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Sample records for grape seed oil

  1. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  3. Characteristics of grape seed and oil from nine Turkish cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Unver, Ahmet; Gümüş, Tuncay; Akın, Aydın

    2012-11-01

    Percentages of crude oil, protein, fibre and ash of grape seeds obtained from Turkish cultivars were of the ranges 5.40-10.79, 5.24-7.54, 17.6-27.1, and 1.2-2.6, respectively. The highest crude oil, crude protein and crude fibre were determined in Siyah pekmezlik, Karadimrit and Antep grape seeds. The energy values of seeds were established to be between 102.28 and 148.07 kcal g(-1). Potassium and calcium contents of seed samples were found to be at high levels compared to sodium. The seeds contained 686-967 ppm of Na, 2468-3618 ppm of K and 2373-4127 ppm of Ca. The refractive index, relative density, acidity, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and iodine value of seed oils were determined to be in the ranges 1.474-1.477 [Formula: see text], 0.909-0.934 25/25°C, 0.74-1.24%, 181-197, 0.91-1.66%, and 126-135, respectively. The main fatty acids were of the ranges 60.7-68.5% linoleic, 16.1-23.4% oleic and 8.0-10.2% palmitic. The highest percentages of linoleic acid (68.5%) was determined in Siyah pekmezlik seed oil.

  4. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  5. [Fatty acid of Rkatsiteli grape seed oil, Phellodendron lavallei oil and Amaranthus seeds oil and its comparative byological activity].

    PubMed

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Zurabashvili, Z A; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study is individual qualitively and quantitatively identification of fatty acids in Pkatsiteli grape seed oil, Phellodendron lavallei oil and Amaranthus seed oil and prediction of its biological activity. Using high-effective liquid chromatogramphy fatty acids were franctionated. Their relative concentrations are expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. Identification of the fatty acids consituents is based on comparison of their retention time with that of known standards. The predominant fatty acids in the oils were palmitic, oleic and stearic acids. The investigation demonstrated that fatty acids composition takes marked part in lipid metabolism of biological necessary components. The most interesting result of the investigation was the detection of unusual for the essentain oil begenic acid.

  6. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... grape seed Latin Name: Vitis vinifera Background Since ancient Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and ... 8):1173-1181. Fine AM. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000; ...

  7. Which is the best grape seed additive for frankfurters: extract, oil or flour?

    PubMed

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2014-03-15

    Grape seed products (winery by-products) are valuable vegetable sources to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, 21 treatments of frankfurters, in three different groups, including 0%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% grape seed oil (GSO), and 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% grape seed flour (GSF) were produced in order to compare the differences among them during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Increasing the level of GSO made the frankfurters lighter in color (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of all the 21 frankfurters were under the limit of deterioration (2.0 mg malonaldehite kg⁻¹ treatment) during 90 days' storage. However, increasing the amount of additives (GSE, GSO and GSF) led to a decrease in overall acceptability for each group. According to the general comparison of the three frankfurter groups in terms of lipid oxidation, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of the frankfurters including GSE and GSF were found to be similar, but the frankfurters containing GSO exhibited the highest lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). While the products including GSE were the most acceptable group in terms of overall acceptability, the group produced with GSF received the lowest points (P < 0.05). Although the three grape seed products have partially undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurters, all these additives showed different positive influences in the production of frankfurters. The results showed that the group of frankfurters including GSE was the best of three different groups of products due to the lipid oxidation and overall acceptability results. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    PubMed

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P < 0.01). Present investigations indicated that oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol constituents of grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutraceutical delivery systems: resveratrol encapsulation in grape seed oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this work was to fabricate nanoemulsions-based delivery systems to encapsulate resveratrol. Nanoemulsions were formed using spontaneous emulsification method: 10% oil phase (grape seed oil plus orange oil) and 10% surfactant (Tween 80) were titrated into 80% aqueous phase. An optimum orange oil-to-grape seed oil ratio of 1:1(w/w) formed small droplets (d ≈ 100 nm) with good stability to droplet growth. The maximum amount of resveratrol that could be dissolved in the oil phase was 120 ± 10 μg/ml. The effect of droplet size on the chemical stability of encapsulated resveratrol was examined by preparing systems with different mean droplet diameters of 220 ± 2; 99 ± 3; and 45 ± 0.4 nm. Encapsulation of resveratrol improved its chemical stability after exposure to UV-light: 88% retention in nanoemulsions compared to 50% in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). This study showed that resveratrol could be encapsulated within low-energy nanoemulsion-based delivery systems and protected against degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ksouda Moalla, Kamilia; Kammoun, Naziha Grati; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration. Uniform wound excision was induced on rats dorsum randomly divided into five groups: groups treated with “CICAFLORA®” and tested oils and untreated one. The posthealing biopsies were histologically assessed. Results. Wound biopsies treated with oils showed the best tissue regeneration compared to control groups. Groups treated with our oils and “CICAFLORA” had higher wound contraction percentage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in oils act as inflammatory mediators increasing neovascularization, extracellular remodeling, migration, and cell differentiation. Wound healing effect was attributed to antibacterial and antioxidant synergy. Conclusion. According to findings, oils showed better activity in wound healing compared to “CICAFLORA” due to a phytoconstituents synergy. However, clinical trials on humans are necessary to confirm efficacy on human pathology. PMID:27990170

  13. Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of selected cold-pressed grape seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    Lutterodt, Herman; Slavin, Margaret; Whent, Monica; Turner, Ellen; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-09-15

    Cold-pressed chardonnay, muscadine, ruby red, and concord grape seed oils and their defatted flours were studied for their fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The phenolic profiles of the seed flours were also measured. The most abundant fatty acid in the oils was linoleic acid, ranging from 66.0g/100g of total fatty acids in ruby red seed oil to 75.3g/100g of total fatty acids in concord seed oil. The oils were also high in oleic acid and low in saturated fat. Ruby red grape seed oil recorded the highest oxidative stability index of 40h under the accelerated conditions. Total phenolic content (TPC) was up to 100 times lower in the oils than in the flours. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol levels were also measured. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 0.07 to 2.22mmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of oil and 11.8 to 15.0mmol TE/g of flour. Oxidative stability of menhaden fish oil containing extracts of the seed flours was extended by up to 137%. HPLC analysis was conducted to determine the levels of free soluble, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound phenolics in the seed flours. The phenolic compounds analyzed included catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin, gallic acid, and procyanidins B1 and B2. Antiproliferative activity was tested against HT-29 colon cancer cells. All of the seed flours and muscadine seed oil registered significant (P<0.05) inhibition of cancer cell growth. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of developing value-added uses for these seed oils and flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils.

  16. Optimization of replacing pork back fat with grape seed oil and rice bran fiber for reduced-fat meat emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Ju-Woon; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% and partially substituting the pork fat with a mix of grape seed oil (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) and 2% rice bran fiber were investigated based on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, and viscosity of reduced-fat meat batters. For reduced-fat meat batters containing grape seed oil and rice bran fiber the moisture and ash contents, uncooked and cooked pH values, yellowness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility were higher than in the control samples. The reduced-fat samples with increasing grape seed oil concentrations had lower cooking loss, emulsion stability, and apparent viscosity. The incorporation of grape seed oil and rice bran fiber successfully reduced the animal fat content in the final products while improving other characteristics.

  17. Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Yagiz, Yavuz; Xu, Changmou; Lu, Jiang; Chung, Soonkyu; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-07-01

    Tocotrienols are unsaturated forms of vitamin E previously shown to reduce adipogenesis and adipose inflammation. In this study, muscadine grape seed oil (MGSO) was identified as a novel source of tocotrienols containing significant amounts of α- and γ-tocotrienol (T3) with minor seasonal changes. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory potential of MGSO by using primary human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Differentiating hASCs were treated with MGSO and compared with rice bran and olive oil. Accumulation of triglyceride was significantly lower in MGSO-treated hASCs than rice bran and olive oils. A tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) from MGSO was prepared by solid phase extraction and eluted with 15% 1,4-dioxane in hexane. The MGSO-derived TRF treatment significantly reduced mRNA and protein expression that are crucial to adipogenesis (e.g., PPARγ and aP2) in hASCs. Furthermore, TRF from MGSO markedly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes and cytokine secretion to the medium (IL-6 and IL-8). Collectively, our work suggests that MGSO is a stable and reliable natural source of T3 and MGSO may constitute a new dietary strategy to attenuate obesity and its associated adipose inflammation.

  18. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  19. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  20. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective.

  1. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  2. Formulation and evaluation on human skin of a water-in-oil emulsion containing Muscat hamburg black grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Sharif, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, M S; Menaa, A; Menaa, B; Khan, B A; Menaa, F

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera 'muscat hamburg' (Vitaceae) is a blue-black grape variety commonly found in Pakistan. It has been consumed and used in traditional medicine for centuries. Compared to other grapes, M. hamburg records one of the greatest amount of polyphenols and displays potent antioxidant activities, which make it a great candidate for its exploitation in the development of stable cream emulsions destined to improve the skin appearance. Evaluate the effects of stable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion containing 2% M. hamburg grape seed extract ('formulation') on human cheek skin in comparison with the placebo ('base'). An occlusive patch test, containing either the formulation or the base, was topically tested for 8 weeks during a winter period in young adult and healthy Pakistani male volunteers. The subjects were instructed to use twice a day the base and the formulation on their right and left cheek skin, respectively. Non-invasive measurements on these skin areas were carried out every week to assess any effects produced on melanin, elasticity and sebum. Skin compatibility assay (Burchard test) was used to report any potential skin reactivity. ANOVA, paired sample t-test and LSD test were applied to determine the statistical data significance. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found between the placebo and the formulation in terms of their respective skin effects elicited on melanin, elasticity and sebum content. Nevertheless, placebo and formulation exerted similar effects on skin erythema and moisture contents. Importantly, no skin hypersensitivity cases were reported during the whole course of the study. The developed grape-based cream could be efficiently and safely applied to improve a number of skin conditions (e.g. hyper-pigmentation, premature ageing, acne). © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travelet, Christophe; Stemmelen, Mylène; Lapinte, Vincent; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Borsali, Redouane

    2013-06-01

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters ( D h) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C19 to 19.2 nm for C57). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D h-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].

  4. Grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapes are grown worldwide, on about 7.9 million ha., and are used to produce wine, raisins, juice, jam, concentrate, and seed oils, as well as fresh fruit. Grapes (Vitis sp.) are members of the Vitaceae. Vitis includes two subgenera, Euvitis (38 chromosomes) and Muscadinia (40 chromosomes), with ...

  5. Protective mechanism of grape seed oil on carbon tetrachloride-induced brain damage in γ-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Moawed, Fatma S M; Mohamed, Marwa Abdelhameed

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the possible beneficial effects of grape seed oil (GSO) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute neurotoxicity in γ-irradiated rats. A statistical significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were exhibited. Further, a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) levels was observed. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were elevated in the γ-irradiated animals treated with an acute dose of CCl4. The pretreatment of GSO exerts significant amelioration of the studied parameters. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that GSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in γ-irradiated rats, which is likely attributed to its ability to scavenge the free radicals, suppress the inflammatory responses, improve the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and inhibit the XO and iNOS gene expression levels.

  6. [The quality specification of grape seed extract].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun-Dong; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Su, Yan-Fang; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2005-09-01

    This paper reiviewed the current situation of quality control of grape seed extract in domestic and international market. Considering the fact that there is no national or industrial technical specifications established for the extract product, the authors suggested that two sets of quality specifications should be established for the grape seed extract. The two sets of specifications are: the high purity grape seed extract should contain polyphenol NLT 95%, monomer NLT 10%; and the grape seed extract with ordinary quality should have a procyanidolic value NLT 95, and monomer NLT 6%.

  7. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  8. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; de la Rosa, Laura A.; Vázquez-Flores, Alma A.; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; González-Arellanes, Rogelio; López-Díaz, José A.; González-Córdova, Aarón F.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Molina-Corral, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05); but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO. PMID:28117688

  9. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; de la Rosa, Laura A; Vázquez-Flores, Alma A; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; González-Arellanes, Rogelio; López-Díaz, José A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Molina-Corral, Francisco J

    2017-01-20

    Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05); but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO.

  10. The Healing Effect of Grape Seed Oil Enema with or without Sesame Oil in Acetic Acid Induced Ulcerative Colitis of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Salehi, Moosa; Tanideh, Nader; Mehrabani, Davood; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Sedighi, Anahita

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel diseases contain two digestive system diseases, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease with unclear causes. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of administration of the Sesame oil (SO) and grape seed oil (GSO) as enema route in rats suffering from experimental acetic acid induced UC. METHODS Eighty male rats were randomly allocated into 8 equal groups as health control (HC1) without any disease treated with 1 ml of normal saline as enema; HC2 received SO; HC3 received GSO; negative control (NC) with induced UC receiving 1 ml of normal saline as enema; and positive control (PC) with induced UC treated by asacol. All treatments were performed identically with 4 mg/kg of medication except for asacol that was 100 mg/kg for 7 days. The weight changes was recorded after seven days. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), interleukin-6, and c-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Colon macroscopic and microscopic histological changes were also measured at the end of 7th day. RESULTS No significant changes were detected in weight in neither groups on day 0 nor at the end of study. No beneficial effects were seen for all treatments regarding healing process and the decrease in inflammation. Between treatment groups, the lowest MDA (7.40±0.98 U/ml), CRP (83.20±10.01 mg/l) and IL-6 levels (130.86±10.70 mU/ml) and highest TAC (1.91±0.43 mmol/l) belonged to GSO group. CONCLUSION GSO enema alone can be considered as a treatment of choice for UC due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:28713708

  11. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, F.; Bertussi, R. A.; Agostini, G.; Atti dos Santos, A. C.; Rossato, M.; Vanderlinde, R.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives. PMID:22593706

  12. The protective effects and genetic pathways of thorn grape seeds oil against high glucose-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xihu; Kang, Xincong; Zeng, Luman; Li, Jian; Yang, Yan; Liu, Dongbo

    2014-01-09

    Excessive apoptosis of β-cell is closely related to diabetes mellitus. Chronic exposure to high glucose causes β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in diabetes. Thorn grape (Vitis davidii Foex.) has been used to treat diabetes in Traditional Chinese medicine for many years. In our previous research, thorn grape seeds oil (TGSO) showed promising anti-diabetic effects in animal models. However, it is unknown whether TGSO played an anti-apoptotic role in the anti-diabetic effects and the mechanism regarding signal transduction pathway is unclear either. The rattus pancreatic β-cell line RIN-m5F was treated with/without TGSO which was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) fluid extraction and analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Cell apoptosis was detected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), insulin secretion was assayed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and the apoptosis-related genes expressions were evaluated by quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). TGSO, containing 87.02% unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), significantly reduced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and protected the insulin secretion impaired by high glucose. The expressions of pro-apoptotic genes such as iNOS, Caspase-3, ATF-3, JNK, p38 and Fas were down-regulated while the anti-apoptotic genes Akt and Bcl-2/Bax were up-regulated. The results indicated that TGSO protected β-cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis and its protective activity may be linked to mitochondrial pathway, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway and Fas signal pathway, which implied that TGSO might be an effective complementary or alternative medicine to reduce β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction.

  13. The properties of chitosan and gelatin films incorporated with ethanolic red grape seed extract and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil as biodegradable materials for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve different characteristics including antibacterial, antioxidant, physical and mechanical properties of chitosan (Ch) and gelatin (Ge) films by incorporating Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0 and 1% v/w) and ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE; 0 and 1% v/w). The main compounds of the ZEO were carvacrol (65.22%) and thymol (19.51%). According to our findings, addition of aforementioned materials could improve total phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, thickness and also water vapor barrier property. ZEO and GSE reduces swelling index, tensile strength, puncture force and puncture deformation of Ch and Ge films. Pure Ch and Ge films had slightly yellow and white appearances, respectively, while films incorporated with GSE in combination with ZEO had grey appearances. This study indicated the some benefits of addition of ZEO and GSE into Ch and Ge films and their potentials for application as biodegradable active packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  15. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  16. Phytochemical Constituents, Health Benefits, and Industrial Applications of Grape Seeds: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (−)-epicatechin, and (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Studies have reported that grape seeds exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Their potential health benefits include protection against oxidative damage, and anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet functions. Recognition of such health benefits of proanthocyanidins has led to the use of grape seeds as a dietary supplement by the consumers. This paper summarizes the studies of the phytochemical compounds, pharmacological properties, and industrial applications of grape seeds. PMID:28914789

  17. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared with those in the C and HF groups. The hepatic level of lipid peroxides decreased significantly in the grape seed groups compared with that in the C and HF groups. Superoxide dismutase activity in the G group increased significantly compared with that in the C group. Catalase activity tended to be higher by feeding grape seeds. The grape seed diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the C group. Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased significantly in the G group compared with that in the C group. Hepatic content of total glutathione increased significantly in the HG group but decreased significantly in the HF group. The ratio of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione increased by feeding the grape seed diet. Total vitamin A concentration was significantly higher in HG group than in other groups. Liver tocopherol content of the G and HG groups was significantly higher than that of the control groups. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with grape seeds is beneficial for suppressing lipid peroxidation in high fat-fed rats. PMID:22413034

  18. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D; Ashford, David A; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  19. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  20. Grape seeds: ripe for cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals, mostly flavonoids or polyphenolics, have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic activities. Among these are the grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), which are the active ingredients of grape seed extract (GSE). Substantial in vitro and preclinical in vivo studies have shown the chemopreventive efficacy of GSPs against various forms of cancers in different tumor models. In this issue of the journal, Derry and colleagues show that administration of GSE in the diet reduces azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in an A/J mouse model. The results of this innovative and comprehensive study indicate that inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by dietary GSE is mediated through the induction of apoptosis that is associated with alterations in microRNA (miRNA) and cytokine expression profiles as well as β-catenin signaling. Notably, the demonstration that miRNA expression is affected by dietary GSE suggests a novel underlying mechanism for the chemopreventive action of GSE in colon cancer and, potentially, other cancers. ©2013 AACR.

  1. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Yu, Jianmel; Pohorly, Joseph E; Kakuda, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers.

  2. Changes in polyphenol and polysaccharide content of grape seed extract and grape pomace after enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Alvarez, I; Vega, E; Brenes, A

    2012-07-15

    Grape seed extract and grape pomace are rich sources of polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of polyphenols, the solubilisation of carbohydrate, and the antioxidant capacity of these grape by-products after enzymatic reaction with carbohydrases (cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities) and tannase for 24h. The use of tannase in these by-products, and pectinase in grape pomace changed the galloylated form of catechin to its free form, releasing gallic acid and increasing the antioxidant activity. In grape pomace, cellulase treatment was not efficient for phenolic release and antioxidant activity improvement. The addition of carbohydrases to grape pomace, either alone or in combination, degraded the cell wall polysaccharides, increasing the content of monosaccharides. These results provide relevant data about the potential of pectinase, tannase and combinations of enzymes on the release of polyphenols and monosaccharides from grape by-products, improving the antioxidant capacity and the nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of grape seed extract on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Aysun; Kaynar, Leylagül; Koçyiğit, Ismail; Hacioğlu, Sibel Kabukçu; Saraymen, Recep; Oztürk, Ahmet; Orhan, Okan; Sağdiç, Osman

    2008-06-01

    The tolerance of the liver is considerably low when an effective radiation (RTx) dose needs to be delivered in patients in whom either their liver or whole body area has to be irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of grape seed extract on liver toxicity induced by RTx in the rat liver. We used four groups, each consisting of 12 healthy male Wistar rats. RTx-grape seed extract group: rats were given grape seed extract (100 mg/kg) orally for seven days, following 8 Gy whole body irradiation, and grape seed extract was maintained for four days. RTx group: the same protocol was applied in this group; however, they received distilled water instead of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract group: only grape seed extract solution was administered for 11 consecutive days in the same fashion. only distilled water (orally) was administered in a similar manner. The level of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, two important endogenous antioxidants, were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Grape seed extract was seen to protect the cellular membrane from oxidative damage and consequently from protein and lipid oxidation. In the RTx group, malondialdehyde levels were extremely higher than those of the grape seed extract-RTx group (p<0.001). Grape seed extract administration moderately reserved the malondialdehyde levels. RTx therapy decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver homogenates (p<0.001), and these alterations were significantly reversed by grape seed extract treatment (p<0.001). There were no differences between the grape seed extract- RTx, grape seed extract and control groups with regard to antioxidant activity (p>0.05). The levels of antioxidant parameters on RTx-induced liver toxicity were restored to control values with grape seed extract therapy. Grape seed extract may be promising as a therapeutic option in RTx

  4. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  5. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M.; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A.; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity. PMID:25883748

  6. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-09-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population.

  7. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  8. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  9. Effect of harvest time on physico-chemical properties and bioactive compounds of pulp and seeds of grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Gülcü, Mehmet; Uslu, Nurhan; Geçgel, Ümit; Ghafoor, Kashif; Dursun, Nesim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of three grape varieties (Cardinal, Müşküle and Razaki) harvested at the three different harvest times (on time, one and two weeks earlier) were investigated. The highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in Razaki pulp and these were 82.854%, 127.422 mg/100 g, 3.873 mg/g, respectively. The contents of bioactive compounds in grape seeds were found higher than those in pulps. Similarly, seed of Razaki had higher antioxidant activity (91.267%) and total phenolic content (477.500 mg/100 g) when compared to results of other varieties. The key phenolic compounds of all grape variety and seeds were gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, (+)-catechin ve 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. The oil content of grape seeds ranged from 8.50% (Razaki harvested one week ago) to 19.024% (Müşküle harvested one week ago). The main fatty acids of grapeseed oils were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. In addition, the oil of Razaki seeds was rich in tocopherols when compared to the other varieties.

  10. Degradation Kinetics of Grape Skin and Seed Proanthocyanidins in a Model Wine System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 degrees C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catechol. ...

  11. Antioxidant activity of hybrid grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural antioxidants to inhibit oxidation in edible oils are in high demand. Grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace is an abundant and inexpensive source of polyphenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for numerous health benefits. We examined pomace from eight varieties of Midwestern hybrid grapes for p...

  12. Major flavonoids in grape seeds and skins: antioxidant capacity of catechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Yusuf; Toledo, Romeo T

    2004-01-28

    Grape seeds and skins are good sources of phytochemicals such as gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and are suitable raw materials for the production of antioxidative dietary supplements. The differences in levels of the major monomeric flavanols and phenolic acids in seeds and skins from grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Merlot and Chardonnay and in seeds from grapes of Vitis rotundifolia variety Muscadine were determined, and the antioxidant activities of these components were assessed. The contribution of the major monomeric flavonols and phenolic acid to the total antioxidant capacity of grape seeds and skins was also determined. Gallic acid, monomeric catechin, and epicatechin concentrations were 99, 12, and 96 mg/100 g of dry matter (dm) in Muscadine seeds, 15, 358, and 421 mg/100 g of dm in Chardonnay seeds, and 10, 127, and 115 mg/100 g of dm in Merlot seeds, respectively. Concentrations of these three compounds were lower in winery byproduct grape skins than in seeds. These three major phenolic constituents of grape seeds contributed <26% to the antioxidant capacity measured as ORAC on the basis of the corrected concentrations of gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin in grape byproducts. Peroxyl radical scavenging activities of phenolics present in grape seeds or skins in decreasing order were resveratrol > catechin > epicatechin = gallocatechin > gallic acid = ellagic acid. The results indicated that dimeric, trimeric, oligomeric, or polymeric procyanidins account for most of the superior antioxidant capacity of grape seeds.

  13. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activities of grape seed proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Tong, Haibin; Song, Xiangfu; Sun, Xin; Sun, Guangren; Du, Fengfuo

    2011-11-09

    Proanthocyanidins are naturally occurring compounds that are widely available in many kinds of plants; particularly, the grape seeds are a rich source of proanthocyanidins. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been demonstrated to possess a wide range of health beneficial properties. This study was carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor therapeutic and immunomodulating effects of GSPs through in vivo and in vitro models. The results showed that GSPs could significantly inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor cells in vivo and remarkably increase thymus and spleen weight of Sarcoma 180-bearing mice and upgrade the secretion level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. Moreover, GSPs could stimulate lymphocyte transformation, enhance lysosomal enzyme activity and phagocytic capability of peritoneal macrophages, and remarkably promote the production of TNF-α. These results suggested that GSPs could improve functional activation of the immune system, and the antitumor effects of GSPs were achieved by immunostimulating properties.

  14. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grape juice processing by-products, namely grape seed and pomace, are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monom...

  15. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  16. Cardioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin against ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Maulik, G; Ray, P S; Bagchi, D; Das, D K

    1999-06-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate cardioprotective effects of red wine consumption. Such cardioprotective properties of wine have been attributed to certain polyphenolic constituents of grapes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds possess cardioprotective properties. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: grape-seed proanthocyanidin was administered orally to one group of rats (100 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks while the other group served as control. After 3 weeks, rats were killed, hearts excised, mounted on the perfusion apparatus and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer. After stabilization hearts were perfused in the working mode for baseline measurements of contractile functions. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Coronary perfusates were collected to monitor malonaldehyde formation, a presumptive marker for oxidative stress development. At the end of each experiment, the heart was processed for infarct size determination. Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of proanthocyanidin was determined by examining its ability to remove peroxyl radical generated by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride while hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was tested with its ability to reduce 7-OH.-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid. The results of our study demonstrated that proanthocyanidin-fed animals were resistant to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury as evidenced by improved recovery of post-ischemic contractile functions. The proanthocyanidin-fed group revealed reduced extent of myocardial infarction compared to the control group. Fluorimetric study demonstrated the antioxidant property of proanthocyanidin as judged by its ability to directly scavenge peroxyl radicals. Taken together, the results of this study showed that grape seed-proanthocyanidins possess a cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury. Such

  17. Effect of GA3 Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Singer, Stacy D.; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongjing; Gao, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. Methodology/Principal Findings In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars (‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’), along with a seedless cultivar (‘Thompson Seedless’), following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’ seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development. PMID:24224035

  18. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  19. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-11-19

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  20. Selective cytotoxic activity of grape peel and seed extracts against oral tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shirataki, Y; Kawase, M; Saito, S; Kurihara, T; Tanaka, W; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H; Motohashi, N

    2000-01-01

    Grape seed extracts were more cytotoxic than grape peel extracts. Methanol and 70% methanol extracts of grape seed selectively killed two human oral tumor cell lines, more efficiently than human gingival fibroblasts. ESR spectroscopy revealed that these extracts produced radicals under alkaline conditions and enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate at higher concentrations. On the other hand, lower concentration of these extracts slightly reduced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate, and scavenged superoxide anion, generated by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase reaction. These properties of grape seed extracts suggest their possible application for cancer prevention.

  1. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-09-23

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  2. Lipophilized Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Derivatives as Novel Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Yu, Shujuan

    2017-03-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) is a natural food antioxidant. Natural proanthocyanidins (PC) in grape seed are usually polyhydroxy derivatives which exhibit hydrophilic character. GSP was modified structurally to improve its lipophilicity, expand its application in lipophilic media, and enhance its cellular absorption in vivo. Esterification of the water-soluble GSP was prepared by immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM with lauric acid, and their enhanced lipophilicity was confirmed by the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient. The presence of mono-, di-, and trilauroylated derivatives in GSP derivatives was confirmed by HPLC-MS-MS, and four lauroylated derivatives were identified as 3',5'-2-O-lauroyl epigallocatechin, 3'-O-lauroyl catechin, 3'-O-lauroyl epicatechin, and 3',3″,5″-3-O-lauroyl epicatechin gallate by NMR. GSP derivatives exhibited the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (IC50 of 41 μg/mL) compared to that of GSP, hydroxytoluene (BHT), and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ). The results suggest that GSP derivatives may be used as potential lipophilic antioxidants in the food industry.

  3. Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

    2008-01-01

    Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  5. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Experimental model for treating pulmonary metastatic melanoma using grape-seed extract, red wine and ethanol].

    PubMed

    Martínez Conesa, Cristina; Vicente Ortega, Vicente; Yáñez Gascón, M Josefa; García Reverte, Juana Maria; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Alcaraz Baños, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    Melanoma is one of the neoplasias that most frequently metastasize, especially in the lung, where represents a challenge in oncology since current treatment is ineffective, and mortality is high. Swiss mice (n = 52) were inoculated with 0.5 x 106 B16F10 cell lines and, later, given an oral administration of grape-seed extract, red wine or ethanol. Metastatic nodules on the lung surface were counted and, after processing for microscopy, five sections were selected for image analysis and the invasion index was calculated. Macroscopic analysis showed that grape-seed extract and red wine reduced the number of metastatic nodules by 26.07 and 20.81%, respectively, compared with a control group treated with ethanol. Microscopically, the reduction in the invasion index was 31.65 for grape-seed extract and 17.57% for red wine. Ethanol administration significantly increased pulmonary metastasis while grape-seed extract and red wine led to their reduction.

  7. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    To further elucidate the regulation of dormancy release, we followed the natural afterripening of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds from about the 5th to 40th week after harvest. Seeds were kept at low temperature (3 ± 2 C) until just prior to testing for germination, ethylene production, and internal ethylene concentration. Germination tended to fluctuate but did not increase significantly during the first 30 weeks; internal ethylene concentrations and ethylene production remained comparatively low during this time. When the seeds were placed at room temperature during the 30th to 40th weeks after harvest, there was a large increase in germination, 49% and 47% for apical and basal seeds, respectively. The data confirm our previous suggestion that production rates of 2.0 to 3.0 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour are necessary to provide internal ethylene concentrations at activation levels which cause a substantial increase of germination. Activation levels internally must be more than 0.4 microliter per liter and 0.9 microliter per liter for some apical and basal seeds, respectively, since dormant-imbibed seeds containing these concentrations did not germinate. Abscisic acid inhibited germination and ethylene production of afterripened seeds. Kinetin reversed the effects of ABA and this was correlated with its ability to stimulate ethylene production by the seeds. Ethylene also reversed the effects of abscisic acid. Carbon dioxide did not compete with ethylene action in this system. The data indicate that ethylene and an inhibitor, possibly abscisic acid, interact to control dormant peanut seed germination. The inability of CO2 to inhibit competitively the action of ethylene on dormancy release, as it does other ethylene effects, suggests that the primary site of action of ethylene in peanut seeds is different from the site for other plant responses to ethylene. PMID:16658179

  8. Anticancer and Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Grape Seed Extract and Other Grape-Based Products1–3

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population. PMID:19640973

  9. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-08-20

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  10. Monocytic differentiation of K562 cells induced by proanthocyanidins from grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Li; Pan, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Grape seeds procyanidins can inhibit the proliferation of some cancer cell lines and have strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether grape seeds procyanidins affect the proliferation and redifferentiation in K562 cells. The sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay and trypan blue staining were used to measure cell proliferation and survival. Morphological changes, NBT reductive activity, and surface antigens were used to detect redifferentiation of K562 cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) were detected by a fluorescent probe. Grape seeds procyanidins inhibited cell proliferation but the treatment did not appreciably increase lethality. After treatment with grape seeds procyanidins, a typical differentiated morphology was observed. The positive rate of CD11b and CD14 cells and NBT reductive activities increased significantly. As antioxidants, grape seeds procyanidins can induce arrest in the phase G1 and decrease iROS formation. All results indicate that the antioxidant grape seeds procyanidins are likely to induce monocytic differentiation in leukemia cells, mostly through decreasing iROS formation and inducing phase G1 arrest.

  11. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  12. Cranberry and grape seed extracts inhibit the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  13. Longevity of Black Cherry, Wild Grape, and Sassafras Seed in the Forest Floor

    Treesearch

    G.W. Wendel

    1977-01-01

    The results of this study show that (1) black cherry seed remains viable in the forest floor for 3 years, with a small amount of seed germinating after 4 or 5 years; (2) sassafras seed remains viable for 6 years in the forest floor, and (3) some wild grape seed retains its viability for at least 8 years. These results are important to the forest manager in setting up...

  14. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    PubMed

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oil Seed Brassica's

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseed Brassicas, also known by the trade name of rapeseed-mustard, comprise Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. carinata and three ecotypes of B. rapa. Their current global production exceeds 54 million tons, making them the second-most valuable source of vegetable oil in the world. Besides its pre-emin...

  16. Catechin and proanthocyanidin B4 from grape seeds prevent doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Lou, Hongxiang

    2008-09-04

    The clinical use of doxorubicin, a highly active anticancer drug, is limited by its severe cardiotoxic side effects. Grape seed extract has been reported to exert protective effects on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. The cardiovascular protective effects of grape seed extract are believed to be ascribed to its antioxidative properties. A series of studies have has demonstrated that polyphenols are instrumental for the antioxidative properties of grape seed extract. This study was designed to investigate whether two major polyphenols isolated from grape seed extract, catechin and proanthocyanidin B4 (Pc B(4)), had protective effects against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes and their underlying mechanisms. The results showed that grape seed polyphenols catechin and Pc B(4) pretreatment would protect cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced toxicity by decreasing reactive oxygen species generation as well as the number of apoptotic cells, preventing DNA fragmentation, regulating the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax-alpha and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and inhibiting apoptotic signaling pathways.

  17. Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chis, Irina C; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton, Adriana; Simedrea, Ramona; Muresan, Adriana; Postescu, Ion-Dan; Decea, Nicoleta

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml/rat), at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 20 consecutive days after the induction of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced by an i.p. injection with streptozotocin for groups II and III. TheTBARS, carbonylated proteins, were measured in the plasma and in the supernatant of liver homogenisates, and superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in the haemolysates of RBCs and supernatant of liver homogenisates. The results showed that oral administration of grape seed extract (100 mg/kg/day) reduced the levels of lipid peroxides and carbonylated proteins and improved the antioxidant activity in plasma and hepatic tissue in rats treated with grape seed natural extract as compared with the diabetic control rats. These results suggested that the grape seed extract enhanced the antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species produced under hyperglycaemic conditions, hence protecting the liver cells.

  18. Grape-seed procyanidins inhibit the in vitro growth and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuan-Chiang; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Chen, Chin-Hui; Chiang, Hua-Che; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Chia-Ling; Chuang, Lu-Te; Liu, Ming; Hsu, Chih-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Grape-seed procyanidins (GSPs) can inhibit cell proliferation and invasiveness in various human cancers. However, the effect of GSP on pancreatic carcinoma cells has not been investigated. Pancreatic carcinoma cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 treated with GSP were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion, for cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry, for increased apoptosis by annexin V labeling, for their adhesion and invasion potential by evaluating their ability to penetrate through a matrix gel-coated Boyden chamber, and for changes in the levels of proteins involved in cellular events by immunoblotting. Grape-seed procyanidin inhibited MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle in BxPC-3 or mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2. Grape-seed procyanidin also inhibited the adhesion and invasion potential of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, which are associated with the suppression of metalloproteases matrix metalloproteinase 9 or 2 (MMP-9 or -2) expression. Grape-seed procyanidin inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma cells by cell cycle blockage or apoptotic induction. The invasiveness was also suppressed by GSP through down-regulation of MMP-2 or MMP-9 in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Grape-seed procyanidin is a potential chemotherapeutic or preventive agent for pancreatic carcinoma.

  19. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  20. Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, K.J.; D'Arch-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

  1. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  2. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Stohs, Sidney j; Ray, Sidhatha D; Sen, Chandan K; Preuss, Harry G

    2002-05-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins have been reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties against oxidative stress. We have demonstrated that IH636 proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides excellent protection against free radicals in both in vitro and in vivo models. GSPE had significantly better free radical scavenging ability than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene and demonstrated significant cytotoxicity towards human breast, lung and gastric adenocarcinoma cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal cells. GSPE protected against tobacco-induced apoptotic cell death in human oral keratinocytes and provided protection against cancer chemotherapeutic drug-induced cytotoxicity in human liver cells by modulating cell cycle/apoptosis regulatory genes such as bcl2, p53 and c-myc. Recently, the bioavailability and mechanistic pathways of cytoprotection by GSPE were examined on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, DMN-induced immunotoxicity and MOCAP-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Serum chemistry changes, integrity of genomic DNA and histopathology were assessed. GSPE pre-exposure provided near complete protection in terms of serum chemistry changes and DNA damage, as well as abolished apoptotic and necrotic cell death in all tissues. Histopathological examination reconfirmed these findings. GSPE demonstrated concentration-/dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1, and this may be a major pathway for the anti-toxic potential exerted by GSPE. Furthermore, GSPE treatment significantly decreased TNFalpha-induced adherence of T-cells to HUVEC by inhibiting VCAM-1 expression. These results demonstrate that GSPE is highly bioavailable and may serve as a potential therapeutic tool in protecting multiple target organs from structurally diverse drug- and chemical-induced toxicity.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR

  4. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  5. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  6. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  7. Inhibition of protein glycation by skins and seeds of the muscadine grape.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Johnetta L; Hartle, Diane K; Hargrove, James L; Greenspan, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) leading to protein glycation and cross-linking is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The inhibition of protein glycation by phenolic and flavonoid antioxidants demonstrates that the process is mediated, in part, by oxidative processes. In this study, the effects of seed and skin extracts of the muscadine grape on AGEs formation were examined. Seeds and skins were extracted (10% w/v) with 50% ethanol and incubated at 37 degrees C with a solution containing 250 mM fructose and 10 mg/ml albumin. After 72 h, fluorescence was measured at the wavelength pair of 370 and 440 nm as an index of the formation of AGEs. Both seed and skin extracts were found to be efficacious inhibitors of AGE formation. A 1:300 dilution of the seed extract decreased fluorescence by approximately 65%, whereas muscadine grape skin extract produced a 40% lowering. This difference correlates with the greater antioxidant activity found in muscadine seeds in comparison to skins, however, on a mass basis, the inhibitory activities of the seeds and skins were found to be nearly equivalent. Gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin, the three major polyphenols in the seeds, all significantly decreased the AGE product related fluorescence at a concentration of 50 microM. Neither muscadine seed extract nor skin extract inhibited the methylglyoxal-mediated glycation of albumin. These results suggest that consumption of the muscadine grape may have some benefit in altering the progression of diabetic complications.

  8. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  10. Red grape seed extract and its compound resveratrol exert cytotoxic effect to various human cancer lines.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Fahri; Avcı, Çığır Biray; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, Ali Uğur; Sarper, Meral; Hışıl, Yaşar; Omay, Serdar Bedii; Saydam, Güray

    2007-09-05

    Modern medicinal agents currently available for treatment of cancers are very expensive, toxic, and less effective in treating some of the disease. Thus, one must investigate further in detail the agents derived from natural sources, such as grape seed, for the prevention and treatment of cancer and disease. In recent years interest of researchers has focused on grape seed and nowadays scientists have used extracts of grape seed to treat different health problems including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic effect of red grape seed extract (GSE) and its main compound resveratrol (RES) on different human cancer cell lines representing various solid tumors and hematological malignancies at the same time. Red GSE was prepared by using 1, 1, 1, 2- Tetrafluoroethane extraction method. Cytotoxicity of the extract and RES was evaluated by using trypan blue dye exclusion method and MTT assay. The results of our study show that GSE and RES have cytotoxic activities in varying degree in several cancer cell lines. There has not been any study evaluating the GES and RES in the same cell lines and in the same conditions. But, it is still needed to have more pre-clinical and laboratory studies to validate the usefulness of these agents either alone or in combination with existing therapy.

  11. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  12. Incorporation and interaction of grape seed extract in membranes and relation with efficacy in muscle foods.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Micol, Vicente; Funes, Lorena; Medina, Isabel

    2010-07-28

    The interaction and location of phenolic antioxidants in model membranes has been related with their effectiveness for inhibiting lipid oxidation of fish mince with the aim to identify mechanisms involved in the antioxidant effectiveness in muscle foods. For such scope, the effect of grape seed extract and its main components, catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin B(2) to be located and induce changes in phospholipid model membranes was studied by different biophysical techniques and related to their antioxidant efficiency. Grape seed extract showed the highest inhibition of oxidation in chilled minced fish muscle. Antioxidant in- vitro capacities were also studied but they did not show a clear relationship with the antioxidant efficiency found in fish muscle. The phospholipid/water partition coefficients and fluorescence quenching studies showed that procyanidin B(2) was located in a more internal location than monomeric catechin and epicatechin within the phospholipid palisade. Grape seed extract showed strongest effect compared to its main components in the increase of the lipid order at the DMPC fluid phase by fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Grape seed extract also promoted a dehydration effect in DMPC membranes at the phospholipid/water interface and resistance to solubilization by nonionic detergents in DMPC membranes. The presence of molecular linkages, probably by hydrogen bonding, is proposed between procyanidins (or some galloylated catechins) and the polar head groups of the phospholipids to account for the dehydration effect at the phospholipid/water interface and membrane-stabilizing effects. These effects may be directly related to the higher efficacy of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish muscle, probably by hindering radical propagation.

  13. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization. PMID:21143976

  14. Evaluation of the influence of white grape seed extracts as copigment sources on the anthocyanin extraction from grape skins previously classified by near infrared hyperspectral tools.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José

    2017-04-15

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crude ethanol extracts from grape seeds and peels exhibit anti-tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Chou, Su-Tze; Huang, Pai-Jane; Mong, Mei-Chin; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Hsueh, Yu-Pin; Jhan, Jyun-Kai

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase activities of ethanol extracts from the peels and the seeds of Kyoho grapes and Red Globe grapes (KG-PEE, KG-SEE, RGG-PEE, and RGG-SEE). The total phenolic content in KG-SEE and RGG-SEE was 400 +/- 11 and 339 +/- 7 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively, about 22 times and 13 times that in KG-PEE and RGG-PEE, respectively. Both seed extracts showed significantly higher anti-tyrosinase activity than the peel extracts due to their high total phenolic content. The gallic acid content in RGG-SEE was twice that in KG-SEE, and gallic acid showed high anti-tyrosinase activity; thus, RGG-SEE had higher anti-tyrosinase activity than KG-SEE. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the inhibitory mechanism of the ethanol extracts from the grapes was a mix-type inhibition. Grape seed has a greater total phenolic content and has potential as a skin-lighting agent.

  16. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Estrogen Levels of Postmenopausal Women - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Bauer, Brent A.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Cha, Stephen S.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Olson, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The roll of estrogens in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is well documented and has lead to the development of Selective Estrogene Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. However these agents are associated with significant side effects and are therefore not well accepted by healthy women who are at high risk for breast cancer. There has been some evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies that grapes have an aromatase inhibiting effect resulting in a decrease in estrogen synthesis and increase in androstenedione and testosterone. Method We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose finding early phase trial. Eligible partici-pants were randomly assigned to one of 4 doses of grape seed extract (200, 400, 600, or 800 mg) to be taken daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change of plasma hormone levels (estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment with grape seed extract). Results Forty-six women were enrolled, 39 (84.8%) completed the study. In this pilot study grape-seed extract given in daily doses of 200, 400, 600 or 800 mg for 12 weeks to postmenopausal women did not decrease plasma estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate) and did not increase precursors of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione). There were large variations in pre- and posttreatment estrone, estradiol and estrone sulfate and androgen precursors. Conclusion Future research should carefully consider BMI and changes in BMI as well as higher dosing of grape seed extract in their design. PMID:24670122

  17. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.

  18. Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.

  19. Statistical correlation between flavanolic composition, colour and sensorial parameters in grape seed during ripening.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this work has been to determine the correlations between sensory analysis, colour and content of main flavanols present in seeds. For this, the flavanic composition of grape seeds with different degrees of maturity was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS and the obtained results were correlated with CIELab colour parameters, perceived colour (C), hardness of the seed (HS), tannic intensity (TI) and astringency (A). Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) with the variables showing significant correlations (p<0.05) was also performed. Grape seeds undergo important decreases in the content of catechins and procyanidin oligomers during ripening. Epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (B2G) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) are the flavanolic compounds whose contents decrease most. The changes in the phenolic composition accompany changes in TI, A and HS. The total content of flavanols in the seed is not the only factor affecting these attributes, since samples containing higher contents in flavanols can exhibit less astringency and tannic intensity than others with lower ones. The qualitative profile of the seeds is, therefore, also responsible for the sensations elicited in the mouth. A and HS parameters are more affected by the presence of galloylated dimeric procyanidins in the molecule than TI. CIELab colour parameters of seeds have high correlation coefficients with many flavanolic compounds. ECG was the compound most related to these parameters. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of oil in sunflower seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kochlar, S.P.; Rossell, J.B.

    1987-06-01

    Oil content measurement in sunflower seeds on an ''as is'' basis by current official methods is often associated with poor reproducibility. This study shows that the main factor contributing to this poor agreement is the particle size to which seeds are ground. This invariably influences the homogeneity of the bulk ground sample from which subsequent subsamples are taken. It is therefore suggested that oil content determinations on sunflower seeds should be carried out on seed samples that have been evenly and finely ground, to a particle size not greater than 2.0 mm, in a mechanical mill such as the Ultra-Centrifugal mill. Other factors investigated were seed composition (free husk, empty husk, crude fiber and seed meats) and structural differences in the seeds by light microscopy. (Refs. 16).

  1. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of seeds from different grape cultivars grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Vasigheh Sadat; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Yousef Elahi, Mostafa; Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Sedigheh

    2017-04-10

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of seed extracts from three grape cultivars grown in Iran. Folin Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of the total phenolic contents and GC-MS was used for the analysis of phenolic compositions. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents of seed extract were found in the black and green grape, respectively. The content of individual phenols such as Frulic acid, Gentistic acid, Syringic acid, (+) Catechin, Chlorogenic acid and (-)- Epicatchin gallate was cultivars dependent. The antioxidant activity of the seed extracts ranged from 34.03% (Green) to 53.63% (Black). Generally, the Black grape seed extract with the total phenolic content (3 ± 0.01 mg tannic acid/g DM), DPPH (53.63 ± 0.34%), IC50 and AEAC (7.41 and 16.92 mg/mL) showed the highest level of total antioxidant capacity.

  2. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  3. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus epigallocatechin and procyanidins on colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.

  4. Effects of grape pomace in growing lamb diets compared with vitamin E and grape seed extract on meat shelf life.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rivas, C; Vieira, C; Rubio, B; Martínez, B; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; Manso, T

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dietary treatment (CTRL, control; VIT-E, 500 mg kg(-1) vitamin E; GSE, 50 mg grape seed extract kg(-1); GP-5, 5% dried red grape pomace kg(-1)) on shelf life of lamb meat was studied. After slaughter (27 kg LBW), m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sliced, packaged under modified atmosphere (80:20%/O2:CO2) and stored in retail conditions for 14 days. At each sampling day (0, 4, 7, 11, 14), microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were analysed. Meat from VIT-E presented lower microbial counts than CTRL, GSE and GP-5, without differences between polyphenol treatments (GSE and GP-5) and CTRL. Vitamin E reduced meat discoloration and lipid oxidation (TBARS values) from day 7 with respect to the other treatments. Although not significant, an improvement in TBARS values of about 20% was observed for GSE and GP-5, compared with CTRL, from day 7 of storage. VIT-E dietary treatment was more effective in preventing sensory spoilage than the other treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Chemical investigation of commercial grape seed derived products to assess quality and detect adulteration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Tom S; Reichert, William; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental concerns in quality control arise due to increasing use of grape seed extract (GSE) and the complex chemical composition of GSE. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers are the major bioactive compounds in GSE. Given no standardized criteria for quality, large variation exists in the composition of commercial GSE supplements. Using HPLC/UV/MS, 21 commercial GSE containing products were purchased and chemically profiled, major compounds quantitated, and compared against authenticated grape seed extract, peanut skin extract, and pine bark extract. The antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content for each sample was also determined and compared using standard techniques. Nine products were adulterated, found to contain peanut skin extract. A wide degree of variability in chemical composition was detected in commercial products, demonstrating the need for development of quality control standards for GSE. A TLC method was developed to allow for rapid and inexpensive detection of adulteration in GSE by peanut skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions.

  8. Compression ignition performance using sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, C.M.; LePori, W.A.; Engler, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil subjected to various levels of processing and blends with diesel fuel were evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine. Results from short duration performance tests and longer duration load tests are reported. 8 refs.

  9. Mechanism of grape seeds extract protection against paracetamol renal cortical damage in male Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, S M N; Rifaai, R A; Abd Elzaher, W Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible protective role of grape seeds extract (GSE) in ameliorating the toxic effects of paracetamol overdose on the rat renal cortical tissue. Paracetamol is one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Unfortunately, it was reported as the most common cause of toxic ingestion in the world. Grape seeds extract (GSE) is known to have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, GSE group, paracetamol group and GSE with paracetamol group. Kidney specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immunohisto-chemical studies. The study showed marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in serum urea and creatinine levels with significant decrease in renal superoxide dismutase with paracetamol group. Furthermore, Proximal (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules showed marked degeneration, dense nuclear staining, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and partial loss of the brush borders. Most tubules were dilated, irregular and were filled with hyaline casts. PCT and DCT showed less PAS reaction and more COX-2 and caspase expression if compared with the control and the GSE groups. Concomitant administration of grape seeds extract with paracetamol revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. Proximal and distal convoluted tubules showed less PAS reaction and more COX2 and caspase expression if compared with the control and the GSE. Concomitant administration of GSE with paracetamol revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. Grape seeds extract provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in paracetamol induced renal cortical toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in oxidative damage and apoptosis (Tab. 1, Fig. 7, Ref. 55).

  10. A case study of apple seed and grape allergy with sensitisation to nonspecific lipid transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    Katelaris, Constance H; Baumgart, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins can be an important cause of allergy given their stability and high degree of protein sequence homology. We describe the case of a child who developed two separate episodes of anaphylaxis after consuming apple seed and grape, with evidence that nonspecific lipid transfer proteins may have been responsible for these reactions. Lipid transfer protein allergy should be considered when anaphylaxis is inconsistent, such as in patients who can tolerate fruit pulp but react to fresh whole fruit juices. PMID:27141487

  11. Comparative in vitro fermentations of cranberry and grape seed polyphenols with colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Barroso, Elvira; van de Wiele, Tom; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we have assessed the phenolic metabolism of a cranberry extract by microbiota obtained from the ascending colon and descending colon compartments of a dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (SHIME). For comparison, parallel fermentations with a grape seed extract were carried out. Extracts were used directly without previous intestinal digestion. Among the 60 phenolic compounds targeted, our results confirmed the formation of phenylacetic, phenylpropionic and benzoic acids as well as phenols such as catechol and its derivatives from the action of colonic microbiota on cranberry polyphenols. Benzoic acid (38.4μg/ml), 4-hydroxy-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid (26.2μg/ml) and phenylacetic acid (19.5μg/ml) reached the highest concentrations. Under the same conditions, microbial degradation of grape seed polyphenols took place to a lesser extent compared to cranberry polyphenols, which was consistent with the more pronounced antimicrobial effect observed for the grape seed polyphenols, particularly against Bacteroides, Prevotella and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of proanthocyanidins in commercial antioxidants: grape seed and pine bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Holly A; Hodges, Andrew E; Guthrie, Jill R; O'Brien, Brandon M; Robaugh, David; Clark, Alice P; Harris, Roger K; Algaier, Joseph W; Smith, Cynthia S

    2007-01-10

    The major constituents in grape seed and pine bark extracts are proanthocyanidins. To evaluate material available to consumers, select lots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS was used to identify monomers, dimers, and trimers present. GC/MS analyses led to the identification of ethyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, as well as smaller phenolic and terpene components. The GPC molecular weight (MW) distribution indicated components ranging from approximately 162 to approximately 5500 MW (pine bark less than 1180 MW and grape seed approximately 1180 to approximately 5000 MW). MALDI-TOF MS analyses showed that pine bark did not contain oligomers with odd numbers of gallate units and grape seed contained oligomers with both odd and even numbers of gallate. Reflectron MALDI-TOF MS identified oligomers up to a pentamer and heptamer, and linear MALDI-TOF MS showed a mass range nearly double that of reflectron analyses.

  13. Quality assessment of commercial dietary antioxidant products from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Garrido, Ignacio; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic preparations from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds are products commonly used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. In this article, we used a methodology (the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of commercial dietary grape seed products and studied the relationship of the antioxidant capacity with the phenolic composition of these products. The ORAC value of the different brands of commercial products studied (n = 16) varied from 2.71 to 26.4 micromol Trolox equivalents/mg (approximately equal to 10-fold difference). For four of these products, the batch-to-batch ORAC variation, expressed as a coefficient of variation of the mean, was 10.5% (n = 6), 13.1% (n = 3), 19.4% (n = 4), and 7.8% (n = 4). Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols by liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD)/electrospray-mass spectrometry and procyanidins by thiolysis-LC-DAD also revealed large differences among the commercial grape seed products. Moreover, the ORAC value could be fitted to a regression model using variables from contents of individual phenolic compounds and procyanidins. The product-to-product and batch-to-batch variation in ORAC values and flavan-3-ol composition found among the commercial products studied demonstrated that they are poorly standardized, resulting in inconsistent composition and biological activity.

  14. Cholesterol-lowering activity of the major polyphenols in grape seed.

    PubMed

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Mäkynen, Kittana; Thilawech, Thavaree; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2011-06-17

    The major polyphenols in grape seed have been shown to have beneficial health effects in the prevention of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. In this present study, we investigated the cholesterol-lowering activity of three major polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed. The results showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin significantly inhibited pancreatic cholesterol esterase in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they bound to taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid at levels ranging from 38.6% to 28.2%. At the concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin reduced the formation of cholesterol micelles 27.26 ± 2.17%, 11.88 ± 0.75%, and 19.49 ± 3.71%, respectively. These findings clearly demonstrate that three major polyphenolic compounds present in a particular grape seed have cholesterol-lowering activity by inhibiting pancreatic cholesterol esterase, binding of bile acids, and reducing solubility of cholesterol in micelles which may result in delayed cholesterol absorption.

  15. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

    2013-12-15

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV.

  16. The topical effect of grape seed extract 2% cream on surgery wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Foroozan, Maryam; Houshmand, Gholamreza; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Maram, Nader Shakiba

    2014-10-29

    Reducing the wound healing time is crucial in wound as it lowers the chance of infection and decreases complications and cost. Grape seed extract has the ability to release endothelial growth factor and its topical application results in contraction and closure of the skin wound. Furthermore, it possesses antioxidant and antibacterial properties. In several studies it has been proved effective in animals. Therefore, due to low side effects and recognition of herbal medicine, we decided to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract 2% herbal cream on human skin lesions. This study is a double blind clinical trial conducted on two groups of treatment and placebo. Surgery was performed on skin lesions such as skin tags and moles which were found on the neck, trunk and limbs (except for face). After enrollment and obtaining informed consent from participants, they were randomized into two groups of treatment and placebo. Excision of the lesions was done by surgical scissors. The lesions got restored by secondary intention method. After the first day of treatment, the patients were visited on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 21st day. Grape seed extract cream 2% was produced and coded by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. In order to compare the two groups, T-test was used. For time assessing, analysis of variance with repeated measures was employed. The results showed complete repair of wounds averagely on day 8 for the treatment group and on day 14 for the placebo group, which was clearly significant in terms of statistical difference (p=0.00). Proanthocyanidins in grape seed extract trigger the release of vascular endothelial growth factor and its topical application causes wound contraction and closure. Curing skin lesions with grape seed extract caused proliferation areas with protected boundaries in epithelium, increased cell density and increased deposition of connective tissue at the wound site which in general improves cellular structure

  17. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  18. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay.

  20. The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors.

  1. Rapidly differentiating grape seeds from different sources based on characteristic fingerprints using direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqiao; Liao, Jie; Dong, Junxing; Chen, Li

    2015-09-01

    The seeds of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are a byproduct of wine production. To examine the potential value of grape seeds, grape seeds from seven sources were subjected to fingerprinting using direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. Firstly, we listed all reported components (56 components) from grape seeds and calculated the precise m/z values of the deprotonated ions [M-H](-) . Secondly, the experimental conditions were systematically optimized based on the peak areas of total ion chromatograms of the samples. Thirdly, the seven grape seed samples were examined using the optimized method. Information about 20 grape seed components was utilized to represent characteristic fingerprints. Finally, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were performed to analyze the data. Grape seeds from seven different sources were classified into two clusters; hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis yielded similar results. The results of this study lay the foundation for appropriate utilization and exploitation of grape seed samples. Due to the absence of complicated sample preparation methods and chromatographic separation, the method developed in this study represents one of the simplest and least time-consuming methods for grape seed fingerprinting. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Alterations to metabolically active bacteria in the mucosa of the small intestine predict anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities of grape seed extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Laura E; Witrick, Katherine A; Klotz, Courtney; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Fundaro, Gabrielle; McMillan, Ryan P; Hulver, Matthew W; Ponder, Monica A; Neilson, Andrew P

    2017-09-06

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that grapes and grape-derived products may reduce the risk for chronic disease. Grape seed extract specifically has been gaining interest due to its reported ability to prevent weight gain, moderate hyperglycemia, and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of two doses of grape seed extract (10 and 100 mg kg(-1) body wt per d in mice) on markers of metabolic syndrome in the context of a moderately high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the lower dose of grape seed extract was more effective at inhibiting fat gain and improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Neither the high fat diet nor grape seed extract altered skeletal muscle substrate metabolism. Most interestingly, when examining the profile of metabolically active microbiota in the mucosa of the small intestine, cecum, and colonic tissue, grape seed extract seemed to have the most dramatic effect on small intestinal tissue, where the population of Firmicutes was lower compared to control groups. This effect was not observed in the cecal or colonic tissues, suggesting that the main alterations to gut microbiota due to flavan-3-ol supplementation occur in the small intestine, which has not been reported previously. These findings suggest that grape seed extract can prevent early changes in glucose tolerance and alter small intestinal gut microbiota, prior to the onset of skeletal muscle metabolic derangements, when grape seed extract is consumed at a low dose in the context of a moderately high fat diet.

  3. Enzyme release of phenolics from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz; Lu, Jiang; Gu, Liwei; Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Marshall, Maurice R

    2014-08-15

    Enzyme degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides can potentially enhance the release of bioactive phenolics. The aim of this study was to evaluate various combinations of solvent and enzyme, enzyme type (cellulase, pectinase, ß-glucosidase), and hydrolysis time (1, 4, 8, 24 h) on the release of muscadine grape skin and seed phenolics, and their antioxidant activities. Results showed that pre-treated muscadine skins and seeds with enzymes decreased total phenolic yield compared with solvent (50% ethanol) alone. Enzyme release of phenolics from skins of different muscadine varieties was significantly different while release from seeds was similar. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to shorten extraction time. Most importantly, enzyme hydrolysis modified the galloylated form of polyphenols to low molecular weight phenolics, releasing phenolic acids (especially gallic acid), and enhancing antioxidant activity.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (p<0.05), respectively, after use of marinades containing the highest extract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples.

  5. Frying stability of Moringa stenopetala seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John

    2006-06-01

    The frying performance of Moringa stenopetala seed oil (extracted with cold press or n-hexane) was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 degrees C for 5 consecutive days (5 fryings per day). The chemical changes occurring in oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine value, smoke point, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol content decreased. The effect of the oil on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods and the theoretical number of frying operations possible before having to discard the oil was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold press produced oil.

  6. Temperature-dependent kinetics of grape seed phenolic compounds extraction: experiment and model.

    PubMed

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Sovová, Helena; Planinić, Mirela; Tomas, Srećko

    2013-02-15

    The kinetics of a batch solid-liquid extraction of total phenolic compounds (PC) from milled grape seed (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Frankovka") using 50% ethanol at different extraction temperatures (25-80°C) was studied. The maximum yield of PC was 0.13 kg(GAE)/kg(db) after 200 min of extraction in agitated vessel at 80°C. A new model based on the assumptions of a first order kinetics mechanism for the solid-liquid extraction and a linear equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface was developed. The model involves the concept of broken and intact cells in order to describe two successive extraction periods: a very fast surface washing process followed by slow diffusion of phenolic compounds from grape seeds to the solvent. The proposed model is suited to fit experimental data and to simulate the extraction of phenolic compounds, which was confirmed by the correlation coefficient (r≥0.965), the root mean square error (RMSE≤0.003 kg(GAE)/kg(db)) and the mean relative deviation modulus (E≤2.149%). The temperature influenced both equilibrium partition coefficients of phenolic compounds and transport properties, which is manifested by a relatively high value of activation energy (23-24) kJ/mol and by values of effective diffusivity in seed particles.

  7. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  8. In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D

    2008-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 h at 37 degrees C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy.

  9. In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

  10. Amelioration of tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats by grape seed extract, black seed extract and curcumin.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-03-01

    Liver injury was induced in female rats using tamoxifen (TAM). Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) extract (GSE), black seed (Nigella sativa) extract (NSE), curcumin (CUR) or silymarin (SYL) were orally administered to TAM-intoxicated rats. Liver histopathology of TAM-intoxicated:rats showed pathological changes. TAM-intoxication elicited declines in liver antioxidant enzymes levels (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio plus the hepatic elevations in lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum liver enzymes; alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Oral intake of NSE, GSE, CUR or SYL to TAM-intoxicated rats, attenuated histopathological changes and corrected all parameters mentioned above. Improvements were prominent in case of NSE (similarly SYL) > CUR > GSE. Data indicated that NSE, GSE or CUR act as free radicals scavengers and protect TAM-induced liver injury in rats.

  11. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-12-01

    To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  12. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Swadas, Milan; Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185.

  13. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. Aim To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Materials and methods Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Results Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Conclusion Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. How to cite this article Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185. PMID:27843246

  14. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  15. Trying to set up the flavanolic phases during grape seed ripening: A spectral and chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Heredia, Francisco J; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Grape seeds were collected in ten different dates and classified in seven groups according to their individual hyperspectral imaging characteristics. Proanthocyanidin composition was studied using HPLC-MS for oligomers and acid catalyzed cleavage for polymers characterization. The combination of both analysis provided a complete description of the flavanols. Chemometric analysis was performed to summarize the analytical results. None of the considered variables presented statistical differences among all groups. From one to five groups were found for each variable, while three was the most frequent value, consequently three putative stages might be considered the real number of different analytical stages since it is the number of statistically significant groups for the majority of the compounds. This classification could be considered as the first step to optimize the use of seeds in winemaking to minimize the gap between sugar and phenolic maturities, consequence of the global climate change, mainly observed in warm climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-29

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  17. Distribution of grape seed flavanols and their metabolites in pregnant rats and their fetuses.

    PubMed

    Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Crescenti, Anna; del Bas, Josep Maria; Ras, Maria Rosa; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols have been demonstrated to provide health benefits affecting cellular and physiological processes. This study aims to evaluate the bioavailability and distribution of grape seed flavanol compounds during pregnancy and whether fetuses could be exposed to these compounds. The distribution of flavanols and their metabolites in rat plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, brain, amniotic fluid, placenta, and fetuses after 1 and 2 h of an acute intake of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract was examined by LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Flavanols and their metabolites were widely distributed in both pregnant and nonpregnant rat plasma and tissues. In liver, the conjugated forms of flavanols were less available in pregnant than nonpregnant rats. Flavanol metabolites were abundant in maternal placenta but detected at low levels in fetuses and amniotic fluid. Flavanol metabolization appears to be less active in the liver during pregnancy. Moreover, data indicated that transport across the placenta is not efficient and for flavanols and their metabolites, the placenta seems to act as a barrier. However, these compounds target the fetus and are excreted in the amniotic fluid. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

    2013-12-01

    Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (κ-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting κ-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing κ-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of κ-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility study on the use of near infrared spectroscopy to determine flavanols in grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2010-10-15

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy to determine the content of flavanols directly recording the infrared spectra of grape seeds has been evaluated. Moreover, the study shows the potential of this technique to obtain qualitative information related to the samples. In this case, the feasibility to discriminate between possible vineyards of origin has also been evaluated. Modified Partial Least Squares (MPLS) regression was used to develop the quantitative models in order to predict the content of flavanols. These models have been validated showing differences between 3.5% and 14.3% in the external validation. Moreover, Discriminant Partial Least Squares algorithm was used in the qualitative analysis to distinguish between two possible vineyards of origin and showed a high degree of accuracy. Prediction rates of samples correctly classified with a mean of 95% in internal validation and 97% in external validation were obtained. The procedure reported here seems to have an excellent potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive analysis of these flavanols in grape seeds and could also be a tool to distinguish between possible vineyards of origin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin–Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured. PMID:28208630

  1. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2008-06-01

    Overexposure of the skin to UV radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (i) oxidative stress; (ii) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways; and (iii) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin.

  2. Antioxidant properties of grape seed extract on human lymphocyte oxidative defence.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Miroslava; Tesević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Todorović, Nina; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Godevac, Dejan

    2008-06-01

    The distribution of polyphenolic compounds in a grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) was determined using LC/ESI-TOF MS, HPLC/DAD, and (13)C-NMR. The 17 identified compounds comprised gallic and protocatechuic acid, catechin and epicatechin monomers, procyanidin oligomers, and procyanidin gallates. This study addresses the in vitro effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the frequency of micronuclei with reference to the antioxidant status in human lymphocytes. To establish the most effective protective support, we used four different concentrations of GSE, in the range 1-6 microg/mL. Treatment of lymphocytes with GSE at a concentration of 2.5 microg/mL induced a significant decrease in the frequency of micronuclei by 40%, reduction of malonyldialdehyde production by 30%, while a concentration of 5 microg/mL increased catalase and glutathione S-transferase activity by 10% and 15%, respectively. These results demonstrate that GSE may be effective in the prevention of oxidative lymphocyte damage by ROS.

  3. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits.

  4. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

  5. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: Inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (a) oxidative stress; (b) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways; and (c) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin. PMID:18384090

  6. Antigenotoxic effect of grape seed procyanidin extract in Fao cells submitted to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Llópiz, Niurka; Puiggròs, Francesc; Céspedes, Ela; Arola, Lluís; Ardévol, Anna; Bladé, Cinta; Salvadó, M Josepa

    2004-03-10

    The protective effects of grape seed procyanidin extract on the repair of H(2)O(2)-induced DNA lesions were tested using Fao cells. Cells were exposed to 600 microM H(2)O(2) for 3 or 21 h. A procyanidin extract from grape seed (PE) was incubated or preincubated (1 h) during the exposure to H(2)O(2). The ability of procyanidins to protect against the genotoxicity of H(2)O(2) was compared with those of the monomeric flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin and the flavonol quercetin. After treatment, DNA damage was monitored using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) (Aherne, S. A.; O'Brien, N. M. Nutr. Cancer 1999, 34, 160-166). At the end of the experiment, PE significantly decreased the damage caused by H(2)O(2). The results also showed that quercetin was the most effective of the flavonoids tested, which is consistent with its powerful antioxidant character. The results indicate that procyanidins are more effective than the corresponding individual monomers, catechin and epicatechin, at preventing DNA lesions in hepatocytes and that this protection is higher after preincubation than after co-incubation.

  7. Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on colon aberrant crypts and breast tumors in a rat dual-organ tumor model.

    PubMed

    Singletary, K W; Meline, B

    2001-01-01

    Cancers of the colon and breast are two of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. The present experiments were conducted to determine the influence of several dietary doses of grape seed proanthocyanidins on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis and azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in a dual-organ tumor model. In addition, the effects of the grape seed proanthocyanidins on liver cytochrome P-450 1A and 2E1 and glutathione S-transferase activities and on colonic ornithine decarboxylase activity were examined to determine possible mechanisms of action. Feeding female rats diets containing 0.1-1.0% grape seed proanthocyanidins was associated with a significant 72-88% inhibition of AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and a 20-56% inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the distal third of the colon. Feeding the grape proanthocyanidins resulted in no significant effect on the activity of liver cytochrome P-450 2E1. There was no effect of feeding these doses of proanthocyanidins on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. This lack of action on mammary tumorigenesis in part may be due to lack of effect of dietary proanthocyanidins on the liver carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P-450 1A and glutathione S-transferase. These results indicate that grape polyphenolics warrant further evaluation as potential colon cancer chemopreventive agents.

  8. Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Kondo, Maki; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-05-01

    Regulation of oil biosynthesis in plant seeds has been extensively studied, and biotechnological approaches have been designed to increase seed oil content. Oil and protein synthesis is negatively correlated in seeds, but the mechanisms controlling interactions between these two pathways are unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism controlling oil and protein content in seeds. We utilized transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a master transcription factor regulating seed oil biosynthesis, and knockout mutants of major seed storage proteins. Oil and protein biosynthesis in wild-type plants was sequentially activated during early and late seed development, respectively. The negative correlation between oil and protein contents in seeds arises from competition between the pathways. Extension of WRI1 expression during mid-phase of seed development significantly enhanced seed oil content. This study demonstrates that temporal activation of genes involved in oil or storage protein biosynthesis determines the oil/protein ratio in Arabidopsis seeds. These results provide novel insights into potential breeding strategies to generate crops with high oil contents in seeds. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on vascular function in subjects with or at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mellen, Philip B; Daniel, Kurt R; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Hansen, Kim J; Herrington, David M

    2010-10-01

    Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established. More research is warranted to fully

  10. Effect of Muscadine Grape Seed Supplementation on Vascular Function in Subjects with or at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mellen, Philip B.; Daniel, Kurt R.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Hansen, Kim J.; Herrington, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. Objectives To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. Design In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. Results There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Conclusions Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established

  11. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  13. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages. PMID:27433100

  14. Grape seed extracts modify the outcome of oxaliplatin in colon cancer cells by interfering with cellular mechanisms of drug cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Letizia; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Bergamini, Carlo; Denora, Nunzio; Crupi, Pasquale; Antonacci, Donato; Mangia, Anita; Simone, Giovanni; Silvestris, Nicola; Azzariti, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    Grape seed extracts are commonly utilized as dietary supplements for their antioxidant properties, even from cancer patients. However, whether these natural extracts interfere with chemotherapeutics utilized in colon cancer treatment is still poorly investigated. The cytotoxicity of extracts from Italia and Palieri cultivars either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin was evaluated in colon cancer cells. Grape seed extracts displayed anti-proliferative activity depending on the concentration utilized through apoptosis induction. In combination, they affected the activation of Erk1/2 and counteracted the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, the DNA damage and the generation of ROS induced by oxaliplatin. Noteworthy grape seed extracts strongly enhanced the uptake of oxaliplatin into all cells, by affecting the cell transport system of platinum. The addition of these natural extracts to oxaliplatin strongly reduced the cellular response to oxaliplatin and allowed a huge accumulation of platinum into cells. Here, we shed light on the chemical biology underlying the combination of grape seed extracts and oxaliplatin, demonstrating that they might be detrimental to oxaliplatin effectiveness in colon cancer therapy.

  15. Efficiency of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp. essential oil as a mycotoxicant against postharvest mycobiota of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Sonker, Nivedita; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2015-07-01

    In order to get a potent botanical fungicide for the management of fungal decay of table grapes, an experiment was conducted in which 20 essential oils of higher plants were screened at 0.33 µL mL(-1) against dominant fungi causing decay of table grapes, including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. ochraceus. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration, fungitoxic spectrum and mycotoxin inhibition activity of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of table grapes, along with organoleptic evaluation, was also carried out by storing 1 kg of grapes in the oil vapour. Artemisia nilagirica oil was found to be most toxic, exhibiting 100% mycelia inhibition of all test fungi. Moreover, 0.29 µL mL(-1) A. nilagirica oil was fungistatic and 0.58 µL mL(-1) was fungicidal for all tested species of Aspergillus. The oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against other grape berry-rotting fungi. Artemisia nilagirica oil completely suppressed the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus at 1.6 µL mL(-1) . During the in vivo experiment, fumigation of 1 kg of table grapes with 200 and 300 µL dosage of A. nilagirica oil enhanced the shelf life for up to 9 days. The oil did not show any phytotoxic effect. Besides, oil application did not substantively change the sensory properties of the fruits. Artemisia nilagirica oil can be used as an alternative botanical fungicide for the control of fruit-rotting fungi of stored grapes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Influence of Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement on Lipid Profile in Normal and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. Aims: To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Results: Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. PMID:25653967

  17. Influence of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-12-01

    Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats.

  18. Grape seed extract dose-responsively decreases disease severity in a rat model of mucositis; concomitantly enhancing chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400-1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3-11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10-25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50-100 µg/mL. Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells.

  19. Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

  20. Anatomical, histological, and histochemical changes in grape seeds from Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet franc during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Yves; Miñana-Castelló, Maria Teresa; Chevalier, Michel

    2006-11-29

    Cabernet franc berries were sampled at five stages from berry set to harvest from an experimental vineyard in mid Loire Valley. Seeds were collected from representative berries in term of stage of development. The evolution of seed was followed both macro- and microscopically. For microscopy analysis, seeds were cut, put in a fixation solution, and cut into thin sections with a microtome. Five staining solutions were used for each seed sample: toluidine blue O, phloroglucinol, periodic acid-Schiff's reagent and naphtol blue black, vanillin, and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde. Toluidine blue O staining revealed the evolution of tissue structures during grape seed development. We studied the changes in chemical compounds (lignin, polysaccharides, proteins, and tannins) with the other reagents. Seed lignification was achieved at veraison. Proanthocyanidins were localized in epidermis, inner cells of the soft seed coat, and inner cell layer of the inner integument. Finally, the localization of flavan-3-ols was linked with changes in cell walls of the outer integument.

  1. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  2. Effect of consuming a grape seed supplement with abundant phenolic compounds on the oxidative status of healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernández-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Sánchez, Ana M; Prodanov, Marin

    2015-09-09

    Diverse enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants provide protection against reactive oxygen species in humans and other organisms. The nonenzymatic antioxidants include low molecular mass molecules such as plant-derived phenols. This study identified the major phenolic compounds of a grape seed extract by HPLC and analyzed the effect of consumption of biscuits enriched with this extract on the urinary oxidative status of healthy subjects by measurement of urine redox potential. The major phenolic compounds were characterized in a red grape seed extract separated by HPLC with detection by a photodiode array (PDA), fluorescence (FL) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). A nutritional study in a healthy volunteers group was done. Each volunteer ate eight traditional biscuits with no red grape seed extract supplementation. The second day each volunteer ate eight traditional biscuits supplemented with 0.6% (wt/wt) of grape seed extract. An overnight urine sample was obtained for each treatment. The redox potential was measured at 25 °C using a potentiometer in each urine sample. Epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin dimers B1 to B4, and the procyanidin trimer C2 were the major phenolic components in the extract. Epicatechin gallate and procyanidin dimers B1-3-G and B2-3'-G were the major galloylated flavan-3-ols. The forty-six healthy volunteers each shown a reduction of the urine redox potential after the treatment by traditional biscuits supplemented with the grape seed extract. This simple dietary intervention significantly reduced (33%) the urine redox potential, reflecting an overall increase in antioxidant status. Incorporation of plant-derived phenols in the diet may increase anti-oxidative status.

  3. A comparative study to distinguish the vineyard of origin by NIRS using entire grapes, skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2013-03-15

    Interest in high-quality products with a clear geographical origin is increasing. For the wine industry and market sector, identity preservation is of fundamental importance owing to the large number of geographical classifications. Nowadays, there is a growing demand for analytical methods for tracing grapes and wines. In the oenological sector, infrared spectroscopy is becoming an attractive tool allowing simultaneous measurement of several analytical parameters and enabling real-time decision making. Discriminant partial least squares, a supervised pattern recognition technique, was employed to discriminate between vineyards of origin using the near-infrared spectra of intact grapes, skins or seeds. In order to compare the three sample presentations, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used. The best results were obtained using intact grape seeds, with prediction rates of samples correctly classified of about 95%, although the good results obtained with entire grapes (about 93% of samples correctly classified) and the simplicity of use of the fibre optic probe could advise using entire grape presentation for comprehensive studies. The procedure reported here seems to have excellent potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive analysis of the origin of samples. It is noted that such classification can be made at any time of ripening. This paper provides information of interest to develop new and extensive models in the future. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  5. Resveratrol potentiates grape seed extract induced human colon cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Reddivari, Lavanya; Sclafani, Robert; Das, Undurti N; Vanamala, Jairam

    2011-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in men and women. Grape seed extract (GSE) and resveratrol (RSV) are potent chemopreventive agents against colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo, at relatively high concentrations. We hypothesized that RSV and GSE may act in concert with each other in potentiating their anti-cancer properties at sub-optimal doses, because they occur as complex mixtures in grapes. In this study, we showed that RSV (~25 micromolar) potentiated GSE (≤ 35 microg/mL) induced colon cancer cell apoptosis via activation of p53 dependent pathways. Elevation of apoptosis was much more pronounced in p53 +/+ cells compared to p53 -/- cells. Apoptosis was strongly correlated with pp53 levels and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, key players in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Caspase-3 inhibition and reactive oxygen species suppression attenuated apoptosis induced by the combination. RSV-GSE combination suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis even in the presence of mitogenic growth factor IGF-1, suggesting the importance of understanding the potentiating effects of phytonutrients in combination as they would occur in nature rather than individually.

  6. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ribao; Ding, Rui; Wang, Yongxin; Tang, Li

    2012-06-01

    Activation of reactive oxygen species and inflammation are implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. This study investigated whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) protects against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species and the inflammation pathway. Wistar rats were administered GSPE before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and cystatin C were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury, and nuclear factor-ĸB activity was determined. GSPE significantly reduced increases in urea, creatinine and cystatin C; increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase levels and reduced malondialdehyde levels. GSPE reduced histological renal damage and nuclear factor-ĸB activity. These results suggest that GSPE reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

  8. Grape seed and skin extract prevents high-fat diet-induced brain lipotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury.

  9. The relationship between antiglycation activity and procyanidin and phenolic content in commercial grape seed products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cathy; McIntyre, Kristina; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Arnason, John Thor

    2012-02-01

    Eight commercial grape seed products (GSPs) were assessed for their inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. All 8 commercial GSPs included in this study were potent inhibitors of advanced glycation end-product formation with IC(50) values ranging from 2.93 to 20.0 µg/mL. Total procyanidin content ranged from 60% to 73%. HPLC-DAD-ELSD results indicate that (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and procyanidin B2 were predominant and ubiquitously present in all the products under study, while gallic acid and procyanidin B4 were present in relatively minor amounts. The IC(50) values correlated with total phenolic content, and multiple regression analysis indicated that IC(50) is a linear function of the concentration of gallic acid and procyanidins B1, B2, and B4. Based on this study, GSPs have the potential to complement conventional diabetes medication toward disease management and prevention.

  10. Effect of grape seed and skin supplement on milk yield and composition of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Amri, Mohamed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of grape seed and skin supplement (GSSS), on lactating dairy ewes' production. Ten dairy pregnant ewes from northern Tunisia were allocated to two groups: control diet (C) and supplemented with 20 % (w/w) GSSS. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks and took place after 2 months of lambing. During the experiment, daily milk yield and milk composition were determined. Supplementation of the diet with GSSS increased milk production (P < 0.001), calcium (P < 0.01), free iron (P < 0.01) and urea content (P < 0.001) but had no effect on milk fat nor protein. From these data, it is concluded that the inclusion of GSSS in sheep diets increased significantly ewes' milk yield.

  11. [Grape seed extract inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Shang, Xue-Jun; Yao, Gen-Hong; Ge, Jing-Ping; Teng, Wen-Hui; Sun, Yi; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells. PC-3 cells were treated with GSE at the concentration of 100, 200 and 300 microg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. The the inhibitory effect of GSE on the growth of the PC-3 cells and the kidney cells of SD rats was determined by MTT reduction assay, with primarily cultured kidney cells of 1-3 days old SD rats as the normal control. GSE significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but had only a mild inhibitory effect on the kidney cells. GSE inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells and can be used as a new drug for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Effect of grape seed extract against biodegradation of composite resin-dentin shear bond strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).

  13. Suppression of estrogen biosynthesis by procyanidin dimers in red wine and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Eng, Elizabeth T; Ye, JingJing; Williams, Dudley; Phung, Sheryl; Moore, Roger E; Young, Mary K; Gruntmanis, Ugis; Braunstein, Glenn; Chen, Shiuan

    2003-12-01

    In breast cancer, in situ estrogen production has been demonstrated to play a major role in promoting tumor growth. Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgen substrates into estrogens. This enzyme is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue compared with normal breast tissue. A wine extract fraction was recently isolated from red wine that exhibited a potent inhibitory action on aromatase activity. Using UV absorbance analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography profiling, accurate mass-mass spectrometry, and nanospray tandem mass spectrometry, most of the compounds in our red wine fraction were identified as procyanidin B dimers that were shown to be aromatase inhibitors. These chemicals have been found in high levels in grape seeds. Inhibition kinetic analysis on the most potent procyanidin B dimer has revealed that it competes with the binding of the androgen substrate with a K(i) value of 6 micro M. Because mutations at Asp-309, Ser-378, and His-480 of aromatase significantly affected the binding of the procyanidin B dimer, these active site residues are thought to be important residues that interact with this phytochemical. The in vivo efficacy of procyanidin B dimers was evaluated in an aromatase-transfected MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model. The procyanidin B dimers were able to reduce androgen-dependent tumor growth, indicating that these chemicals suppress in situ estrogen formation. These in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that procyanidin B dimers in red wine and grape seeds could be used as chemopreventive agents against breast cancer by suppressing in situ estrogen biosynthesis.

  14. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  15. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  16. Silencing of chaperonin 21, that was differentially expressed in inflorescence of seedless and seeded grapes, promoted seed abortion in tobacco and tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Or, Etti; Flaishman, Moshe; Sahar, Nachman; Perl, Avihai

    2007-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Thompson Seedless' presents a type of stenospermocarpy in grape where fertilization occurs but seeds abort and fail to develop. To unravel the molecular basis for stenospermocarpy in grapes, subtractive hybridization was carried out in order to isolate differentially regulated genes that participate in the seedlessness machinery. Two 'Thompson' lines, a seeded and a seedless, were screened during different flower developmental stages. One of the genes, that was differentially expressed between the seeded and seedless lines, was the chloroplast chaperonin 21 (ch-Cpn21). ch-Cpn21 is a 21-kDa co-chaperonin polypeptide formed by two GroES-like domains fused together in tandem. Silencing of ch-Cpn21 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants resulted in leaf stunting, chlorosis, as well as ovary necrogenesis leading to seed abortion. Moreover, organ-specific silencing of ch-Cpn21 only in Lycopersicum esculentum fruits resulted in the development of seedless tomatoes. These results suggest that ch-Cpn21 may play a role in seed abortion in stenospermocarpic grapes.

  17. Synthesis biolubricant from rubber seed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Tran Dong; Tuyen, Dang Thi Hong; Viet, Tran Tan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was biolubricant preparation from rubber seed oil (RSO) using polymerization reactor with/without catalyst in batch reactor. Before become reactant in polymerization reaction, a non-edible rubber seed oil was converted into methyl ester by esterification/tranesterification reaction with methanol and acid/base catalyst. The polymerization reaction parameters investigated were reaction time, temperature and weight ratio (catalyst with feed), and their effect on the bio lubricant formation. The result show significant conversion of methyl ester to bio lubricant in the temperature reaction of 160°C, reaction time of 2h min and ratio of super acid catalyst (tetrafluoroboric acid-sHBF4) of 3 %w/w. The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analyzed for the viscosity. The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 110.6 cSt when the condition polymerization reaction were 160 °C, reaction time 3h, 6 wt% mass ratio of oil:catalyst.

  18. Recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds: effect of extraction time and solid-liquid ratio.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid-liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29 h) and the solid-liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 gdw mL(-1)), were investigated (where dw = dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high levels of both total polyphenols (73.66 mg(Gallic Acid Equivalent) gdw(-1)) and flavonoids (30.90 mg(Catechin Equivalent) gdw(-1)), being the optimum extraction time 19 h approximately. The main phenolic compounds analysed with high performance liquid chromatography were catechin and quercetin with a maximum extraction yield obtained at 29 h (362.23 and 339.35 mg/100 gdw, respectively). Concentration of the polyphenols and their antiradical powers are demonstrated to have a significant linear correlation.

  19. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yong; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Lin-Bin; Wang, Xin-Fa; Liu, Gui-Hua; Hao, Wan-Jun; Wang, Han-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  20. Seed Structure Characteristics to Form Ultrahigh Oil Content in Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Deng, Lin-Bin; Wang, Xin-Fa; Liu, Gui-Hua; Hao, Wan-Jun; Wang, Han-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding. PMID:23637973

  1. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  2. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  3. Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Hui; Park, Tae-Sun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight gain in mice fed high fat diets; epididymal and back fat weights were lower compared to non-supplemented HD group. 2. Blood lipid concentrations were lower in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. Serum HDL-C concentrations were higher in the HD+GSE group compared with the other groups. 3. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitines (AIAC) in serum and liver were higher in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. 4. GSE supplementation increased mRNA levels of lipolytic genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). These findings suggest that grape seed extract supplements in high fat diet might normalize body weight, epididymal and back fat weights, lipid concentrations, and carnitine levels through controlling lipid metabolism. PMID:20016723

  4. Biodiesel from Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need to seek non-conventional seed oil sources for biodiesel production due to issues such as supply and availability, as well as food versus fuel. In this context, Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil was investigated for the first time as a potential non-conventional feedstock for the ...

  5. Continuous hydrolysis of Cuphea seed oil in subcritical water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a source of medium chain fatty acids for use in chemical manufacturing, including detergents, shampoos and lubricants. Cuphea seed oil is high in decanoic acid and this fatty acid is especially useful in the preparation of estolide biobased lubricants, which have excellent ...

  6. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  7. Biological Networks Underlying Soybean Seed Oil Composition and Content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean is the most important oil crop in the United States. Production of soybean seed oil requires coordinated expression of many biological components and pathways, which is further regulated by seed development and phyto-hormones. A new research project is initiated in my laboratory to delineat...

  8. Thermal and storage characteristics of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal oxidative stability and effect of different storage conditions on quality characteristics of tomato seed oil have not been studied. The objectives of this research were to determine the changes in quality and oxidative stability of tomato seed oil, including color, antioxidant activity, per...

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  10. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  11. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  12. Influence of heating on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ross, Carolyn Felicity; Hoye, Clifford; Fernandez-Plotka, Virginia Christina

    2011-08-01

    The production of grape seed flour (GSF) from a waste product generated during winemaking, is of interest in product development applications due to its potential health benefits. However, before GSF can used in baking as a source of additional antioxidants, research on its heat stability is required. The overall objective of this study was to assess changes in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of GSF during heating. Merlot GSF was heated at 5 temperatures (120 to 240 °C) for 0 to 90 min. At each time/temperature combination, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavanoid content (TFC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts were determined. Specific polyphenolic compounds, including catechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid were also measured. Results showed that when Merlot GSF was heated to ≥180 °C, significant decreases in the TPC and antioxidant activity, measured using FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC, were observed. Longer heating times also caused a reduction in antioxidant capability. Catechin and epicatechin content decreased with increasing heating temperature while gallocatechin and gallic acid content increased. Both catechin and epicatechin content had strong positive correlations (r > 0.91) with TPC and TFC, as well with FRAP and TEAC, suggesting that the GSF antioxidant activity is related to the presence of these particular compounds. Overall, while a decrease in antioxidant content was observed during heating, this occurred at higher baking temperatures. Thus GSF may be suitable for use as an ingredient in baked goods to bolster antioxidant content. In order for Merlot grape seed flour (GSF) to be used in baking as a source of additional antioxidant compounds, the impact of heating on the polyphenolic compounds in the GSF needed to be examined. Thermal treatment of Merlot GSF caused significant decreases in

  13. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content. PMID:28265278

  14. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10-37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24-43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  15. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  17. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  18. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, enhance unsaturated fatty acids in the milk of Sarda dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Correddu, F; Gaspa, G; Pulina, G; Nudda, A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone or in combination, on sheep milk fatty acids (FA) profile using 24 Sarda dairy ewes allocated to 4 isoproductive groups. Groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet including 300 g/d per animal of grape seed (GS), a diet including 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet including a mix of 300 g/d per animal of grape seed and 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with a 2-wk adaptation period and an 8-wk experimental period. Milk FA composition was analyzed in milk samples collected in the last 4 wk of the trial. The milk concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased and that of unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (UFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively) increased in GS, LIN, and MIX groups compared with CON. The MIX group showed the lowest values of SFA and the highest of UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. Milk from ewes fed linseed (LIN and MIX) showed an enrichment of vaccenic acid (VA), oleic acid (OA), α-linolenic acid (LNA), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) compared with milk from the CON group. The GS group showed a greater content of milk oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and tended to show a greater content of VA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA than the CON group. The inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, decreased the milk concentration of de novo synthesized FA C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0, with the MIX group showing the lowest values. In conclusion, grape seed and linseed could be useful to increase the concentration of FA with potential health benefits, especially when these ingredients are included in combination in the diet. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative study of the phenolic composition of seeds and skins from Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Obreque-Slier, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio; Zamora-Marín, Fernando; Ricardo-da Silva, Jorge M; Laureano, Olga

    2010-03-24

    The phenolic composition of skins and seeds from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes during ripening was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and spectrophotometric analysis. As compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins, Carménère grape skins presented higher contents of total anthocyanins, monomeric flavan-3-ols, and total flavonoids, a higher mean degree of polymerization, a higher percentage of galloylation, a higher average molecular weight of the flavanol fraction, and a higher color intensity. As compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grape seeds, Carménère grape seeds presented a lower content of monomeric flavan-3-ols, a higher mean degree of polymerization, a higher percentage of galloylation, a higher average molecular weight of the flavanol fraction, a lower content of (+)-catechin, and higher contents of (-)-epicatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, gallic acid, and dimeric procyanidins esterified with gallic acid. Altogether, we conclude that Carménère grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

  1. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    PubMed

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; P<0.001) and the benchmark (92.32±1.33%), but insignificant removed eyeliner (87.50±5.15%; P=0.059). Tea seed oil remover caused none of skin irritation as examined in 20 human volunteers. A single-blind, randomized control exhibited that the tea seed oil remover gained a better preference over the benchmark (75.42±8.10 and 70.00±7.78%; P=0.974). The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts from grape seed and cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pinent, Montserrat; Castell-Auví, Anna; Genovese, Maria Inés; Serrano, Joan; Casanova, Angela; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna

    2016-01-15

    The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco-2 and the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. We show that GSPE prevents tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg kg(-1) body weight cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE kg(-1) body weight reduced ROS in fasted animals and also decreased ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short-term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin-rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms from those of GSPE. Natural proanthocyanidin-rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the GI tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone-secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  4. Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, G; Moreno, M; Arozarena, I; Marín-Arroyo, M R; Bleibaum, R N; Bruhn, C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand sensory and instrumental similarities and differences among an array of cookies made with bulk and microencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) and then to determine how these differences impact consumer acceptance. Total of 4 types of cookies (control, enriched with bulk GSE, and enriched with 2 different microencapsulated GSE) were evaluated by instrumental analyses, a sensory trained panel using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) methodology, and a consumer acceptance test that included a usage and attitude survey. The addition of GSE resulted in darker brown cookies; microencapsulation partially masked the color that the GSE conferred to the cookies. The cookies with the microencapsulated GSE showed a significant higher antioxidant activity, microencapsulation may have reduced the GSE heat degradation. The QDA(®) trained panelists found the enriched cookies to be more astringent and with aromas and flavors similar to whole grains flours. Consumers rated the control cookie and 1 GSE encapsulated cookie at parity; they were equally well liked (P > 0.05). When provided with information, nearly 60% of consumers stated that they were willing to purchase cookies enriched with antioxidants. This high positive percentage may increase if consumers received more education on the health benefits of antioxidant consumption. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of grape seed powder on oxidative stability of precooked chicken nuggets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Cagdas, Ece; Kumcuoglu, Seher

    2015-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of grape seed powder (GSP) on lipid oxidation in chicken nuggets during frozen storage for 5 months was investigated. Chicken nuggets were prepared by dipping into batter containing GSP and pre-fried at 180 °C and then stored at -18 °C. Prefried chicken nugget crusts showed antioxidant properties. Primary oxidation products, determined by the peroxide value (POV) and conjugated diene (CD) concentration, gradually increased until month 2 and then declined, which is an indication of secondary lipid oxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values slowly increased during the first 2 months of storage and then slightly decreased. However, at the end of the storage period, the levels were increased to 0.4 mg MDA/kg meat and were lowest in 10 % GSP (0.104 mg MDA/kg meat). The para-anisidine values (pAV) increased in all samples during storage. Generally, samples treated with GSP had lower POV, pAV, TBARS, and CD values compared to the control. These findings indicated that GSP significantly (p < 0.05) retarded lipid oxidation in precooked chicken nuggets.

  6. Grape seed and skin extract protects against arsenic trioxide induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Sfaxi, Ichraf; Charradi, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; El May, Michèle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-07-29

    Arsenic is a metalloid found in water, soil, and air from natural and anthropogenic sources, and is commonly found in inorganic as well as organic forms. The clinical use of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is limited by its cardiotoxic side effects. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a polyphenolic mixture with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of GSSE on arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and injury. Animals exposed to 2.5 mg/kg As2O3 for 21 days exhibited a relevant increase in heart lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation, and inflammation, as well as a drop in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, As2O3 disturbed heart lipidemia and lipase activity, transition metals distribution and the associated enzymes, intracellular mediators such as calcium and the associated calpain activity, as well as myocardial architecture. Treatment with 4 g/kg GSSE protected against most of the deleterious effects provoked by As2O3. Our data suggest that GSSE has the potential to protect against As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity.

  7. Grape seed procyanidin extract modulates proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Arola, Lluís; Pinent, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) modulates glucose homeostasis and insulinemia in several animal models. Under pathological conditions, insulin levels are dependent on pancreatic beta-cell functionality, as well as on the beta-cell mass expansion or apoptosis in the pancreas. In this study, we analysed the effects of GSPE on modulating apoptosis and proliferation in beta-cells. We tested the effects of GSPE in the INS-1E pancreatic beta-cell line, either under basal or altered conditions with high glucose, insulin or palmitate levels. GSPE enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of high glucose and showed clear antiproliferative effects under high glucose, insulin and palmitate conditions. These antiproliferative effects are likely due to high molecular weight compounds contained in the extract. GSPE also modulated pro- and anti-apoptotic markers in the pancreas of rats fed a cafeteria diet, with the effect depending on the dose of GSPE and duration of treatment. Thus, GSPE is able to modulate apoptosis and proliferation of beta-cells under altered, but not basal, conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Water-dispersible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solution containing grape seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruchao; Si, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Qiyi

    2012-02-01

    A novel and effective method for the preparation of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles was reported. nHAp was prepared in the presence of grape seed polyphenol (GSP) solution with different concentrations. Chemical precipitation method was adopted to produce pure nHAp and modified nHAp (nHAp-GSP) at 60 °C for 2 h. The chemical nature of the products was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the crystal structure and morphology of particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the spherical nHAp particles with a diameter of 20-50 nm could be synthesized at 60 °C. The zeta potential values of pure nHAp and nHAp-GSP are -0.36 mV and -26.1 mV respectively. According to the sedimentary time, the colloidal stability of nHAp-GSP in water could be improved dramatically with the increase of GSP content and the particles tended to exist as dispersive nanoparticles without aggregation. All the results indicated that GSP exhibited strong binding to nHAp and enhanced the colloidal stability of nHAp particles.

  9. Efficacy of grape seed and skin extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols.

  10. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  11. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects lymphocytes against histone-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ping; Mo, Bing; Cauvi, David M.; Yu, Ying; Guo, Zhenhui; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Yan, Qitao; Chen, Guiming

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis of lymphocytes is associated with immunosuppression and poor prognosis in sepsis. Our previous report showed that histones, nuclear proteins released from damaged or dying cells in sepsis, can mediate lymphocyte apoptosis via mitochondria damage. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a natural substance with protective properties against oxidative stress, plays a vital role in cell and mitochondria protection. We thus hypothesized that GSPE may play a protective role in histone-induced lymphocyte apoptosis through its anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of GSPE on lymphocyte apoptosis induced by extracellular histones, a main contributor of death in sepsis. Human blood lymphocytes were treated with 50 μg/ml histones, 2 μg/ml GSPE, or a combination of both. A total of 100 μM N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, was used as a positive control for GSPE. Apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 cleavage were measured. Our data clearly indicate that GSPE significantly inhibited lymphocyte apoptosis, generation of ROS, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the decrease in Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activation induced by extracellular histones. In conclusion, we show that GSPE has a protective effect on lymphocyte apoptosis induced by extracellular histones. This study suggests GSPE as a potential therapeutic agent that could help reduce lymphocyte apoptosis, and thus the state of immunosuppression was observed in septic patients. PMID:28344907

  12. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells by Grape Seed Extract Occurs via Activation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ning; Budhraja, Amit; Cheng, Senping; Yao, Hua; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the functional role of JNK and other apoptotic pathways in grape seed extract (GSE)-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by using pharmacologic and genetic approaches. Experimental Design Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of GSE for 12 h and 24 h, or with 50 μg/ml of GSE for various time intervals, after which apoptosis, caspase activation, and cell signaling pathways were evaluated. Parallel studies were performed in U937 and HL-60 human leukemia cells. Results Exposure of Jurkat cells to GSE resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis and caspase activation, events associated with the pronounced increase in Cip1/p21 protein level. Furthermore, treatment of Jurkat cells with GSE resulted in marked increase in levels of phospho-JNK. Conversely, interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological inhibitor (e.g. SP600125) or genetic (e.g. siRNA) approaches displayed significant protection against GSE mediated lethality in Jurkat cells. Conclusions The result of the present study showed that GSE induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a process that involves sustained JNK activation and Cip1/p21 up-regulation, culminating in caspase activation. PMID:19118041

  13. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg-1 body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p < 0.05) heart weight, blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid peroxidation level, but increased (p < 0.05) body weight and activities antioxidant enzymes when compared to diabetic group. The results indicated that GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes. PMID:26261706

  14. Oral administration of grape seed polyphenol extract restores memory deficits in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zheng, Yake; Wu, Tianwen; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated. Here, CCH-related memory impairment was modeled in rats using permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. A Morris water maze task was used to evaluate memory, the levels of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine were used to evaluate cholinergic function, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonic dialdehyde, and catalase. We found that oral administration of GSPE for 1 month can rescue memory deficits. We also found that GSPE restores cholinergic neuronal function and represses oxidative damage in the hippocampus of CCH rats. We propose that GSPE protects memory in CCH rats by reducing ischemia-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. These findings provide a novel application of GSPE in CCH-related memory impairments.

  15. Preparative HSCCC isolation of phloroglucinolysis products from grape seed polymeric proanthocyanidins as new powerful antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Luo, Lanxin; Sun, Baoshan

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric proanthocyanidins isolated from a grape seed phenolic extract were hydrolysed in the presence of phloroglucinol into monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives. Each of the phloroglucinolysis products was successfully separated and isolated in large amount by semi-preparative HSCCC technique under the optimized conditions based on a selection of suitable solvent system. The optimized solvent system consisted of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1:80:80, v/v/v) with a combination of head-tail and tail-head elution modes. By only one-step HSCCC separation, the purity of each obtained phloroglucinolysis product, including monomer catechins and their nucleophile derivatives was above 76%, verified by UPLC. The structures of these products were tentatively identified by UPLC based on their retention time and further confirmed by MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Furthermore, by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, it was verified that all these phloroglucinolysis products possessed strong antioxidant activities, being catechin-nucleophile derivatives more powerful than free catechins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Qingwang; Nie, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Tan, Bo; Cao, Hongying; Chen, Wenling; Gao, Weiming; Chen, Jiayi; Liang, Zhijian; Lai, Huangling; Huang, Siming; Xu, Yifei; Jiang, Weiwen; Huang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD. PMID:27588088

  17. Ascorbate, green tea and grape seed extracts increase the shelf life of low sulphite beef patties.

    PubMed

    Bañón, Sancho; Díaz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Mariano; Garrido, María Dolores; Price, Alejandra

    2007-12-01

    Green tea (GTE) and grape seed (GSE) extracts are proposed as preservatives for increasing the shelf life of low sulphite raw beef patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both extracts were compared with ascorbate. Five groups were established for the patties: Control (with no additives), S (100 SO(2)), SA (100 SO(2)+400 sodium ascorbate), ST (100 SO(2)+300 GTE) and SG (100 SO(2)+300 GSE) (mg per kg of meat). Patties were stored at 4°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 3, 6 or 9 days under retail display conditions. Meat spoilage (total viable and coliform counts, pH, lightness, chroma, hue angle, metmyoglobin and TBARS) was determined. The sensory contribution of the extracts to cooked patties was evaluated (colour, odour, flavour and texture). The results pointed to the possibility of using low SO(2)-vegetable extract combinations to preserve raw meat products. ST, SG and SA delayed microbial spoilage, redness loss and lipid oxidation, thus increasing the shelf life of the raw sulphite beef patties by 3 days. ST, SG and SA also delayed the onset of rancid flavours in cooked patties. No anomalous sensory traits were caused by either extract. Ascorbate, GTE and GSE improved the preservative effects of SO(2) on beef patties, especially against meat oxidation. This suggested that the quantity of SO(2) added can be reduced to obtain healthier raw meat products.

  18. Pancreatic islet proteome profile in Zucker fatty rats chronically treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Baiges, Isabel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to modify glucose metabolism and β-cell functionality through its lipid-lowering effects in a diet-induced obesity model. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronically administrated GSPE on the proteomic profile of pancreatic islets from Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment was conducted and 31 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ZF rats treated with GSPE compared to untreated ZF rats. Of these proteins, five subcategories of biological processes emerged: hexose metabolic processes, response to hormone stimulus, apoptosis and cell death, translation and protein folding, and macromolecular complex assembly. Gene expression analysis supported the role of the first three biological processes, concluding that GSPE limits insulin synthesis and secretion and modulates factors involved in apoptosis, but these molecular changes are not sufficient to counteract the genetic background of the Zucker model at a physiological level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract alleviates ouabain-induced vascular remodeling through regulation of endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangju; Qiu, Jie; Zhao, Shaohua; You, Beian; Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xiaopei; Wang, Qian; Gao, Haiqing

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-β1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.

  20. The role of grape seed extract in the remineralization of demineralized dentine: micromorphological and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng-fang; Fang, Ming; Liu, Rui-rui; Dou, Qi; Chai, Zhi-guo; Xiao, Yu-hong; Chen, Ji-hua

    2013-12-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is known to have a positive effect on the demineralization and/or remineralization of artificial root caries lesions. The present study aimed to investigate whether biomodification of caries-like acid-etched demineralized dentine, using proanthocyanidins-rich GSE, would promote its remineralization potential. Dentine specimens were acid-etched for 30s, then biomodified using proanthocyanidin-based preconditioners (at different concentrations and pH values) for 2min, followed by a 15-day artificial remineralization regimen. They were subsequently subjected to microhardness measurements, micromorphological evaluation and X-ray diffraction analyses. Stability of the preconditioners was also analyzed, spectrophotometrically. A concentration-dependent increase was observed in the microhardness of the specimens that were biomodified using GSE preconditioners, without pH adjustment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed greater mineral deposition on their surfaces, which was further identified mainly as hydroxylapatite. The absorbances of preconditioner dilutions at pH 7.4 and pH 10.0 decreased at the two typical polyphenol bands. Transient GSE biomodification promoted remineralization on the surface of demineralized dentine, and this process was influenced by the concentration and pH value of the preconditioner. GSE preconditioner at a concentration of 15%, without pH adjustment, presented with the best results, and this may be attributed to its high polyphenolic content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Grape seed extract enhances neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dong-Woo; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-05-01

    The effects of grape seed extract (GSE), a major source of phenolic compounds, were examined on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (12 month-old) mice using Ki67, doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry and 5'-bromo-2-deoxyguanosine (BrdU)/calbindin D-28k (CB) double immunofluorescence study, respectively. GSE (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days, and the animals were treated with 50 mg/kg BrdU intraperitoneally on the day of first GSE treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, Ki67 and DCX immunoreactivity was detected in the subgranular zone of the DG (SZDG). GSE treatment dose-dependently increased the number of Ki67 and DCX immunoreactive cells, particularly the number of DCX immunoreactive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. GSE also dose-dependently increased DCX protein levels. In addition, GSE treatment increased significantly the number of BrdU/CB double labeled granule cells. These results suggest that GSE significantly increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells in the DG, and the consumption of GSE enhances the plasticity of hippocampus in middle-aged mice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of grape seed extract on descriptive sensory analysis of ground chicken during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Brannan, R G

    2009-04-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis, instrumental color, yield, pH, water activity, and binding strength were determined on ground chicken breast and thigh with or without grape seed extract (GSE) during refrigerated storage. In chicken breast, GSE inhibited the intensity of musty and rancid odor, and rancid flavor compared to control patties, but GSE caused significantly darker (L(∗)), redder (a(∗)), and less yellow (b(∗)) patties. No differences were observed for pH, water activity, or yield, though differences were observed for binding strength. In chicken thigh, sensory scores were significantly different for 14 of 15 sensory attributes, although the differences were due to storage time or precooking, not the presence of GSE. GSE caused significantly darker sensory scores and L(∗) values, and redder (a(∗)) and less yellow (b(∗)) patties. Differences in binding strength and yield were attributable to precooking, not the presence of GSE. GSE may be an effective antioxidant in precooked chicken breast systems.

  3. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (p<0.05) and reduced the AGEs and MDA of diabetic rats (p<0.05). After being treated by GSPE, the severe segmental demyelination was decreased and Schwann cells were improved. In conclusion, GSPE plays an important role against DPN. With the decreasing of AGEs and MDA, it can ameliorate oxidation-associated nerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Renoprotective effect of grape seed extract against oxidative stress induced by gentamicin and hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Salem, Neveen A; Salem, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Kidneys are dynamic organs and represent one of the major systems maintaining the body homeostasis; they are affected by many chemicals and drugs. Grape seed extract (GSE) has been targeted to prevent drug-induced renal toxicity. This study investigates the possible renoprotective effect of GSE against oxidative stress, renal impairment, and hypercholesterolemia (HC) induced by gentamicin (GM) and cholesterol-enriched diet. Seventy adult male Wistar rats (160 ± 10 g) were divided into seven groups: (1) served as control, (2) GSE, (3) GM, (4) GSE + GM, (5) hypercholesterolemic (HC) group, (6) GM + HC group, and (7) GM + HC + GSE. Kidney functions, inflammatory mediators, cytokines, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and oxidative and antioxidative stress parameters were assessed in all groups. GM induced renal dysfunction, which was exacerbated by the presence of HC as confirmed by laboratory determinations. Administration of GSE attenuated the renal toxicity evidenced in significant reduction in elevated kidney function, inflammatory cytokines as well as lipid profile, NO, cGMP, enzymatic, and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Administration of GSE simultaneously with GM attenuated oxidative stress, diminished renal toxicity, and improved lipid profile induced by GM and HC.

  6. Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Debasis; Swaroop, Anand; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi

    2014-10-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular dysfunctions, acute and chronic stress, gastrointestinal distress, neurological disorders, pancreatitis, various stages of neoplastic processes and carcinogenesis including detoxification of carcinogenic metabolites. GSP exhibited potent free radical scavenging abilities in both in vitro and in vivo models. GSP exerted significant in vivo protection against structurally diverse drug and chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and spleentoxicity. GSP also protected against idarubicin and 4-hydroxyperoxy-cyclophosphamide-induced cytotoxicity toward human normal liver cells. GSP exhibited selective cytotoxicity toward selected human cancer cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal cells. GSP exhibited potent modulatory effects of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic regulatory bcl-XL, p53, c-myc, c-JUN, JNK-1 and CD36 genes. Long-term exposure to GSP may serve as a novel chemoprotectant against three stages of DMN-induced liver carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis including initiation, promotion and progression. GSP may selectively protect against oxidative stress, genomic integrity and cell death patterns in vivo. These results demonstrate that GSP may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention against carcinogenesis.

  7. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p < 0.05) heart weight, blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid peroxidation level, but increased (p < 0.05) body weight and activities antioxidant enzymes when compared to diabetic group. The results indicated that GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes.

  8. Grape seed and skin extract protects against bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Khazri, Olfa; Charradi, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; El May, Michelle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-07-01

    Lung fibrosis is a common side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin and current evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species play a key role in the development of lung injury. We examined whether grape seed and skin extract (GSSE), a polyphenolic mixture exhibiting antioxidant properties, is able to protect against bleomycin-induced lung oxidative stress and injury. Rats were pre-treated during three weeks either with vehicle (ethanol 10% control) or GSSE (4g/kg), then administered with a single high dose bleomycin (15mg/kg) at the 7th day. Bleomycin increased lung lipoperoxidation, carbonylation and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Bleomycin also induced copper depletion from the lung and iron accumulation within the lung, but had no effect on either zinc nor manganese. Correlatively bleomycin decreased the copper associated enzyme tyrosinase, increased the zinc dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and did not affect the manganese dependent glutamine synthetase. GSSE efficiently counteracted almost all bleomycin-induced oxidative stress, biochemical and morphological changes of lung tissue. Data suggest that GSSE exerts potent antioxidant properties that could find potential application in the protection against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Sonia; Mokni, Meherzia; Limam, Nadia; N'guessan, Prudence; Carrier, Alice; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Aouani, Ezzedine; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2012-05-01

    Garlic is a commonly used spice in folk medicine that can exert adverse health effects when given at a high dose. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibits a variety of beneficial effects even at a high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity of high-dose garlic treatment on liver and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally administered either with garlic extract (5 g·(kg body weight)(-1)) or GSSE (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for 1 month. Plasma and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and transaminases and liver antioxidant status were evaluated. Data showed that a high garlic dose induced liver toxicity and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Garlic increased intracellular H(2)O(2) but decreased free iron and Ca(2+). GSSE alone or in co-treatment with garlic had the reverse effect and counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious impacts to near control levels. In conclusion, a high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, inducing Ca(2+) depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca(2+) repletion.

  10. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.

  11. Grape Seed Extract Attenuates Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Virus-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a causative factor leading to hepatocellular carcinoma due to chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was first to explore the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) in HCV replication, and then to study mechanisms. The results indicated that a GSE treatment showed significant anti-HCV activity and suppressed HCV-elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In contrast, exogenous COX-2 expression gradually attenuated antiviral effects of GSE, suggesting that GSE inhibited HCV replication by suppressing an aberrant COX-2 expression caused by HCV, which was correlated with the inactivation of IKK-regulated NF-κB and MAPK/ERK/JNK signaling pathways. In addition, GSE also attenuated HCV-induced inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Notably, a combined administration of GSE with interferon or other FDA-approved antiviral drugs revealed a synergistic anti-HCV effect. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the possibility of developing GSE as a dietary supplement to treat patients with a chronic HCV infection. PMID:28066241

  12. Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Against Ccl4 Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jinfa; Qi, Fengjie; Ye, Liping; Yao, Suyan

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Material/Methods Sixty SPF KM mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, CCl4-model group, bifendate group (DDB group), and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GSP groups. The following parameters were measured: serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin-6 (IL-6); high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1; body weight; liver, spleen, and thymus indexes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; HMGB1 mRNA; malondialdehyde (MDA) content; hepatocyte proliferation; and changes in liver histology. Results Compared to the CCl4-model group, decreases in liver index and increases in thymus index significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA content, and higher hepatocyte proliferative activity was found in all GSP dose groups and the DDB group (all P<0.001). Compared with the CCl4-model group, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and HMGB 1 mRNA and protein expressions decreased significantly in the high GSP dose group (all P<0.05). Conclusions Our results provide strong evidence that administration of GSPs might confer significant protection against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:26986029

  13. Grape seed pro-anthocyanidins ameliorates radiation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijuan; Liu, Wen; Liu, Hu; Yang, Yanyong; Cui, Jianguo; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Hainan; He, Feng; Cheng, Ying; Ni, Jin; Cai, Jianming; Li, Bailong; Gao, Fu

    2014-07-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a potentially fatal and dose-limiting complication of thoracic radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the protective effects of grape seed pro-anthocyanidins (GSPs), an efficient antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic agent, on RILI. In our study, it was demonstrated that acute and late RILI was ameliorated after GSPs treatment possibly through suppressing TGF-β1/Smad3/Snail signalling pathway and modulating the levels of cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-4 and IL-13) derived from Th1/Th2 cells. In addition, a sustained high level of PGE2 was also maintained by GSPs treatment to limited fibroblast functions. As shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry, GSPs could scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH) in a dose-dependent manner, which might account for the mitigation of lipid peroxidation and consequent apoptosis of lung cells. In vitro, GSPs radiosensitized lung cancer cell A549 while mitigating radiation injury on normal alveolar epithelial cell RLE-6TN. In conclusion, the results showed that GSPs protects mice from RILI through scavenging free radicals and modulating RILI-associated cytokines, suggesting GSPs as a novel protective agent in RILI. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity of grape seed extract in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Raina, Komal; Tyagi, Alpna; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2013-11-01

    In present study, we evaluated grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy against bladder cancer and associated mechanism in two different bladder cancer cell lines T24 and HTB9. A significant inhibitory effect of GSE on cancer cell viability was observed, which was due to apoptotic cell death. Cell death events were preceded by vacuolar appearance in cytoplasm, which under electron microscopy was confirmed as swollen mitochondrial organelle and autophagosomes. Through detailed in vitro studies, we established that GSE generated oxidative stress that initiated an apoptotic response as indicated by the reversal of GSE-mediated apoptosis when the cells were pre-treated with antioxidants prior to GSE. However, parallel to a strong apoptotic cell death event, GSE also caused a pro-survival autophagic event as evidenced by tracking the dynamics of LC3-II within the cells. Since the pro-death apoptotic response was stronger than the pro-survival autophagy induction within the cells, cell eventually succumbed to cellular death after GSE exposure. Together, the findings in the present study are both novel and highly significant in establishing, for the first time, that GSE-mediated oxidative stress causes a strong programmed cell death in human bladder cancer cells, suggesting and advocating the effectiveness of this non-toxic agent against this deadly malignancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Study on the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on increasing the radiosensitivity for X-ray].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-jing; Wang, Min; Wang, Xue-xi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on enhancing the radiosensitivity of human hepatic carcinoma cell line HepG2, human cervical cancer cell line Hela and human leukemia cell line K562 for X-ray in vitro. The killing effect of GSPs combined with X-ray on cells was evaluated by SRB and clone formation assay. The GSPs had obvious cytotoxicity on three cell lines in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. However, inhibition rate of different cell line were quite different, the strongest one was human leukemia K562 cells and the others were weak. The sensitization ranges calculated by univariate analysis were 6.25-12.5 microg/mL for human leukemia K562 cells. Sensitization enhancement ratio was 1.94 using curve fitting method for K562 cells. GSPs can obviously enhance the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro. The mechanism of sensitization effect may be related to the effects of GSPs on oxygen balance and cell cycle.

  16. [Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibits the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yehan; Ye, Xiufeng; Shi, Yao; Wang, Ke; Wan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effect of varying doses of GSPs on the BEAS-2B normal human pulmonary epithelial cells. After treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 μg/mL GSP, the proliferation of A549 cells was detected by MTT assay; the invasion and migration of A549 cells were determined by Transwell(TM) assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. The levels of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), E-cadherin, N-cadherin in A549 cells treated with GSPs were detected by Western blotting. (0-40) μg/mL GSPs had no significant toxic effect on BEAS-2B cells, while 80 μg/mL GSPs had significant cytotoxicity to BEAS-2B cells. The proliferation of A549 cells was significantly inhibited within limited dosage in a dose-dependent manner, and the abilities of invasion and migration of A549 cells were also inhibited. Western blotting showed that the expression of EGFR and N-cadherin decreased, while E-cadherin increased after GSPs treatment. GSPs could inhibit the abilities of proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells, which might be related to the dow-regulation of EGFR and N-cadherin and the up-regulation of E-cadherin.

  17. Mathematical modeling of gallic acid release from chitosan films with grape seed extract and carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Javiera F; Cruz, Rui M S; Zuñiga, Rommy N; Khmelinskii, Igor; Vieira, Margarida C

    2017-11-01

    Controlled release of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds from packaging films is of utmost importance for extending the shelf-life of perishable foods. This study focused on the mathematical modeling of gallic acid release into an aqueous medium from three chitosan films, formulated with grape seed extract (GSE) and carvacrol. We quantified the release by HPLC technique during 30days at three temperatures (5, 25 and 45°C). The diffusion coefficients, varying with temperature according to an Arrhenius-type relationship, and the respective activation energies for Film-1 and Film-2 were, respectively [Formula: see text] m(2)s(-1) and [Formula: see text] m(2)s(-1), Ea1=58kJmol(-1) and Ea2=60kJmol(-1) as obtained from the Fickian fit. The low concentrations of gallic acid released by Film-3 could not be detected by HPLC, therefore the respective diffusion coefficient was not estimated. This study will help with the development and optimization of active packaging (AP) films aiming at improved food preservation and shelf-life extension. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Grape seed as a functional food ingredient in bread-making.

    PubMed

    Meral, Raciye; Doğan, İsmail Sait

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed (GS) on the rheological and bread-making properties, antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of bread. Wheat flour was replaced with GS at levels of 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%. GS increased the dough development time at a level of 5.0% but did not change it at levels of 2.5% and 7.5%. The dough stability value increased from 6.4 to 12.3 min with the increase of GS content from 0% to 7.5%. Mixing tolerance index decreased from 41.1 to 6.4 Brabender Units Equivalent. Extensibility of dough containing GS was higher than that of the control dough. The antioxidant activities of the bread increased significantly with the increased GS substitution. Gallic acid and catechin content increased in the bread containing GS. It was concluded that GS could be added to the formulae to improve functionality of the bread.

  19. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-08-01

    Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao; Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya; AlMaadeed, Mariam A; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4μgml(-1) & 5μgml(-1) of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines.

  1. Effects of grape seed extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Başaralı, Kemal

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on exercise performance and oxidative stress in acutely and chronically exercised rats. A total of sixty-four male rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into six groups: control, chronic exercise control, acute exercise control (AEC), GSE-supplemented control, GSE-supplemented chronic exercise and GSE-supplemented acute exercise groups. Chronic exercise consisted of treadmill running at 25 m/min, 45 min/d, 5 d a week for 6 weeks. Rats in the acute exercise groups were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. GSE were given at 100 mg/kg of body weight with drinking water for 6 weeks. Plasma was separated from blood samples for the analysis of oxidative stress markers. There was no significant difference in time of exhaustion between the acute exercise groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the acute exercise groups and lower in the chronic exercise groups. GSE supplementation decreased MDA levels. Xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase activities were higher in the AEC group compared to all the other groups. NO levels were increased with both chronic exercise and GSE supplementation. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in the acute exercised groups and higher in the chronic exercised groups. GSE supplementation caused an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, GSE supplementation prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress by preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.

  2. Grape seed procyanidins in pre- and mild hypertension: a registry study.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Ledda, Andrea; Hu, Shu; Cesarone, Maria Rosa; Feragalli, Beatrice; Dugall, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of a standardized grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE, Enovita) to decrease blood pressure when associated with nondrug intervention (diet and lifestyle modifications) was investigated in a controlled registry study involving 119 healthy, pre- and mildly hypertensive subjects. Two dosages of Enovita were evaluated (150 and 300 mg/die), using blood pressure and heart rate as the primary endpoints and complementing these observations with a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) investigation of the microcirculation state and an evaluation of the plasma oxidative status. After four months of treatment, a statistically significant higher, and dose-dependent, improvement in all endpoints was observed in the treatment groups compared to that of the control, with blood pressure normalizing in 93% of the higher dosage (300 mg) treatment group. Taken together, these observations suggest that GSPEs have beneficial cardiovascular effects that complement current intervention strategies in the hypertension area. The effect on blood pressure adds to the beneficial effects of GSPEs on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) phenotype associated with the oxidation of membrane lipids (endothelial dysfunction, formation of oxidized LDL, and activation of phagocytic cells).

  3. Oxidative stability and chemical safety of mayonnaise enriched with grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE), a by-product from the wine industry, was explored for its use as enrichment to mayonnaise, due to its potential health effects. Mayonnaises were enriched with 0 mg GSE per mL, 0.5 mg GSE per mL (~0.050%), 0.9 mg GSE per mL (~0.10%) and 1.4 mg GSE per mL (~0.15%) during preparation and stored in the dark at room temperature for 8 weeks. The antioxidative capacity of the mayonnaises was evaluated by their ability to scavenge the stable radical TEMPO by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the mayonnaises was determined by the content of lipid hydroperoxides (peroxide value, POV), the content of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The highest antioxidative capacity and the lowest content of lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were found in the mayonnaise with the highest percentage of GSE (0.15%). Therefore, the oxidative stability of the mayonnaises enriched with GSE was slightly improved through storage. However, mayonnaise without GSE had the highest sensorial acceptability compared to mayonnaise enriched with GSE. In the Artemia salina assay, a fast screening method for overall toxicity, the death rate of brine shrimps larvae was found to increase for increasing percentage of GSE. A level of 0.05% GSE in mayonnaise is concluded not to constitute any toxicological risks, but to provide significant protection against oxidation during storage.

  4. Grape seed procyanidins prevent oxidative injury by modulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Puiggros, Francesc; Llópiz, Niurka; Ardévol, Anna; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Salvadó, M Josepa

    2005-07-27

    In the present paper, we report the effect of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on antioxidant enzyme systems (AOEs). Gene expression was tested using the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 by exposing it to several GSPE doses between 0 and 100 mg/L for 24 h. We evaluated mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels using real time RT-PCR and spectrophotometry. The results suggested a transcriptional GSPE regulation of glutathione related enzymes caused by an increase both in mRNA and in enzyme activity levels overall at 15 mg/L. We also assessed the GSPE effect on AOEs in cells submitted to oxidative stress. Under oxidative conditions (1 mM H(2)O(2), 1 h), we found a decrease in GSH content and an increase in MDA, and we suggested a posttranslational regulation of GPx/GR mRNAs and a transcriptional enhancement of GST mRNA. The GSPE pretreatment (15 mg/L, 23 h) before HepG2 submission to H(2)O(2) (1 mM, 1 h) showed an increase of the mRNA of GPx/GR with respect to the H(2)O(2) group, whereas the GSH content was similar to the control group. However, the GPx/GR enzyme activities were not increased. We hypothesize that GSPE probably improves the cellular redox status via glutathione synthesis pathways instead of regulation of the GPx and/or GR activities protecting against oxidative damage.

  5. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on cardiovascular remodeling in DOCA-salt hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-ling; Pan, Chen; Wang, Li; Ding, Ling; Guo, Kun; Wang, Hong-zhi; Xu, A-Man; Gao, Shan

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular remodeling, as a hallmark of hypertension-induced pathophysiology, causes substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence that has demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, 180- to 200-g SD rats treated with DOCA (120 mg/week sc with 1% NaCl and 0.2% KCl in drinking water) and GSP (150, 240, 384 mg/kg) or amlodipine (ALM) (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks were recruited. The protective effects of GSP on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in rats with DOCA-salt-induced hypertension were investigated. Our results indicated that DOCA-salt could induce hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction, oxidative stress and the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and could increase JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. GSP or ALM treatments significantly improved hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction and oxidative stress, restrained the release of ET-1 and down-regulated the JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that GSP has protective effects against increase of blood pressure induced by DOCA-salt hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via restraining the release of ET-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Grape seed extract as photochemopreventive agent against UVB-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Perde-Schrepler, Maria; Chereches, Gabriela; Brie, Ioana; Tatomir, Corina; Postescu, Ion Dan; Soran, Loredana; Filip, Adriana

    2013-01-05

    In the recent years, the use of natural antioxidants as photochemoprotective agents against skin damages produced by ultraviolet radiation gained considerable attention. Our goal was to show that the hydroethanolic extract obtained from red grape seeds, Burgund Mare (BM) variety could have a protective effect on keratinocytes exposed to UVB radiation. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with BM extract 30 min. before UVB exposure. The effect was evaluated by assessing cell viability with MTT; the generation of lipid peroxides with malondialdehide (MDA) assay; DNA damage using comet assay; the quantification of DNA photolesions by ELISA and apoptosis by immunocytochemistry with AnnexinV. After irradiation with UVB, HaCaT cells pretreated with BM showed: increased cell viability compared to those exposed to UVB only; significantly lower lipid peroxides level; the lesion scores and DNA photolesions were significantly lower and a significant reduction of the cells undergoing apoptosis. These results recommend the use of the BM extract as photochemoprotective agent as such or in combination with sunscreens and/or other natural products with similar or complementary properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomics analysis of rat brain protein modulations by grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Deshane, Jessy; Chaves, Lisa; Sarikonda, Kiran Varma; Isbell, Scott; Wilson, Landon; Kirk, Marion; Grubbs, Clinton; Barnes, Stephen; Meleth, Sreelatha; Kim, Helen

    2004-12-29

    Dietary supplements such as grape seed extract (GSE) enriched in proanthocyanidins (PA) (oligomeric polyphenols) have been suggested to have multiple health benefits, due to antioxidant and other beneficial activities of the PA. However, a systematic analysis of the molecular basis of these benefits has not been demonstrated. Because the brain is vulnerable to age-related oxidative damage and other insults including inflammation, it was hypothesized that rats ingesting GSE would experience changes in expression or modifications of specific brain proteins that might protect against pathologic events. Normal adult female rats were fed diets supplemented with 5% GSE for 6 weeks. Proteomics analysis (2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of brain homogenates from these animals identified 13 proteins that were altered in amount and/or charge. Because many of these changes were quantitatively in the opposite direction from previous findings for the same proteins in either Alzheimer disease or mouse models of neurodegeneration, the data suggest that these identified proteins may mediate the neuroprotective actions of GSE. This is the first identification and quantitation of specific proteins in mammalian tissues modulated by a dietary supplement, as well as the first to demonstrate links of such proteins with any disease.

  8. Grape Seed Extract Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjinder; Mandair, Reinuka; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2008-01-01

    One approach to control colorectal cancer (CRC) is its preventive intervention by dietary agents or those consumed as supplements. However, since most of these products are often consumed by patients as an alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) practice, a scientific base such as efficacy, mechanism and standardized preparation, needs to be developed. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such supplement widely consumed by humans for its several health benefits. We reported recently that GSE inhibits CRC cell HT29 growth in culture and nude mice xenograft. Since GSE is available commercially through different vendors, here we assessed whether GSE from two different manufacturers produces comparable biological effects in a panel of human CRC cell lines. Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29 and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells, but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all three cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all three cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects. PMID:19003575

  9. Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Mandair, Reinuka; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2008-01-01

    One approach to control colorectal cancer (CRC) is its preventive intervention by dietary agents or those consumed as supplements. However, because most of these products are often consumed by patients as an complementary and alternative medicine practice, a scientific base such as efficacy, mechanism, and standardized preparation needs to be developed. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such supplement widely consumed by humans for its several health benefits. We reported recently that GSE inhibits CRC cell HT29 growth in culture and nude mice xenograft. Because GSE is available commercially through different vendors, here we assessed whether GSE from 2 different manufacturers produces comparable biological effects in a panel of human CRC cell lines. Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29, and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all 3 cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all 3 cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects.

  10. Amelioration of the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Benner, E J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    1999-01-01

    Anticancer chemotherapeutic agents are effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, however, toxicity to normal cells is a major problem. In this study, we assessed the effect of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxic effects in cultured Chang epithelial cells, established from nonmalignant human tissue. These cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) or 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without GSPE (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells was determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; thiazolyl blue] assay. Our results showed that GSPE decreased the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of Ida as well as 4HC on Chang epithelial cells in vitro. Because these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, we analyzed the Chang epithelial cells for apoptotic cell population by flow cytometry. There was a significant decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with GSPE. We also found increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in GSPE-treated cells using western blot techniques. Thus, these results indicate that GSPE can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents and one of the mechanisms of action of GSPE includes upregulation of Bcl-2 expression.

  11. [Reversal of multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR in nude mice by grape seed polyphenol].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Juan; Zhou, Geng-Yin; Li, Li; Ma, Li-Li; Gao, Peng; Li, Hong

    2004-07-07

    To study the reversing effect of Grape seed polyphenol (GSP) on multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cell in vivo. The transplantable breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7/ADR model was established in BALB/C-nu/nu mice by subcutaneous implantation. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to investigate the changes of Pgp expression and apoptosis rate after different drug treatment. GSP has some effect on inhibition of tumor growth (the rate of inhibition was 18.35%), and combined with adriamycin can significantly inhibit tumor growth in nude mice, 20 mg/kg GSP can effectively reverse the resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells to ADR in vivo, and the rate of inhibition was 54.64%. FCM results showed that the expression of Pgp was significantly decreased (32.03 +/- 2.09) After administration of GSP and ADR, there was distinct difference between it and control (55.13 +/- 2.12). The mean rate of apoptosis was 15.12% +/- 1.04%, and was significantly increased compared with control (9.07% +/- 0.43%), P < 0.05. GSP can effectively reversed the resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells in nude mice, the mechanism may be correlated with inhibition of Pgp expression and apoptosis.

  12. Cardioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Razmaraii, Nasser; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Assadnassab, Gholamreza; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Azarmi, Yadollah

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE) as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days) and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days) plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results: DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX. Conclusion: Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment.

  13. Cardioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Razmaraii, Nasser; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Assadnassab, Gholamreza; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Azarmi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE) as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days) and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days) plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results: DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX. Conclusion: Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment. PMID:27766227

  14. Role of Oxidative Stress in Cytotoxicity of Grape Seed Extract in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Komal; Tyagi, Alpna; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2013-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy against bladder cancer and associated mechanism in two different bladder cancer cell lines T24 and HTB9. A significant inhibitory effect of GSE on cancer cell viability was observed, which was due to apoptotic cell death. Cell death events were preceded by vacuolar appearance in cytoplasm, which under electron microscopy was confirmed as swollen mitochondrial organelle and autophagosomes. Through detailed in vitro studies, we established that GSE generated oxidative stress that initiating an apoptotic response as indicated by the reversal of GSE-mediated apoptosis when the cells were pre-treated with antioxidants prior to GSE. However, parallel to a strong apoptotic cell death event, GSE also caused a pro-survival autophagic event as evidenced by tracking the dynamics of LC3-II within the cells. Since the pro-death apoptotic response was stronger than the pro-survival autophagy induction within the cells, cell eventually succumbed to cellular death after GSE exposure. Together, the findings in the present study are both novel and highly significant in establishing, for the first time, that GSE-mediated oxidative stress causes a strong programmed cell death in human bladder cancer cells, suggesting and advocating the effectiveness of this non-toxic agent against this deadly malignancy. PMID:23831192

  15. Grape seed powder improves renal failure of chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Turki, Khaoula; Charradi, Kamel; Boukhalfa, Habib; Belhaj, Monia; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a syndrome characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function linked to slow destruction of renal parenchyma, eventually terminating in death when sufficient number of nephrons are damaged. Oxidative stress is commonly observed in CKD patients resulting from an imbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairment of defence mechanisms. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a polyphenolic mixture exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We conducted an interventional pilot study of supplementation with GSE capsules (GSE group, n = 23) or placebo (control group, n = 10) on CKD patients. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and after a six-month-long supplementation period to determine some renal function biomarkers, as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and haematological parameters. GSE improved glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria, increased the anti-oxidant status as assessed by high plasma catalase and superoxide dismutase and also lowered lipoperoxidation and carbonylation. GSE ameliorated inflammation by decreasing CRP, triglyceridemia and counteracted anemia and thrombocytopenia. Supplementation with 2 g GSE/day for six months improved some kidney function parameters of CKD patients and this beneficial effect of GSE seems to be mediated at least partly by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27822171

  16. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Bozan, Berrin; Temelli, Feral

    2008-09-01

    Three seeds of Turkish origin, flax, poppy and safflower were analyzed for their proximate, fatty acids, tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and total phenolic composition, and oxidative stability of their oil. The major fatty acid in the flax oil was alpha-linolenic acid, comprising 58.3% of total fatty acids, whereas poppy and safflower oils were rich in linoleic acid at 74.5% and 70.5% level, respectively. The amount of total tocols was 14.6 mg/100g flax, 11.0mg/100g poppy and 12.1mg/100g safflower seed. Flax and poppy oil were rich in gamma-tocopherol as 79.4 mg/100g oil and 30.9 mg/100g oil, respectively, while alpha-tocopherol (44.1g/100g oil) was dominant in safflower oil. Only alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were found in the oils. Oxidative stability of oils was measured at 110 degrees C at the rate of 20 L/h air flow rate, and poppy oil (5.56 h) was most stabile oil followed by safflower oil (2.87 h) and flax oil (1.57). There were no correlation between oxidative stability and unsaturation degree of fatty acids and tocol levels of the oils. All of the seeds investigated provide a healthy oil profile and may have potential as a source of specialty oils on a commercial scale.

  17. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  18. Changes in Tannin Composition of Syrah Grape Skins and Seeds during Fruit Ripening under Contrasting Water Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Theodorou, Nikolaos; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos

    2017-09-01

    Tannin accumulation and composition were determined in skins and seeds isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah grapes submitted to contrasting water regimes under semiarid climatic conditions. Three irrigation treatments were conducted, starting at berry set through harvest of two growing seasons, 2011 and 2012: irrigation at 100% of crop evapotranspiration ETc (FI), irrigation at 50% of ETc (DI) and non-irrigated (NI). Seed total tannins did not vary with maturity but those of skins underwent a progressive decline (especially in 2011), expressed both on a fresh weight and on a per berry basis. Skin total tannin concentration and content per berry were increased under NI and DI conditions, mainly in 2012. In contrast, seed total tannins (in 2012) and flavan-3-ol monomers and tannin oligomers (both years) were higher in the fully irrigated vines (FI). Skin polymer size increased during ripening, NI and DI skins showing higher mean degree of polymerization (mDP) compared to FI at harvest. NI was also associated with a lower percentage of galloylation (%G) in skin oligomeric fraction (in 2012) and a lower percentage of prodelphinidins in the skin polymeric fraction (both years) at harvest. The mDP and %G of seed extracts did not vary during ripening and were higher in NI but only in 2012. According to the results, management of vine water status was shown to influence tannin amount and composition of Syrah grapes grown under semiarid conditions.

  19. Transesterified sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Saydut, Abdurrahman; Duz, M Zahir; Kaya, Canan; Kafadar, Aylin Beycar; Hamamci, Candan

    2008-09-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil was extracted from the seeds of the sesame that grows in Diyarbakir, SE Anatolia of Turkey. Sesame seed oil was obtained in 58wt/wt%, by traditional solvent extraction. The methylester of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil. Transesterification shows improvement in fuel properties of sesame seed oil. This study supports the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel.

  20. Increasing the flow of carbon into seed oil.

    PubMed

    Weselake, Randall J; Taylor, David C; Rahman, M Habibur; Shah, Saleh; Laroche, André; McVetty, Peter B E; Harwood, John L

    2009-01-01

    The demand for vegetable oils for food, fuel (bio-diesel) and bio-product applications is increasing rapidly. In Canada alone, it is estimated that a 50 to 75% increase in canola oil production will be required to meet the demand for seed oil in the next 7-10years. Plant breeding and genetics have demonstrated that seed oil content is a quantitative trait based on a number of contributing factors including embryo genetic effects, cytoplasmic effects, maternal genetic effects, and genotype-environment interactions. Despite the involvement of numerous quantitative trait loci in determining seed oil content, genetic engineering to over-express/repress specific genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in the flow of carbon into seed oil has led to the development of transgenic lines with significant increases in seed oil content. Proteins encoded by these genes include enzymes catalyzing the production of building blocks for oil assembly, enzymes involved in oil assembly, enzymes regulating metabolic carbon partitioning between oil, carbohydrate and secondary metabolite fractions, and transcription factors which orchestrate metabolism at a more general level.

  1. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of seed oil from species with varying oil content using supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Seal, Charlotte E; Kranner, Ilse; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2008-01-01

    The quantity and composition of seed oil affects seed viability and storability and hence the value of a species as a resource for nutrition and plant conservation. Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) offers a rapid, environmentally friendly alternative to traditional solvent extraction. To develop a method using SFE-CO2 to quantify the seed oil content in a broad range of species with high to low oil contents. Seed oil was extracted using SFE-CO2 from four crop species representing high, medium and low oil content: Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae, with ca. 55% oil; Brassica napus, Brassicaceae, with ca. 50% oil; Glycine max, Fabaceae, with ca. 20% oil; and Pisum sativum, Fabaceae, with ca. 2% oil. Extraction pressures of 5000, 6000 and 7500 psi and temperatures of 40, 60 and 80 degrees C were examined and a second step using 15% ethanol as a modifier included. Oil yields were compared with that achieved from Smalley Butt extraction. The optimised SFE-CO2 method was validated on six species from taxonomically distant families and with varying oil contents: Swietenia humilis (Meliaceae), Stenocereus thurberi (Cactaceae), Sinapis alba (Brassicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Poa pratensis (Poaceae) and Trachycarpus fortunei (Arecaceae). The two-step extraction at 6000 psi and 80 degrees C produced oil yields equivalent to or higher than Smalley Butt extraction for all species, including challenging species from the Brassicaceae family. SFE-CO2 enables the rapid analysis of seed oils across a broad range of seed oil contents.

  3. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils.

  4. Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacin-bound chromium in a hamster atherosclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Vinson, J A; Mandarano, M A; Shuta, D L; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2002-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty plaques develop on the inner arterial wall, which eventually obstructs blood flow. Identified risk factors for atherosclerosis include genetics, diet, lifestyle, smoking, circulating lipid and cholesterol levels, and molecular and circulating signals of chronic vascular inflammation. The link between flavonoids and atherosclerosis is based partly on the evidence that some flavonoids possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation in vitro. Hypercholesterolemia, a significant cardiovascular risk factor is prevalent in the American population. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and cardioprotective properties against oxidative stress. A recent study has shown that a combination of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) and a niacin-bound chromium (NBC) can decrease total cholesterol, LDL and oxidized LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic human subjects. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of GSPE supplementation in hamsters, singly and in combination with NBC, since these animals have a similar lipid profile to hypercholesterolemic humans when fed a hypercholesterolemic diet of 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (HCD). After 10 weeks of feeding HCD, these animals developed foam cells, which is a biomarker of early stages of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis (% of aorta covered with foam cells) was reduced by approximately 50% and 63% following supplementation of these animals with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of GSPE, respectively, in conjunction with a HCD, while approximately 32% reduction was observed following supplementation of GSPE plus NBC. A range of 7-9 animals was used in each study group. GSPE alone and in combination with NBC exerted a pronounced effect on the cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as oxidative lipid damage as demonstrated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid

  5. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  6. Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa canina L.) seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2002-01-01

    Rose seeds were evaluated for weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude oil, energy, and mineral content. Also, fatty acid composition was determined in the seed oils. The weight of 100 seeds, moisture, crude oil, energy, and iron (Fe) content of Ermenek rose seeds were found to be higher than those of other regions. The major fatty acids identified by gas chromatography of rose seed oils growing wild in the Hadim, Taskent, and Ermenek regions in Turkey were, respectively, as follows: palmitic (3.17%, 1.71%, and 2.14%), stearic (2.47%, 2.14%, and 1.69%), oleic (16.73%, 18.42%, and 14.71%), linoleic (54.41%, 51.71%, and 48,64%), linolenic (17.14%, 16.42%, and 18.41%), and arachidic (2.11%, 1.87%, and 2.61%). The seeds were rich in oil and minerals. The oil may be valuable for food and other uses because of its high unsaturated content.

  7. Ultrastructural alterations of Alzheimer's disease paired helical filaments by grape seed-derived polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Ho, Lap; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal folding of the microtubule-associated protein tau leads to aggregation of tau into paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, the major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently shown that grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) reduces tau pathology in the TMHT mouse model of tauopathy (Wang et al., 2010). In the present studies we assessed the impact of GSPE exposure on the ultrastructure of PHFs isolated from Alzheimer's disease brain. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that GSPE induced profound dose- and time-dependent alterations in the morphology of PHFs with partial disintegration of filaments. Filaments showed ∼2-fold enlargement in width and displayed numerous protrusions and splayed ends consistent with unfolding of tau and diminished structural stability. In addition, GSPE induced a reduction in immunogold labeling with antibodies against the C-terminal half (12E8, PHF-1) and the middle region of tau (AT8, Tau5, pSer214 tau, and AT180) but not the C-terminal end (Tau46). In comparison, labeling of N-terminus (Alz50) was enhanced. It is unlikely that alterations in immunogold labeling were due to biochemical alterations, e.g., protein phosphatase or proteolytic activities potentially stimulated by GSPE, because western blotting studies have shown the preservation of full length polypeptides of tau and their phospho-epitopes in GSPE-treated samples. The GSPE mechanism may include a noncovalent interaction of polyphenols with proline residues in the proline-rich domain of tau, with Pin1 sites at P213 and P232 most seriously affected as judged by suppression of labeling. Collectively, our results suggest that GSPE has a significant potential for therapeutic development by neutralizing phospho-epitopes and disrupting fibrillary conformation leading to disintegration of PHFs.

  8. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Panahi, Marzieh; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Ghorbani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on lipid peroxidation content and activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in diabetic rats. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each: control, diabetic and diabetic groups that received 500 mg/kg GSPE for 6 weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 250 mg/dl were used as diabetic animals. The first 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was measured two weeks after diabetes induction and then each week until the end of the experimental period in all groups. Lipid peroxidation content and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in kidney homogenate supernatants. Statistical significance of differences was assessed with one-way ANOVA by SPSS followed by Tukey's t-test. P < 0.05 was assumed statistically significant. UAE in diabetic nephropathy rats were significantly higher than in control. In addition, an increase in lipid peroxidation content and decrease in catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in kidney of diabetic nephropathy rats were observed. The GSPE administration did not affect on body weight, but significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and augmented the activities of antioxidant enzymes studied in kidney of diabetic nephropathy rats as well as reduced UAE and decreased kidney weight. The results suggested that GSPE could ameliorate diabetic nephropathy rats through reduction of oxidative stress and increase in renal antioxidant enzyme activity.

  9. The effect of grape seed extract on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2013-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. To determine the clinical effect of GSE on CYP2D6, the pharmacokinetic interaction between GSE and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy adult volunteers was examined. In this open label, randomized, cross-over study, 30 subjects were assigned to cohort A or B. Both cohorts ingested 30 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide on day 1 and day 10. Cohort A received 100 mg GSE capsules three times daily on days 8, 9 and 10, while cohort B started with GSE on day -1 until day 1. After urine collection (0-8 h) on day 1 and day 10, the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio was determined. Among 28 evaluable subjects, an increase of the urinary metabolic ratio was observed in 16 subjects (57 %). The mean metabolic ratio (± standard deviation) before and after GSE supplementation was 0.41 (± 0.56) and 0.48 (± 0.59), respectively. This result was neither statistically (P = 0.342) nor clinically [geometric mean ratio 1.10, 90 % CI (0.93-1.30)] significant. Further, the majority (73 %) of the included subjects did not experience any adverse events after intake of dextromethorphan or GSE. Supplementation of GSE did not significantly affect the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio in healthy volunteers. The results of this clinical study indicate that GSE appears to be safe to combine with drugs extensively metabolized by CYP2D6, such as dextromethorphan and tamoxifen.

  10. Grape seed proanthocyanidin protects liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-Chao; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Yue; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2015-06-28

    To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were divided into three groups, namely, sham, IR, and GSP groups (n = 8 each). A liver IR (70%) model was established and reperfused for 6 h. Prior to reperfusion, the GSP group was administered with GSP (100 mg/kg) for 15 d, and liver histology was then investigated. Serum aminotransferase and inflammatory mediators coupled with superoxide dismutase and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde were detected. Western blot was conducted to analyze the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining. The serum aminotransferase, apoptotic cells, and Suzuki scores decreased in the GSP group compared with the IR group (Ps < 0.05). The methane dicarboxylic aldehyde level was decreased in the GSP group, but the superoxide dismutase level was reversed (Ps < 0.05). Similarly, GSP downregulated the proinflammatory factors and upregulated the levels of anti-inflammatory factors (Ps < 0.05). Western blot data showed that GSP increased glucose-regulated protein 78 expression and suppressed expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb compared with the IR group. GSP possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects by relieving endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of related signaling pathways to protect the liver against IR injury.

  11. Grape seed proanthocyanidin protects liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen-Chao; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Yue; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were divided into three groups, namely, sham, IR, and GSP groups (n = 8 each). A liver IR (70%) model was established and reperfused for 6 h. Prior to reperfusion, the GSP group was administered with GSP (100 mg/kg) for 15 d, and liver histology was then investigated. Serum aminotransferase and inflammatory mediators coupled with superoxide dismutase and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde were detected. Western blot was conducted to analyze the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining. RESULTS: The serum aminotransferase, apoptotic cells, and Suzuki scores decreased in the GSP group compared with the IR group (Ps < 0.05). The methane dicarboxylic aldehyde level was decreased in the GSP group, but the superoxide dismutase level was reversed (Ps < 0.05). Similarly, GSP downregulated the proinflammatory factors and upregulated the levels of anti-inflammatory factors (Ps < 0.05). Western blot data showed that GSP increased glucose-regulated protein 78 expression and suppressed expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb compared with the IR group. CONCLUSION: GSP possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects by relieving endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of related signaling pathways to protect the liver against IR injury. PMID:26139992

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 on a diabetic pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenbin; Li, Baoying; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Fei; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Haiqing

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased considerably in recent years, highlighting the importance of developing new therapeutic strategies. Insulin-resistance and gradual dysfunction of pancreatic islets are the mainstay in the progression of T2DM. Therefore, preserving the function of the pancreas may lead to new prospective approaches. Our previous studies suggested that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol product, exhibited protective effects on diabetic vasculopathy. However, effects of GSPB2 on a diabetic pancreas remain unknown. In this study, we provided strong evidence that GSPB2 exerted protective effects on a diabetic pancreas. GSPB2 attenuated the elevated body weights, food intake and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels in db/db mice (p < 0.05), though it had no significant effect on glucose levels. The increased islet sizes, insulin levels, as well as HOMA-IR were also improved by GSPB2 treatment in db/db mice (p < 0.05). Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8), an estimated target of GSPB2 in our previous studies, was up-regulated in pancreatic tissues whereas GSPB2 treatment down-regulated the protein level (p < 0.05). Since MFG-E8 is highly involved in inflammation, we further investigate pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and NLRP3 levels. We found that levels of IL-1β and NLRP3 increased in a diabetic pancreas while GSPB2 treatment notably attenuated these alterations (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that inflammation is involved in the damage of a diabetic pancreas and GSPB2 provides protective effects at least in part through anti-inflammation.

  13. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1alpha protein expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan; Wen, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a widely consumed dietary supplement that has antitumor activity. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of GSE on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the mechanism underlying this action. We found that GSE inhibited VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in U251 human glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. GSE inhibited transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene through reducing protein but not mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1alpha. The inhibitory effect of GSE on HIF-1alpha expression was mainly through inhibiting HIF-1alpha protein synthesis rather than promoting protein degradation. Consistent with this result, GSE-suppressed phosphorylation of several important components involved in HIF-1alpha protein synthesis, such as Akt, S6 kinase and S6 protein. Furthermore, in the MDA-MB-231 tumor, we found that GSE treatment inhibited the expression of VEGF and HIF-1alpha and the phosphorylation of S6 kinase without altering the subcellular localization of HIF-1alpha, correlating with reduced vessel density and tumor size. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the inhibitory activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the inhibitory activity. Taken together, our results indicate that GSE inhibits VEGF expression by reducing HIF-1alpha protein synthesis through blocking Akt activation. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of anticancer activity of GSE and reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic action of GSE.

  14. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1α protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan; Wen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a widely consumed dietary supplement that has antitumor activity. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of GSE on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the mechanism underlying this action. We found that GSE inhibited VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in U251 human glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. GSE inhibited transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene through reducing protein but not mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. The inhibitory effect of GSE on HIF-1α expression was mainly through inhibiting HIF-1α protein synthesis rather than promoting protein degradation. Consistent with this result, GSE-suppressed phosphorylation of several important components involved in HIF-1α protein synthesis, such as Akt, S6 kinase and S6 protein. Furthermore, in the MDA-MB-231 tumor, we found that GSE treatment inhibited the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of S6 kinase without altering the subcellular localization of HIF-1α, correlating with reduced vessel density and tumor size. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the inhibitory activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the inhibitory activity. Taken together, our results indicate that GSE inhibits VEGF expression by reducing HIF-1α protein synthesis through blocking Akt activation. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of anticancer activity of GSE and reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic action of GSE. PMID:19131542

  15. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) improve weaned intestinal microbiota and mucosal barrier using a piglet model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meng; Song, Peixia; Huang, Chang; Rezaei, Arash; Farrar, Shabnam; Brown, Michael A.; Ma, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins have been suggested as an effective antibiotic alternative, however their mechanisms are still unknown. The present study investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on gut microbiota and mucosal barrier using a weaned piglet model in comparison with colistin. Piglets weaned at 28 day were randomly assigned to four groups treated with a control ration, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins, kitasamycin/colistin, or 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins and half-dose antibiotics, respectively. On day 28, the gut chyme and tissue samples were collected to test intestinal microbiota and barrier function, respectively. Proanthocyanidins treated piglets had better growth performance and reduced diarrhea incidence (P < 0.05), accompanied with decreased intestinal permeability and improved mucosal morphology. Gene sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that dietary proanthocyanidins improved the microbial diversity in ileal and colonic digesta, and the most abundant OTUs belong to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes spp. Proanthocyanidins treatment decreased the abundance of Lactobacillaceae, and increased the abundance of Clostridiaceae in both ileal and colonic lumen, which suggests that proanthocyanidins treatment changed the bacterial composition and distribution. Administration of proanthocyanidins increased the concentration of propionic acid and butyric acid in the ileum and colon, which may activate the expression of GPR41. In addition, dietary proanthocyanidins improved the antioxidant indices in serum and intestinal mucosa, accompanied with increasing expression of barrier occludin. Our findings indicated that proanthocyanidins with half-dose colistin was equivalent to the antibiotic treatment and assisted weaned animals in resisting intestinal oxidative stress by increasing diversity and improving balance of gut microbes. PMID:27880936

  16. Mechanical properties, water sorption characteristics, and compound release of grape seed extract-incorporated resins

    PubMed Central

    EPASINGHE, Don Jeevanie; YIU, Cynthia Kar Yung; BURROW, Michael Francis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study evaluated the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) incorporation on the mechanical properties, water sorption, solubility, and GSE release from the experimental adhesive resins. Material and Methods An experimental comonomer mixture, consisting of 40% Bis-GMA, 30% Bis MP, 28% HEMA, 0.26% camphorquinone and 1% EDMAB, was used to prepare four GSE-incorporated adhesive resins at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 wt%. The neat resin without GSE was used as the control. Six resin beams (25 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm) per group were prepared for flexural strength and modulus of elasticity evaluations using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Five disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) per group were used for microhardness measurements using a Leitz micro-hardness tester with Leica Qgo software. Five disks (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) per group were prepared and stored in deionized water for 28 days. Water sorption, solubility, and GSE release in deionized water were calculated for each GSE-incorporated adhesive at the end of 28th day. Data was evaluated using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons. Results Flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and microhardness of GSE-incorporated adhesive decreased significantly with incorporation of 1.5% of GSE (p<0.05). Addition of GSE had no effect on the water sorption of the adhesive resins (p=0.33). The solubility of the resin also increased significantly with incorporation of 1.5% of GSE (p<0.05). Quantities of GSE release increased with increased concentration of GSE in the adhesive resin. Conclusion Up to 1% of GSE can be incorporated into a dental adhesive resin without interfering with the mechanical properties or solubility of the resins. PMID:28877280

  17. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Dai, Xiaoqian; Ding, Ye; Jiang, Yanfei; Li, Yujie; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is known to be an effective natural polyphenol capable of removing free radicals in vivo. It has been reported that GSPE has biological functions including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-radiation, and prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of GSPE on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats induced with low-dose streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Rats (n=12 per group) were administered GSPE at either a low (125 mg/kg · bw), medium (250 mg/kg · bw) or high (500 mg/kg · bw) dose, while control rats and diabetes mellitus group rats received no specific treatment. After 16 weeks, GSPE slightly increased body weight and decreased food consumption, water intake and urine volume in rats. Diabetic rats treated with GSPE demonstrated decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). GSPE significantly improved renal function parameters, reduced the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and also increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, GSPE (particularly at a dose of 500 mg/kg · bw) increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of c-reactive proteins (P<0.01) in serum and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P<0.05) in the kidney. These findings suggest that GSPE ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats through its antioxidative activity and anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Singh, Rana P; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2006-10-15

    Accumulating evidences suggest the beneficial effects of fruit-and-vegetable consumption in lowering the risk of various cancers, including colorectal cancer. Herein, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of proanthocyanidins, against colorectal cancer. Effects of GSE were examined on human colorectal cancer HT29 and LoVo cells in culture for proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. The in vivo effect of oral GSE was examined on HT29 tumor xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. Xenografts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for proliferation and apoptosis. The molecular changes associated with the biological effects of GSE were analyzed by Western blot analysis. GSE (25-100 microg/mL) causes a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth with concomitant increase in cell death. GSE induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest along with a marked increase in Cip1/p21 protein level and a decrease in G1 phase-associated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. GSE-induced cell death was apoptotic and accompanied by caspase-3 activation. GSE feeding to mice at 200 mg/kg dose showed time-dependent inhibition of tumor growth without any toxicity and accounted for 44% decrease in tumor volume per mouse after 8 weeks of treatment. GSE inhibited cell proliferation but increased apoptotic cell death in tumors. GSE-treated tumors also showed enhanced Cip1/p21 protein levels and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. GSE may be an effective chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer, and that growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of GSE against colorectal cancer could be mediated via an up-regulation of Cip1/p21.

  19. Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Ikuko; Phung, Sheryl; Hur, Gene; Kwok, Sum-Ling; Chen, Shiuan

    2006-06-01

    Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen. It is expressed at higher levels in breast cancer tissues than normal breast tissues. Grape seed extract (GSE) contains high levels of procyanidin dimers that have been shown in our laboratory to be potent inhibitors of aromatase. In this study, GSE was found to inhibit aromatase activity in a dose-dependent manner and reduce androgen-dependent tumor growth in an aromatase-transfected MCF-7 (MCF-7aro) breast cancer xenograft model, agreeing with our previous findings. We have also examined the effect of GSE on aromatase expression. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that treatment with 60 mug/mL of GSE suppressed the levels of exon I.3-, exon PII-, and exon I.6-containing aromatase mRNAs in MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells. The levels of exon I.1-containing mRNA, however, did not change with GSE treatment. Transient transfection experiments with luciferase-aromatase promoter I.3/II or I.4 reporter vectors showed the suppression of the promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. The GSE treatment also led to the down-regulation of two transcription factors, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-1 (CREB-1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CREB-1 and GR are known to up-regulate aromatase gene expression through promoters I.3/II and I.4, respectively. We believe that these results are exciting in that they show GSE to be potentially useful in the prevention/treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer through the inhibition of aromatase activity as well as its expression.

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai; Shao, Jingjing; Zhou, Keyuan; Qiu, Haitao; Cao, Fengxiang; Li, Caihong; Dai, De

    2016-08-01

    Although modern radiotherapy offers excellent local control in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), current therapeutic decisions remain burdensome due to the frequency of local recurrence and treatment failure at distant sites. One potential and promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of cancers is the use of bioactive components of plant origin, including dietary plant products. Herein, we studied one class of these bioactive compounds, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), and explored their effect on NPC CNE-2 cells, as well as the primary mechanism underlying this effect. Our results revealed that treatment of human NPC CNE-2 cells with GSPs reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and moreover, markedly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, leading to induction of apoptosis. In addition, we found that the underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PRAP) protein, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (Δψm). Furthermore, GSPs upregulated the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins, Bim and Bad, in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data supported our hypothesis that, in human NPC CNE-2 cells, GSPs could induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and ultimately reduce cell viability. Collectively, the results discussed above provide substantive evidence for the potential of GSPs as an effective bioactive phytochemical for the treatment of NPC.

  1. Grape seed extract suppresses MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Cucina, Alessandra; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Ferranti, Francesca; Canipari, Rita; Catizone, Angela; Proietti, Sara; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Ricci, Giulia; Palombo, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a leading cause of mortality among women. In metastasis, cascade migration of cancer cells and invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM) represent critical steps. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), as well as metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, strongly contribute to ECM remodelling, thus becoming associated with tumour migration and invasion. In addition, the high expression of cytoskeletal (CSK) proteins, as fascin, has been correlated with clinically aggressive metastatic tumours, and CSK proteins are thought to affect the migration of cancer cells. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, characterized by high procyanidin content, has been associated to a reduced mortality for breast cancer. Therefore, we investigated the biological effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line, focusing on studying GSE ability in inhibiting two main metastatic processes, i.e., cell migration and invasion. After MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells stimulated with GSE migration and invasion were evaluated by means of trans-well assays and uPA as well as MMPs activity was detected by gelatin zymography. Fascin, β-catenin and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were determined using western blot technique. β-Catenin localization was observed by confocal microscopy. We observed that high concentrations of GSE inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conversely, low GSE concentration decreased cell migration and invasion, likely by hampering β-catenin expression and localization, fascin and NF-κB expression, as well as by decreasing the activity of uPA, MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results make GSE a powerful candidate for developing preventive agents against cancer metastasis.

  2. Oral grape seed extract inhibits prostate tumor growth and progression in TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Raina, Komal; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2007-06-15

    Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results showed a significant reduction (46%, P < 0.01) in the weight of genitourinary tract organs in the GSE-fed mice. The GSE-fed group of mice had a higher incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia but showed strong reduction in the incidence of adenocarcinoma compared with mice in control group. Prostate tissue from the GSE group showed approximately 50% (P < 0.001) decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and 64% (P < 0.01) reduction in total PCNA protein level compared with the control group; however, GSE increased apoptotic cells by 8-fold. Furthermore, GSE strongly decreased the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin A, and cyclin E by 84% (P < 0.05), 96% (P < 0.05), and 89% (P < 0.001), respectively. The protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 6 and Cdc2 was also decreased by more than 90% (P < 0.05) in the prostate from the GSE-fed group. Together, for the first time, we identified that oral GSE inhibits prostate cancer growth and progression in TRAMP mice, which could be mediated via a strong suppression of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis.

  3. Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on Chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2000-11-30

    In an attempt to ameliorate the chemotherapy associated normal cell toxicity, in this study a known antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) using Chang liver cells has been used. Chang liver cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) and 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without proanthocyanidin (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells were determined using MTT assay. The results showed that the GSPE decreased growth inhibitory effects of Ida and 4-HC on Chang liver cells in vitro. Since these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, these cells were also analyzed for presence of apoptotic cells using flow cytometry. The GSPE decreased the number of apoptotic cell population induced by either chemotherapy. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms of ameliorating effects of proanthocyanidin, the expression of apoptosis/cell cycle/growth related genes, Bcl-2, p53 and c-myc was determined in the treated and control cells using Western blotting or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. There was an increased expression of Bcl-2 in the cells treated with GSPE. However, there was a significant decrease in the expression of other cell cycle related genes such as p53 and c-myc in these cells following treatment with GSPE. Thus, these results indicate that proanthocyanidin can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents used in treatment of cancer.

  4. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-08-01

    The strategies available for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer are limited. Dietary botanicals may have a better protective effect on this disease. We therefore investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on a highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In vitro treatment of breast cancer cells, 4T1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, with GSPs resulted in significant inhibition of cellular proliferation and viability, and induction of apoptosis in 4T1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further analysis indicated an alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 proteins in favor of apoptosis, and the knockdown of Bax using Bax siRNA transfection of 4T1 cells resulted in blocking of GSPs-induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of cytochrome c, increased expression of Apaf-1 and activation of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) resulted in partial but significant inhibition of apoptosis in 4T1 cells suggesting the involvement of both caspase activation-dependent and activation-independent pathways in the apoptosis of 4T1 cells induced by GSPs. The effects of dietary GSPs were then examined using an in vivo model in which 4T1 cells were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice. Dietary GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) significantly inhibited the growth of the implanted 4T1 tumor cells and increased the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 proteins, cytochrome c release, induction of Apaf-1 and activation of caspase 3 in the tumor microenvironment. Notably, the metastasis of tumor cells to the lungs was inhibited significantly and the survival of the mice enhanced. These data suggest that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer including inhibition of metastasis.

  5. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Induce Apoptosis through p53, Bax, and Caspase 3 Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anshu M; Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) have been shown to inhibit skin chemical carcinogenesis and photocarcinogenesis in mice. The mechanisms responsible for the anticarcinogenic effects of GSP are not clearly understood. Here, we report that treatment of JB6 C141 cells (a well-developed cell culture model for studying tumor promotion in keratinocytes) and p53+/+ fibroblasts with GSP resulted in a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis. GSP-induced (20–80 g/ml) apoptosis was observed by using immunofluorescence (27–90% apoptosis) and flow cytometry (18–87% apoptosis). The induction of apoptosis by GSP was p53-dependent because it occurred mainly in cells expressing wild-type p53 (p53+/+; 15–80%) to a much greater extent than in p53-deficient cells (p53-/-; 6–20%). GSP-induced apoptosis in JB6 C141 cells was associated with increased expression of the tumor-suppressor protein, p53, and its phosphorylation at Ser15. The antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, were downregulated by GSP, whereas the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and the levels of cytochrome c release, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and cleaved caspase 3 (p19 and p17) were markedly increased in JB6 C141 cells. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax were also observed in wild-type p53 (p53+/+) fibroblasts but was not observed in their p53-deficient counterparts. These data clearly demonstrate that GSP-induced apoptosis is p53-dependent and mediated through the Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 pathways. PMID:15720815

  6. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan

    2008-12-01

    Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis and has thus become an attractive target for antiangiogenesis treatment. However, most current anti-VEGF agents often cause some side effects when given chronically. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet would be one alternative approach with an advantage of known safety. Grape seed extract (GSE), a widely used dietary supplement, is known to have antitumor activity. In this study, we have explored the activity of GSE on VEGF receptor and angiogenesis. We found that GSE could directly inhibit the kinase activity of purified VEGF receptor 2, a novel activity of GSE that has not been characterized. GSE could also inhibit the VEGF receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, GSE could inhibit VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as sprout formation from aorta ring. In vivo assay further showed that GSE could inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, GSE treatment of tumor-bearing mice led to concomitant reduction of blood vessel density and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the antiangiogenic activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the antiangiogenic activity. Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well-tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment.

  7. Production of antioxidant compounds of grape seed skin by fermentation and its optimization using response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andayani, D. G. S.; Risdian, C.; Saraswati, V.; Primadona, I.; Mawarda, P. C.

    2017-03-01

    Skins and seeds of grape are waste generated from food industry. These wastes contain nutrients of which able to be utilized as an important source for antioxidant metabolite production. Through an environmentally friendly process, natural antioxidant material was produced. This study aimed to generate antioxidant compounds by liquid fermentation. Optimization was carried out by using Schizosaccharomyces cerevisiae in Katu leaf substrate. Optimization variables through response surface methodology (RSM) were of sucrose concentration, skins and seeds of grape concentration, and pH. Results showed that the optimum conditions for antioxidant production were of 5 g/L sucrose, 5 g/L skins and seed at pH 5, respectively. The resulted antioxidant activity was of 1.62 mg/mL. Mathematical model of variance analysis using a second order polynomial corresponding to the resulted data for the antioxidant was of 20.70124 - 3.86997 A - 0.65996 B - 1.88367 C + 0.19634 A2 - 0.016638 B2 + 0.28848 C2 + 0.26980 AB - 0.068333 AC - 0.12367 BC. From the gained equation, the optimum yield from all variables was significant. Chemical analysis of the antioxidant was carried out using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  8. Ovariectomy lowers urine levels of unconjugated (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their methylated metabolites in rats fed grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Cutts, John K; Peavy, Thomas R; Moore, Doyle R; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Kim, Helen

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Steroid hormones modulate expression of enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics, including dietary supplements. Half of the human population undergoes menopause, yet the effect of this age-related loss of ovarian steroid hormones on the metabolism of dietary supplements has yet to be determined. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement comprised of monomeric and oligomeric catechins and has health benefits in models of age-related diseases. We hypothesized that surgically-induced loss of ovarian hormones would increase methylation, glucuronidation, and/or sulfation of the grape seed polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Fourteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-OVX. At 17 weeks of age, SHRs were gavaged with vehicle (water) or GSE (300 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 6 days. Urinary excretion of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their metabolites was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although total urinary output of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their methylated metabolites was unaffected by OVX, the amounts of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their methylated metabolites that were not conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulfate were lowered by OVX. Specifically, urine from OVX SHRs administered GSE contained 30% higher proportions (91.8% vs. 62.3%) of glucuronidated (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin and glucuronidated methyl (+)-catechin and methyl (-)-epicatechin than urine from sham-OVX SHRs. However, there were no differences in urinary levels of total methylated or sulfated catechins in OVX SHRs. This is the first quantitative characterization of metabolites of grape seed polyphenols in a model of menopause; it indicates that ovariectomy causes either an increase in expression and/or activity of select uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase(s).

  9. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model.

    PubMed

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-19

    The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and

  10. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  11. Grape seed and red wine polyphenol extracts inhibit cellular cholesterol uptake, cell proliferation, and 5-lipoxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y

    2008-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that grape seed and wine polyphenol extracts possess a diverse array of actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of inflammatory-mediated disease such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. This study aimed to determine whether the reported pleiotropic effects of several polyphenolic extracts from grape seed products or red wine would also include inhibition of cholesterol uptake and cell proliferation, and inhibit a known specific target of the inflammatory process, that is, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Incubation of HT29, Caco2, HepG2, or HuTu80 cells in a medium containing [(3)H]cholesterol in the presence of a grape seed extract (GSE) or red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPCs) inhibited [(3)H]cholesterol uptake by up to 66% (which appeared maximal). The estimated IC(50) values were 60 and 83 microg/mL for RWPC and GSE, respectively. Similar cholesterol uptake inhibitory effects were observed using the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD cholesterol. The inhibition of cholesterol uptake was independent of the sample's (GSE and RWPC) potent antioxidative capacity. Red wine polyphenolic compound and GSE dose dependently inhibited HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, which was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. In addition, RWPC and GSE inhibited 5-LOX activity with the IC(50) values being 35 and 13 microg/mL, respectively. Two of 3 other GSEs tested also significantly inhibited 5-LOX activity. Inhibition of cholesterol uptake and proinflammatory 5-LOX activity may be beneficial in preventing the development of chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  12. Effect of grape seed extracts on bond strength of bleached enamel using fifth and seventh generation bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sathish; Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Saujanya, K P; Jaju, Neha; Tambe, Varsha H; Yawalikar, Priya P

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (oligomericproanthocyanidin complexes [OPCs]) on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel using 5th and 7th generations of bonding agents. Materials & Methods: Eighty maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to four groups as follows: Group I (n=20): no bleaching (control); Group II (n=20): bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide gel, without the use of an antioxidant; Group III (n=20): bleaching followed by the use of 10% sodium ascorbate; Group IV (n=20) : bleaching followed by the use of 5% proanthocyanidin solution. All the four groups were further subdivided into two groups of ten teeth each depending on the adhesive system used in order to bond the resin composite to enamel surfaces. Subgroup A: 5th generation bonding agent and subgroup B : 7th generation bonding agent. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under universal testing machine. Results: The shear bond strength values were observed to be significantly higher in teeth treated with 10% sodium ascorbate and 5% proanthocyanidin as compared to the group in which no antioxidant was used. Also, bonding with 5th generation bonding agent resulted in significantly higher shear bond strength when compared to the 7th generation bonding agent. Conclusion: The use of grape seed extract as an antioxidant after bleaching significantly improves the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. 5th generation bonding agents have higher shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel. How to cite this article: Abraham S, Ghonmode WN, Saujanya KP, Jaju N, Tambe VH, Yawalikar PP. Effect of grape seed extract on bond strength of bleached enamel using fifth and seventh generation bonding agents. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):101-7 . PMID:24453453

  13. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J; Das, D K; Ray, S D; Kuszynski, C A; Joshi, S S; Pruess, H G

    2000-08-07

    Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumor promotion and carcinogenesis, and AIDS. Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and serve as inhibitors of neoplastic processes. A large number of synthetic and natural antioxidants have been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects on human health and disease prevention. However, the structure-activity relationship, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the antioxidants differ extensively. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins, naturally occurring antioxidants widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, flowers and bark, have been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and therapeutic activities against free radicals and oxidative stress. We have assessed the concentration- or dose-dependent free radical scavenging ability of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) both in vitro and in vivo models, and compared the free radical scavenging ability of GSPE with vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. These experiments demonstrated that GSPE is highly bioavailable and provides significantly greater protection against free radicals and free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. GSPE was also shown to demonstrate cytotoxicity towards human breast, lung and gastric adenocarcinoma cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal human gastric mucosal cells. The comparative protective effects of GSPE, vitamins C and E were examined on tobacco-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in human oral keratinocytes. Oxidative tissue damage was determined by lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, while apoptotic cell death was assessed by flow cytometry. GSPE provided significantly

  14. Nondestructive NMR determination of oil composition in transformed canola seeds.

    PubMed

    Hutton, W C; Garbow, J R; Hayes, T R

    1999-12-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a convenient method for nondestructive, quantitative characterization of seed oil composition. We describe results for intact hybrid and transformed canola seeds. The MAS 13C NMR technique complements and agrees with gas chromatography results. The spectral resolution approaches that of neat, liquid oils. MAS 13C NMR data allow quantitative analysis of major oil components, including saturates and oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acyl chains. 13C NMR directly and quantitatively elucidates, triglyceride regiochemistry and acyl chain cis-trans isomers that cannot be quickly detected by other methods. MAS 13C NMR can serve as the primary method for development of near-infrared seed oil calibrations. These NMR methods are nondestructive and attractive for plant-breeding programs or other studies (e.g., functional genomics) where loss of seed viability is inconvenient.

  15. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adverse Effects of Grape Seed Extract Supplement: A Clinical Case and Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Abidali, Hussein; Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Dholaria, Kevin; Johnson, Cassandra; Kishore, Varsha A; Baltz, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) supplement use is becoming more popular today for its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic role. We report a 49-year-old male who presented with recurrent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute weakness following GSE use. A thorough medical workup ensued and no causes were identified clinically, procedurally, or with imaging. Symptoms resolved after GSE discontinuation and the patient remained symptom-free 5 years later. This case illustrates the paucity of documented detailed clinical cases and lack of controlled trials detailing a thorough and reproducible adverse effect profile of GSE supplement.

  17. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented.

  18. Grape seed extract and Zinc containing nutritional food supplement delays onset and progression of Streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminaryana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai; Vaishnav, Rajdip Lalit

    2015-05-01

    Prevention of hyperglycemia and enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanisms remain major goals in the treatment of diabetic cataract. Earlier, we reported strong anti-hyperglycemic and in vitro antioxidant potential of the combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate effects of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets against streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were selected and diabetes was induced by streptozocin (35 mg/kg, i.p) and divided into four groups (group II-V). The normal control (group I) and streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract control rats received only vehicle. Groups III, IV and V animals received orally 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg of combined formulation of Zincovit tablets with grape seed extract respectively for a period of 150 days. The biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress, polyol pathway and alterations in adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and blood glucose were investigated, to understand the possible mechanism of action of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Rats treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets delayed the progression of diabetic cataract as well as it showed significant alterations in oxidative stress markers along with blood glucose, aldose reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphate level in lens. Over all, the results suggest that single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets may be of great value in delaying diabetic cataract of human subjects as nutritional food supplement.

  19. Oil content and seed yield improvements of Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improvement in seed oil content and seed yield of Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats. (Brassicaceae) could have a large impact on attracting new markets for commercialization of this new oilseed crop. There have been several previous germplasm releases for public use with improvements of these traits....

  20. Effect of low molecular grape seed proanthocyanidins on blood pressure and lipid homeostasis in cafeteria diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Pons, Z; Guerrero, L; Margalef, M; Arola, L; Arola-Arnal, A; Muguerza, B

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related pathologies are the leading cause of death worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are known to improve CVD, an effect that has been associated with flavonoid intake. The aim of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the acute effect of a low molecular grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (LM-GSPE) on two of the main risk factors of CVD, high blood pressure (BP) and dyslipidaemia, using high-fat diet-fed rats. Therefore, male Wistar rats that were cafeteria diet fed for 10 weeks were administered with 375 mg/kg of body weight of LM-GSPE, and the BP as well as plasmatic and hepatic parameters were determined at 6 h post-administration. The BP and plasmatic and hepatic lipid were decreased 6 h after the LM-GSPE administration. Moreover, the liver lipid peroxidation products decreased after the LM-GSPE treatment, indicating a reduction in oxidative stress. However, hepatic-reduced glutathione or plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity was not altered by the LM-GSPE. In conclusion, grape proanthocyanidins is able to simultaneously reduce more than one risk factor for CVD by decreasing the BP and improving hypertriglyceridaemia at least in part due to an improvement in oxidative stress. These results open up the possibility of using grape proanthocyanidins in functional foods for CVD improvement.

  1. Physical and chemical analysis of Passiflora seeds and seed oil from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shucheng; Yang, Feng; Li, Jiali; Zhang, Chaohua; Ji, Hongwu; Hong, Pengzhi

    2008-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of seeds and seed oil from 'Tainung No. 1' passion fruit in China have been analyzed in order to evaluate their nutritional value. Proximate analysis shows that the seeds have a high amount of protein (10.8 +/- 0.60%) and are rich in oil (23.40 +/- 2.50%). The seeds are found to be a good source of minerals. They contain considerable amounts of sodium (2.980 +/- 0.002 mg/g), magnesium (1.540 +/- 0.001 mg/g), potassium (0.850 +/- 0.001 mg/g), and calcium (0.540 +/- 0.002 mg/g). The passion fruit seeds contain the 17 amino acids that are found naturally in plant protein (tryptophan is not analyzed). The essential amino acids account for 34% of the 17 amino acids. The amino acid score of passion fruit seeds protein is 74 and the first limiting amino acid is methionine and cystine. The oil extracted by solvent and supercritical dioxide carbon is liquid at room temperature and the color is golden-orange. The specific gravity of the oil is about 0.917. Comparing the chemical properties of the oil extracted by solvent with that by supercritical dioxide carbon, the latter may be suitable as edible oil directly, while the former will be edible after it must be refined to improve on clarity. Fatty acid composition of the seed oil indicates that the oil contains two essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and linolenic acid), but the content of linoleic acid (72.69 +/- 0.32%) is by far greater than that of linolenic acid (0.26 +/- 0.00%). The present analytical results show the passion fruit seed to be a potentially valuable non-conventional source for high-quality oil.

  2. Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.

    PubMed

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Poudyal, Shital; Saleh, Osama; Astatkie, Tess; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2016-06-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and β-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil.

  3. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  5. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-09-02

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  6. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles.

  7. Characterization and viscosity parameters of seed oils from wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, C O; Paschal, N H

    2003-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of Spondias mombin seed oil and the viscosity-temperature profiles of six seed oils from other plants which grow in the wild: Balanites aegytiaca, Lophira lanceolata, Sterculia setigera, Khaya senegalensis, Ximenia americana and Sclereocarya birrea, were investigated. The oil content of S. mombin seed was significant at 31.5% (w/w). The oil appeared stable as deduced from its low peroxide and acid values of 6.0 mEq kg(-1) and 1.68 mg KOH, respectively. The X. americana oil was denser than the other ones, with a value of 0.9625 g cm(-3) at 30 degrees C. The kinematic viscosities of the oils and their temperature dependence in the range 30-70 degrees C suggested a potential industrial application of the oils as lubricating base stock. Specifically, the kinematic viscosities of the oils were in the range 59.8-938.2 cst at 30 degrees C with X. americana having the highest value. At 70 degrees C, the reduction in viscosities of the oils was marked: reduction by over 70% of their values at 30 degrees C for S. setigera, K. senegalensis, X. americana and S. birrea oils.

  8. Modeling of the devolatilization kinetics during pyrolysis of grape residues.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Lorenzi, Denis; Fambri, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed on grape seeds, skins, stalks, marc, vine-branches, grape seed oil and grape seeds depleted of their oil. The TGA data was modeled through Gaussian, logistic and Miura-Maki distributed activation energy models (DAEMs) and a simpler two-parameter model. All DAEMs allowed an accurate prediction of the TGA data; however, the Miura-Maki model could not account for the complete range of conversion for some substrates, while the Gaussian and logistic DAEMs suffered from the interrelation between the pre-exponential factor k0 and the mean activation energy E0--an obstacle that can be overcome by fixing the value of k0 a priori. The results confirmed the capabilities of DAEMs but also highlighted some drawbacks in their application to certain thermodegradation experimental data.

  9. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  10. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  11. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Braicu, Cornelia; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B 41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  12. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  13. Determination of vitamin E isomers of grape seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Şeker, Mehmet E; Çelik, Ali; Dost, Kenan

    2012-02-01

    A simple analytical method for the determination of vitamin E isomers in grape seeds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection is described. The method is based on a solid-liquid extraction separation on an ODS column, and the analytes are monitored at 295 nm with a UV detector. Tocopherols are extracted in n-hexane and directly injected onto the column without using any purification step, such as saponification, prior to the separation and determination. The chromatographic separation of tocopherols is achieved in 12 min with a mobile phase that consists of n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol (99.99:0.01, v/v). The method is reproducible and accurate, with respect to demonstrating a relative standard deviation between 2.57% and 3.30% (n = 10, for 500 ng/mL) and a relative error between 0.84% and 6.54% (n = 10, for 500 ng/mL), respectively. The theoretical limits are estimated as 25 ng/mL for α-tocopherol, 43 ng/mL for γ-tocopherol, and 83 ng/mL for δ-tocopherols. The method is then applied for the determination of tocopherols in grape seeds grown in Turkey. The amounts of tocopherols are calculated by using the standard addition method.

  14. The protective effect of grape seed procyanidin extract against cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Rong; Li, Wei-min; Niu, Yu-jie; Guo, Hui-cai; Liu, Xue-hui; Hou, Yu-chun; Zhao, Li-juan

    2013-11-01

    As an important environmental pollutant, cadmium (Cd) can lead to serious renal damage. Grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE), a biological active component of grape seed, has been shown to possess antioxidative effects. Here, we assessed the protective effect of GSPE on Cd-induced renal damage using animal experiment. After 30 days, the oxidative damage of kidney was evaluated through measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidation (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Since, oxidative stress could lead to apoptosis, the renal apoptosis was measured using flow cytometer. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax and Bcl-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that Cd led to the decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and the increase of MDA level, induced renal apoptosis. However, the coadministration of GSPE attenuated Cd-induced lipid peroxidation, and antagonized renal apoptosis, probably associated with the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. These data suggested that GSPE has protective effect against renal oxidative damage induced by Cd, which provide a potential natural chemopreventive agent against Cd-poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Grape seed procyanidin b2 inhibits human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration induced by advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Zhang, Jian-hua; Wang, Jun-fu; Yu, Fei; Yin, Mei; Zhang, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is vital to the progression of diabetic vasculopathy. A grape seed procyanidin extract has been reported to possess anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and to display a significant cardiovascular protective effect, but little is know about the underlying mechanism. The objective of this present study was to determine whether GSPB2 (grape seed procyanidin B2), which is a dimeric procyanidin and more biologically active, could inhibit AGE-induced VSMC proliferation by affecting the production of ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCH-L1), the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Our data show that GSPB2 preincubation markedly inhibited AGE-induced proliferation and migration of HASMCs in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated the protein level of UCH-L1. Further studies revealed that the GSPB2 pretreatment markedly attenuated the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB by modulating ubiquitination of IκB-α in AGE-exposed HASMCs. These results collectively suggest that AGE-induced HASMC proliferation and migration was suppressed by GSPB2 through regulating UCH-L1 and ubiquitination of IκB-α. GSPB2 may therefore have therapeutic potential in preventing and treating vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer's disease mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Jiang; Thomas, Philip; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Bi, Fang-Fang; Kosaraju, Shantha; Pollard, Anthony; Fenech, Michael; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols extracted from grape seeds are able to inhibit amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregation, reduce Abeta production and protect against Abeta neurotoxicity in vitro. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. APP(Swe)/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were fed with normal AIN-93G diet (control diet), AIN-93G diet with 0.07% curcumin or diet with 2% GSE beginning at 3 months of age for 9 months. Total phenolic content of GSE was 592.5 mg/g dry weight, including gallic acid (49 mg/g), catechin (41 mg/g), epicatechin (66 mg/g) and proanthocyanidins (436.6 mg catechin equivalents/g). Long-term feeding of GSE diet was well tolerated without fatality, behavioural abnormality, changes in food consumption, body weight or liver function. The Abeta levels in the brain and serum of the mice fed with GSE were reduced by 33% and 44%, respectively, compared with the Alzheimer's mice fed with the control diet. Amyloid plaques and microgliosis in the brain of Alzheimer's mice fed with GSE were also reduced by 49% and 70%, respectively. Curcumin also significantly reduced brain Abeta burden and microglia activation. Conclusively, polyphenol-rich GSE prevents the Abeta deposition and attenuates the inflammation in the brain of a transgenic mouse model, and this thus is promising in delaying development of AD.

  17. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  18. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) inhibit the growth of cervical cancer by inducing apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), a biologically active component of grape seeds, have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical properties. Recently, the inhibitory effects of GSPs on various cancers have been reported, but their effects on cervical cancer remain unclear. Here, we explored the effect of GSPs on cervical cancer using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, the treatment of HeLa and SiHa cells with GSPs resulted in a significant inhibition of cell viability. Further investigation indicated that GSPs led to the dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak-1, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of caspase-3, suggesting that GSPs induced cervical cancer cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the administration of GSPs (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, w/v) as a supplement in drinking water significantly inhibited the tumor growth of HeLa and SiHa cells in athymic nude mice, and the number of apoptotic cells in those tumors was also increased significantly. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that GSPs could inhibit the growth of cervical cancer by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, which provides evidence indicating that GSPs may be a potential chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for cervical cancer.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    PubMed

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  20. Grape-seed procyanidins modulate cellular membrane potential and nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in STC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    González-Abuín, Noemi; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Blay, Mayte; Green, Brian D; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Grape-seed procyanidin extracts (GSPE) modulate glucose homeostasis, and it was suggested that GSPE may achieve this by enhancing the secretion of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine in detail the effects of GSPE on intestinal endocrine cells (STC-1). GSPE was found to modulate plasma membrane potential in enteroendocrine cells, inducing depolarization at low concentrations (0.05 mg/l) and hyperpolarization at high concentrations (50 mg/l), and surprisingly this was also accompanied by suppressed GLP-1 secretion. Furthermore, how GSPE affects STC-1 cells under nutrient-stimulated conditions (i.e., glucose, linoleic acid, and l-proline) was also explored, and we found that the higher GSPE concentration was effective in limiting membrane depolarization and reducing GLP-1 secretion. Next, it was also examined whether GSPE affected mitochondrial membrane potential, and it was found that this too is altered by GSPE; however, this does not appear to explain the observed effects on plasma membrane potential and GLP-1 secretion. In conclusion, our results show that grape-seed procyanidins modulate cellular membrane potential and nutrient-induced enteroendocrine hormone secretion in STC-1 cells.

  1. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; ALSHEHRI, ZAFER SAAD; SABRY, AYMAN; ABDEL-GHAFFAR, TULIP; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; ATTIA, HOSSAM

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2–4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory

  2. Grape seed proanthocyanidin supplementation reduces adipocyte size and increases adipocyte number in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Serrano, A; Arola-Arnal, A; Suárez-García, S; Bravo, F I; Suárez, M; Arola, L; Bladé, C

    2017-08-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can modulate WAT expandability. Because GSPE also contains gallic acid, we also studied the capacity of gallic acid to remodel WAT. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet (n=6) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 11 weeks. After 8 weeks, the CAF-fed animals were supplemented with 25 mg GSPE/kg body weight (n=6), 7 mg gallic acid/kg body weight (n=6) or the vehicle (n=6) for 3 weeks. Histological analyses were performed in the retroperitoneal (rWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) WAT to determine adipocyte size and number. Specific markers for adipogenesis and WAT functionality were analysed in rWAT using quantitative RT-PCR. GSPE or gallic acid supplementation did not reduce weight gain or reverse and adiposity. However, GSPE reduced adipocyte size significantly in rWAT and moderately in iWAT and tripled the adipocyte number in rWAT. Gallic acid slightly reduced adipocyte size in rWAT and iWAT and doubled the adipocyte number in both WATs. In accordance with this adipogenic activity, Pref-1 and PPARγ tended to be overexpressed in rWAT of rats supplemented with GSPE. Moreover, GSPE supplementation increased Plin1 and Fabp4 expression and restored adiponectin expression completely, indicating a better functionality of visceral WAT. GSPE supplementation has anti-hypertrophic and hyperplasic activities in rats with established obesity, mainly in visceral WAT inducing a healthier

  3. Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil and related cosmetic ingredients are derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and hydrogenated sesame seed oil function as conditioning agents. Sodium sesameseedate functions as a cleansing agent, emulsifying agent, and a nonaqueous viscosity increasing agent. These ingredients are neither skin irritants, sensitizers, teratogens, nor carcinogens at exposures that would result from cosmetic use. Both animal and human data relevant to the cosmetic use of these ingredients were reviewed. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  4. An analytical survey of the polyphenols of seeds of varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in Greece: implications for exploitation as a source of value-added phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Guendez, Ramila; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2005-01-01

    Seed samples from 12 white and 25 red international and Hellenic native grape varieties (Vitis vinifera) were screened for their polyphenolic composition. The polyphenols determined were mainly of low molecular weight, including gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and the procyanidins B1 and B2. Average values of total content for white and red varieties (376 and 388 mg/100 g seeds, respectively) were very similar. Comparable results were observed with respect to the individual polyphenol content with seeds from red varieties being, in general, slightly richer. The predominant flavanol monomer in white and red varieties was catechin (which accounted for 50.5 and 49.3%, respectively, of the total content), whilst gallic acid and epigallocatechin were the constituents showing the lowest content, respectively. The data obtained are discussed with regard to the exploitation of grape seeds as a low-cost source of value-added phytochemicals.

  5. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny

    2004-08-11

    The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.

  6. Physico-chemical composition and characterisation of the seed and seed oil of Sclerocarya birrea.

    PubMed

    Ogbobe, O

    1992-07-01

    The physicochemical composition of Sclerocarya birrea was assessed by standard methods and was found to contain 11.0% Crude oil, 17.2% Carbohydrate, 36.70% Crude protein 3.4% fibre and 0.9% crude saponins. The fatty acid distribution in the seed oil was obtained by fractionating the volatised fatty acid by GC-MS. The oil is made up of nine fatty acids of which palmitic, stearic and arachidonic acids are the most dominant.

  7. Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tsaknis, J; Lalas, S; Gergis, V; Dourtoglou, V; Spiliotis, V

    1999-11-01

    The oil from Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seeds from Kenya was extracted using three different procedures including cold press (CP), extraction with n-hexane (H), and extraction with a mixture of chloroform/methanol (50:50) (CM). The oil concentration ranged from 25.8% (CP) to 31.2% (CM). The density, refractive index, color, smoke point, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, sterols, tocopherols (by HPLC), peroxide value, and at 232 and 270 nm and the susceptibility to oxidation measured with the Rancimat method were determined. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 75.39%). The dominant saturated acids were behenic (up to 6. 73%) and palmitic (up to 6.04%). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol (up to 50.07%), stigmasterol (up to 17.27%), and campesterol (up to 15.13%). alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols were detected up to levels of 105.0, 39.54, and 77. 60 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The induction period (at 120 degrees C) of M. oleifera seed oil was reduced from 44.6 to 64.3% after degumming. The M. oleifera seed oil showed high stability to oxidative rancidity. The results of all the above determinations were compared with those of a commercial virgin olive oil.

  8. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  9. Oil content of Arabidopsis seeds: the influence of seed anatomy, light and plant-to-plant variation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2006-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is frequently used as a model for the study of oilseed biology and metabolism. However, the very small seeds of Arabidopsis can complicate analysis of their oil content and influence the application of results to larger-seeded plants. Here, we describe how seed anatomy, light, and plant-to-plant variation influence the content and measurement of oil in Arabidopsis seeds. The anatomy of Arabidopsis and Brassica napus seeds were compared and the distribution of mass, oil and the fatty acid composition of different seed parts were determined. In Brassica, 90% of the seed oil resides in the cotyledons that contribute 74% of seed mass. By contrast, the values for Arabidopsis are 60% and 45%, respectively, with a higher fraction of the oil deposited in the radicle, hypocotyl, endosperm and seed coat. Growth of Arabidopsis plants with 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1) light resulted in a two-fold higher seed yield, a 40% increase in mass per seed and a 60% increase in oil per seed compared to growth at 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Factors that influence the analysis of oil content were evaluated. Intact-seed transmethylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis provided reproducible analysis of Arabidopsis seed oil. However, plant-to-plant variation in oil content is large and we analyzed how this influences the ability to detect statistically valid changes in oil between different genotypes. These observations establish a reference data set on the fatty acid composition and distribution of mass and oil between tissues of Arabidopsis seeds that should help to predict the applicability of results obtained with Arabidopsis to other oilseeds.

  10. Grape seed polyphenols and curcumin reduce genomic instability events in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Kosaraju, Shantha; O'Callaghan, Nathan J; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Fenech, Michael

    2009-02-10

    The study set out to determine (a) whether DNA damage is elevated in mice that carry mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP695swe) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1-dE9) that predispose to Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to non-transgenic control mice, and (b) whether increasing the intake of dietary polyphenols from curcumin or grape seed extract could reduce genomic instability events in a transgenic mouse model for AD. DNA damage was measured using the micronucleus (MN) assay in both buccal mucosa and erythrocytes and an absolute telomere length assay for both buccal mucosa and olfactory bulb tissue. MN frequency tended to be higher in AD mice in both buccal mucosa (1.7-fold) and polychromatic erythrocytes (1.3-fold) relative to controls. Telomere length was significantly reduced by 91% (p=0.04) and non-significantly reduced by 50% in buccal mucosa and olfactory bulbs respectively in AD mice relative to controls. A significant 10-fold decrease in buccal MN frequency (p=0.01) was found for AD mice fed diets containing curcumin (CUR) or micro-encapsulated grape seed extract (MGSE) and a 7-fold decrease (p=0.02) for AD mice fed unencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) compared to the AD group on control diet. Similarly, in polychromatic erythrocytes a significant reduction in MN frequency was found for the MGSE cohort (65.3%) (p<0.05), whereas the AD CUR and AD GSE groups were non-significantly reduced by 39.2 and 34.8% respectively compared to the AD Control. A non-significant 2-fold increase in buccal cell telomere length was evident for the CUR, GSE and MGSE groups compared to the AD control group. Olfactory bulb telomere length was found to be non-significantly 2-fold longer in mice fed on the CUR diet compared to controls. These results suggest potential protective effects of polyphenols against genomic instability events in different somatic tissues of a transgenic mouse model for AD.

  11. Chemical composition of seed oils in native Taiwanese Camellia species.

    PubMed

    Su, Mong Huai; Shih, Ming Chih; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the fatty acid (FA) composition and levels in seeds of twelve native Camellia species collected in different populations of major producing regions in Taiwan. The constituents of FAs varied within and among populations. Oleic acid (OA) was found to be the predominant FA constituent in all species. Remarkably high levels of unsaturated OA and linoleic acid (LA), found in two populations of Camellia tenuiflora (CT), C. transarisanensis (CTA), and C. furfuracea (CFA), were similar to those reported for olive oil. The levels of saturated palmitic acid (PA) from most of the tested seed oils were less than 13%. Among the different fats, some FAs can be used as functional ingredients for topical applications. The seed oils of CT, CTA, and CFA possess chemical compounds that make them useful in health-oriented cooking due to their high OA and LA contents and low PA content.

  12. Inhibition of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway by a grape seed and grape marc meal extract in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Ringseis, R; Siebers, M; Keller, J; Kloster, J; Wen, G; Eder, K

    2012-12-01

    In pigs and other monogastric animal, the weaning phase is commonly accompanied by an increased susceptibility to gut disorders such as diarrhoea owing to the induction of an inflammatory process in the intestine during weaning. Given the unfavourable effects of intestinal inflammation on feed consumption, digestive capacity of the intestine and growth of animals, controlling intestinal inflammation is a reasonable approach for the maintenance of performance characteristics of livestock animals. Therefore, this study aimed to study the anti-inflammatory potential of a commercial polyphenol-rich grape seed (GS) and grape marc (GM) meal-based feed additive in a well-established in vitro intestinal epithelium model (polarized Caco-2 cells). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by studying the effect of an ethanolic extract obtained from the GS and GM meal-based feed additive (GSGME) on the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, which is considered to play a key role in the induction of weaning-associated intestinal inflammation. The highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of the ethanolic GSGME dose dependently reduced TNFα-induced NF-κB transactivation and decreased TNFα-induced mRNA levels of the NF-κB target genes IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1 and CXCL1 in Caco-2 intestinal cells (p < 0.05). No effect of the ethanolic GSGME was observed on the cytoprotective Nrf2 pathway in Caco-2 cells as evidenced by an unaltered Nrf2 transactivation and unchanged mRNA levels of Nrf2 target genes, such as GPX-2, NQO1, CYP1A1 and UGT1A1. In conclusion, this study shows that an ethanolic GSGME exerts anti-inflammatory effects in intestinal cells under in vitro conditions. Thus, polyphenol-rich GSGM meal-based feed additives may be useful for the inhibition or prevention of inflammatory processes in the intestine of livestock animals, in particular during states with inappropriate NF-κB activation in the intestinal tissue, such as the weaning phase. Future studies are

  13. Composition of vegetable oil from seeds of native halophytes

    Treesearch

    D. J. Weber; B. Gul; A. Khan; T. Williams; N. Williams; P. Wayman; S. Warner

    2001-01-01

    Of the world’s land area, about 7 percent is salt affected. Irrigated land is more susceptible to salinity and it is estimated that over 1/3 of the irrigated soils are becoming saline. Certain plants (halophytes) grow well on high saline soils. One approach would be to grow halophytes on high saline soils and harvest their seeds. The oil in the seeds would be extracted...

  14. Analytical characterization of Salicornia bigelovii seed oil cultivated in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I; Nasir, M Khalil A; Ismail, Sarwat

    2002-07-17

    Seeds of Salicornia bigelovii (hybrid variety sos-10) were collected from five coastal areas of Pakistan on the Arabian Sea. Hexane-extracted oil content was 27.2-32.0%. Results of other physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 128.0-130.5; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4680-1.4695; unsaponifiable matter, 1.63-2.00%; saponification value, 178.6-189.0; density (30 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9074. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil ranged up to 200 mg/kg. The S. bigelovii seed oil was found to contain high levels of linoleic acid (74.66-79.49%) and less oleic acid (12.33-16.83%). Saturated fatty acids, palmitic and stearic acids, ranged from 7 to 8.50% and from 1.24 to 1.69%, respectively. Linolenic acid (C(18:3) omega-3) was found within the range of 1.50-2.31%. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 1.40-1.70 h. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.90-2.40 and 0.40-0.62, respectively. Many parameters of S. bigelovii seed oil were quite compatible with those of safflower oil.

  15. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  16. A new method for seed oil body purification and examination of oil body integrity following germination.

    PubMed

    Tzen, J T; Peng, C C; Cheng, D J; Chen, E C; Chiu, J M

    1997-04-01

    Plant seeds store triacylglycerols as energy sources for germination and postgerminative growth of seedlings. The triacylglycerols are preserved in small, discrete, intracellular organelles called oil bodies. A new method was developed to purify seed oil bodies. The method included extraction, flotation by centrifugation, detergent washing, ionic elution, treatment with a chaotropic agent, and integrity testing by use of hexane. These processes subsequently removed non-specifically associated or trapped proteins within the oil bodies. Oil bodies purified by this method maintained their integrity and displayed electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance on their surface. Compared with the previous procedure, this method allowed higher purification of oil bodies, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE using five species of oilseeds. Oil bodies purified from sesame were further analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and revealed two potential oleosin isoforms. The integrity of oil bodies in germinating sesame seedlings was examined by hexane extraction. Our results indicated that consumption of triacylglycerols reduced gradually the total amount of oil bodies in seedlings, whereas no alteration was observed in the integrity of remaining oil bodies. This observation implies that oil bodies in germinating seeds are not degraded simultaneously. It is suggested that glyoxisomes, with the assistance of mitochondria, fuse and digest oil bodies one at a time, while the remaining oil bodies are preserved intact during the whole period of germination.

  17. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  18. Cannabinoid Poisoning by Hemp Seed Oil in a Child.

    PubMed

    Chinello, Matteo; Scommegna, Salvatore; Shardlow, Alison; Mazzoli, Francesca; De Giovanni, Nadia; Fucci, Nadia; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Locasciulli, Anna; Calvani, Mauro

    2017-05-01

    We report a case of mild cannabinoid poisoning in a preschool child, after 3-week ingestion of hemp seed oil prescribed by his pediatrician to strengthen his immune system. The patient presented neurological symptoms that disappeared after intravenous hydration. A possible mild withdrawal syndrome was reported after discharge. The main metabolite of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in urine, and very low concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in the ingested product. This is, as far as we know, the first report of cannabinoid poisoning after medical prescription of hemp seed oil in a preschool child.

  19. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Procida, Giuseppe; Stancher, Bruno; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2013-03-30

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common product in Slovenia, Hungary and Austria and is considered a preventive agent for various pathologies, particularly prostate diseases. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins. In this study the carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid contents of 12 samples of commercial pumpkin seed oil were investigated together with the composition of the volatile fraction resulting from the roasting process. The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma. The nutraceutical properties of the product are confirmed by the high content of α- and γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  1. Diversity of Sterol Composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Mezni, Faten; Labidi, Arbia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Martine, Lucy; Berdeaux, Olivier; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2016-05-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from 13 different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to quantify sterols and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β-sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24-methylene-cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils.

  2. Grape seed polyphenolic extract specifically decreases aβ*56 in the brains of Tg2576 mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Kemper, Lisa J; Wang, Jun; Zahs, Kathleen R; Ashe, Karen H; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and transgenic mouse models of AD, cause synaptotoxicity and memory impairment. Grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) inhibits Aβ oligomerization in vitro and attenuates cognitive impairment and AD-related neuropathology in the brains of transgenic mice. In the current study, GSPE was administered to Tg2576 mice for a period of five months. Treatment significantly decreased brain levels of Aβ*56, a 56-kDa Aβ oligomer previously shown to induce memory dysfunction in rodents, without changing the levels of transgenic amyloid-β protein precursor, monomeric Aβ, or other Aβ oligomers. These results thus provide the first demonstration that a safe and affordable intervention can lower the levels of a memory-impairing Aβ oligomer in vivo and strongly suggest that GSPE should be further tested as a potential prevention and/or therapy for AD.

  3. Differential effects of grape seed extract against human colorectal cancer cell lines: the intricate role of death receptors and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Derry, Molly; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2013-06-28

    Failure of anti-cancer therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells involves resistance to death mechanisms. We investigated grape seed extract (GSE) ability to target CRC cells and delineated the mechanisms involved in GSE-induced CRC cell death. GSE selectively induced apoptotic death in human CRC cells; efficacy increased as the metastatic potential of the cancer cells increased. Oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and involvement of both caspase-dependent/independent apoptotic pathways contributed to GSE-induced CRC cell death. GSE intervention may serve as a multi-targeted CRC therapeutic capable of inducing selective cancer cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Folic Acid and Grape Seed Extract Prevent Azathioprine-induced Fetal Malformations and Renal Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Bayad, Aida E

    2016-12-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is an important drug commonly used in the therapy of the autoimmune system disorders. It induces many hazard effects that restrict its use. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of AZA on the fetal development and renal function and its co-administration with either folic acid (FA) or grape seed extract (GSE). The effects of administration of GSE or FA on AZA toxicity by gavage simultaneously for 4 weeks were studied by determining the changes in kidney histology, the glutathione level (GSH), and lipid per oxidation content as malondialdehyde in the kidney tissue. Additionally, their effects on the fetal development were investigated. Azathioprine induced a renal damage as indicated from the pronounced changes in histological structure, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine, and malondialdehyde content in the kidney tissue. Meanwhile, the GSH activity was significantly decreased. Co-treatment with GSE significantly minimized the previously mentioned hazard effects of AZA by ameliorating the antioxidant activity. At this point, FA induced a nonsignificant protective activity. The results also revealed that administration of FA or GSE at 6th to 15th day of gestation did not altered fetal development. While, AZA administration clearly disturbed fetal development as indicated from a significant decrease in fetal weights. Furthermore, co-administration of both drugs significantly minimized similarly the hazards of AZA on the fetal development. It may be concluded that GSE and FA are a useful remedies. Maternal administrations of either both are protective agents against AZA-induced fetal malformations. Grape seed extract was more active than FA in potentiating the antioxidative defenses for controlling AZA-induced oxidative renal damages. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Grape seed proanthocyanidins increase collagen biodegradation resistance in the dentin/adhesive interface when included in an adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bradley; Yao, Xiaomei; Ganguly, Arindam; Xu, Changqi; Dusevich, Vladimir; Walker, Mary P; Wang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Contemporary methods of dentin bonding could create hybrid layers (HLs) containing voids and exposed, demineralized collagen fibers. Proanthocyanidins (PA) have been shown to crosslink and strengthen demineralized dentin collagen, but their effects on collagen degradation within the HL have not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphological differences of HLs created by BisGMA/HEMA model adhesives with and without the addition of grape seed extract PA under conditions of enzymatic collagen degradation. Methods Model adhesives formulated with and without 5% PA were bonded to the acid etched dentin. Five-μm-thick sections cut from the bonded specimens were stained with Goldner’s trichrome. The specimens were then exposed to 0.1% collagenase solution for zero, one, or six days. Following collagenase treatment, the specimens were analyzed with SEM/TEM. Results Staining did not reveal a difference in the HLs created with the two adhesives. SEM showed the presence of intact collagen fibrils in all collagenase treatment conditions for specimens bonded with adhesive containing PA. These integral collagen fibrils were not observed in the specimens bonded with adhesive without PA after the same collagenase treatment. TEM confirmed that the specimens containing PA still showed normal collagen fibril organization and dimensions after treatment with collagenase solution. In contrast, disorganized collagen fibrils in the interfacial zone lacked the typical cross-banding of normal collagen after collagenase treatment for specimens without PA. Conclusions The presence of grape seed extract PA in dental adhesives may inhibit the biodegradation of unprotected collagen fibrils within the HL. PMID:20709136

  6. Endogenous formation of N'-nitrosonornicotine in F344 rats in the presence of some antioxidants and grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Porubin, Diana; Hecht, Stephen S; Li, Zhong-ze; Gonta, Maria; Stepanov, Irina

    2007-08-22

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is one of the most abundant strong carcinogens in unburned tobacco and cigarette smoke and is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans. Human exposure to NNN mainly occurs upon use of tobacco products. It is also possible that additional amounts of NNN are formed endogenously. The goal of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of some antioxidants, including ascorbic acid and grape seed extract (GSE), on endogenous NNN formation in rats treated with nornicotine and sodium nitrite by gavage twice daily for 3 days. The study included four groups of rats: (1) negative control group A, to which no chemical was administered; (2) negative control group B, treated with nornicotine alone (2.5 micromol per gavage); (3) positive control group, to which both nornicotine (2.5 micromol per gavage) and sodium nitrite (7.5 micromol per gavage) were administered; and (4) rats treated with nornicotine (2.5 micromol per gavage), inhibitor (7.5 or 37.5 micromol per gavage), and sodium nitrite (7.5 micromol per gavage). The mean (+/-SD) total amount of NNN in the 3-day urine of rats treated with both nornicotine and sodium nitrite was 4.78 +/- 2.88 nmol. The order of inhibition of endogenous NNN formation in rats at the molar ratio [nitrite]:[inhibitor] 1:5 was as follows: ascorbic acid (91%) > dihydroxyfumaric acid (86%) approximately catechin (85%) > resveratrol (no inhibition). Treatment of rats with grape seed extract did not produce statistically significant inhibition of endogenous nornicotine nitrosation. This is the first study that demonstrates endogenous NNN formation in rats treated with nornicotine and sodium nitrite and effective inhibition of this process by ascorbic acid, dixydroxyfumaric acid, and catechin.

  7. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, X; Krohn, R L; Liu, W; Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; McGinn, T R; Bagchi, M; Preuss, H G; Stohs, S J; Bagchi, D

    1999-06-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants which possess a broad spectrum of chemoprotective properties against free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, we have assessed the cytotoxicity of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A-427 human lung cancer cells, CRL-1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells at 25 and 50 mg/lit concentrations for 0-72 h using cytomorphology and MTT cytotoxicity assay. In addition, we compared the effects on normal human gastric mucosal cells and normal J774A.1 murine macrophage cells with the effects on the cancer cell lines. Concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of GSPE were observed on the MCF-7 breast cancer, A-427 lung cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Following incubation of the MCF-7 cells with 25 mg/lit of the GSPE approximately 6.5, 30 and 43% inhibitions in cell growth were observed at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, respectively, while incubation of the MCF-7 cells with 50 mg/lit of the GSPE resulted in 11, 35 and 47% inhibition in cell growth at these same points, respectively. Similar results were observed in the A-427 and gastric adenocarcinoma cells. GSPE exhibited no cytotoxicity toward the neoplastic K562 myelogenous leukemic cells. However, GSPE enhanced the growth and viability of the normal human gastric mucosal cells and J774A.1 murine macrophage cells. These data demonstrate that GSPE exhibited cytotoxicity towards some cancer cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of the normal cells which were examined.

  8. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and at decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts or compounds.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Manijeh; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Urban, Nelly; Descomps, Bernard; Leger, Claude L

    2003-05-01

    A large body of evidence supports the key role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of natural polyphenols (PP) from Vitis vinifera and Olea europea at protecting LDL against oxidation brought about by Cu2+, oxygen-centered radical-generating AAPH, or peroxynitrite-generating SIN-1 in vitro systems, or at impairing superoxide production in promonocyte cells (THP-1) conveniently differentiated into adherent macrophages. PP were either from the whole grape (fraction A) containing mainly procyanidins, (epi)-catechin and anthocyanins, or from grape seed extracts (fractions B and C) consisting of tannins and procyanidin oligomers with a higher content in B than in C, or from a grape skin extract (fraction D) consisting mainly of anthocyanins, or from a hydrosoluble olive mill wastewater PP extract (fraction E) containing hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein. Chlorogenic acid (F) and catechin (G) were taken as archetypes of PP preventing oxidation partly as copper scavenger and as radical scavenger only, respectively. All grape fractions were efficient towards Cu2+ system (equally or more efficient than F), whereas they were rather poorly efficient towards AAPH and SIN-1 (less efficient than G but as efficient as F). Among the PP fractions, B was the most effective at protecting LDL in the SIN-1 system and at impairing THP-1 superoxide production. Taken together, these data suggest that the PP fraction from grape seed rich in procyanidins achieves the best compromise between the direct and indirect (i.e. cell-mediated) types of action in protecting LDL against oxidation, strengthening the need for improving the knowledge of its bioavailability in humans.

  9. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  10. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  11. Characteristics, composition and oxidative stability of Lannea microcarpa seed and seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bazongo, Patrice; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Nielsen, Søren; Hilou, Adama; Dicko, Mamoudou Hama; Shukla, Vijai K S

    2014-02-24

    The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%), crude oil (64.90%), protein (21.14%), total carbohydrate (10.85%) and moisture (3.24%). Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%), palmitic (34.45%), linoleic (11.20%) and stearic (8.35%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN) 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively). The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO) (21.23%), followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP) (16.47%), palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO) (12.03%), dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP) (10.85%) and dioleoyl linolein (LOO) (9.30%). The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g-1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm). These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

  12. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  13. The physico-chemical properties of some citrus seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad A L; Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2016-03-01

    The chemical properties, mineral contents, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of seed and seed oils of some citrus genus provided from several locations in Turkey and Saudi Arabia were determined. While Ca contents of seeds were between 5018 mg/kg (Kütdiken lemon) and 7619 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin), K contents of seeds varied between 7007 mg/kg (Orlando orange) and 10334 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin). Glucose and fructose contents of citrus seed samples varied between 3.75 g/kg and 5.75 g/kg, and 4.09 g/kg and 6.03 g/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were established as dominant fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents of citrus seed oils varied between 19.6% (Kütdiken lemon) and 26.2% (pineapple orange), 21.3% (kinnow mandarin) and 31.4% (Kütdiken lemon) and 32.3% (Kütdiken lemon) and 43.7% (kinnow mandarin), respectively. The total amount of tocopherols of Turkish citrus oil varied between 0.5 mg/100 g (Fremont mandarin) and 18.8 mg/100 g (bitter orange).

  14. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Ouilly, Judicaël Thomas; Bazongo, Patrice; Bougma, Adjima; Kaboré, Nèbpawindé; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ouédraogo, Amadé

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C), 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX) value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C), 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%), lutein (80%), and β-sitosterol (93%) were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications. PMID:28255501

  15. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Ouilly, Judicaël Thomas; Bazongo, Patrice; Bougma, Adjima; Kaboré, Nèbpawindé; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ouédraogo, Amadé; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C), 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX) value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C), 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%), lutein (80%), and β-sitosterol (93%) were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  16. Fatty acid composition of seed oil from Fremontodendron californicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid composition of the low water-use shrub Fremontodendron californicum was examined by high temperature capillary gas chromatography. The ground seeds were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to obtain the oil (25.6% w/w) and for subsequent determination of the fatty acid c...

  17. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  18. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from Pachyrhizus erosus seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The search for additional or alternative feedstocks is one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, the fuel properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (commonly known as yam bean or Mexican potato or jicama) seed oil methyl esters were investigated by methods prescribed in biodiesel...

  19. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  20. Seed oil development of pennycress under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pennycress (Thlaspi sp) has been targeted as a potential oilseed for the biofuels industry. Its seeds contain ~36% oil, where erucic acid is the major fatty acid presented with 38.1%. Additionally, the physical proprieties of the methyl esters are in the range to satisfy the needs of the biodiesel m...

  1. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100 µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol.

  2. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  3. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  4. Light-induced lipid oxidation in sheep milk: effects of dietary grape seed and linseed, alone or in combination, on milk oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Correddu, Fabio; Nudda, Anna; Manca, Maria G; Pulina, Giuseppe; Dalsgaard, Trine K

    2015-04-22

    The present work aimed to investigate the milk oxidative stability when the sheep diet includes a source of polyphenols (grape seed, (GS)) and a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linseed, (LIN)), alone or in combination (MIX) compared to a control group (CON). For this purpose light-induced oxidation in milk was studied. After 24 h of light exposure the lipid hydroperoxides increased in milk in the LIN and MIX groups. The calculated ratio between the level of lipid hydroperoxides and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in milk was lower in the GS and MIX than in the LIN group. At the same time the level of the ratio between hexanal/linoleic acid in milk was lower in the GS and MIX than in the CON group. Although the dietary inclusion of grape seed did not reduce the level of lipid oxidation products in sheep milk, it effectively reduced the extent of oxidation of UFA.

  5. Mechanistic insight into nuclear receptor-mediated regulation of bile acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis by grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE).

    PubMed

    Downing, Laura E; Edgar, Daniel; Ellison, Patricia A; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Dietary procyanidins have emerged as important bioactive components that regulate various metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE), in particular, has demonstrated regulatory effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism in vivo. While numerous studies in rodent models have shown the potent hypolipidemic action of grape seed extracts, human studies have shown inconsistent results. This review will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic actions of GSPE identified to date, specifically highlighting the effects exerted via nuclear receptors. Such evidence may provide avenues for future research in human subjects with GSPE as a therapeutic treatment for the prevention and amelioration of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of polyphenol-rich grape seed extract on ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ras, Rouyanne T; Zock, Peter L; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Johnston, Neil R; Webb, David J; Draijer, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols, such as those from grape products, may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including anti-hypertensive effects. We investigated the effect of a specific grape seed extract (GSE) rich in low-molecular-weight polyphenolic compounds on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in untreated subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension. In addition, potential mechanisms that could underlie the hypothesised effect of GSE on blood pressure (BP), and platelet aggregation, were explored. The study was designed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group intervention study including seventy healthy subjects with systolic BP between 120 and 159 mmHg. A 1-week run-in period was followed by an 8-week intervention period, during which subjects consumed capsules containing either 300 mg/d of GSE or a placebo (microcrystalline cellulose). Before and after the intervention, daytime ABP readings, 24 h urine samples and fasting and non-fasting blood samples were taken. The mean baseline systolic BP was 135.8 (SE 1.3) mmHg and diastolic BP was 81.5 (SE 0.9) mmHg. BP values were modestly, but not significantly, affected by the polyphenol-rich GSE treatment v. placebo with an effect of - 3.0 mmHg for systolic BP (95% CI - 6.5, 0.5) and - 1.4 mmHg for diastolic BP (95% CI - 3.5, 0.6). Vasoactive markers including endothelin-1, NO metabolites and asymmetric dimethylarginine, plasma renin activity and platelet aggregation were not affected by the GSE intervention. Our findings show that consumption of polyphenol-rich GSE does not significantly lower ABP in untreated subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension.

  7. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  8. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  9. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity.

  10. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  11. Chlorophyll and carbohydrate metabolism in developing silique and seed are prerequisite to seed oil content of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shuijin; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Yaofeng; Yu, Huasheng; Lin, Baogang; Zhang, Dongqing

    2014-12-01

    Although the seed oil content in canola is a crucial quality determining trait, the regulatory mechanisms of its formation are not fully discovered. This study compared the silique and seed physiological characteristics including fresh and dry weight, seed oil content, chlorophyll content, and carbohydrate content in a high oil content line (HOCL) and a low oil content line (LOCL) of canola derived from a recombinant inbred line in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The aim of the investigation is to uncover the physiological regulation of silique and seed developmental events on seed oil content in canola. On average, 83% and 86% of silique matter while 69% and 63% of seed matter was produced before 30 days after anthesis (DAA) in HOCL and LOCL, respectively, over three years. Furthermore, HOCL exhibited significantly higher fresh and dry matter at most developmental stages of siliques and seeds. From 20 DAA, lipids were deposited in the seed of HOCL significantly faster than that of LOCL, which was validated by transmission electron microscopy, showing that HOCL accumulates considerable more oil bodies in the seed cells. Markedly higher silique chlorophyll content was observed in HOCL consistently over the three consecutive years, implying a higher potential of photosynthetic capacity in siliques of HOCL. As a consequence, HOCL exhibited significantly higher content of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and starch mainly at 20 to 45 DAA, a key stage of seed lipid deposition. Moreover, seed sugar content was usually higher than silique indicating the importance of sugar transportation from siliques to seeds as substrate for lipid biosynthesis. The much lower silique cellulose content in HOCL was beneficial for lipid synthesis rather than consuming excessive carbohydrate for cell wall. Superior physiological characteristics of siliques in HOCL showed advantage to produce more photosynthetic assimilates, which were highly correlated to seed oil contents.

  12. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L.; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14–0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7–10.3% range), γ-cymene (5–7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8–7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50–66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8–16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12–20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5–60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240–600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0–5 and at 5–7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved

  13. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  15. Lipogenesis Is Decreased by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins According to Liver Proteomics of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Baiges, Isabel; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bladé, Cinta; Gregersen, Niels; Arola, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). This is the first study of the effects of flavonoids on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. Three groups of rats were fed over a period of 13 weeks either a chow diet (control), an HFD, or a high fat diet supplemented for the last 10 days with GSPE (HFD + GSPE). The liver proteome was fractionated, using a Triton X-114-based two-phase separation, into soluble and membrane protein fractions so that total proteome coverage was considerably improved. The data from isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 90 proteins with a significant (p < 0.05) minimal expression difference of 20% due to metabolic syndrome (HFD versus control) and 75 proteins due to GSPE treatment (HFD + GSPE versus HFD). The same animals have previously been studied (Quesada, H., del Bas, J. M., Pajuelo, D., Díaz, S., Fernandez-Larrea, J., Pinent, M., Arola, L., Salvadó, M. J., and Bladé, C. (2009) Grape seed proanthocyanidins correct dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet in rats and repress genes controlling lipogenesis and VLDL assembling in liver. Int. J. Obes. 33, 1007–1012), and GSPE was shown to correct dyslipidemia observed in HFD-fed rats probably through the repression of hepatic lipogenesis. Our data corroborate those findings with an extensive list of proteins describing the induction of hepatic glycogenesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in HFD, whereas the opposite pattern was observed to a large extent in GSPE-treated animals. GSPE was shown to have a wider effect than previously thought, and putative targets of GSPE involved in the reversal of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome were revealed. Some

  16. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Montamarry, S; Echard, B; Scheckenbach, R; Bagchi, D

    2001-07-01

    Progressive insulin resistance may contribute to both enhanced glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids and augmented free radical damage commonly associated with aging. Accordingly, ingestion of chromium and antioxidants which improve insulin sensitivity and/or lessen free radical formation could theoretically ameliorate these basic disorders and lessen signs and symptoms of chronic age-related disorders. However, this supposition is based primarily upon acute rather than chronic data. Therefore, we divided 104 F344/BN rats into 2 groups: a control group receiving a basic diet and a test group receiving the same diet with added chromium polynicotinate (5 ppm), zinc monomethionine (18 ppm elemental zinc), and a grape seed extract high in flavonoids (250 ppm). Initial mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) of both control and test groups were 122 mm Hg. Over the first 7 months, the SBP of the control animals steadily increased to 140 mm Hg and remained at this level for the next 7-8 months. In contrast, the SBP of the test animals initially decreased over the first 4 months to as low as 110-114 mm Hg. The SBP then increased over the following months, essentially reaching the starting value of 120 mm Hg. This was still significantly lower than control (p < 0.001). In 12 control and 12 test rats, hepatic TBARS formation, an estimate of lipid peroxidation/free radical formation, was significantly lower after 1 year ingesting the test diet (p < 0.04); and HbA1C was also statistically significantly lower in the test group (5.4 vs. 4.8%, p < 0.003). Circulating levels of cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides were similar between the two groups. Body, kidney, and liver weights were not different after 1 year ingesting the different diets; but epididymal fat pad weight was less in the group receiving supplements. We conclude that after prolonged supplementation a combination of agents known to sensitize insulin response and act as antioxidants (chromium polynicotinate, grape

  17. Protein composition of oil bodies from mature Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Boulard, Céline; Bellamy, Annick; Larré, Colette; Barre, Marion; Rogniaux, Hélène; d'Andréa, Sabine; Chardot, Thierry; Nesi, Nathalie

    2009-06-01

    Seed oil bodies (OBs) are intracellular particles storing lipids as food or biofuel reserves in oleaginous plants. Since Brassica napus OBs could be easily contaminated with protein bodies and/or myrosin cells, they must be purified step by step using floatation technique in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. An exhaustive description of the protein composition of rapeseed OBs from two double-zero varieties was achieved by a combination of proteomic and genomic tools. Genomic analysis led to the identification of sequences coding for major seed oil body proteins, including 19 oleosins, 5 steroleosins and 9 caleosins. Most of these proteins were also identified through proteomic analysis and displayed a high level of sequence conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. Two rapeseed oleosin orthologs appeared acetylated on their N-terminal alanine residue and both caleosins and steroleosins displayed a low level of phosphorylation.

  18. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  19. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements.

  20. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  1. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    PubMed

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  2. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes.

  3. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels.

  4. Quantitative description of the effect of stratification on dormancy release of grape seeds in response to various temperatures and water contents.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Q; Song, S Q; Li, S H; Gan, Y Y; Wu, J H; Cheng, H Y

    2009-01-01

    The effect of stratification on dormancy release of grape seeds crossing from the sub- to the supraoptimal range of temperatures and water contents was analysed by modified threshold models. The stratification impacted on dormancy release in three different ways: (i) dormancy was consistently released with prolonged stratification time when stratified at temperatures of <15 degrees C; (ii) at 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the stratification effect initially increased, and then decreased with extended time; and (iii) stratification at 25 degrees C only reduced germinable seeds. These behaviours indicated that stratification could not only release primary dormancy but also induce secondary dormancy in grape seed. The rate of dormancy release changed linearly in two phases, while induction increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The thermal time approaches effectively quantified dormancy release only at suboptimal temperature, but a quantitative method to integrate the occurrence of dormancy release and induction at the same time could describe it well at either sub- or supraoptimal temperatures. The regression with the percentage of germinable seeds versus stratification temperature or water content within both the sub- and supraoptimal range revealed how the optimal temperature (T(so)) and water content (W(so)) for stratification changed. The T(so) moved from 10.6 degrees C to 5.3 degrees C with prolonged time, while W(so) declined from >0.40 g H2O g DW(-1) at 5 degrees C to approximately 0.23 g H2O g DW(-1) at 30 degrees C. Dormancy release in grape seeds can occur across a very wide range of conditions, which has important implications for their ability to adapt to a changeable environment in the wild.

  5. Safety assessment of 4-week oral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi

    2017-10-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of oral doses of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in healthy Japanese adult volunteers. In an open-label, 4-week toxicity test, 29 subjects daily received 1000, 1500, or 2500 mg GSE orally. Serum Fe levels of two subjects in the 2500 mg GSE group decreased to 61 and 60 μg/100 mL from 205 and 182 μg/100 mL at baseline respectively, at second week of GSE consumption; these values are low but within the normal range for the Japanese population. Two weeks after completing the 4-week course of GSE ingestion, the serum Fe levels of both subjects returned to near baseline levels (210 and 189 μg/100 mL). No subject discontinued the study. Oral intake of GSE up to 2500 mg for 4 weeks was found to be generally safe and well tolerated in humans. Research with a larger number of subjects is required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates inflammation and adiposity by modulating gut microbiota in high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Zhao, Shaoqian; Wang, Jiqiu; Shi, Juan; Sun, Yingkai; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Hong, Jie; Liu, Ruixin

    2017-09-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic complications is a worldwide public health issue. Gut microbiota have been recently linked to obesity and its related inflammation. In this study, we have explored the anti-inflammatory effect of grape seed proanthocyanindin extract (GSPE) in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and identified the contribution of the gut microbiota to GSPE effects on metabolism. Mice were fed a normal diet and a high-fat diet with or without GSPE (300 mg/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage for 7 weeks. Supplementation with GSPE significantly decreased plasma levels of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, companied with ameliorated macrophage infiltration in epidydimal fat and liver tissues. Furthermore, GSPE also reduced epidydimal fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity. 16S rDNA analyses revealed that GSPE supplementation modulated the gut microbiota composition and certain bacteria including Clostridium XIVa, Roseburia and Prevotella. More importantly, depleting gut microbiota by antibiotics treatment abolished the beneficial effects of GSPE on inflammation and adiposity. Our study identifies the novel links between gut microbiota alterations and metabolic benefits by GSPE supplementation, providing possibilities for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders by targeting gut microbiota through a potential prebiotic agent GSPE. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Protective Effect of Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Oxidative Damage Induced by Zearalenone in Kunming Mice Liver

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Yang, Shu-Hua; Han, Jian-Xin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Xinliang; Guo, Jiayi; Wang, Jun; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) demonstrates strong anti-oxidant activity, little research has been done to clearly reveal the protective effects on the hepatotoxicity caused by zearalenone (ZEN). This study is to explore the protective effect of GSPE on ZEN-induced oxidative damage of liver in Kunming mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism of GSPE. The results indicated that GSPE could greatly reduce the ZEN-induced increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. GSPE also significantly decreased the content of MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. The analysis indicated that ZEN decreased both mRNA expression levels and protein expression levels of nuclear erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 is considered to be an essential antioxidative transcription factor, as downstream GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased simultaneously, whereas the pre-administration of GSPE groups was shown to elevate these expressions. The results indicated that GSPE exerted a protective effect on ZEN-induced hepatic injury and the mechanism might be related to the activation of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. PMID:27231898

  8. Identification of oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2) isolated from grape seeds as a formyl peptide receptor 1 partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Ruijun; Sun, Baoshan; Wang, Lihui; Hou, Yue; Li, Xiaoqin; Wu, Chunfu

    2013-04-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in the rapid progression of glioblastoma and has been considered as a molecular target for the treatment. Previously, we have shown that oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2, degree of polymerization 2-15), isolated from grape seeds, inhibited FPR1-mediated chemotaxis of U-87 glioblastoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of F2 to interact with FPR1. The cross attenuation of chemotaxis revealed that F2 shared FPR1 with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), which is a prototype agonist of FPR1. F2 was chemotactic for U-87 cells, and the chemotactic response was abolished when FPR1 gene was silenced or FPR1 was competitively occupied. We further show that F2 specifically blocked the binding of fluorescent agonist to FPR1. Interestingly, F2 exhibited the characteristic of a partial agonist for FPR1, as shown by its capacity to activate FPR1-mediated PI3K-PKC-MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, F2 also attenuated fMLF-triggered MAPK activation, suggesting that F2 could antagonize the effect of an agonist. Furthermore, F2 abolished the invasion of U-87 cells induced by fMLF. Thus, we have identified F2 as a novel, partial agonist for FPR1, which may be useful for glioblastoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury via ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoyu; Lu, Fuhua; Zheng, Yanqun; Zeng, Yuqun; Zou, Chuan; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on indoxyl sulfate-induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) injury in vitro and study its mechanism. HUVECs were incubated with indoxyl sulfate at concentrations in the range found in uremic patients. Then we determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate on endothelial phenotype, endothelial function, ROS (reactive oxygen species), cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. In addition, we detected whether GSPE can suppress the injury of HUVECs induced by indoxyl sulfate and probe the mechanism underlying the protective effects of GSPE by analyzing mitochondrial dysfunction. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated indoxyl sulfate-induced HVUECs injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GSPE-enhanced eNOS and VE-cadherin expression, inhibited intracellular ROS level and cell apoptosis, adjust mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level induced by indoxyl sulfate. These results suggest that GSPE prevents HUVECs from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and may be a promising agent for treating uremia toxin-induced injury.

  10. Grape seed extract Vitis vinifera protects against radiation-induced oxidative damage and metabolic disorders in rats.

    PubMed

    Saada, Helen N; Said, Ussama Z; Meky, Nefissa H; Abd El Azime, Afrag S

    2009-03-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different tissues provoking oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in heart and pancreas tissues associated with serum metabolic disturbances. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 5 Gy gamma-radiation. GSE-treated irradiated rats received 100 mg GSE/kg/day, by gavage, for 14 days before irradiation. The animals were killed on days 1, 14 and 28 after irradiation. Significant decreases of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities associated with significant increases of TBARS levels were recorded in both tissues after irradiation. GSE administration pre-irradiation significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress in heart tissues which was substantiated by a significant amelioration of serum LDH, CPK and AST activities. GSE treatment also attenuated the oxidative stress in pancreas tissues which was associated with a significant improvement in radiation-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE would protect the heart and pancreas tissues from oxidative damage induced by ionizing irradiation. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Grape seed extract attenuates lung parenchyma pathology in ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

    2012-10-01

    Due to the growing incidence of asthma and because of the non-specificity and side effects of the conventional drugs, the development of novel agents for the treatment of asthma has become considerably important. Natural plant products offer promising alternatives for the development of effective and safe treatments. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such phytochemical supplement that has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of GSE to suppress lung parenchyma pathology and inflammation in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model. Ovalbumin exposure was associated with many pathological and morphometric alterations in the lungs of asthmatic mice. The alterations involved alveolar size reduction, alveolar wall thickening, cellular infiltration and blood capillary congestion, as well as significant increase in the number of type II pneumocytes and lamellar bodies. However, GSE significantly ameliorated of the pathological changes of ovalbumin-induced asthma. The results support the possibility of GSE as an effective, safe anti-inflammatory dietary supplement to attenuate the pathogenicity of asthma. While these preliminary results appear promising, further studies are required to elucidate the precise mechanism of the modulatory effect of GSE on asthma remodeling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on arterial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats via protecting against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Gao, Haiqing; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Jun; Qiu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Arterial remodeling is a pathogenic occurrence during hypertension and, in turn, is closely associated with the development and complications of hypertension. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to exhibit a protective effect on cardiovascular disease, however its effect on arterial remodeling remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of GSPE on arterial remodeling were analyzed by treating spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with GSPE (250 mg/kg·day). Arterial remodeling was quantified through morphological methods; thoracic aortas were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or sirius red‑victoria blue. The arterial ultrastructure was imaged using transmission electron microscopy. The content of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin‑1 (ET‑1) were examined to determine endothelial function. Oxidative stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Administration of GSPE markedly alleviated hypertension‑induced arterial remodeling, which was not associated with blood pressure control. ET‑1 production was reduced, while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which exhibited improved endothelial function. In addition, treatment with GSPE significantly ameliorated oxidative stress by improving SOD and CAT activities and reducing MDA formation. In conclusion, GSPE may attenuate hypertension‑induced arterial remodeling by repressing oxidative stress and is recommended as a potential anti‑arterial remodeling agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders.

  15. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on cerebral ischemia in rat: implication of transition metals.

    PubMed

    Safwen, Kadri; Selima, Smine; Mohamed, Elayed; Ferid, Limam; Pascal, Cosette; Mohamed, Amri; Ezzedine, Aouani; Meherzia, Mokni

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of long lasting disability in humans and oxidative stress an important underlying cause. The present study aims to determine the effect of short term (seven-days) administration of high dosage grape seed and skin extract (GSSE 2.5 g/kg) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat model of global ischemia. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by one-hour reperfusion on control or GSSE treated animals. I/R induced a drastic oxidative stress characterized by high lipid and protein oxidation, a drop in antioxidant enzyme defenses, disturbed transition metals as free iron overload and depletion of copper, zinc and manganese as well as of associated brain enzyme activities as glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase. I/R also induced NO and calcium disruption and an increase in calpain activity, a calcium-sensitive cysteine protease. Interestingly, almost all I/R-induced disturbances were prevented by GSSE pretreatment as oxidative stress, transition metals associated enzyme activities, brain damage size and histology. Owing to its antioxidant potential, high dosage GSSE protected efficiently the brain against ischemic stroke and should be translated to humans. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  17. Microbial metabolites, but not other phenolics derived from grape seed phenolic extract, are transported through differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongjie; Williams, Barbara A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; D'Arcy, Bruce R

    2013-06-01

    Grape seed phenolic extract (GSE) is predicted to have health benefits, even though its bioavailability, including digestibility, permeability and ultimate metabolism, are still poorly understood. In vitro gastric and pancreatic digestion and in vitro ileal and faecal fermentation were combined with Caco-2 cell permeability studies for GSE samples. Qualitatively, there was no change in type/number of GSE compounds following gastric and pancreatic digestion and LC-MS analysis. However, the monomers were significantly (P<0.05) increased after gastric digestion, along with a significant (P<0.05) decrease in polymers. In addition, all forms of phenolic compounds decreased following pancreatic digestion. However, none of the original GSE phenolic compounds passed the Caco-2 cell monolayer, since all were recovered in the apical compartment. In contrast, the two intestinal microbiota metabolites with deprotonated molecular weights of [M-H]-165/121 and 193/175, that were found both in the ileal and faecal fermented samples, passed the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioprotective effect of green tea and grape seed extracts mixture on gamma irradiation induced immune suppression in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Desouky, Wael; Hanafi, Amal; Abbas, Manal M

    2017-04-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract (GSE) have antioxidant and radioprotective effects. The current study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effect of GTE and GSE mixture on radiation-induced immune suppression in rats. A total of 35 male albino rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (control rats). The 2nd and 3rd groups rats were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation (5 and 10 Gy), respectively. The 4th and 5th groups of rats were gamma-irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy, respectively, then administrated by gavage with GTE and GSE mixture (100 mg: 200 mg/kg BW), respectively, for 14 consecutive days. Gamma irradiation induced hematological, immunological and biochemical effects in rats. Treated rats with GTE and GSE mixture (1:2) showed an increase in concentrations of immune cells including CD4 and CD8. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein elevated after γ-irradiation and significantly decreased by mixture administration. Moreover, groups treated with antioxidant mixture showed a significant increase in all hematological parameters and a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels. GTE and GSE mixture is a good radioprotector and immune modulator compound, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during radiotherapy.

  19. Different concentrations of grape seed extract affect in vitro starch fermentation by porcine small and large intestinal inocula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongjie; Williams, Barbara A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; D'Arcy, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) phenolics have potential health-promoting properties, either from compounds present within the extract, or metabolites resulting from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) fermentation of these compounds. This study describes how GSE affected the kinetics and end-products of starch fermentation in vitro using pig intestinal and fecal inocula. Six GSE concentrations (0, 60, 125, 250, 500, and 750 µg ml⁻¹ were fermented in vitro by porcine ileal and fecal microbiota using starch as the energy source. Cumulative gas production, and end-point short chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. GSE phenolics altered the pattern (gas kinetics, and end-products such as SCFA and NH₄⁺) of starch fermentation by both inocula, at concentrations above 250 µg ml⁻¹ . Below this level, neither inoculum showed any significant (P > 0.05) effect of the GSE. The results show that GSE phenolics at a concentration over 250 µg ml⁻¹ can have measurable effects on microbial activity in an in vitro fermentation system, as evidenced by the changes in kinetics and end-products from starch fermentation. This suggests that fermentation patterns could be conceivably shifted in the actual GIT, though further evidence will be required from in vivo studies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Gallic acid is an active component for the anticarcinogenic action of grape seed procyanidins in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Macià, Alba; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Motilva, Maria-José; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on proliferation and apoptosis in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line MIA PaCa-2 and identify the components of the extract with higher activity. The effects of the extract were analyzed on the proliferation and apoptosis processes in MIA PaCa-2 cells, as well as in the levels of the apoptosis markers Bcl-2 and Bax, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species levels. Finally, the components of the extract with higher effects were elucidated using enriched fractions of the extract and pure compounds. The results showed that GSPE inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells, which is primarily mediated by the downregulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. GSPE also reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species. The component of the extract that possesses the highest antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity was gallic acid. In conclusion, GSPE acts as anticarcinogenic in MIA PaCa-2 cells, with gallic acid as the major single active constituent of the extract.

  1. Concentration effects of grape seed extracts in anti-oral cancer cells involving differential apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yang, Zhi-Wen; Tang, Jen-Yang; Li, Kun-Tzu; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Fu, Tzu-Fun; Hsieh, Che-Yu; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-03-29

    Grape seeds extract (GSE) is a famous health food supplement for its antioxidant property. Different concentrations of GSE may have different impacts on cellular oxidative/reduction homeostasis. Antiproliferative effect of GSE has been reported in many cancers but rarely in oral cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the antioral cancer effects of different concentrations of GSE in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial function, and DNA damage. High concentrations (50-400 μg/ml) of GSE dose-responsively inhibited proliferation of oral cancer Ca9-22 cells but low concentrations (1-10 μg/ml) of GSE showed a mild effect in a MTS assay. For apoptosis analyses, subG1 population and annexin V intensity in high concentrations of GSE-treated Ca9-22 cells was increased but less so at low concentrations. ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization increased dose-responsively at high concentrations but showed minor changes at low concentrations of GSE in Ca9-22 cells. Additionally, high concentrations of GSE dose-responsively induced more γH2AX-based DNA damage than low concentrations. Differential concentrations of GSE may have a differentially antiproliferative function against oral cancer cells via differential apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  2. Grape seed flour is a viable ingredient to improve the nutritional profile and reduce lipid oxidation of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2011-05-01

    In this study, grape seed flour (GSF) obtained from wine by-products was incorporated into frankfurters at seven concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) and the effects occurred on physical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the products were investigated. The colour values (L*, a* and b*) of frankfurters generally decreased (p < 0.05) on account of the increasing amount of GSF. The utilization of this flour also led to a decline in the oxidation level of the products (p < 0.05), probably due to its antioxidant content. The increment of GSF in the frankfurters enhanced the protein, total dietary fibre and water holding capacity of the treatments (p < 0.05). Although the level of GSF above 0.5% reduced overall acceptability, the frankfurters containing the level up to 2% received scores above the average. The evaluation of wine by-products in the production of healthier and functional frankfurters has been achieved by the study, but further research is necessary to improve palatability of the products. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2017-01-19

    Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years. Analysis of the extract's flavanol composition emerged from unspecific colorimetric assays to precise high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting techniques. The early recognition of the preparation's auspicious effects on the permeability of vascular capillaries directed research to unravel the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Recent clinical data revealed a multitude of favorable alterations in the vasculature upon an 8 weeks supplementation which summed up in a health benefit of the extract in healthy humans. Changes in gene expression of inflammatory pathways in the volunteers' leukocytes were suggested to be involved in this benefit. The historically grown scientific evidence for the preparation's health effects paves the way to further elucidate its metabolic fate and molecular action in humans.

  4. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  5. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-05-18

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways.

  6. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Improved some of Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Disturbances of Red Blood Cells in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Zare Moaiedi, Maasoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has a broad spectrum of biologic properties against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GSPE on biochemical factors and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocyte in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg.Kg-1, i.p). Forty Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four Groups: Group 1, healthy control group; Group 2, healthy group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1); Group 3, diabetic control group; Group 4, diabetic group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1) for 4 weeks. At the end, the experimental animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected and plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. The results show, treatment with GSPE significantly reduced (P<0.001) urine volume, proteinuria and biochemical factors such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein as well as malondialdehyde. Also GSPE treatment significantly (P<0.005) increased high density lipoprotein, total protein and albumin. Moreover GSPE significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity such as: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. These results suggest that GSPE can ameliorate biochemical abnormalities and antioxidant system status in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats probably by its potent antioxidant features. PMID:25561939

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases in cancer metastasis: molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a crucial role in the development and metastatic spread of cancer. One of the earliest events in the metastatic spread of cancer is the invasion through the basement membrane and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins, such as, collagens, laminin, elastin and fibronectin etc, and non-matrix proteins. MMPs are the important regulators of tumor growth, both at the primary site and in distant metastases. Given the clear implications of MMPs in many human cancers, MMPs remain important targets of cancer therapy. Metastatic spread of cancer continues to be the greatest barrier in prevention or cure of cancer. The recognition that MMPs facilitate tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis of cancer has led to the development of MMP inhibitors as cancer therapeutic agents. Understanding the molecular mechanism of metastasis is also crucial for the design and effective use of novel therapeutic strategies to combat metastases. In this short review article, we discuss the evidences that MMPs are associated with cancer metastasis and that they make a functional contribution to the process. Further, since considerable interest among human population is increasing with regard to the use of dietary botanical supplements for the prevention of age-associated diseases like some forms of cancer, we also discuss the beneficial effects of dietary botanicals, such as green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins, in chemoprevention of cancer with particular emphasis on the involvement of MMPs in prostate cancer.

  8. The chemoadjuvant potential of grape seed procyanidins on p53-related cell death in oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Su-Feng; Liu, Chia-Lin; Nieh, Shin

    2012-04-01

    To clarify the efficacy of grape seed procyanidin (GSP) on antiproliferative effects related to p53 functional status of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for its chemoadjuvant potential. We used GSP to investigate SCC-25 cells with wild-type p53 gene and OEC-M1 cells with mutant p53 gene for the assessment of antiproliferative effects including cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion potential, and alterations of associated oncoproteins involved in cellular and molecular events. The findings suggest that GSP on OEC-M1 cells leads to cell cycle arrest by increasing the expression of p21(Cip1) /p27(Kip1) protein without functioning mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, whereas GSP on SCC-25 cells inhibits cell proliferation via both G1-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as a result of alterations of Bcl-2. GSP also inhibits the migration and invasion of both cells, which are associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9. Antiproliferative effectiveness of GSP is closely associated with the p53 status of OSCC cells. GSP displays chemoadjuvant potential via cell cycle blockage and apoptotic induction. Our findings clearly suggest that GSP may play a role as a novel chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for OSCC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. PMID:27775601

  10. Grape-seed Polyphenols Play a Protective Role in Elastase-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunxia; Yu, Maomao; Chen, Cong; Xu, Lu; Cao, Yini; Qi, Rong

    2017-08-24

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a kind of disease characterized by aortic dilation, whose pathogenesis is linked to inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether grape-seed polyphenols (GSP) has anti-AAA effects and what mechanism is involved, thus to find a way to prevent occurrence and inhibit expansion of small AAA. In our study, AAA was induced by incubating the abdominal aorta of the mice with elastase, and GSP was administrated to the mice by gavage at different doses beginning on the day of the AAA inducement. In in vivo experiments, 800 mg/kg GSP could significantly reduce the incidence of AAA, the dilatation of aorta and elastin degradation in media, and dramatically decrease macrophage infiltration and activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and MMP-9 in the aorta, compared to the AAA model group. Meanwhile, 400 mg/kg GSP could also but not completely inhibit the occurrence and development of AAA. In in vitro experiments, GSP dose-dependently inhibited mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and significantly inhibited expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, thus prevented elastin from degradation. In conclusion, GSP showed great anti-AAA effects and its mechanisms were related to inhibition of inflammation.

  11. Comparing protective effect of grape seed extract versus atorvastatin on endometriosis in rat model: Evidence for immunohistochemical and biochemical alterations

    PubMed Central

    Kakaiy, Arash; Ayen, Esmail; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Sarrafzadeh Rezaei, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Thirty six Wistar albino rats with implant induced endometriosis were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. The rats in the first group received nothing and were euthanized at day 21. In the second group, rats received nothing and were euthanized at day 36. The third group received atorvastatin (ATV; 5 mg kg-1 per day, orally) until 21 days from induction of endometriosis, and the fourth group received ATV from the 15th day after induction of endometriosis for 21 days. The fifth group received grape seed extract (GET; 450 mg kg-1 per day, orally) until 21 days from induction of endometriosis. In the sixth group, GET was administered from the 15th day after induction of endometriosis for 21 days. The estrogen receptor positive cells (ER+) distribution and angiogenesis were assessed using immunohistochemical and immunoflourescent analyzes, respectively. The active cells with intracytoplasmic carbohydrate content were analyzed. Erα mRNA expression was assessed using semiquantitative real time-PCR and the tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated. The GET and ATV-treated animals showed significant reduction in endometriosis-increased ER+ cells distribution as well as significant decrease in Erα mRNA levels (p < 0.05(. Our data suggests that GET exerts a potent inhibitory effect on development of endometriotic implants similar to ATV. PMID:26261704

  12. Gastroprotective Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts against Nonsteroid Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Eun Jeong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Chang Whan; Kim, Sung Soo; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Sok Won; Kim, Myung Jun; Lee, Youn Soo; Cho, Mi-La; Chang, Jae Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the gastroprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) against nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the normal control, indomethacin, low-dose GSPE, high-dose GSPE and misoprostol groups. All groups except the normal control group received pretreatment drugs for 6 consecutive days. On the 5th and 6th day, indomethacin was administered orally to all groups except for normal control group. The microscopic features of injury were analyzed. The levels of gastric mucosal glutathione, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated. Results The total areas of ulceration in the GSPE and misoprostol groups were significantly decreased compared with the indomethacin group (p<0.05). However, a difference in ulcer formation among the drug treatment groups was not observed. Meanwhile, the glutathione levels in the high-dose GSPE group were higher than those of both the indomethacin and misoprostol groups (p<0.05) and were similar to those of the normal control group. Additionally, there was no difference among the groups in the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions High-dose GSPE has a strong protective effect against NSAID-induced gastric mucosal injury, which may be associated with the antioxidant effects of GSPE. PMID:23710308

  13. Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by grape seed procyanidin extract in human bladder cancer BIU87 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Zhang, W-Y; Kong, Z-H; Ding, D-G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human bladder cancer BIU87 cells and to investigate its molecular mechanism in vitro. BIU87 cells were treated with different concentrations of GSPE for 24h in vitro while an untreated group was taken as control. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the anti-proliferation and apoptotic induction effects of GSPE on BIU87 cells. It was found that GSPE inhibited the cell growth through cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induced cell apoptosis in BIU87 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Semi-quantitated RT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated that GSPE increased caspase-3 (p<0.01), but decreased the expression of cyclinD1, CDK4 and survivin (p<0.01). GSPE inhibits cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in BIU87 cells, and the effect may be related with its down-regulation of cyclinD1, CDK4 and survivin.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuangsheng; Yang, Ninggang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Lamei; Zhao, Jin; Li, Yongquan; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiaosu

    2012-12-01

    Tumor cells trigger angiogenesis through overexpression of various angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1). Therefore, inhibition of the expression of both VEGF and Ang1, the initial step of tumor angiogenesis, is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements that have antitumor activity. Due to their polymeric structure, GSPs are poorly absorbed along the gastrointestinal tract and can reach the colon at high concentrations, allowing these chemicals to act as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. In the present study, we found that GSPs inhibited colon tumor-induced angiogenesis and, thus, the growth of colon tumor xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membranes. The mechanisms of their action were related to inhibiting the expression of both VEGF and Ang1 through scavenging reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have demonstrated that the chemopreventive effects of GSPs on colon cancer are associated with their growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects. Our results demonstrate another mechanism by which GSPs inhibit colon tumor growth, which will be helpful for developing GSPs as a pharmacologically safe angiopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  15. Oligomer procyanidins from grape seeds induce a paraptosis-like programmed cell death in human glioblastoma U-87 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Yang, Jing-Yu; Mou, Yan-Hua; Sun, Bao-Shan; Wang, Ji-Ming; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2010-08-01

    We recently reported that F2, an oligomer procyanidin fraction isolated from grape seeds, triggered an original form of cell death in U-87 human glioblastoma cells with a phenotype resembling morphological characteristics of paraptosis. However, the specific death mode induced by F2 and the mechanism of its action have not been assessed so far. In the present work, we therefore further investigated the death mode of human glioblastoma cells induced by F2 and gained insight into the nature of the signaling pathways activated by F2 in glioblastoma cells. Cell viability assay using MTT, (AO/EB) double staining, Western blot analysis, and Ca2+ assay using fura-2. Morphology studies revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization in dying cells and no apoptotic body formation, membrane bleb formation, or nuclear fragmentation, though some was accompanied by MAPK activation and new protein synthesis, and was independent of caspase activation. Moreover, we demonstrated the involvement of calcium mobilization in F2-induced U-87 cell signaling. Altogether we showed that F2 induced a kind of cell death resembling paraptosis in U-87 cells. The current report complements previous studies on the characterization of F2-induced U-87 cell death, enhances our understanding of the action mechanism of F2 on glioma, and helps in the development of novel antitumor therapeutics.

  16. Grape seed extract regulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription in prostate cancer cells through potent anti-histone acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Yong; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Seong, Ah-Reum; Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Hwang, Han-Joon; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2011-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases, is an epigenetic mechanism that influences eukaryotic transcription. Significant changes in histone acetylation are associated with cancer; therefore, manipulating the acetylation status of key gene targets is likely crucial for effective cancer therapy. Grape seed extract (GSE) has a known protective effect against prostate cancer. Here, we showed that GSE significantly inhibited HAT activity by 30-80% in vitro (P < .05). Furthermore, we demonstrated significant repression of androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription by GSE in prostate cancer cells by measuring luciferase activity using a pGL3-PSA construct bearing the AR element in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (P < .05). GSE treatment also decreased the mRNA level of the AR-regulated genes PSA and NKX 3.1. Finally, GSE inhibited growth of LNCaP cells. These results indicate that GSE potently inhibits HAT, leading to decreased AR-mediated transcription and cancer cell growth, and implicate GSE as a novel candidate for therapeutic activity against prostate cancer.

  17. Antimutagenicity and antioxidative DNA damage properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Thai grape seeds in TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Praphasawat, Ratsada; Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Muangman, Thunchanok; Laovitthayanggoon, Sarunya; Arunpairojana, Vullapa; Himakoun, Lakana

    2011-01-01

    Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are found mostly in red grape seeds. Many publications have reported that OPCs possess an excellent anti-oxidant effects. Since it could against cellular damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancers. We carried out this study on the Thai OPCs to evaluate the mutagenicity/ anti-mutagenicity and anti-oxidative DNA damage effects in TK6 cells by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. In the MN assay, OPCs-treatment of TK6 cells at concentrations ranging from 10-200 ?g/ml (4 and 24 h) did not cause micronucleus induction over the negative control group but revealed a significant reduction the micronucleus frequencies against the known mutagen (mitomycin C). In the comet assay, OPCs-treated TK6 cells at concentrations of 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 ?g/ml could inhibit DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) as indicated by 18.7, 36.4, 30.6, and 60.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that OPCs possess the anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidative DNA damage effects in TK6 cells under the conditions of this assay.

  18. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  19. Characterization and in vitro anticancer properties of chitosan-microencapsulated flavan-3-ols-rich grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Iannone, Michelangelo; Mare, Rosario; Paolino, Donatella; Gagliardi, Agnese; Froiio, Francesca; Cosco, Donato; Fresta, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    Studies have fully demonstrated that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables may reduce the incidence of tumors. In particular, Grape Seed Extract (GSE) has been shown to carry on chemopreventive and antitumor activity thanks to the numerous beneficial substances it contains. The purpose of this work was to create a biocompatible matrix containing GSE in order to obtain microparticles able to modulate its biopharmaceutical parameters. The spray-drying technique was chosen in order to realize chitosan microparticles characterized by a mean diameter of 4-10μm and a positive surface charge that decreased after GSE encapsulation. The evaluation of the pharmacological activity of the GSE and these GSE-loaded chitosan microparticles on different cancer cells together with CLSM investigation evidenced an increase in the antitumor effect promoted by the polysaccharide as a consequence of the enhanced cell interaction. Therefore GSE-loaded chitosan microparticles may be an innovative drug delivery system useful for the treatment of certain cancer-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways. PMID:27213339

  1. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identification of proanthocyanidins in rat plasma after oral administration of grape seed extract

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Wilson, Landon; Barnes, Stephen; Wyss, J. Michael; Kim, Helen; Watts, Ray L.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidin rich plant extracts derived from grape seed extract (GSE), hawthorn and cranberry are on markets for their preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases and uroinfections in woman. However, the importance of these health beneficial effects of these botanicals remains elusive due to incomplete understanding of uptake, metabolism and bioavailability of proanthocyanidins in vivo. In the present study rats were given GSE orally (300 mg/kg, twice a day) and blood and urine were collected over a 24 h period. Monomeric catechins and their methylated metabolites, and proanthocyanidins up to trimers were detected in blood samples treated with GSE using LC-MS/MS operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A new tetramethylated metabolite of dimeric proanthocyanidin (m/z 633) in GSE-treated urine was tentatively identified. Using LC-MS/MS, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin were identified in the brain conclusively. These data suggested that GSE catechins cross the blood brain barrier and may be responsible for the neuroprotective effects of GSE. PMID:19095430

  2. Dietary grape-seed proanthocyanidin inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced immune suppression is associated with induction of IL-12.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) inhibit UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis in mice. As UVB-induced immune suppression has been implicated in the development of skin cancer risk, we investigated whether dietary GSPs can modulate the effects of UVB on the immune system. We found that the UVB-induced (180 mJ/cm2) ear swelling response (inflammatory reaction) was significantly lower in mice fed with a GSP-supplemented (0.5 and 1.0%, w/w) diet than mice fed with the standard AIN76A diet. Dietary GSPs markedly inhibited UVB-induced (180 mJ/cm2) suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses in a local model of immunosuppression but had only moderate inhibitory effect in a systemic model of immunosuppression. Dietary GSPs reduced the UVB-induced increase in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in skin and draining lymph nodes compared with mice that did not receive GSPs. In contrast, GSPs enhanced the production of immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12 in the draining lymph nodes. Intraperitoneal injection of GSPs-fed mice with a neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibody abrogated the protective effects of the GSPs against UVB-induced suppression of the contact hypersensitivity response. These data indicate for the first time that GSPs modulate UVB-induced immunosuppression and suggest that this may be one of the possible mechanisms by which they prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice.

  3. Grape seed procyanidin extract attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting oxidative stress and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Mingcheng; Zhang, Xin; Pan, Jinjin; Han, Jinzhen; Wang, Yudong; Lei, Haixin; Ding, Yanchun; Yuan, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play important roles in the pathological process of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) possesses antioxidant properties and has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of GSPE on HPH remains unclear. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent chronic hypoxia for 4 weeks to mimic a severe HPH condition. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that chronic hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) ratio and median width of pulmonary arteries. GSPE attenuated the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV+S, and reduced the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling. GSPE also increased the levels of SOD and reduced the levels of MDA in hypoxia-induced HPH model. In addition, GSPE suppressed Nox4 mRNA levels, ROS production and PASMCs proliferation. Meanwhile, increased expression of phospho-STAT3, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Ki67 in PASMCs caused by hypoxia was down-regulated by GSPE. These results suggested that GSPE might potentially prevent HPH via antioxidant and antiproliferative mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Motor disturbances and thalamic electrical power of frequency bands' improve by grape seed extract in animal model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Eidypour, Zainab; Motamedi, Freshteh; keramati, keivan; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies showed that grape seed extract (GSE) is an excellent natural substance with potent antioxidant effect and free radical scavenger. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of GSE on motor dysfunctions and thalamic local Electroencephalography (EEG) frequency bands' powers in rats with Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: In this study 8 µg 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) dissolved in 2 µl normal saline containing 0.01% ascorbic acid was infused into right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to make an animal model of PD. Rats with PD received four weeks GSE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) after apomorphine-induced rotation test. Spontaneous motor tests and also thalamic ventroanterior nucleus (AV) local EEG recording were done in freely moving rats in all groups. Results: Chronic treatment of PD rats with GSE could influence potentially frequency bands' powers of thalamic VA and improve post-lesion motor dysfunctions significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GSE modulates the CNS function and has beneficial effects on the direct and indirect striato-thalamo-cortical pathways in PD. GSE acts as a new and potent natural free radical scavenger which removes oxidants produced by neurotoxin 6-OHDA in brain. Therefore, it reinforces electrical power of remained thalamic VA neurons and thereby improves post-lesion motor disorders. PMID:25050252

  5. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress by a grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extract in normal and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Postescu, Ion Dan; Chereches, Gabriela; Tatomir, Corina; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2012-07-01

    The major limitation of Doxorubicin (Dox) clinical use is the development of chronic and acute toxic side effects induced through the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present work was designated to investigate in vitro effects of a red grape-seed hydroethanolic extract Burgund Mare (BM), in associated administration with Dox (30 min before drug administration) in normal (Hfl-1) and tumor cell lines (HepG2 and Mls). The BM concentrations administered were below the level of the extract cytotoxiciy threshold (40 μg gallic acid [GA] Eq/mL; 37.5, 25.0, and 12.5 μg GA Eq/mL). The antioxidant capacity of the BM extract was assessed by measuring the acute toxicity at 24 h, lipid peroxides (LP), and protein oxidation. In normal cells, the product statistically decreased cytotoxicity and markedly inhibited LP and protein carbonyl (PC) formation, in a dose-dependent relationship. On contrary, in tumor cells, such treatment resulted in a reversed effect, cell death, malondialdehyde, and PC contents increasing with BM dose enhancement. BM extract treatment prior to subsequent administration of Dox afforded a differential protection against Dox-negative toxic side effects in normal cells without weakening (even enhancing) Dox's antitumor activity.

  6. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-10-01

    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  8. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  9. Dehulling of cuphea seed for the production of crude oil with low chlorophyll content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea (PSR23) seed oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). MCFAs are used in soaps, detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, and food applications. Currently, cuphea is being grown to provide oil needed for research. The oil can be extracted effectively by screw pressing flaked whole seeds. ...

  10. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  11. Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

  12. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry.

  14. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of Australian chia seed oil.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Adhikari, Raju; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-08-01

    Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of Australian chia seed oil (CSO) were studied. The specific gravity, viscosity and refractive index of CSO at ambient temperature were 0.93, 43.2mPa.s and 1.48, respectively. The acid, peroxide, saponification and iodine values and unsaponifiable matter content of CSO were 2.54gKOH/kg oil, 4.33meqO2/kg oil, 197gKOH/kg oil, 204gI2/kg oil and 1.12%, respectively. α-linolenic acid is the most abundant fatty acid comprising (64.39% of total oil) followed by linoleic acid (21.46%), while saturated fatty acid content is less than 10%. This CSO contained twelve triacylglycerols (TAGs) out of which trilinolenin (αLnαLnαLn) was the most abundant comprising 33.2% of total TAG. Melting point and melting enthalpy of CSO were -34°C and 77.48J/g, respectively. CSO remained stable up to 300°C with negligible degradation. Due to these physicochemical and thermal properties, CSO is an excellent source of essential fatty acids for food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  16. The Role of Grape Seed Extract in the Treatment of Chemo/Radiotherapy Induced Toxicity: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola O; Ojukwu, Mary O; Zia, Farah Z; White, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most consumed fruits in the world and are rich in polyphenols. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) have demonstrated chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic effects in various cancer cell cultures and animal models. The clinical efficacy of chemotherapy is often limited by its adverse effects. Several studies show that reactive oxygen species mediate the cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity induced by various cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This implies that concomitant administration of antioxidants may prevent these adverse effects. The review was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search strategy in Medline and Embase databases was conducted. Of the 41 studies reviewed, 27 studied GSP while the remainder (14) studied grape seed or skin extracts (GSE). All the studies were published in English, except 2 in Chinese. A significant percentage (34%) of the studies we reviewed assessed the effect of GSE or GSP on cardiotoxicity induced by chemotherapy. Doxorubicin was the most common chemotherapeutic drug studied followed by cisplatin. Research studies that assessed the effect of GSE or GSP on radiation treatment accounted for 22% of the articles reviewed. GSE/GSP ameliorates some of the cytotoxic effects on normal cells/tissues induced by chemo/radiotherapy.

  17. Ameliorating effects of exogenously applied proline on seed composition, seed oil quality and oil antioxidant activity of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ali, Qasim; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saari, Nazamid; Perveen, Rashida

    2013-01-04

    This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil, protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. Water stress increased the oil oleic acid content with a subsequent decrease in the amount of linoleic acid, resulting in an increased oil oleic/linoleic ratio for both maize cultivars. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress. A considerable drought induced an increase in seed oil α-, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols and flavonoids were observed in both maize cultivars. However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil, protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions.

  18. Ameliorating Effects of Exogenously Applied Proline on Seed Composition, Seed Oil Quality and Oil Antioxidant Activity of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Qasim; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saari, Nazamid; Perveen, Rashida

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to appraise whether or not the exogenous application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, could ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on maize seed and seed oil composition, as well as oil antioxidant activity. Water stress reduced the kernel sugar, oil, protein and moisture contents and most of the seed macro- and micro-elements analyzed in both maize cultivars but it increased the contents of seed fiber and ash. Water stress increased the oil oleic acid content with a subsequent decrease in the amount of linoleic acid, resulting in an increased oil oleic/linoleic ratio for both maize cultivars. However, no variation was observed in oil stearic and palmitic acids content due to water stress. A considerable drought induced an increase in seed oil α-, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols and flavonoids were observed in both maize cultivars. However, oil phenolic and carotenoid content as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity decreased. Foliar-applied proline significantly increased the content of seed sugar, oil, protein, moisture, fiber and ash in both maize cultivars under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. Furthermore, exogenous application of proline increased the oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds namely phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and tocopherols estimated in the seed oil increased due to foliar-applied proline under water deficit conditions that was positively correlated with the enhanced oil DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, the increase in the contents of these antioxidant compounds and oil antioxidant activity due to the foliar application of proline was noted to be more pronounced under water deficit conditions. PMID:23344043

  19. Effective antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of Laurus nobilis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Birgul; Esen, Mari; Sangun, M Kemal; Coleri, Arzu; Caliskan, Mahmut

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil, seed oil, and methanolic extract of seed oil obtained from Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae). The methanolic extract of seed oil exhibited more effective antibacterial activity comparing to essential oil and seed oil, GC-MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 25 compounds. 1.8-Cineol (44.72%), a-Terpinyl acetate (12.95%), Sabinene (12.82%) were the main components. The fatty acid composition was characterized with the high content of linoleic acid (40.79%) and lauric acid (38.08%). The 50% (IC50) inhibition activity of the essential oil on the free radical DPPH was determined as 94.655 mg ml(-1), whereas IC50 value of methanolic extract of seed oil was found unstable. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by essential oil and methanolic extract of seed oil, which showed 64.28 and 88.76% inhibition, respectively. The inhibition value of the methanolic extract of seed oil was quite close to the synthetic antioxidant BHT, 92.46% inhibition.

  20. [Study on porous maize starch preparation and powdering coix seed oil].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Sun, E; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-07-01

    To optimize the preparation conditions of porous starch The porous starch was used to powder coix seed oil. Porous starch was made of maize starch by using compound enzymes of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase. The preparation process was optimized through orthogonal test design with oil absorption rate to salad oil as indexes. The effect of different dosages of porous starch on yield of triglyceride by powdering coix seed oil was studied. The triglyceride release behaviors and fluidity of powdered coix seed oil were also studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for preparation of porous maize starch were as follows, the mass radio of glucoamylase to a-amylase was 3:1, the temperatures was 55 degrees C, pH was 5.0, and hydrolysis time was 12 h. Under these conditions, the oil absorption rate to salad oil was 98.5% for porous maize starch. Porous starch was used to power coix seed oil. When porous starch to coix seed oil was 4:1, the triglyceride yield of powering coix seed oil was up to 97.02%. The fluidity of powdered coix seed oil was favorable and control released. The preparation of powdered liquid oil with porous starch had many advantages such as simple production technology, convenient operation, low cost and was worth generalizing.

  1. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    PubMed

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield.

  2. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  3. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  4. Characterisation and some possible uses of Plukenetia conophora and Adenopus breviflorus seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Akintayo, E T; Bayer, E

    2002-10-01

    Two non-conventional seeds, Plukenetia conophora (PKCP) and Adenopus breviflorus (ADB) were analysed for their proximate, fatty acids, sterols composition and physico-chemical characteristics. Crude protein was 25.65% for PKCP and 28.25% for ADB. ADB had lower moisture content (4.5%) than PKCP (8.0%) indicating that the former has better shelf life. Oil yields of the seeds were 49.58% for PKCP and 56.22% for ADB. The major sterols were stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in PKCP and ADB respectively. PKCP oil had 98.8% unsaturated fatty acids with linolenic acid predominating (70.1%) while ADB had 85.1% unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic acid being most abundant (65.3%). The very high saponification and iodine values of PKCP oil suggest its utilisation in alkyd resin, shoe polish, liquid soap and shampoo production. There is the possibility of using ADB oil in these regards as well as for edible purposes.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. α-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. γ-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was γ-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs.

  6. Biodiesel from Forsythia suspense [(Thunb.) Vahl (Oleaceae)] seed oil.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wei, Fu-Yao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, Forsythia suspense seed oil (FSSO) was investigated for the first time as an alternative non-conventional feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel. The FSSO yield is 30.08±2.35% (dry weight of F. suspense seed basis), and the oil has low acid value (1.07 mg KOH/g). The fatty acid composition of FSSO exhibits the predominance of linoleic acid (72.89%) along with oleic acid (18.68%) and palmitic acid (5.65%), which is quite similar to that of sunflower oil. Moreover, microwave-assisted transesterification process of FSSO with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst was optimized and an optimal biodiesel yield (90.74±2.02%) was obtained. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the biodiesel product were evaluated as against ASTM D-6751 biodiesel standards and an acceptable agreement was observed except the cetane number. Overall, this study revealed the possibility of FSSO as a potential resource of biodiesel feedstock.

  7. Influence of maceration temperature in red wine vinification on extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2007-04-01

    The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.

  8. Improved Estimation of Oil, Linoleic and Oleic Acid and Seed Hull Fractions in Safflower by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Sabine; Becker, Heiko C; Schierholt, Antje; von Witzke-Ehbrecht, Sabine

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) of intact seeds allows the non-destructive estimation of seed quality parameters which is highly desirable in plant breeding. Together with yield, oil content and quality, a main aim in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) breeding is the selection of genotypes with a low percentage of empty seeds even under cooler climates. We developed NIRS calibrations for seed oil content, oleic and linoleic acid content, the seed hull fraction and the percentage of empty seeds using seed meal and intact seeds. For the different calibrations 108-534 samples from a safflower breeding program with lines adapted to German conditions, were analyzed with reference analyses (Soxhlet, gas chromatography), and scanned by NIRS as intact seeds and seed meal. Calibration equations were developed and tested through cross validation. The coefficient of determination of the calibration (R(2)) for intact seeds ranged from 0.91(oil content), 0.90 (seed hull fraction), 0.84 (empty seeds), 0.73 (linoleic acid) to 0.68 (oleic acid). The coefficient of determination of the cross validation was higher for seed meal than for intact seeds except for the parameter seed hull fraction. The results show that NIRS calibrations are applicable in safflower breeding programs for a fast screening.

  9. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  10. Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michał Błażej; Nowak, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease that cleaves the peptide bonds in proteins located on the carboxyl side of arginine. Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of plant extracts on proteolytic properties of thrombin. Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A. melanocarpa and seeds of V. vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  12. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-04-08

    The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1.

  13. Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta-protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kenjiro; Condron, Margaret M; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Teplow, David B

    2008-11-21

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the protective effects of red wine, experiments recently were executed in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. These studies showed that a commercially available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition (Wang, J., Ho, L., Zhao, W., Ono, K., Rosensweig, C., Chen, L., Humala, N., Teplow, D. B., and Pasinetti, G. M. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28, 6388-6392). To elucidate the mechanistic bases for these observations, here we used CD spectroscopy, photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, thioflavin T fluorescence, size exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy to examine the effects of MN on the assembly of the two predominant disease-related amyloid beta-protein alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42. We also examined the effects of MN on Abeta-induced cytotoxicity by assaying 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase activity in Abeta-treated, differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Initial studies revealed that MN blocked Abeta fibril formation. Subsequent evaluation of the assembly stage specificity of the effect showed that MN was able to inhibit protofibril formation, pre-protofibrillar oligomerization, and initial coil --> alpha-helix/beta-sheet secondary structure transitions. Importantly, MN had protective effects in assays of cytotoxicity in which MN was mixed with Abeta prior to peptide assembly or following assembly and just prior to peptide addition to cells. These data suggest that MN is worthy of consideration as a therapeutic agent for AD.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidin reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting ischemia/reperfusion-induced activation of JNK-1 and C-JUN.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Bagchi, D; Tosaki, A; Das, D K

    2001-09-15

    The mechanism of cardioprotection with red wine consumption was studied by examining the antideath signaling cascade of one of the principle components of red wine, proanthocyanidins. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) was administered orally (100 mg/kg/d) supplemented with regular diet for 3 weeks to a group of rats while the other group was given the regular diet only for the same period of time. After 3 weeks, rats were sacrificed, hearts excised, and perfused via Langendorff mode. After stabilization, hearts were perfused in the working mode for baseline measurement of contractile function. Hearts were then made globally ischemic for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Contractile function was continuously monitored during reperfusion, and free radical production was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL staining in conjunction with an antibody against myocin heavy chain to specifically detect myocytes. Induction of JNK-1 and c-fos proteins was studied by Western blot analysis using respective antibodies followed by densitometric scanning. The results indicated significant induction of JNK-1 and c-fos proteins in the ischemic/reperfused myocardium, which was inhibited by the proanthocyanidin extract. In concert, GSPE significantly reduced the appearance of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in the ischemic/reperfused hearts. GSPE also significantly reduced the appearance of the reactive oxygen species in the hearts. Improved postischemic contractile recovery was achieved with GSPE suggesting its cardioprotective action. The results of this study indicated that GSPE functioned as an in vivo antioxidant, and its cardioprotective properties may be at least partially attributed to its ability to block antideath signal through the inhibition of proapoptotic transcription factor and gene, JNK-1 and c-Jun.

  15. Molecular weight and galloylation affect grape seed extract constituents’ ability to cross-link dentin collagen in clinically relevant time

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Bai, Xinyan; Li, Shaohua; Liu, Ying; Keightley, Andrew; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the structures of polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed extract (GSE) and their activity in cross-linking dentin collagen in clinically relevant settings. Methods Representative monomeric and dimeric GSE constituents including (+)-catechin (pCT), (−)-catechin (CT), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), procyanidin B2 and a pCT-pCT dimer were purchased or synthesized. GSE was separated into low (PALM) and high molecular weight (PAHM) fractions. Human molars were processed into dentin films and beams. After demineralization, 11 groups of films (n=5) were treated for 1 min with the aforementioned reagents (1 wt% in 50/50 ethanol/water) and 1 group remained untreated. The films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) followed by a quantitative mass spectroscopy-based digestion assay. Tensile properties of demineralized dentin beams were evaluated (n=7) after treatments (2h and 24h) with selective GSE species that were found to protect dentin collagen from collagenase. Results Efficacy of GSE constituents in cross-linking dentin collagen was dependent on molecular size and galloylation. Non-galloylated species with degree of polymerization up to two, including pCT, CT, EC, EGC, procyanidin B2 and pCT-pCT dimer were not active. Galloylated species were active starting from monomeric form, including ECG, EGCG, PALM, GSE and PAHM. PALM induced the best overall improvement in tensile properties of dentin collagen. Significance Identification under clinically relevant settings of structural features that contribute to GSE constituents’ efficacy in stabilizing demineralized dentin matrix has immediate impact on optimizing GSE’s use in dentin bonding. PMID:25958268

  16. Dietary-feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Balaiya; Singh, Rana P.; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention by dietary agents/supplements has emerged as a novel approach to control various malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assessed dietary grape seed extract (GSE) effectiveness in preventing azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and associated mechanisms in Fischer 344 rats. Six-week old rats were injected with AOM, and fed control diet or the one supplemented with 0.25% or 0.5% (w/w) GSE in pre- and post-AOM or only post-AOM experimental protocols. At 16 weeks of age, rats were sacrificed and colons were evaluated for ACF formation followed by cell proliferation, apoptosis and molecular analyses by immunohistochemistry. GSE-feeding caused strong chemopreventive efficacy against AOM-induced ACF formation in terms of upto 60% (P<0.001) reduction in number of ACF and 66% (P<0.001) reduction in crypt multiplicity. Mechanistic studies showed that GSE-feeding inhibited AOM-induced cell proliferation but enhanced apoptosis in colon including ACF, together with a strong decrease in cyclin D1, COX-2, iNOS and survivin levels. Additional studies showed that GSE-feeding also decreased AOM-caused increase in β-catenin and NF-κB levels in colon tissues. Compared to control animals, GSE alone treatment did not show any considerable change in these biological and molecular events in colon, and was non-toxic. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive efficacy of GSE against the early steps of colon carcinogenesis in rats via likely targeting of β-catenin and NF-κB signaling, and suggest its potential usefulness for the prevention of human CRC. PMID:20564341

  17. Protective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins against Liver Ischemic Reperfusion Injury: Particularly in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoyu; Xu, Hongde; Feng, Yanling; Li, Xiaoman; Lin, Meina; Cao, Liu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver surgery, and hepatic steatosis is a primary factor aggravating cellular injury during IRI. Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of hepatic IRI. Ischemic preconditioning (IpreC), remote ischemia preconditioning (RIPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IpostC) have offered protections on hepatic IRI, but all these methods have their own shortcomings. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) has a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Thus, GSP has potential protective effects against hepatic IRI. Methods: C57BL/6 mice suffering 30mins hepatic ischemia process were sacrificed after 1h reperfusion to build murine warm hepatic IRI model. The mice were injected GSP intraperitoneally 10, 20, 40mg/kg/day for 3 weeks as pharmacological preconditioning. Obese mice fed with high-fat diet for 24 weeks before used. Three pathways related to IRI, including ROS elimination, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined. Results: Our data show that GSP could significantly reduce hepatic IRI by protecting hepatocyte function and increasing the activity of ROS scavengers, as well as decreasing cytokines levels. At the same time, GSP also enhance the hypoxia tolerance response. Combined GSP and postconditioning can provided synergistic protection. In the obese mice suffering hepatic IRI group, GSP was more effective than postconditioning on protecting liver against IRI, and the combined strategy was obviously superior to the solo treatment. Conclusion: GSP could protect liver against IRI: particularly in high-fat diet induced obese mice. GSP used as pharmacological preconditioning and combined with other protocols have huge potential to be used in clinical. PMID:23139633

  18. Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Lipid Profile and Expression of Interleukin-6 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Wistar Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Salmabadi, Zohreh; Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Homa; Parivar, Kazem; Karimzadeh, Latifeh

    2017-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but complex endocrine disorder and is the major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. In this study the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in PCOS Wistar rats were assessed. In this experimental study, 84 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=12) including control (intact), Sham (estradiol valerate solvent injection), control PCOS and 4 experimental PCOS groups. To induce the syndrome, a single subcutaneous injection of 2 mg estradiol valerate was applied. In experimental groups, PCOS rats were treated with different doses of 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) GSE by intraperitoneal injection for 10 consecutive days. After harvesting blood serum, TG was measured by Glycerol-3-phosphate Oxidase-Peoxidase (GPOPAP), TC by Cholesterol Oxidase-Peroxidase (CHOD-PAP), and HDL-C by sedimentation method, LDL-C by Friedwald calculation and IL-6 by ELISA method. The serum values of each parameter were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at P≤0.05. In all experimental groups significant decrease of visceral fat was obvious as compared with control PCOS group. LDL-C, TC and IL-6 levels in experimental groups, particularly at dose of 50 mg/kg of GSE, were significantly decreased as compared with PCOS group. However, HDL-C levels were not significantly changed. According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that GSE with its effects on serum TC, LDL-C and IL-6 could reduce the effects of dyslipidemia and inflammation in PCOS rats and improve systemic symptoms of PCOS.

  19. Synergistic radiation protective effect of purified Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP IV) with grape seed procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haina; Wang, Zhenyu; Cui, Jie; Yun, Keli; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Rui Hai; Fan, Ziluan; Cheng, Cuilin

    2014-12-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP) in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV) on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.005), reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.01); cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (p < 0.01), catalase (CAT) (p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (p < 0.05), activity and glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.01) levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. "GSP + AAP IV" treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of "GSP (0.3 μg/mL) + AAP IV (50 μg/mL)" displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001) concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.005), GSH-PX (p < 0.01) and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that "GSP + AAP IV" significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005) and spleen GSH (p < 0.005) levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005) levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidins and metformin act by different mechanisms to promote insulin signaling in rats fed high calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Bhuvaneswari, Saravanan; Sreeja, S; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-03-01

    Key pathways like insulin signaling, AMP activated kinase (AMPK) activation and inflammatory signaling are involved in the complex pathological network of hepatic insulin resistance. Our aim is to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) and metformin (MET) target any of these pathways in insulin resistant rat liver. Albino Wistar rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). Either GSP (100 mg/kg b.w), MET(50 mg/kg b.w) or both were administered to insulin resistant rats as therapeutic options. HFFD-feeding caused hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased gluconeogenesis, decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β(IR-β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. The association of p85α subunit of phosphotidyl inositol 3 kinase(PI3K) with IRS-1 and subsequent Akt phosphorylation were reduced while the expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) were increased in HFFD rats. Both MET and GSP reduced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and improved glycolysis, tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-β and IRS-1, IRS-1-PI3K association and Akt activation. However, activation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, leptin and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and reduction in adiponectin caused by chronic HFFD feeding were reversed by GSP better than by MET. Activation of AMPK by GSP was much less compared to that by MET. These findings suggest that GSP might activate PI3K pathway and promote insulin action by reducing serine kinase activation and cytokine signaling and MET by targeting AMPK. The beneficial effects were enhanced during combination therapy. Thus, combination therapy with MET and GSP may be considered for the management of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four