. to near nondetectable levels. The addition of TA and GS and GT to chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation did not significantly impact consumer preference, tenderness, appearance, or flavor. The addition of tartaric acid and natural plant extracts to chicken marinades could contribute to the prevention of L.m. contamination.

  18. Characterization of azoxymethane-induced colon tumor metastasis to lung in a mouse model relevant to human sporadic colorectal cancer and evaluation of grape seed extract efficacy.

    PubMed

    Derry, Molly M; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2014-08-01

    The second leading cause of cancer-related deaths (both genders combined) in the United States is colorectal cancer (CRC). This emphasizes the need to develop both effective therapies for CRC patients and pre-clinical models mimicking human disease that carry translational potential in drug-development. Notably, at present there are no in situ models of CRC metastasis to lung. In our azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis study in A/J mice assessing grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy, during necropsy we also found multiple lung nodules suggestive of colon tumor metastasis to lung that were significantly inhibited in GSE fed group. Both histopathological and molecular studies were performed to characterize and establish the origin of these lesions in lung. Histologically these nodules were determined as adenocarcinoma of mucin origin. Molecular analyses by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-PCR revealed strong protein and transcript levels of colon specific markers CDX2 and CK20 in these lung nodules compared to uninvolved control lung tissue. Vis-à-vis, these nodules also showed minimally expressed lung specific biomarkers, specifically surfactant D and TTF-1, in IHC analysis. Additionally, 0.25% GSE supplementation in diet (w/w) decreased the incidence of these lung nodules by 53% and their total number by 66%. Together, the characterization of this unique in situ mouse model of CRC metastasis to lung provides translational opportunities in developing effective therapies to clinically manage and treat CRC at the advanced stage. Moreover, GSE efficacy in inhibiting CRC metastasis to lung in this model further supports its translational potential in controlling CRC growth, progression and metastasis in patients.

  19. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Yazbeck, Roger; Wright, Tessa H; Whitford, Eleanor J; Payne, Caroline; Butler, Ross N; Bastian, Susan E P

    2009-02-01

    Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: GSE was administered to IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells prior to damage induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability was determined by neutral red assay. In vivo: Female Dark Agouti rats (130-180 g) were gavaged with 1 ml GSE (400 mg/kg) daily (day 3-11) and received 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection on day nine to induce mucositis. Rats were sacrificed at day 12 and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase and sucrase activity assays and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. GSE prevented the decrease in IEC-6 cell viability induced by 5-FU (p < 0.01). Compared with 5-FU controls, GSE significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity by 86% and 27% in the proximal jejunum (p < 0.001) and distal ileum (p < 0.05) respectively; decreased qualitative histological scores of damage (p < 0.05) in the proximal jejunum; increased villus height in the proximal jejunum (17%; p < 0.05) and distal ileum (50%; p < 0.01), and attenuated the 5-FU-induced reduction of mucosal thickness by 16% in the jejunum (p < 0.05) and 45% in the ileum (p < 0.01). GSE partially protected IEC-6 cells from 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and ameliorated intestinal damage induced by 5-FU in rats. GSE may represent a promising prophylactic adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal mucositis.

  20. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Downing, Laura E; Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Wong, Brian S; Rodriguez, Kelvin; Del Rey, Fernando; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as important mechanisms for

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of whey protein isolate coating incorporated with nisin, grape seed extract, malic acid, and EDTA on a Turkey frankfurter system.

    PubMed

    Gadang, V P; Hettiarachchy, N S; Johnson, M G; Owens, C

    2008-10-01

    The effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI) coatings incorporated with grape seed extract (GSE), nisin (N), malic acid (MA), and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and their combinations to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in a turkey frankfurter system through surface inoculation (approximately 10(6) CFU/g) of pathogens. The inoculated frankfurters were dipped into WPI film forming solutions both with and without the addition of antimicrobial agents (GSE, MA, or N and EDTA, or combinations). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d. The L. monocytogenes population (5.5 log/g) decreased to 2.3 log/g after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples containing nisin (6000 IU/g) combined with GSE (0.5%) and MA (1.0%). The S. typhimurium population (6.0 log/g) was decreased to approximately 1 log cycles after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples coated with WPI containing a combination of N, MA, GSE, and EDTA. The E. coli O157:H7 population (6.15 log/g) was decreased by 4.6 log cycles after 28 d in samples containing WPI coating incorporated with N, MA, and EDTA. These findings demonstrated that the use of an edible film coating containing nisin, organic acids, and natural extracts is a promising means of controlling the growth and recontamination of L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat poultry products.

  2. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B signal transduction pathways in rats with TNBS-induced recurrent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Ge, Bin; Yang, Xiao-Lai; Zhai, Jing; Yang, Li-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xia; Shi, Jin-Cheng; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE) on recurrent ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. GSPE in doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg were intragastrically administered per day for 7 days after recurrent colitis was twice-induced by TNBS. The levels of GSH, as well as the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in colon tissues were measured by biochemical methods. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the nuclear translocation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colon tissues were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), phosphorylated IκBα and phosphorylated IKKα/β. GSPE treatment was associated with a remarkable increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD with GSH levels in TNBS-induced recurrent colitis rats as compared to the model group. GSPE also significantly reduced the expression levels of TNF-α, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and the translocation of NF-κB in the colon mucosa. GSPE exerted a protective effect on recurrent colitis in rats by modifying the inflammatory response and promoting damaged tissue repair to improve colonic oxidative stress. Moreover, GSPE inhibited the TNBS-induced inflammatory of recurrent colitis though blocking NF-κB signaling pathways.

  3. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  4. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  5. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  6. Fatty acid profile of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil and properties of the methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent literature, seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos; also known previously as Kosteletzkya virginica) seed oil was reported as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel. In the present work, the fatty acid profile of K. pentacarpos is shown to correspond to that of other plants in ...

  7. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cottonseed biodiesel while assessing the IDI engine multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the southeast of the USA every year and they contain oils that can be transesteri...

  8. Densities of mixtures containing n-alkanes with sunflower seed oil at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; Resa, J.M.; Ruiz, A.; Gutierrez, J.I.

    1996-07-01

    Densities for mixtures containing sunflower seed oil with pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane have been determined at various temperatures between 298.15 K and 313.15 K using a vibrating tube densimeter. The derived excess volumes have been correlated by the Redlich-Kister equation. All the systems showed negative deviations from ideality. The excess volumes increased with an increase in temperature.

  9. Protective effect of Eruca sativa seed oil against oral nicotine induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Gamal Said; El-Fark, Magdy Omar; Hamdy, Raid Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine is a pharmacologically active component of the tobacco that adversely affects the male reproductive system and fertility. Nicotine administration in experimental animals was found to affect spermatogenesis, epididymal sperm count, motility and the fertilizing potential of sperms. The goal of this work is to assess the protective or ameliorative effect of Eruca Sativa seed oil against testicular damage induced by oral administration of nicotine in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three groups; control, nicotine treated and nicotine and Eruca seed oil treated groups. After three weeks of treatment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed where testes were removed and weighed then calculating relative testis weights. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. The results show that nicotine administration had an effect on the body and testis weight and various morphometric parameters of the testis. It also induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, with shrinkage and absence of mature spermatids. Disorganized, vacuolization and loss of germinal cells were noticed in the basement membrane. The co-administration of Eruca Sativa seed oil led to improvement in the morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, Eruca Sativa seed oil treatment in this study had a protective role by reversing, almost completely, all morphometric and histological changes in the testis induced by nicotine administration.

  10. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  11. Enrichment of erucic acid from pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is a winter annual that has a wide geographic distribution and a growth habitat that makes it suitable for an off-season rotation between corn and soybeans in much of the Midwestern United States. Pennycress seed contains 36% oil with 36.6% erucic acid content. There are...

  12. Seed oil and Fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species were evaluated for seed oil content using TD-NMR. Species evaluated included; A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschat...

  13. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  14. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  15. Nutrient homeostasis, C:N ratio, and oil content in cuphea seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrelationships between densities of 14 nutrients, C:N and N:S ratios, and oil and protein contents were assessed in seeds of indeterminate Cuphea plants subjected to no (GDD0) or to source-sink manipulation by removing the top 25% of plant foliage at 100 and 200 growing degree days (GDD1 and GDD...

  16. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  17. Effect of extrusion cooking of lesquerella seeds on the quality of the extracted oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert southwestern United States. The seed has 28% oil, which contains about 64% hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). HFA is used in a variety of industrial applications such as lubricants, corrosion inhibitor...

  18. Camelina seed transcriptome: Tool for meal and oil improvement and translational research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa), a Brassicaceae oilseed, has received intense interest as a biofuel crop and production platform for industrial oils. Limiting wider production of camelina for these uses is the need to improve seed composition traits such as the quality and content of the protein rich-me...

  19. Combining ability and performance of cotton germplasm with diverse seed oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A line by tester analysis was used to identify superior general and specific combining parents for seed oil content in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). This experiment was conducted using four lines (PD 7723, PD 94042, PD 3246 and PD 5377) and four testers (TX 21, TX 101, TX 182 and TX 244) w...

  20. Creating Conventional Soybeans with the High Oleic Acid Seed Oil Trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commodity soybeans are poised to undergo a revolutionary change. Major shifts in market expectations for the nutritional quality of the oil, brought about in part through food labeling requirements and the suitability for biodiesel, are driving the commodity soybean to embrace new seed compositiona...

  1. Synthesis of Polyurethanes Membranes from Rubber Seed Oil and Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanates (MDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlina; Nurman, S.; Saleha, S.; Fitriani; Thanthawi, I.

    2017-03-01

    Rubber seed oil and methylene diphenyl diisocyanates (MDI) based polyurethane membrane has been prepared in this study. The main objective of this research is manufacture of polyurethane membranes from avocado seed oil, as a filter of this membrane use as a filter of metals from water such as mercury (Hg). In this study, the polyurethane membrane had been synthesized by varying compositions of rubber seed oil and MDI, with ratios of 10:0.2; 10:0.4; 10:0.6; 10:0.8; 10:1.0; 10:1.2; 10:1.4; 10:1.6; 10:1.8 and 10:2.0 (v/w) at 80°C and 170°C as polymerization and curing temperatures, respectively. Optimum polyurethane membrane was obtained at rubber seed oil: MDI 10: 0.8 v/w, it was dry, non-sticky, smooth and blackish brown. The membrane flux was 5,8307 L / m2.h.bar and rejection factor was 35,3015 %. The results of characterization indicated the formation of urethane bonds (NH at 3480 cm-1, C=O at 1620 cm-1, CN at 1374 cm-1, -OC-NH- at 1096 cm-1 and no -NCO at 2270 cm-1), the value of Tg was 55°C. The polyurethane membrane which treated at the optimum treatment conditions were used to the filter of metals from water such as mercury (Hg).

  2. EVIDENCE OF SEED OILS IN FINE PARTICLES FROM THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a poster on the contribution of seed oils used for cooking to organic particulate matter to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on September 10-15. Sam...

  3. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  4. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  5. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  6. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis.

  7. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa seed.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Borhani, K

    2004-12-01

    Antibacterial activity of Ferula gummosa essential oil was studied against bacterial laboratory ATCC standards using the disk diffusion method. The results showed activity against Gram(+) bacteria and Escherichia coli. Little antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  8. Seed Oil and Composition Development in Two Sunflower Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. Currently, it is recommended that desiccants such as glyphosate and paraquat be applied at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Recently, Johnson and Gesch (2009) showed that PM for two commerci...

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.

  10. Association mapping of seed oil and protein content in Sesamum indicum L. using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Tide; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop for the high oil content and quality. The seed oil and protein contents are two important traits in sesame. To identify the molecular markers associated with the seed oil and protein contents in sesame, we systematically performed the association mapping among 369 worldwide germplasm accessions under 5 environments using 112 polymorphic SSR markers. The general linear model (GLM) was applied with the criteria of logP ≥ 3.0 and high stability under all 5 environments. Among the 369 sesame accessions, the oil content ranged from 27.89%-58.73% and the protein content ranged from 16.72%-27.79%. A significant negative correlation of the oil content with the protein content was found in the population. A total of 19 markers for oil content were detected with a R2 value range from 4% to 29%; 24 markers for protein content were detected with a R2 value range from 3% to 29%, of which 19 markers were associated with both traits. Moreover, partial markers were confirmed using mixed linear model (MLM) method, which suggested that the oil and protein contents are controlled mostly by major genes. Allele effect analysis showed that the allele associated with high oil content was always associated with low protein content, and vice versa. Of the 19 markers associated with oil content, 17 presented near the locations of the plant lipid pathway genes and 2 were located just next to a fatty acid elongation gene and a gene encoding Stearoyl-ACP Desaturase, respectively. The findings provided a valuable foundation for oil synthesis gene identification and molecular marker assistant selection (MAS) breeding in sesame.

  11. Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen

    2012-06-01

    The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), α-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, α,α,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-α-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55 ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79 ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti.

  12. Study on preparation method of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds kernel oil with zero trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Yao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    The seed of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) is a by-product of pepper production and rich in unsaturated fatty acid, cellulose, and protein. The seed oil obtained from traditional producing process by squeezing or extracting would be bad quality and could not be used as edible oil. In this paper, a new preparation method of Z. bungeanum seed kernel oil (ZSKO) was developed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of alkali saponification-cold squeezing, alkali saponification-solvent extraction, and alkali saponification-supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The results showed that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing could be the optimal preparation method of ZSKO, which contained the following steps: Z. bungeanum seed was pretreated by alkali saponification under the conditions of adding 10 %NaOH (w/w), solution temperature was 80 °C, and saponification reaction time was 45 min, and pretreated seed was separated by filtering, water washing, and overnight drying at 50 °C, then repeated squeezing was taken until no oil generated at 60 °C with 15 % moisture content, and ZSKO was attained finally using centrifuge. The produced ZSKO contained more than 90 % unsaturated fatty acids and no trans-fatty acids and be testified as a good edible oil with low-value level of acid and peroxide. It was demonstrated that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing process could be scaled up and applied to industrialized production of ZSKO.

  13. The antioxidant effects of pumpkin seed oil on subacute aflatoxin poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Aslan, Öznur; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the antioxidant effect of pumpkin seed oil against the oxidative stress-inducing potential of aflatoxin. For this purpose, 48 male BALB/c mice were used. Four groups, each comprising 12 mice, were established. Group 1 was maintained as the control group. Group 2 was administered with pumpkin seed oil alone at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day (∼1375mg/kg.bw/day). Group 3 received aflatoxin (82.45% AFB1 , 10.65% AFB2 , 4.13% AFG1, and 2.77% AFG2 ) alone at a dose of 625 μg/kg.bw/day. Finally, group 4 was given both 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day pumpkin seed oil and 625 μg/kg.bw/day aflatoxin. All administrations were oral, performed with the aid of a gastric tube and continued for a period of 21 days. At the end of day 21, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, and spleen of the animals were excised, and the extirpated tissues were homogenized appropriately. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in tissue homogenates. In conclusion, it was determined that aflatoxin exhibited adverse effects on most of the oxidative stress markers. The administration of pumpkin seed oil diminished aflatoxin-induced adverse effects. In other words, the values of the group, which was administered with both aflatoxin and pumpkin seed oil, were observed to have drawn closer to the values of the control group.

  14. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). In addition, soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). Safflower-seed oil significantly decreased serum TAG and UA, whereas palm oil significantly increased serum cholesterol, TAG, blood urea N and creatinine. However, soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  15. Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Musa

    2008-09-01

    Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  16. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, T.; Lim, F. K. S.; Lee, J. S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land. PMID:27853605

  17. Methyl ester of [Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider] seed oil: biodiesel production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Saloua, Fatnassi; Saber, Chatti; Hedi, Zarrouk

    2010-05-01

    Oil extracted from seeds of Maclura pomifera fruits grown in Tunisia was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of the biodiesel oil (4.66 cSt) is similar to that of petroleum diesel (2.5-3.5 cSt). The density (0.889 g/cm(3)), kinematic viscosity (4.66 cSt), flash point (180 degrees Celsius), iodine number (125 degrees Celsius), neutralization number (0.4), pour point (-9 degrees Celsius), cloud point (-5 degrees Celsius), cetane number (48) are very similar to the values set forth by the ASTM and EN biodiesel standards for petroleum diesel (No. 2). The comparison shows that the methyl esters of M. pomifera oil could be possible diesel fuel replacements.

  18. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    PubMed

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  19. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation.

  20. Fatty acid composition and tocopherol profiles of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed oils.

    PubMed

    Matthaus, B; Özcan, M M; Al Juhaimi, F Y

    2015-01-01

    The oil contents of safflower seeds ranged from 23.08% to 36.51%. The major fatty acid of safflower oil is linoleic acid, which accounted for 55.1-77.0% in oils, with a mean value of 70.66%. Three types of tocopherols were found in safflower oil in various amount α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, ranged from 46.05 to 70.93 mg/100 g, 0.85 to 2.16 mg/100 g and trace amount to 0.45 mg/100 g oils, respectively. This research shows that both fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the safflowers.

  1. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanling; Tan, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify FBA genes and investigate the relationship between FBA gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. In this paper, four developmentally up-regulated CoFBA genes were identified in Camellia oleifera seeds based on the transcriptome from two seed developmental stages corresponding to the initiation and peak stages of lipid biosynthesis. The expression of CoFBA genes, along with three key oil biosynthesis genes CoACP, CoFAD2 and CoSAD were analyzed in seeds from eight developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. The oil content and fatty acid composition were also analyzed. The results showed that CoFBA and CoSAD mRNA levels were well-correlated with oil content whereas CoFAD2 gene expression levels were correlated with fatty acid composition in Camellia seeds. We propose that CoFBA and CoSAD are two important factors for determining tea oil yield because CoFBA gene controls the flux of key intermediates for oil biosynthesis and CoSAD gene controls the synthesis of oleic acid, which accounts for 80% of fatty acids in tea oil. These findings suggest that tea oil yield could be improved by enhanced expression of CoFBA and CoSAD genes in transgenic plants.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    PubMed

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars.

  3. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line.

  4. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  5. Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kirti; Mudgal, V D; Viswasrao, Gajanan; Srivastava, Himani

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a new technological process for sesame oil extraction. The process deals with the effect of ohmic heating on enhancement of oil recovery and quality of cleaned and graded sesame seed. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (600, 750 and 900 V/m), end point temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and holding time (5, 10 and 15 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovered from sesame seed through mechanical extracted oil by application of ohmic heating varies from 39.98 to 43.15 %. The maximum oil recovery 43.15 % was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 85 °C using EFS of 900 V/m for a holding time of 10 min as against 34.14 % in control sample. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil was within the acceptable limit (1.52 to 2.26 % oleic acid) of 0.5 to 3 % as prescribed respectively by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The peroxide value of extracted oil was also found within the acceptable limit (0.78 to 1.01 meq/kg). The optimum value for maximum oil recovery, minimum residual oil content, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value were 41.24 %, 8.61 %, 1.74 % oleic acid and 0.86 meq/kg, respectively at 722.52 V/m EFS at EPT 65 °C for 5 min. holding time which was obtained by response surface methodology.

  6. Comparison of conventional and in situ methods of transesterification of seed oil from a series of sunflower cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, K.J.; D'Arcy-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    The cost of vegetable oil monoesters represents one of the major restrictions on their use as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. This cost can be reduced by increasing the yield of esters produced from a given quantity of oil stive fuel for diesel engines. This cost can be reduced by increasing the yield of esters produced from a given quantity of oil seed. Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ with acidified methanol has been shown to produce fatty acid methyl esters in yields significantly greater than those obtained from conventional reaction with pre-extracted seed oil. Yield improvements of over 20% were achieved and could be related to the moisture content of the seed. Fatty ester compositions and cloud points of the products from the in situ reactions were virtually identical to those of esters produced using conventional techniques.

  7. In Silico Identification and Comparative Genomics of Candidate Genes Involved in Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Seed Oil in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs) which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants. PMID:22312320

  8. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    PubMed

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

  9. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

    2002-04-01

    From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use.

  10. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times. PMID:25628873

  11. Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Sandra E; Linder, C Randal

    2015-01-01

    Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting point seeds (lower proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored under colder germination temperatures due to earlier germination and faster growth before photosynthesis, while at warmer germination temperatures, seeds with a higher amount of energy (higher proportion of saturated fatty acids) should be favored. To assess the effects of seed oil melting point on timing of seedling emergence and fitness, high- and low-melting point lines from a recombinant inbred cross of Arabidopsis thaliana were competed in a fully factorial experiment at warm and cold temperatures with two different density treatments. Emergence timing between these lines was not significantly different at either temperature, which aligned with warm temperature predictions, but not cold temperature predictions. Under all conditions, plants competing against high-melting point lines had lower fitness relative to those against low-melting point lines, which matched expectations for undifferentiated emergence times.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seed oil of two Algerian date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera).

    PubMed

    Boukouada, Mustapha; Ghiaba, Zineb; Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Saidi, Mokhtar; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    The fatty acid composition of date seed oil from two different date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, locally known as Degla-Baïdha and Tafezouine, were investigated. GC analysis revealed the presence of five dominant fatty acids: oleic C18:1 (46.51; 39.15%), lauric C12:0 (22.1; 28.5%), myristic C14:0 (10.7; 11.4%), palmitic C16:0 (9.6; 8.7%) and linoleic C18:2 (6.9; 6.1%). The oils was characterised by a low content of tocopherols (0.53; 1.41 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of the oils was investigated using the DPPH*(1,1-di-phenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) scavenging assay. The oils had a weak bleaching effect on DPPH* free radicals. This study showed that the qualities of the tested oils are highly comparable with those of some commercial seed oils of other plants. Furthermore, a statistical analysis using the hierarchy ascendant classification method was conducted in order to highlight the similarities and/or the differences regarding the contents of the main fatty acids found in some common plants and in the five most famous cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera of south eastern Algeria (Tafezouine, Degla-Baïdha, Deglet-Nour, Ghars, Tamdjouhert).

  13. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  14. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Laura; Bundó, Mireia; Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation.

  15. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  16. Induction of apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells by jacaranda seed oil derived fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Motonaga, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Marino; Ikezaki, Aya; Kakihara, Tomoka; Hayasegawa, Rintaro; Yamasaki, Kaede; Sakono, Masanobu; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Various fatty acids are attracting considerable interest for their anticancer effects. Among them, fatty acids containing conjugated double bonds show one of the most potent cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Here, we focused on the cancer cell killing activity of jacaranda seed oil. The seed oil of jacaranda harvested from Miyazaki in Japan contained 30.9% cis-8, trans-10, cis-12 octadecatrienoic acid, called jacaric acid (JA). Fatty acid prepared from this oil (JFA) and JA strongly induced cell death in human leukemia HL-60 cells. On the other hand, linoleic acid and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (<10 μM) did not affect cell proliferation and viability. An increase in the sub-G₁ population and internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA was observed in JA- and JFA-treated cells, indicating induction of apoptotic cell death. Finally, the cytotoxic effects of JA and JFA were completely abolished by α-tocopherol. Taken together, these data suggest that jacaranda seed oil has potent apoptotic activity in HL-60 cells through induction of oxidative stress.

  17. Characterization of novel triacylglycerol estolides from the seed oil of Mallotus philippensis and Trewia nudiflora.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Zhang, Haixia; Forseille, Li; Purves, Randy W

    2013-01-01

    Triacylglycerol estolides have been reported as components of the seed oil of a number of plant species and are generally associated with the presence of fatty acids containing hydroxyl groups. We have used MALDI-TOF MS to examine the intact acylglycerol species present in the seed oils of two plants that produce kamlolenic acid (18-hydroxy-Δ9cis,11trans,13trans-octadecatrienoic acid). Mallotus philippensis and Trewia nudiflora were both shown to produce seed oil rich in TAG-estolides. Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS/MS demonstrated that the TAG-estolides had a structure different to that previously proposed after enzymatic digestion of the oil. Acylglycerols containing up to 14 fatty acids were detected but fatty acid estolides were only present in a single position on the glycerol backbone, with predominantly non-hydroxyl fatty acids in the remaining two positions. Increased numbers of fatty acids per glycerol backbone were accounted for by the presence of fatty acid estolides containing a correspondingly greater number of fatty acids. For example, acylglycerols containing seven fatty acids had a fatty acid estolide of five fatty acids at one position on the glycerol backbone. Both capped and uncapped fatty acid estolides, with a free hydroxyl group, were present, with capped fatty acid estolides being more abundant in T. nudiflora and uncapped fatty acid estolides in M. philippensis.

  18. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5-2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg(-1) body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg(-1) body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg(-1) ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties.

  19. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  20. Arabidopsis Fructokinases Are Important for Seed Oil Accumulation and Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ofer; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Krahnert, Ina; Zemach, Hanita; Bogol, Vlada; Daron, Oksana; Aloni, Roni; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Granot, David

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose (a disaccharide made of glucose and fructose) is the primary carbon source transported to sink organs in many plants. Since fructose accounts for half of the hexoses used for metabolism in sink tissues, plant fructokinases (FRKs), the main fructose-phosphorylating enzymes, are likely to play a central role in plant development. However, to date, their specific functions have been the subject of only limited study. The Arabidopsis genome contains seven genes encoding six cytosolic FRKs and a single plastidic FRK. T-DNA knockout mutants for five of the seven FRKs were identified and used in this study. Single knockouts of the FRK mutants did not exhibit any unusual phenotype. Double-mutants of AtFRK6 (plastidic) and AtFRK7 showed normal growth in soil, but yielded dark, distorted seeds. The seed distortion could be complemented by expression of the well-characterized tomato SlFRK1, confirming that a lack of FRK activity was the primary cause of the seed phenotype. Seeds of the double-mutant germinated, but failed to establish on 1/2 MS plates. Seed establishment was made possible by the addition of glucose or sucrose, indicating reduced seed storage reserves. Metabolic profiling of the double-mutant seeds revealed decreased TCA cycle metabolites and reduced fatty acid metabolism. Examination of the mutant embryo cells revealed smaller oil bodies, the primary storage reserve in Arabidopsis seeds. Quadruple and penta FRK mutants showed growth inhibition and leaf wilting. Anatomical analysis revealed smaller trachea elements and smaller xylem area, accompanied by necrosis around the cambium and the phloem. These results demonstrate overlapping and complementary roles of the plastidic AtFRK6 and the cytosolic AtFRK7 in seed storage accumulation, and the importance of AtFRKs for vascular development. PMID:28119723

  1. Two Acyltransferases Contribute Differently to Linolenic Acid Levels in Seed Oil1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stymne, Sten

    2017-01-01

    Acyltransferases are key contributors to triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and, thus, are of great importance for seed oil quality. The effects of increased or decreased expression of ACYL-COENZYME A:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) or PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) on seed lipid composition were assessed in several Camelina sativa lines. Furthermore, in vitro assays of acyltransferases in microsomal fractions prepared from developing seeds of some of these lines were performed. Decreased expression of DGAT1 led to an increased percentage of 18:3n-3 without any change in total lipid content of the seed. The tri-18:3 TAG increase occurred predominantly in the cotyledon, as determined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry, whereas species with two 18:3n-3 acyl groups were elevated in both cotyledon and embryonal axis. PDAT overexpression led to a relative increase of 18:2n-6 at the expense of 18:3n-3, also without affecting the total lipid content. Differential distributions of TAG species also were observed in different parts of the seed. The microsomal assays revealed that C. sativa seeds have very high activity of diacylglycerol-phosphatidylcholine interconversion. The combination of analytical and biochemical data suggests that the higher 18:2n-6 content in the seed oil of the PDAT overexpressors is due to the channeling of fatty acids from phosphatidylcholine into TAG before being desaturated to 18:3n-3, caused by the high activity of PDAT in general and by PDAT specificity for 18:2n-6. The higher levels of 18:3n-3 in DGAT1-silencing lines are likely due to the compensatory activity of a TAG-synthesizing enzyme with specificity for this acyl group and more desaturation of acyl groups occurring on phosphatidylcholine. PMID:28235891

  2. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and

  3. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Wallerstedt, D; Talpur, N; Tutuncuoglu, S O; Echard, B; Myers, A; Bui, M; Bagchi, D

    2000-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, a significant cardiovascular risk factor, is prevalent in the American population. Many drugs lower circulating cholesterol levels, but they are not infrequently associated with severe side effects. Accordingly, natural means to lower cholesterol levels safely would be welcomed. We examined 40 hypercholesterolemic subjects (total cholesterol 210-300 mg/dL) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The four groups of ten subjects received either placebo bid, chromium polynicotinate (Cr) 200 microg bid, grape seed extract (GSE) 100 mg bid, or a combination of Cr and GSE at the same dosage bid. Over two months, the average percent change +/- SEM in the total cholesterol from baseline among groups was: placebo -3.5% +/- 4, GSE -2.5% +/- 2, Cr -10% +/- 5, and combination -16.5% +/- 3. The decrease in the last group was significantly different from placebo (p < 0.01). The major decrease in cholesterol concentration was in the LDL levels: placebo -3.0% +/- 4, GSE -1.0% +/- 2.0, Cr -14% +/- 4.0, and the combination -20% +/- 6.0. Again, the combination of Cr and GSE significantly decreased LDL when compared to placebo (p<0.01). HDL levels essentially did not change among the groups. Also, there was no significant difference in the triglyceride concentrations among the groups; and no statistically significant differences were seen in the levels of autoantibodies to oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL). However, the trend was for the two groups receiving GSE to have greater decreases in the latter parameter, i.e., -30.7% and -44.0% in the GSE and combined groups in contrast to -17.3% and -10.4% in the placebo and chromium groups. We determined the number of subjects in each group who decreased autoantibodies to oxidized LDL greater than 50% over eight weeks and found these ratios among groups: placebo = 2/9, Cr = 1/10, GSE = 6/10, and combined = 3/8. Thus, 50% of subjects (9/18) receiving GSE had a greater than 50% decrease in autoantibodies compared to

  4. Enhanced Seed Oil Production in Canola by Conditional Expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in Developing Seeds1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-01-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production. PMID:21562329

  5. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  6. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  7. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Purslane Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Gai; Yue, Li; Fan, Shaoli; Jing, Siqun; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of PSO in vitro and its application in horse oil storage. We determined the reducing power of PSO and its scavenging effects on hydroxyl (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and tested its stabilizing effects on horse oil storage. The results showed that PSO had remarkable, dose-dependent antioxidant activities, and it effectively prevented horse oil lipid oxidation. We treated cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with PSO using non-neoplastic monkey kidney Vero cells as controls. The results indicate that PSO significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Our studies suggest that PSO may be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in food preservation and may be potentially useful as a food and cosmetic ingredient. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress can cause hypertension, so PSO is expected to develop a health care products for the prevention and mitigation hypertensive symptoms. PMID:27928516

  8. Stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of Camellia (Camellia japonica L.) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Noh, Siwon; Yoon, Suk Hoo

    2012-10-01

    The stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of camellia seed oil (also called camellia oil) was determined. The camellia oil was mainly composed of neutral lipids (88.2%), and the oleic acid (86.3%) was found to be a major fatty acid of neutral lipids. In the glycolipids and phospholipids, the oleic acid was also found to be a major fatty acid at 62.5% and 54.2%, respectively. The oleic acid was distributed abundantly in all sn-1, 2, and 3 positions. It was found that the oleic acid was present more at sn-2 (93.6%) and 3 positions (94.7%), than at sn-1 position (66.0%). Practical Application:  The information of stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids in the camellia oil can be used for the development of the structured lipids for food, pharmaceutical, and medical purposes.

  9. A Noninvasive Platform for Imaging and Quantifying Oil Storage in Submillimeter Tobacco Seed1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Johannes; Neuberger, Thomas; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schiebold, Silke; Nguyen, Thuy Ha; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Börner, Andreas; Melkus, Gerd; Jakob, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2013-01-01

    While often thought of as a smoking drug, tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is now considered as a plant of choice for molecular farming and biofuel production. Here, we describe a noninvasive means of deriving both the distribution of lipid and the microtopology of the submillimeter tobacco seed, founded on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. Our platform enables counting of seeds inside the intact tobacco capsule to measure seed sizes, to model the seed interior in three dimensions, to quantify the lipid content, and to visualize lipid gradients. Hundreds of seeds can be simultaneously imaged at an isotropic resolution of 25 µm, sufficient to assess each individual seed. The relative contributions of the embryo and the endosperm to both seed size and total lipid content could be assessed. The extension of the platform to a range of wild and cultivated Nicotiana species demonstrated certain evolutionary trends in both seed topology and pattern of lipid storage. The NMR analysis of transgenic tobacco plants with seed-specific ectopic expression of the plastidial phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator, displayed a trade off between seed size and oil concentration. The NMR-based assay of seed lipid content and topology has a number of potential applications, in particular providing a means to test and optimize transgenic strategies aimed at the manipulation of seed size, seed number, and lipid content in tobacco and other species with submillimeter seeds. PMID:23232144

  10. Differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species on seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera) in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-05-01

    Seed hoarding is an important behavioral adaptation to food shortages for many rodent species. Sympatric rodents may affect the natural regeneration of large-seeded trees differently as seed dispersers or seed predators. Using seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera), we investigated differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species in semi-natural enclosures in a subtropical forest in southwest of China. We found that all these six species ate seeds of C. oleifera, but only Edward's long-tailed rats ( Leopoldamys edwardsi) were predominantly scatter hoarders; chestnut rats ( Niviventer fulvescens) and white-bellied rats ( Niviventer confucianus) scatter hoarded and larder hoarded few seeds, but were seed predators; South China field mice ( Apodemus draco) exhibited little larder-hoarding behavior; and Chevrier's field mice ( A. chevrieri) as well as Himalayan rats ( Rattus nitidusa) did not hoard seeds at all. The rodents that engaged in scatter hoarding often formed single-seed caches and tended to cache seeds under grass or shrubs. Our findings indicate that sympatric rodents consuming seeds of the same species of plant can have different hoarding strategies, affecting seed dispersal and plant regeneration differently. We conclude by discussing the role of these species in hoarding seeds of C. oleifera and highlight the essential role of Edward's long-tailed rats as predominantly potential dispersers of this plant species.

  11. Effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) seed essential oil on biofilm formation and plasmid Integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Sattari, Morteza; Bigdeli, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of the cumin plant (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been used since many years in Iranian traditional medicine. We assessed the effect of cumin seed essential oil on the biofilm-forming ability of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and on the integrity of a native resistance plasmid DNA from K. pneumoniae isolates, treated with essential oil. Antibacterial coaction between the essential oil and selected antibiotic disks were determined for inhibiting K. pneumoniae. The essential oil of the cumin seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clavenger system. A simple method for the formation of biofilms on semiglass lamellas was established. The biofilms formed were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of essential oil on plasmid integrity was studied through the induction of R-plasmid DNA degradation. The plasmid was incubated with essential oil, and agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. Disk diffusion assay was employed to determine the coaction. The essential oil decreased biofilm formation and enhanced the activity of the ciprofloxacin disk. The incubation of the R-plasmid DNA with essential oil could not induce plasmid DNA degradation. The results of this study suggest the potential use of cumin seed essential oil against K. pneumoniae in vitro, may contribute to the in vivo efficacy of this essential oil.

  12. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    PubMed

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  13. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I

    2003-10-22

    The hexane-extracted oil content of Moringa oleifera seeds ranged from 38.00 to 42.00%. Protein, fiber, and ash contents were found to be 26.50-32.00, 5.80-9.29, and, 5.60-7.50%, respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 68.00-71.80; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4590-1.4625; density (24 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9080 mg/mL; saponification value, 180.60-190.50; unsaponifiable matter, 0.70-1.10%; and color (1 in. cell), 0.95-1.10 R + 20.00-35.30 Y. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil were up to 123.50-161.30, 84.07-104.00, and 41.00-56.00 mg/kg, respectively. The oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 78.59%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acid up to levels of 7.00, 7.50, 5.99, and 4.21%, respectively. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 9.99 h and reduced to 8.63 h after degumming. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.70 and 0.31, respectively. Many parameters of M. oleifera oil indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical Moringa seed oils reported in the literature. The results of the present analytical study were also compared with those of different vegetable oils.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation.

  15. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  16. Over-expression of JcDGAT1 from Jatropha curcas increases seed oil levels and alters oil quality in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A

    2013-12-01

    The increasing consumption of fossil fuels and petroleum products is leading to their rapid depletion and is a matter of concern around the globe. Substitutes of fossil fuels are required to sustain the pace of economic development. In this context, oil from the non food crops (biofuel) has shown potential to substitute fossil fuels. Jatropha curcas is an excellent shrub spread and naturalized across the globe. Its oil contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (about 78-84% of total fatty acid content) making the oil suitable for biodiesel production. Despite its high oil content, it has been poorly studied in terms of important enzymes/genes responsible for oil biosynthesis. Here, we describe the isolation of the full length cDNA clone of JcDGAT1, a key enzyme involved in oil biosynthesis, from J. curcas seeds and manipulation of oil content and composition in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by its expression. Transcript analysis of JcDGAT1 reveals a gradual increase from early seed development to its maturation. Homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing JcDGAT1 both under CaMV35S promoter and a seed specific promoter show an enhanced level of total oil content (up by 30-41%) in seeds but do not show any phenotypic differences. In addition, our studies also show alterations in the oil composition through JcDGAT1 expression. While the levels of saturated FAs such as palmitate and stearate in the oil do not change, there is significant reproducible decrease in the levels of oleic acid and a concomitant increase in levels of linolenic acid both under the CaMV35S promoter as well as the seed specific promoter. Our studies thus confirm that DGAT is involved in flux control in oil biosynthesis and show that JcDGAT1 could be used specifically to manipulate and improve oil content and composition in plants.

  17. Genetic dissection of seed oil and protein content and identification of networks associated with oil content in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hongbo; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xiaodong; Guo, Liangxing; Gu, Jianwei; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Baojun; Chen, Dengyan; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    High-density linkage maps can improve the precision of QTL localization. A high-density SNP-based linkage map containing 3207 markers covering 3072.7 cM of the Brassica napus genome was constructed in the KenC-8 × N53-2 (KNDH) population. A total of 67 and 38 QTLs for seed oil and protein content were identified with an average confidence interval of 5.26 and 4.38 cM, which could explain up to 22.24% and 27.48% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Thirty-eight associated genomic regions from BSA overlapped with and/or narrowed the SOC-QTLs, further confirming the QTL mapping results based on the high-density linkage map. Potential candidates related to acyl-lipid and seed storage underlying SOC and SPC, respectively, were identified and analyzed, among which six were checked and showed expression differences between the two parents during different embryonic developmental periods. A large primary carbohydrate pathway based on potential candidates underlying SOC- and SPC-QTLs, and interaction networks based on potential candidates underlying SOC-QTLs, was constructed to dissect the complex mechanism based on metabolic and gene regulatory features, respectively. Accurate QTL mapping and potential candidates identified based on high-density linkage map and BSA analyses provide new insights into the complex genetic mechanism of oil and protein accumulation in the seeds of rapeseed. PMID:28393910

  18. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil) on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Lekha, George; Mohan, Karthik; Samy, Irudhaya Arockia

    2010-01-01

    Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO), extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract's efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours. PMID:21808561

  19. Acyl migration evaluation in monoacylglycerols from Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol.

    PubMed

    Rincón Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Venegas Venegas, Elena; Ramos Bueno, Rebeca; Rodríguez García, Ignacio; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2013-05-01

    Production of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by selective hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol and further purification was carried out. Three purification methods, including silica gel column chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction and low-temperature crystallization were assayed. Partial acyl migration during the purification step is always observed. Acyl migration rates were similar both for the column chromatography and for the liquid-liquid extraction methods, and resulted in 1-MAG/2-MAG ratios higher than 1.0. Fatty acid (FA) profiles of 2-MAGs after enzyme hydrolysis showed that the major FAs were stearidonic acid (56.9% of total FA in 2-position) and docosahexaenoic acid (63.6% of total FA in 2-position) for E. plantagineum seed oil and Marinol, respectively.

  20. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel.

  1. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.

  2. Acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process for methyl ester production from crude rubber seed oil.

    PubMed

    Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Pianthong, Kulachate; Worapun, Ittipon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for producing methyl ester from crude rubber seed oil. An acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process is proposed. In the experiment, the 20% FFA of crude rubber seed oil could be reduced to 3% FFA by acid esterification. The product after esterified was then tranesterified by alkaline transesterification process. By this method, the maximum yield of methyl ester was 90% by mass. The overall consumption of methanol was 10.5:1 by molar ratio. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its fuel properties and met required standards. The major fatty acid methyl ester compositions were analyzed and constituted of methyl linoleate 41.57%, methyl oleate 24.87%, and methyl lonolenate 15.16%. Therefore, the cetane number of methyl ester could be estimated as 47.85, while the tested result of motor cetane number was 51.20.

  3. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  4. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, R; Fernández, J; Pineda, M; Aguilar, M

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant potential of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts was studied. Different plant organs, including seeds, stems, leaves, and sepals, were analyzed with respect to their water-soluble antioxidant capacity, lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, and tocopherol content, revealing that roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol. Roselle seed oil was extracted and characterized, and its physicochemical parameters are summarized: acidity, 2.24%; peroxide index, 8.63 meq/kg; extinction coefficients at 232 (k(232)) and 270 nm (k(270)), 3.19 and 1.46, respectively; oxidative stability, 15.53 h; refractive index, 1.477; density, 0.92 kg/L; and viscosity, 15.9 cP. Roselle seed oil belongs to the linoleic/oleic category, its most abundant fatty acids being C18:2 (40.1%), C18:1 (28%), C16:0 (20%), C18:0 (5.3%), and C19:1 (1.7%). Sterols include beta-sitosterol (71.9%), campesterol (13.6%), Delta-5-avenasterol (5.9%), cholesterol (1.35%), and clerosterol (0.6%). Total tocopherols were detected at an average concentration of 2000 mg/kg, including alpha-tocopherol (25%), gamma-tocopherol (74.5%), and delta-tocopherol (0.5%). The global characteristics of roselle seed oil suggest that it could have important industrial applications, adding to the traditional use of roselle sepals in the elaboration of karkade tea.

  5. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated.

  6. Poppy seed oil protection of the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Cevik-Demirkan, A; Oztaşan, N; Oguzhan, E O; Cil, N; Coskun, S

    2012-11-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to hypoxia; this is true particularly of parts that are crucial for cognitive function. The effects of hypoxia are especially dramatic in the hippocampus. We evaluated the potential protective effects of poppy seed oil on the number of hippocampus cells and the serum antioxidant/oxidant status after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion (CIR). Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group without CIR. Group 2 received poppy seed oil daily by oral gavage at a dose of 0.4 ml/kg, while group 3 was given 0.4 ml/kg saline solution by oral gavage per day; these treatments were continued for one month. Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to CIR induced by clamps on two points of both of the carotid arteries for 45 min followed by 45 min re-perfusion. There were significant decreases in the number of hippocampus cells between groups 1 and 2, and between groups 1 and 3. The mean cell number in group 2 was not significantly different from that of group 3. The serum nitric oxide levels in CIR groups were elevated significantly compared to controls, and were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 3. The glutathione levels were increased significantly in the poppy seed oil treated group compared to the saline CIR groups. The malondialdehyde levels were markedly increased in group 3 compared to both groups 1 and 2. Our study suggests that poppy seed oil can improve antioxidant defense capacity after CIR, although this treatment did not alter significantly the frequency of cell death.

  7. Effect of water stress and foliar boron application on seed protein oil fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of water stress and foliar boron (FB) application on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition and nitrogen metabolism have not been well investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress and FB on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, nitra...

  8. Multi-population selective genotyping to identify soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed protein and oil QTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is seed protein and oil. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort, and though genome-wide asso...

  9. Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

  10. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  11. Healing efficacy of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil in an ovine burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Asmussen, Sven; Traber, Daniel L; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Connelly, Rhykka; Traber, Lillian D; Walker, Timothy W; Malgerud, Erik; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sea buckthorn (SBT) seed oil - a rich source of substances known to have anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity, and to promote skin and mucosa epithelization - on burn wound healing, five adult sheep were subjected to 3rd degree flame burns. Two burn sites were made on the dorsum of the sheep and the eschar was excised down to the fascia. Split-thickness skin grafts were harvested, meshed, and fitted to the wounds. The autograft was placed on the fascia and SBT seed oil was topically applied to one recipient and one donor site, respectively, with the remaining sites treated with vehicle. The wound blood flow (LASER Doppler), and epithelization (ultrasound) were determined at 6, 14, and 21 days after injury. 14 days after grafting, the percentage of epithelization in the treated sites was greater (95 ± 2.2% vs. 83 ± 2.9%, p<0.05) than in the untreated sites. Complete epithelization time was shorter in both treated recipient and donor sites (14.20 ± 0.48 vs. 19.60 ± 0.40 days, p<0.05 and 13.40 ± 1.02 vs. 19.60 ± 0.50 days, p<0.05, respectively) than in the untreated sites, confirmed by ultrasound. In conclusion, SBT seed oil has significant wound healing activity in full-thickness burns and split-thickness harvested wounds.

  12. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acids (FAs) are important as raw materials for the biotechnology industry. Existing methods of FAs production are based on chemical methods. In this study potassium hydroxide (KOH)-catalyzed reactions were utilized to hydrolysis Jatropha curcas seed oil. Results The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA%) were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time. Conclusions This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC. PMID:22044685

  13. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil<