Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).
von Woedtke, T; Schlüter, B; Pflegel, P; Lindequist, U; Jülich, W D
The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present.
Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano
American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed.
Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products.
Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.
Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous andmore » tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.« less
Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S
Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients.
... and cosmetics; and as a household cleaner for fruits, vegetables, meats, kitchen surfaces, dishes, and others. In agriculture, grapefruit seed extract is used to kill bacteria and fungus, fight mold growth, kill parasites in animal feeds, preserve food ...
Brandin, Helena; Myrberg, Olle; Rundlöf, Torgny; Arvidsson, Ann-Kristin; Brenning, Gunilla
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of a GSE product for 3 days. The female patient experienced a minor subcutaneous haematoma 3 days later, and her international normalised ratio (INR) value was 7.9. This was reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) as a spontaneous post-marketing report concerning adverse drug reactions/interactions. The composition of the GSE products was determined by proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The inhibitory effect of the GSE products on the cytochrome P450 enzymes was tested in an in vitro baculosome assay. The NMR analysis showed that all three investigated GSE products contained the synthetic preservative benzethonium chloride (BTC) in addition to glycerol and water. No authentic GSE extract was found in any of the three GSE products analysed. Furthermore, BTC was found to be a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. Our results suggest that BTC in the GSE products is responsible for the increase in the INR value in a patient on warfarin treatment.
Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan
The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, Su-Tae; Son, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon
This study investigated the antioxidative and functional effects of a curing agent containing grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on the quality and storage characteristics of chicken breast. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of GSE were 45.06 mg/g and 36.06 mg/g, respectively. The IC 50 value of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydroxyl scavenging of GSE was 333.33 μg/mL. The chicken breast comprised six groups: no-treatment (N), 0.2% ascorbic acid + 70 ppm sodium nitrite (C), 0.05% GSE (G0.05), 0.1% GSE (G0.1), 0.3% GSE (G0.3), and 0.5% GSE (G0.5). The pH and cooking loss of cured chicken breast decreased with increasing GSE levels, and the water holding capacity increased with increasing GSE levels. The hardness and chewiness of GSE-treated chicken breast were higher than those of N and C. Hunter's L and a color values increased significantly after GSE addition. Moreover, 0.1% GSE (G0.1) increased the flavor and total acceptability scores. The 2-thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of the 0.5% GSE group decreased significantly compared with those of C group. Total microbial counts of GSE-treated chicken breast were higher than those of C, but that lower than those of N. Adding GSE to chicken breast delayed lipid peroxidation and had antimicrobial effects during cold storage. GSE improved shelf life and palatability; therefore, it could be used as a natural antioxidant and functional curing agent ingredient in meat products.
Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Yang-Il
This study investigated the antioxidative and functional effects of a curing agent containing grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on the quality and storage characteristics of chicken breast. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of GSE were 45.06 mg/g and 36.06 mg/g, respectively. The IC50 value of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydroxyl scavenging of GSE was 333.33 μg/mL. The chicken breast comprised six groups: no-treatment (N), 0.2% ascorbic acid + 70 ppm sodium nitrite (C), 0.05% GSE (G0.05), 0.1% GSE (G0.1), 0.3% GSE (G0.3), and 0.5% GSE (G0.5). The pH and cooking loss of cured chicken breast decreased with increasing GSE levels, and the water holding capacity increased with increasing GSE levels. The hardness and chewiness of GSE-treated chicken breast were higher than those of N and C. Hunter's L and a color values increased significantly after GSE addition. Moreover, 0.1% GSE (G0.1) increased the flavor and total acceptability scores. The 2-thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of the 0.5% GSE group decreased significantly compared with those of C group. Total microbial counts of GSE-treated chicken breast were higher than those of C, but that lower than those of N. Adding GSE to chicken breast delayed lipid peroxidation and had antimicrobial effects during cold storage. GSE improved shelf life and palatability; therefore, it could be used as a natural antioxidant and functional curing agent ingredient in meat products. PMID:28747829
Bekiroglu, Somer; Myrberg, Olle; Ostman, Kristina; Ek, Marianne; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Rundlöf, Torgny; Hakkarainen, Birgit
A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600MHz BB probe and CryoProbe, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.
Reagor, Lee; Gusman, Jean; McCoy, Lana; Carino, Edith; Heggers, John P
Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) Citricidal has, in recent reports, been reported to be successful in combating a variety of common infectious agents. In our study, drops of concentrated grapefruit-seed extract were tested for antibacterial properties against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Sixty-seven (67) distinct biotypes were tested for their susceptibilities to the GSE as well as to 5 other topical antibacterials (Silvadene, Sulfamylon, Bactroban, Nitrofurazone, and Silvadene, Nystatin). Wells were punched into Mueller-Hinton agar plates, which were then inoculated with the organism to be tested; each well was then inoculated with one of the antibacterial agents. After an overnight incubation period, the plates were checked for zones of bacterial susceptibility around the individual wells, with a measured susceptibility zone diameter of 10 mm or more considered a positive result. The GSE was consistently antibacterial against all of the biotypes tested, with susceptibility zone diameters equal to or greater than 15 mm in each case. Our preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic to GSE that is comparable to that of proven topical antibacterials. Although the GSE appeared to have a somewhat greater inhibitory effect on gram-positive organisms than on gram-negative organisms, its comparative effectiveness against a wide range of bacterial biotypes is significant.
D and z values of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200 and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples, inoculated with L.monoc...
Ganzera, Markus; Aberham, Anita; Stuppner, Hermann
Grapefruit seed extracts are used in cosmetics, food supplements, and pesticides because of their antimicrobial properties, but suspicions about the true nature of the active compounds arose when synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium chloride were found in commercial products. The HPLC method presented herein allows the quality assessment (qualitative and quantitative) of these products for the first time. On the basis of a standard mixture of 18 preservatives most relevant for food and grapefruit products, a method was developed allowing the baseline separation of all compounds within 40 min. Optimum results were obtained with a C-8 stationary phase and a solvent system comprising aqueous trifluoroacetic acid, acetonitrile, and 2-propanol. The assay was fully validated and shown to be sensitive (LOD < or= 12.1 ng on-column), accurate (recovery rates > or = 96.1%), repeatable (sigma(rel) < or = 3.5%), precise (intra-day variation < or = 4.5%, interday variation < or = 4.1%), and rugged. Without any modifications the method could be adopted for LC-MS experiments, where the compounds of interest were directly assignable in positive ESI mode. The quantitative results of several products for ecofarming confirmed previous studies, as seven out of nine specimens were adulterated with preservatives in varying composition. The samples either contained benzethonium chloride (2.5-176.9 mg/mL) or benzalkonium chloride (138.2-236.3 mg/mL), together with smaller amounts of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid.
Alonso, Diana; Gimeno, Miquel; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José D; Shirai, Keiko
A novel non-toxic procedure is described for the grafting of chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed oil extract onto cellulose. The cellulose was previously UV-irradiated and then functionalized from an aqueous emulsion of the chitosan with the essential oil. The novel materials are readily attained with durable fragrance and enhanced antimicrobial properties. The incorporation of chitosan as determined from the elemental analyses data was 16.08+/-0.29 mg/g of sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) provided further evidence for the successful attachment of chitosan microcapsules containing the essential oil to the treated cellulose fibers. The materials thus produced displayed 100% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis up to 48 h of incubation. Inhibition of bacteria by the essential oil was also evaluated at several concentrations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Konturek, S J; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Pawlik, W W; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Naskalski, J W
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to exert antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of naringenin, the flavonoid with cytoprotective action on the gastric mucosa. No study so far has been undertaken to determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is known to result from reduction of anti-oxidative capability of pancreatic tissue, and whether its possible preventive effect involves an antioxidative action of this biocomponent. In this study carried out on rats with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by 30 min partial pancreatic ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, the GSE or vehicle (vegetable glycerin) was applied intragastrically in gradually increasing amounts (50-500 microl) 30 min before I/R. Pretreatment with GSE decreased the extent of pancreatitis with maximal protective effect of GSE at the dose 250 microl. GSE reduced the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum lipase and poly-C specific ribonuclease activity, and attenuated the marked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow.
Heggers, John P; Cottingham, John; Gusman, Jean; Reagor, Lee; McCoy, Lana; Carino, Edith; Cox, Robert; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Reagor, Lana
Recent testimonials report grapefruit-seed extract, or GSE (Citricidal) to be effective against more than 800 bacterial and viral strains, 100 strains of fungus, and a large number of single and multicelled parasites. This study investigated GSE for antibacterial activity at varying time intervals and concentration levels and tissue toxicity at varying concentrations in an effort to determine if a concentration existed that was both microbicidal and nontoxic and in what period of time. Gram-negative and gram-positive isolates were introduced into graduated dilutions of GSE (twofold concentrations ranging from 1:1, through 1:512) for determination of bacterial activity. In vitro assays with human skin fibroblast cells were also performed at the same dilutions to determine toxicity. These tests indicated that from the 1:1 through the 1:128 concentrations, GSE remained toxic as well as bactericidal. However, test results indicated that at the 1:512 dilution, GSE remained bactericidal, but completely nontoxic. The initial data shows GSE to have antimicrobial properties against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms at dilutions found to be safe. With the aid of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the mechanism of GSE's antibacterial activity was revealed. It was evident that GSE disrupts the bacterial membrane and liberates the cytoplasmic contents within 15 minutes after contact even at more dilute concentrations.
Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan
Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B
Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.
Avula, B; Dentali, S; Khan, I A
A HPLC method has been developed which permits the quantification of methyl paraben, benzethonium chloride and triclosan in various samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). The best results were obtained with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column using gradient mobile phase of water (0.1% acetic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL per minute. The detection wavelength was 254 nm for methyl paraben, and 275 nm for benzethonium chloride and triclosan. The main synthetic antimicrobial agent identified in commercial GSE samples was benzethonium chloride in concentrations from 0.29-21.84%. Positive ion electrospray MS of a commercial GSE sample showed a molecular ion at m/z 412 [M+], which matched that of a standard of benzethonium chloride. Triclosan was detected in two samples at 0.009 and 1.13%concentrations; while methyl paraben was not detected in the samples analyzed.
Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Yu-Ri; Ha, Yu-Mi; Seo, Hyo Ju; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak
To develop a new preservation method, the antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) against Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and food-borne pathogens was assessed, and a general analysis and sensory evaluation of fresh Makgeolli with added GSE was made. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of GSE against 10 strains of Makgeolli-brewing microorganism were 0.0122 to 1.5625 μL/mL. The MIC values against 6 strains of food-borne pathogens were 0.0061 to 0.7813 μL/mL. On addition of 0.1% (v/v) and 0.2% GSE in bottled fresh Makgeolli, no significant difference in the pH, or the contents of total acids, ethanol, or methanol in the Makgeolli, were observed compared with control Makgeolli (with no GSE), during the preservation period (8 weeks) at 10 °C. In the Makgeolli with 0.1% and 0.2% GSE, the total bacterial counts decreased significantly by 4.9% (P < 0.01) and 11.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, versus the control. The decreases in yeast count were significantly lessened by 15.33% and 15.24% (both P < 0.001), respectively, after 8 weeks of storage, compared with the control. In the sensory evaluation of Makgeolli with 0.1% and 0.2% GSE, the refreshment and overall acceptability received significantly better scores than the control (P < 0.01), with no change in sweetness, bitterness, sourness, turbidity, color, or odor. These results suggest that GSE controls the growth of Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and extends the shelf life (ca. 2 wk), without decreasing overall acceptance. A new preservation method for fresh Makgeolli by adding grapefruit seed extract (GSE) was developed. As fresh Makgeolli contains live microorganisms, the preservation period is 1 wk, which is relatively short. GSE controls the growth of Makgeolli-brewing and Makgeolli-spoiling microorganisms. 0.1% to 0.2% GSE is optimum for prolonging the shelf life (2 wk) of bottled fresh Makgeolli, and has no adverse effect on overall acceptability. We demonstrated that GSE is an
Bernatoniene, Jurga; Keraitė, Rasa; Masteiková, Ruta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Savickas, Arūnas
Aqueous hypromellose gels are not microbiologically stable - they show signs of microorganism growth during storage. To extend the shelf-life of the gels, antimicrobial preservatives are needed. Some substances of plant origin are known for their antimicrobial properties, and thus they may be used as an alternative to synthetic preservatives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological stability of aqueous hypromellose gel and the effectiveness of natural substances - grapefruit seed extract (GSE), concentrated cranberry juice, and a combination thereof - on the antimicrobial protection of the gel. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of GSE and cranberry juice showed that their antimicrobial effects differed. Both cranberry juice and GSE inhibited the growth of the standard gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the effect of GSE was significantly stronger. Candida albicans was sensitive only to GSE. For this reason, in order to affect all the microorganisms studied, either a combination of 0.7% GSE and 10% cranberry juice, or 5% GSE alone may be used. The combination of GSE and cranberry juice was effective only in acidic medium (pH being 2.5-5), while the antimicrobial effect of GSE was not dependent on the pH value.
Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German
D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées.
Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G
Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 microg/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with
Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G
AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. METHODS: We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. RESULTS: Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 μg/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene
Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few
Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata
The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.
Krajewska-Kułak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W
Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed.
Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.
Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Gafner, Stefan; Manthey, John A; Khan, Ikhlas A
A selective UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS method was developed to screen grapefruit seeds, and the seeds of other Citrus species for limonoid aglycones, acids, glucosides, and flavonoids. These classes of compounds were identified in positive and negative ion modes over a mass-to-charge range from 100-1500. Accurate mass values, elution times, and fragmentation patterns obtained by QToF-mass spectrometry were used to identify or tentatively characterize the compounds detected in the sample of this study. Limonin was the major limonoid in most of the seeds of Citrus species, followed by nomilin. This analytical method was successfully applied for the analysis of commercial extracts and dietary supplements claiming to contain grapefruit seed extract, or extracts made from the seed and other fruit parts such as the peel or pulp. Many commercial products contained large numbers of flavonoids, indicating the use of peel, pulp, or seed coat. This method also permitted detection of synthetic preservatives such as benzethonium chloride, methylparaben, and triclosan in commercial grapefruit seed extract products. Out of the 17 commercial products analyzed, two contained the synthetic antimicrobial agent benzethonium chloride. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Kowalska, Karolina; Zduńczyk, Zenon
The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit) and the interaction between these two dietary factors. When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.
de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I
Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than α-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake.
Wojdyła, A T
Efficacy of grapefruit extract (a.i. of Biosept 33 SL) in the control of Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae and Diplocarpon rosae on roses was investigated during 1998-1999. The extract was applied as plant spray in concentrations from 0.017 to 0.099%. First treatment of rose shrubs was done when visible disease symptoms occurred on leaves and spraying was repeated 3 (in plastic tunnel) or 10-times (in the field) at weekly intervals. In the second experiment roses with visible powdery mildew symptoms were sprayed once with grapefruit extract. Leaves were sampled one or 7 days after the extract application and germination of spores of S. pannosa var. rosae on potato dextrose agar was evaluated. In the next experiment roses grown under plastic tunnel were sprayed once with the tested preparation. After 24 hours leaves were collected and appearance of fungal hyphae and spores of S. pannosa var. rosae was studied in scanning electron microscope. In the control of S. pannosa var. rosae grapefruit extract at conc. 0.066% was as effective as triforine (standard) applied at 0.027%. Reduction of concentration resulted in the decreased efficacy of the tested preparation. Spores of S. pannosa var. rosae collected one day after grapefruit extract application germinated in about 5%. Analyses of spore vitality 6 days letter showed that only about 15% of conidia could germinated on PDA agar. In contrary, spores from untreated leaves germinated in about 95%. Scanning electrone microscope analysis of leaves taken from plants protected with grapefruit extract showed that most of hyphae were separated from leaf surface. Almost all hyphae and spores were degenerated. In the control of D. rosae the preparation in all tested concentrations gave satisfactory results but was less effective than triforine.
de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Haslberger, Alexander; Aumueller, Eva; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I
Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in overweight insulin-resistant rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in two groups: control group (n=8) and high-fat sucrose (HFS) group (n=30). After 22 days of ad libitum water and food access, the rats fed HFS diet changed to standard diet and were reassigned into three groups (n=10 each group): nonsupplemented, helichrysum extract (2 g/kg bw), and grapefruit extract (1 g/kg bw) administered for 5 weeks. Rats supplemented with both extracts gained less body weight during the 5-week period of treatment, showed lower serum insulin levels and liver TBARS levels. Leptin/adiponectin ratio, as an indicator of IR, was lower in both extract-administered groups. These results were accompanied by a reduction in TNFα gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa, and TLR2 expression in intestinal mucosa. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts might be used as complement hypocaloric diets in weight loss treatment. Both extracts helped to reduce weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and IR, improved inflammation markers, and decreased the HFS diet-induced oxidative stress in insulin-resistant rats.
... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...
... renamed as Red seeded grapefruit. (b) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the term variety or varieties includes... and grapefruit classifications. (a) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the following classifications of grapefruit are renamed as follows: (1) Marsh and other seedless grapefruit, excluding pink grapefruit, are...
... renamed as Red seeded grapefruit. (b) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the term variety or varieties includes... and grapefruit classifications. (a) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the following classifications of grapefruit are renamed as follows: (1) Marsh and other seedless grapefruit, excluding pink grapefruit, are...
... renamed as Red seeded grapefruit. (b) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the term variety or varieties includes... and grapefruit classifications. (a) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the following classifications of grapefruit are renamed as follows: (1) Marsh and other seedless grapefruit, excluding pink grapefruit, are...
A selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-didode array detector-quadrapole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS) method has been developed to screen grapefruit seeds, and other citrus seed samples for limonoid aglycones, limonoid acids, limonoid glucosides and flavonoid...
Orlikowski, Leszek B; Skrzypczak, Cz; Jaworska-Marosz, A
Development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis, F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, Botrytis cinerea and B. elliptica in the presence of grapefruit extract (GE) was evaluated. Amendment of potato-dextrose agar with 40 micrograms of GE/cm3 inhibited linear growth of tested species at least in 50%. Addition of 40 micrograms of GE/cm3 of medium inhibited spore germination of F. oxysporum f.sp. cyclaminis about 34% whereas germ tube growth was suppressed in 87%. In case of Botrytis species, B. cinerea spores were more susceptible on GE than B. elliptica. They did not germinate, however, at 200 micrograms of GE/cm3. Drenching of peat, artificially infested with F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, with GE at conc. 165 micrograms/cm3 resulted in drastical decrease of colony forming unit numbers and this suppressive effect was observed at least 35 days.
Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer
The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene.
de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Haslberger, Alexander G; Aumueller, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo
Type-2 diabetes is associated with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation accompanied by an increased production of adipokines/cytokines by obese adipose tissue. The search for new antidiabetic drugs with different mechanisms of action, such as insulin sensitizers, insulin secretagogues and α-glucosidase inhibitors, has directed the focus on the potential use of flavonoids in the management of type-2 diabetes. Thirty six diabetic male C57BL/6J db/db mice were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned into four experimental groups: non-treated control, (n = 8); acarbose (5 mg per kg bw, n = 8); helichrysum (1 g per kg bw, n = 10) and grapefruit (0.5 g per kg bw, n = 10) for 6 weeks. The mRNA expression in pancreas, liver and epididymal adipose tissue was determined by RT-PCR. DNA methylation was quantified in epididymal fat using pyrosequencing. Mice supplemented with helichrysum and grapefruit extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels (p < 0.05). A possible mechanism of action could be the up-regulation of liver glucokinase (p < 0.05). The antihyperglycemic effect of both extracts was accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of some proinflammatory genes (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-kappaB) in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. The CpG3 site of TNFα, located 5 bp downstream of the transcription start site, showed increased DNA methylation in the grapefruit group compared with the non-treated group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improved hyperglycemia through the regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver and reduction of the expression of proinflammatory genes in the liver and visceral fat. The hypermethylation of TNFα in adipose tissue may contribute to reduce the inflammation associated with diabetes and obesity.
Genovese, S; Epifano, F; Carlucci, G; Marcotullio, M C; Curini, M; Locatelli, M
Oxyprenylated natural products (isopentenyloxy-, geranyloxy- and the less spread farnesyloxy-compounds and their biosynthetic derivatives) represent a family of secondary metabolites that have been consider for years merely as biosynthetic intermediates of the most abundant C-prenylated derivatives. Many of the isolated oxyprenylated natural products were shown to exert in vitro and in vivo remarkable anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. 4'-Geranyloxyferulic acid [3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans-propenoic] has been discovered as a valuable chemopreventive agent of several types of cancer. After development of a high yield and "eco-friendly" synthetic scheme of this secondary metabolite, starting from cheap and non-toxic reagents and substrates, we developed a new HPLC-DAD method for its quantification in grapefruit skin extract. A preliminary study on C18 column showed the separation between GOFA and boropinic acid (having the same core but with an isopentenyloxy side chain), used as internal standard. The tested column were thermostated at 28+/-1 degrees C and the separation was achieved in gradient condition at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with a starting mobile phase of H(2)O:methanol (40:60, v/v, 1% formic acid). The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) was 0.5 microg/mL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) was 1 microg/mL. Matrix-matched standard curves showed linearity up to 75 microg/mL. In the analytical range the precision (RSD%) values were
Colon, M; Nerin, C
The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.
Ojewole, J A O
In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw. However, the antiinflammatory effect of the plant extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p < 0.05-0.001) the antiinflammatory effects of the crude plant extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.
Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars
Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...
Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B
The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached
La Cava, Enzo L; Gerbino, Esteban; Sgroppo, Sonia C; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea
The physical and chemical properties of pectin extracts obtained from different white and pink/red varieties of grapefruit [Citrus paradisi (Macf.)], using both conventional heating (CHE) and thermosonication (TS), were investigated. The content of galacturonic acid (GalA), degree of esterification (%DM), color and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) associated with multivariate analysis enabled a structural comparison among the pectin extracts, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) completed a full landscape of the investigated extracts. Pectin extracts obtained by CHE showed mostly higher GalA than those obtained by TS. All the extracts had a high antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2,2 diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH * ) and 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS * +) assays, and a high correlation with the GalA content. The main differences observed in the FTIR spectra occurred in the 1200 to 900 cm -1 region (differences in GalA). The glass transition temperatures (Tgs) of all extracts were above 85 °C, making them interesting as stabilizing agents for the food industry. A wide database for the characterization of pectin extracts from grapefruits was obtained. The relationship between the extraction method and the source of pectins, with the physicochemical and antioxidant properties provided great support for their application in the food industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.
Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874
Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot
Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.
Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il
Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Bailey, D G; Dresser, G K; Kreeft, J H; Munoz, C; Freeman, D J; Bend, J R
To determine whether unprocessed grapefruit can cause a drug interaction, whether the active ingredients are naturally occurring, and whether specific furanocoumarins or flavonoids are involved. The oral pharmacokinetics of felodipine and its dehydrofelodipine metabolite were determined after administration of felodipine 10 mg extended-release tablet with 250 mL commercial grapefruit juice, homogenized grapefruit segments, or extract of segment-free parts equivalent to one unprocessed fruit or water in a randomized four-way crossover study. Inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 by furanocoumarins (bergamottin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin) and flavonoids (naringenin optical isomers) was determined. Furanocoumarin and naringenin precursor (naringin) concentrations were measured in each grapefruit treatment. Felodipine AUC with commercial grapefruit juice, grapefruit segments, or grapefruit extract was on average 3-fold higher than that with water. Felodipine peak concentration was higher, but the half-life was unchanged. The dehydrofelodipine/felodipine AUC ratio was reduced. The furanocoumarins produced mechanism-based and competitive inhibition of CYP3A4. Bergamottin was the most potent mechanism-based inhibitor. Naringenin isomers produced only competitive inhibition. Bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and naringin concentrations varied among grapefruit treatments but were sufficient to inhibit markedly in vitro CYP3A4 activity. Unprocessed grapefruit can cause a drug interaction with felodipine. The active ingredients are naturally occurring in the grapefruit. Bergamottin is likely important in drug interactions with commercial grapefruit juice. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and naringin may be more important in grapefruit segments because they are present in higher concentrations. Any therapeutic concern for a drug interaction with commercial grapefruit juice should now be extended to include whole fruit and possibly confectioneries made
Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...
Auten, Ashley A; Beauchamp, Lauren N; Joshua Taylor; Hardinger, Karen L
The interaction between grapefruit-containing beverages and immunosuppressants is not well defined in the literature. This study was conducted to investigate possible sources of grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract in common US-manufactured beverages. The goal was to identify those products that might serve as hidden sources of dietary grapefruit intake, increasing a transplant patient's risk for drug interactions. A careful review of the ingredients of the 3 largest US beverage manufacturer's product lines was conducted through manufacturer correspondence, product labeling examination, and online nutrition database research. Focus was placed on citrus-flavored soft drinks, teas, and juice products and their impact on a patient's immunosuppressant regimens. Twenty-three beverages were identified that contained grapefruit. Five did not contain the word "grapefruit" in the product name. In addition to the confirmed grapefruit-containing products, 17 products were identified as possibly containing grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract. A greater emphasis should be placed upon properly educating patients regarding hidden sources of grapefruit in popular US beverages and the potential for food-drug interactions.
Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana
Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765
Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.
... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...
... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...
... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...
Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel
Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834
Katade, Sushama R; Pawar, Pushpa V; Wakharkar, Radhika D; Deshpande, Nirmala R
The larvicidal activity of ethanol, chloroform and hexane soxhlet extracts obtained from S. guttata seeds was investigated against the IVth instar larvae of Dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. All extracts including fractions of ethanol extract exhibited 100% larval kill within 24 hr exposure period at 500 ppm concentration. Fraction A1 of ethanol was found to be most promising; its LC50 was 21.552 and 35.520 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti respectively. Naturally occurring S. guttata seed derived fractions merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or lead compounds.
Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin
New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.
Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin
New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah
A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.
Wangensteen, H; Molden, E; Christensen, H; Malterud, K E
The oral availability of many drugs metabolised by the enzyme cytochrome P(450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is increased if co-administered with grapefruit juice. Extracts from grapefruit peel have also demonstrated inhibitory activity and, during commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, inhibitory components might be squeezed into the juice from the peel. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to identify CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel. Grapefruit peel was extracted with diethyl ether, and the extract was further fractionated by normal-phase chromatography. Fractions demonstrating significant CYP3A4 inhibitory activity, as measured by the relative reduction in N-demethylation of diltiazem in transfected human liver epithelial cells, were subsequently separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Constituents of the fractions and isolated compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of diltiazem and N-demethyl-diltiazem was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the identified components in grapefruit peel, only epoxybergamottin demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of diltiazem. The IC(50) value was calculated to be 4.2+/-1.1 micro M. Coumarins without the furan ring and flavonoids isolated from grapefruit peel did not interfere with the metabolism of diltiazem. The results indicated the presence of other CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel, but these agents were lost during the purification process excluding their identification. The furanocoumarin epoxybergamottin, present in grapefruit peel, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. In commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, epoxybergamottin is possibly distributed into the juice. During manufacturing, however, epoxybergamottin may be hydrolysed to 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, which has been suggested as an important CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit juice.
Archana, P; Tandan, S K; Chandra, S; Lal, J
Ethanolic extract (70%) of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel has been subjected for its antipyretic and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats or mice of either sex at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally. The extract demonstrated marked antipyretic activity against Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract had significant central analgesic activity in hot plate and tail flick methods. It also exhibited marked peripheral analgesic effect in both acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and Randall-Selitto assay in rats. It also significantly inhibited the formalin-induced hind paw licking in mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel possesses potent antipyretic and antinociceptive activities and thus, validates its use in the treatment of pain and pyretic disorders. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell
Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528
Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.
Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Wei, Xu; Cancalon, Paul F; Gmitter, Fred G
Some furanocoumarins in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) are associated with the so-called grapefruit juice effect. Previous phytochemical quantification and genetic analysis suggested that the synthesis of these furanocoumarins may be controlled by a single gene in the pathway. In this study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis of fruit tissues was performed to identify the candidate gene(s) likely associated with low furanocoumarin content in grapefruit. Fifteen tentative differentially expressed fragments were cloned through the cDNA-AFLP analysis of the grapefruit variety Foster and its spontaneous low-furanocoumarin mutant Low Acid Foster. Sequence analysis revealed a cDNA-AFLP fragment, Contig 6, was homologous to a substrate-proved psoralen synthase gene, CYP71A22, and was part of citrus unigenes Cit.3003 and Csi.1332, and predicted genes Ciclev10004717m in mandarin and orange1.1g041507m in sweet orange. The two predicted genes contained the highly conserved motifs at one of the substrate recognition sites of CYP71A22. Digital gene expression profile showed the unigenes were expressed only in fruit and seed. Quantitative real-time PCR also proved Contig 6 was down-regulated in Low Acid Foster. These results showed the differentially expressed Contig 6 was related to the reduced furanocoumarin levels in the mutant. The identified fragment, homologs, unigenes, and genes may facilitate further furanocoumarin genetic study and grapefruit variety improvement.
In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...
Besra, S E; Gomes, A; Chaudhury, L; Vedasiromoni, J R; Ganguly, D K
The antidiarrhoeal activity of the seed extract of Albizzia lebbeck (Benth.) was investigated employing conventional rodent models of diarrhoea, i.e. castor oil-induced diarrhoea, upper gastrointestinal transit (u.g.t.) and fluid secretion. It was found that the aqueous methanol extract of Albizzia lebbeck seeds (2.5-5 mg/kg i.p.) possessed antidiarrhoeal activity which strengthens the earlier use of the seeds in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The antidiarrhoeal dose of the extract was at least 10-30 times less than the LD(50) dose. The extract (2.5-5 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidiarrhoeal activity of loperamide (1 mg/kg i.p.). Nalaxone (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) significantly inhibited the antidiarrhoeal activity of the extract as well as loperamide, thus indicating a role of the opioid system in the antidiarrhoeal activity of the extract. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla
The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al.  and with changes proposed by Provost et al.  was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol.
Ramos, Simone N.M.; Salazar, Marcela M.; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Efraim, Priscilla
The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2–6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4–8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al.  and with changes proposed by Provost et al.  was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956
Guo, Feng-Xia; Wu, Zhi-Jiang; Chen, Yuan; Xi, Zhuo-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yao, Li-Rong; Chen, Xiang
To reveal the allelopathy effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds and provide information for the intercrop production. The A. membranaceus. var. mongholicus seeds were soaked in distilled water for different time (12, 24, 36, 48, 60 h) , and then the seed extracts were used to study their effects on the seed germination, seedling growth and development of two Codonopsis pilosula. The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds contained some allelopathy compounds. Their soaked liquid had significantly influence on the seed germination and seedling growth of C. pilosula. The seed germination rate, germination power, germination index and vigor index of two C. pilosula calrivar were improved and then inhabited with soaking time elongation. The extract soaking for 24 h significantly improved the germination traits but the extract for 60 h appeared different degrees of inhibiting vigor. The seed extracts soaking ranging between 12 and 60 h all significantly improved the above plant growth of C. pilosula but significant inhibited their radicle growth in length. And with the soaking time elongation the facilitation effect weakened and the inhibiting effect enhanced, especially more significant in the C. pilosula caltivar (Baitiaodangshen). The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds have allelopathic compounds and the endogenous inhibitor can be extracted when soaked for more than 24 h in water with intact seeds, resulting in improvement of seed germination rate. The C. pilosula could be intercropped in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus field, however, when intercroped it should notice that the intercrop proportion should vary with the caltivar.
Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M
Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.
Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Siger, Aleksander; Trojanowska, Krystyna; Nogala-Kalucka, Małgorzata; Malecka, Maria; Pacholek, Bogdan
Determination of influence of lupin natural phenolic compounds on antibacterial properties of its seeds was carried out. Raw material were seeds of Lupinus albus, L. luteus, and L. angustifolius. The methods included the determination of the content of proteins, total phenolic compounds, free phenolic acids, and tannins as well as antibacterial properties with ethanol extracts. The content of total phenolic compounds was smaller in testas than in cotyledons and the highest levels are observed in bitter cultivars of Lupinus albus cv. Bac and L. angustifolius cv. Mirela. Lupin tannins mainly occurred in cotyledons of the white lupin, predominantly in the bitter cultivar Bac. Free phenolic acids were mainly found in testas. Only extracts from the testas displayed antibacterial properties, which excludes the possibility of alkaloid influence on the results. The results suggest that inhibition of test bacteria growth depended mainly upon the content of the total phenolic compounds.
Cetin, Aysun; Kaynar, Leylagül; Koçyiğit, Ismail; Hacioğlu, Sibel Kabukçu; Saraymen, Recep; Oztürk, Ahmet; Orhan, Okan; Sağdiç, Osman
The tolerance of the liver is considerably low when an effective radiation (RTx) dose needs to be delivered in patients in whom either their liver or whole body area has to be irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of grape seed extract on liver toxicity induced by RTx in the rat liver. We used four groups, each consisting of 12 healthy male Wistar rats. RTx-grape seed extract group: rats were given grape seed extract (100 mg/kg) orally for seven days, following 8 Gy whole body irradiation, and grape seed extract was maintained for four days. RTx group: the same protocol was applied in this group; however, they received distilled water instead of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract group: only grape seed extract solution was administered for 11 consecutive days in the same fashion. only distilled water (orally) was administered in a similar manner. The level of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, two important endogenous antioxidants, were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Grape seed extract was seen to protect the cellular membrane from oxidative damage and consequently from protein and lipid oxidation. In the RTx group, malondialdehyde levels were extremely higher than those of the grape seed extract-RTx group (p<0.001). Grape seed extract administration moderately reserved the malondialdehyde levels. RTx therapy decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver homogenates (p<0.001), and these alterations were significantly reversed by grape seed extract treatment (p<0.001). There were no differences between the grape seed extract- RTx, grape seed extract and control groups with regard to antioxidant activity (p>0.05). The levels of antioxidant parameters on RTx-induced liver toxicity were restored to control values with grape seed extract therapy. Grape seed extract may be promising as a therapeutic option in RTx
Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.
The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterialmore » populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.« less
Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...
El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B
Liver injury was induced in female rats using tamoxifen (TAM). Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) extract (GSE), black seed (Nigella sativa) extract (NSE), curcumin (CUR) or silymarin (SYL) were orally administered to TAM-intoxicated rats. Liver histopathology of TAM-intoxicated:rats showed pathological changes. TAM-intoxication elicited declines in liver antioxidant enzymes levels (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio plus the hepatic elevations in lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum liver enzymes; alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Oral intake of NSE, GSE, CUR or SYL to TAM-intoxicated rats, attenuated histopathological changes and corrected all parameters mentioned above. Improvements were prominent in case of NSE (similarly SYL) > CUR > GSE. Data indicated that NSE, GSE or CUR act as free radicals scavengers and protect TAM-induced liver injury in rats.
Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N
Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed extracts are known to activate the local cell-mediated immune reactions after a single intrauterine administration, leading to a long term reversible block of fertility. In order to identify and characterize the active fraction responsible for this activity, neem seeds were extracted by both mechanical expression and solvent extraction using a range of polar to non-polar solvents which yielded 3 broad fractions. The mechanically expressed oil was fractionated using different approaches and studied for antifertility activity. The hexane extract and a corresponding column fraction showed potent and reproducible antifertility activity. Other fractions were less stable with regard to reproducibility of effects and composition. It is our conclusion that for subsequent fractionation to reach the last active fraction, the hexane extract is the most useful starting material.
Adeneye, A A
Alcohol decoction of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) seed is reputed for the local management of array of human diseases including, anemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity by some Yoruba herbalists (SouthWest, Nigeria). Despite its historic use, scientific evaluation of its folkloric use in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce. The present study was designed at investigating the glucose and lipid lowering effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (MECP) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the phytochemical analysis of the extract was also conducted using standard procedures. Young adult, male, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups I - VI with 12 rats in each group. Group I rats were the normal untreated rats while group II rats served as the diabetic untreated rats while Rats in groups III - VI served as diabetic rats treated with 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day MECP and 20 mg/kg/ day metformin, respectively, for 30 days. On the 15th and respectively, 31st day, blood samples from the fasted rats were obtained for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c) from the sacrificed rats. Oral treatment with 100 - 600 mg/kg/day MECP, for 30 days, resulted in significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001) reductions in FPG, TG, TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c in the diabetic rats, effects which were comparable to that of metformin. The extract also caused significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) rise in HDL-c values in the alloxan diabetic rats. Phytochemical result showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponin in varying concentrations. The biological effects recorded for the extract could be due to any or a combination of these phytochemical constituents. Results of this study lend support to the traditional use of
Mandadi, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Bhat, Narayan G; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
Citrus limonoids have shown to inhibit the growth of cancer in colon, lung, mouth, stomach and breast in animal and cell culture studies. For the first time in the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate antioxidant fractions and five limonoids from red Mexican grapefruit seeds. Defatted seed powder was successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH) and MeOH/water and the extracts were concentrated under vacuum. Radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content were also measured for comparison with the antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum method for the above extracts. Acetone and MeOH extracts, respectively, showed the highest (85.7%) and lowest (53.3%) radical scavenging activity, at 500 ppm. The total phenolic contents were found to be highest in the acetone extract (15.94%) followed by the MeOH extract (5.92%), ethyl acetate extract (5.54%) and water extract (5.26%). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts as equivalents to ascorbic acid (micromol/g of the extract) was in the order, EtOAc extract > acetone extract > water extract > methanol extract. Furthermore, the EtOAC and acetone extracts were loaded onto silica gel columns to obtain four limonoid aglycons. MeOH fraction was loaded onto a dowex-50 and sepabeads resin column to obtain a limonoid glucoside. The purity of the isolated five compounds was analyzed by HPLC using a C18 column and UV detection at 210 nm. Finally, the structures of the compounds were identified as obacunone, nomilin, limonin, deacetylnomilin (DAN) and limonin-17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG) using 1H and 13C NMR studies.
Dabas, Deepti; Elias, Ryan J; Lambert, Joshua D; Ziegler, Gregory R
There is an increasing consumer demand for and scientific interest in new natural colorants. Avocado (Persea americana) seed when crushed with water develops an orange color (= 480 nm) in a time-dependent manner. Heat treatment of the seed prevented color development, whereas the addition of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but not peroxidase restored color development. Color development was also inhibited by the addition of tropolone, an inhibitor of PPO. Color formation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols indicating utilization for color formation. The orange color intensified as the pH was adjusted from 2.0 to 11.0, and these changes were only partially reversible when pH was adjusted from 7.5 to 11.0 in the presence of oxygen, but completely reversible when the pH was changed in the absence of oxygen. The color was found to be stable in solution at -18 °C for 2 mo. These results suggest that the avocado seed may be a potential source of natural colorant, and that color development is PPO-dependent. There is growing public and scientific interest in the development of natural alternatives to synthetic colorants in foods. Extracts of turmeric, paprika, and beets are examples of food-derived natural colorants. Avocado seeds, which represent an under-utilized waste stream, form a stable orange color when crushed in the presence of air. Our data indicate that avocado seed represents a potential source of new natural colorants for use in foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) leaves via D-optimal design and artificial neural network design with categorical and quantitative variables.
Ciğeroğlu, Zeynep; Aras, Ömür; Pinto, Carlos A; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Kırbaşlar, Ş İsmail; Lorenzo, José M; Barba, Francisco J; Saraiva, Jorge A; Şahin, Selin
The extraction of phenolic compounds from grapefruit leaves assisted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) by means of D-optimal experimental design and artificial neural network (ANN). For this purpose, five numerical factors were selected: ethanol concentration (0-50%), extraction time (15-60 min), extraction temperature (25-50 °C), solid:liquid ratio (50-100 g L -1 ) and calorimetric energy density of ultrasound (0.25-0.50 kW L -1 ), whereas ultrasound probe horn diameter (13 or 19 mm) was chosen as categorical factor. The optimized experimental conditions yielded by RSM were: 10.80% for ethanol concentration; 58.52 min for extraction time; 30.37 °C for extraction temperature; 52.33 g L -1 for solid:liquid ratio; 0.457 kW L -1 for ultrasonic power density, with thick probe type. Under these conditions total phenolics content was found to be 19.04 mg gallic acid equivalents g -1 dried leaf. The same dataset was used to train multilayer feed-forward networks using different approaches via MATLAB, with ANN exhibiting superior performance to RSM (differences included categorical factor in one model and higher regression coefficients), while close values were obtained for the extraction variables under study, except for ethanol concentration and extraction time. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Grapefruit juice (GFJ) interferes with the cytochrome P450 3A4 activity responsible for metabolizing certain medications. This interference is referred to as the "grapefruit-drug interaction". Grapefruit furanocoumarins (FCs), such as 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) and bergamottin (BM), have been...
Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169
Chen, Guang-Yu; Shi, Zhao-Hua; Li, Hai-Chi; Ge, Fa-Huan; Zhan, Hua-Shu
To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsonii seed. Using the yield of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil as the index, optimized supercritical CO2 extraction parameter by orthogonal experiment methodology and analysed the compounds of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil by GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsoniit seed were determined: the extraction pressure was 28 MPa and the temperature was 38 degrees C, the separation I pressure was 12 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the separation II pressure was 5 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the extraction time was 110 min. The average extraction rate of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil was 1.264%. 26 kinds of compounds were identified by GC-MS in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2. The main components were fatty acids. Comparing with the petroleum ether extraction, the supercritical CO2 extraction has higher extraction rate, shorter extraction time, more clarity oil. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil have differences.
Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kakar, Shefali M; Paine, Mary F; Stewart, Paul W; Watkins, Paul B
Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice "serum" and in whole grapefruit juice were measured by HPLC and their identities confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five healthy volunteers were given a single tablet of felodipine (10 mg) with whole grapefruit juice, orange juice-containing serum, or plain orange juice (control). The pharmacokinetic outcomes of felodipine were evaluated by noncompartmental methods. The effects of serum and purified DHB (at the same concentrations as those measured in the orange juice-containing serum used in the clinical study) were compared, in vitro, with regard to (1) the reversible and mechanism-based inhibition of the catalytic activity of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4 and (2) the time-dependent loss of immunoreactive CYP3A4 protein in modified Caco-2 cells. The concentration of DHB in serum was comparable to that measured in whole grapefruit juice (38 micromol/L versus 43 micromol/L), and the concentrations of other known furanocoumarins were well below the lowest published concentration required to inhibit catalytic activity by 50%. Relative to plain orange juice, orange juice-containing serum significantly increased the median felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.9-fold (P =.04) and increased the maximum concentration by 1.7-fold (P =.01). In vitro, serum and purified DHB had similar inhibitory effects toward CYP3A4 activity with respect to both reversible inhibition (95% confidence interval, 85% +/- 5.7% and 75% +/- 4.5%, respectively) and mechanism-based inhibition after a 15-minute preincubation (95% confidence interval, 79
Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...
Mata-Bilbao, Maria de Lourdes; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Roura, Elena; Jáuregui, Olga; Escribano, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria
The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, was detected in dog plasma. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Naringin reached its maximun plasma concentration at around 80 min, whereas naringenin and naringenin glucuronide reached their maximun plasma concentrations at around 20 and 30 min, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations of naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide (medians and ranges) were 0.24 (0.05-2.08), 0.021 (0.001-0.3) and 0.09 (0.034-0.12) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the curves were 23.16 l (14.04-70.62) min x micromol/for nariningin, 1.78 (0.09-4.95) min x micromol/l for naringenin and 22.5 (2.74-99.23) min x micromol/l for naringenin glucuronide. The median and range values for mean residence time were 3.3 (1.5-9.3), 2.8 (0.8-11.2) and 8.0 (2.3-13.1) h for naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate the absorption of grapefruit flavanones via the presence of their metabolites in plasma, thus making an important contribution to the field since the biological activities ascribed to these compounds rely on their specific forms of absorption.
... and grapefruit classifications. (a) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the following classifications of grapefruit are renamed as follows: (1) Marsh and other seedless grapefruit, excluding pink grapefruit, are... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tangerine and grapefruit classifications. 905.105...
... and grapefruit classifications. (a) Pursuant to § 905.5(m), the following classifications of grapefruit are renamed as follows: (1) Marsh and other seedless grapefruit, excluding pink grapefruit, are... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tangerine and grapefruit classifications. 905.105...
Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro
The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.
Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro
The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206
Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd
The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.
The effort to identify castor seeds with low ricin content is considered to be a key to increasing cultivation of the castor plant for industrial applications. The procedure used to obtain soluble protein from the seed is a limiting factor for screening large numbers of seeds. Usually, the seed is...
Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu
Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica × Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no report on antitumor activity of Broccolini (NOT Broccoli) is available. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of broccolini seeds extract (BSE) on human lung and ovarian cancer cells. It was found that BSE induces A549 and OVCAR-3 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay. The IC(50) values of BSE in A549 and OVCAR-3 cells were estimated to be 81.94 and 78.6 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the phase contrast microscope showed that in high-dose group (90∼120 µg/ml), the morphology structure of OVCAR-3 cells become irregular and exhibited characteristics of apoptosis such as cell membrane shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin
To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.
Garg, Sukant; Muangman, Thanchanok; Huifu, He; Ling, Li; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu
Stress is a state that triggers change in normal physiology and recognized by human body and brain as an unfavorable event causing concern, worry or anxiety. It may vary from physical, metabolic, physiological or emotional often culminating into wide range of ailments that may range from common cold, decline in functional efficacy of body systems or even cancer. Skin is the largest tissue of the body and makes the first interface with the environment. Skin color and characteristics are highly influenced by environment stress. A variety of natural compounds have been used for anti-stress and disease preventive potentials in worldwide traditional home medicine systems. They have recently attracted attention in research laboratories to dissect their mode of action to promote safe and economic drug development. We have earlier identified anti-stress and anti-aging activities in Withania somnifera, Helicteres angustifolia and honeybee propolis using human cultured normal and cancer cells. In the present study, we explored the effect of tamarind seed extracts prepared in water or 95% ethanol. In cell-based assays, we found that the extracts were safe to use in viable cells (in the range of 0.01-1.0%, for at least 4 weeks). Consistently, molecular studies revealed no effect on the expression/activity of cancer promoting proteins. We recruited oxidative stress models, such as, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Investigation on anti-stress potential of the extracts revealed that they do not offer remarkable protection against stress caused by either H2O2 or UV, however, significantly compromised OAG-induced melanogenesis. The preliminary data warrant further investigations on the active components and mechanism of action to develop useful natural compounds/extracts for manipulation of melanogenesis that plays important role in response of cells to UV and its consequences including DNA damage
Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes
Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the
Nakanishi, Akira; Fukushima, Yusuke; Miyazawa, Norio; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Maeda, Tomoko; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko
Aroma extract dilution analyses of the aromas of peels and juices of white and pink grapefruits revealed that rotundone, responsible for peppery, spicy, and woody odors, was detected for the first time at high flavor dilution factors of 256-1024. In both juices, rotundone was detected at the highest flavor dilution factor of 1024. Rotundone in grapefruits was quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay with a newly synthesized deuterium-labeled internal standard, rotundone-d 2,3 : its levels were 2180 and 1920 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit peels and 29.6 and 49.8 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit juices, respectively. On the basis of these results, sensory analysis was performed to assess the effects of rotundone on a white grapefruit juice aroma reconstitute. This sensory analysis revealed that rotundone does not impart a woody odor or affect any of the existing attributes, but increases various attributes, thus confirming that rotundone is indispensable for the aroma of grapefruit juice.
Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime
Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo
Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590
Shao, Zuo-Hui; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T; Li, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Danhong; Wojcik, Kim; Anderson, Travis; Qin, Yimin; Dey, Lucy; Yuan, Chun-Su
This study sought to test whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress induced in chick cardiomyocytes and whether this cytoprotection is mediated by PKC activation, mito K(ATP) channel opening, NO production, oxidant scavenging, or iron chelating effects. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (exogenous oxidant stress, 0.5mM) or antimycin A (endogenous oxidant stress, 100 micro M) for 2h following pretreatment with GSPE at various concentrations for 2h. Cells were also pretreated with GSPE or with inhibitors of PKC (chelerytherine), mito K(ATP) channel (5-hydroxydecanoate), nitric oxide synthase (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) for 2h. Oxidant stress was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide. Free radical scavenging and iron chelating ability was tested in vitro. GSPE dose-dependently attenuated oxidant formation and significantly improved cell survival and contractile function. However, inhibitors of PKC, mito K(ATP) channel or NO synthase failed to abolish the protective action of GSPE during H(2)O(2) or antimycin A exposure. In vitro studies suggested that GSPE scavenges H(2)O(2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron. These results indicate that GSPE confers cardioprotection against exogenous H(2)O(2)- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito K(ATP) channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron chelating directly.
Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu
Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica x Alboglabra) is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan (Chinese broccoli), which contains abundant glucosinolates. The intact glucosinolates are believed to be inactive, while their hydrolysis products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), are found to have bacteriocidal and anticarcinogenic activities. So far, no report is available about generation of ITCs during the process of glucosinolate hydrolysis in broccolini. In this study, the hydrolysis of broccolini seed glucosinolates was investigated under controlled conditions of pH, time and temperature, and the ITCs produced were determined. The results showed that an optimum hydrolysis of glucosinolates could be achieved at a temperature of 250C, at pH 7.0, and a reaction time of eight hours. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that the extracted ITCs primarily were: 3-BITC (3-benzyl-ITC) (10.8%), 4-methylpentyl-ITC (0.5%), 1-isothiocyanato-butane (26.8%), PEITC (phenethyl-ITC) (22.6%) and SFN (sulforaphane) (19.2%).
Early research reported that flavor in grapefruit was associated with the ratio of soluble solids (SSC) to titratable acidity (TA) and the juice content of the fruit. This led to the development of maturity standards based upon these parameters to define when grapefruit could be legally harvested i...
Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal
This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops.
Sajfrtová, Marie; Ličková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zdeněk
Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045
Sajfrtová, Marie; Licková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zdenek
Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15-60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 degrees C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 degrees C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 degrees C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide.
Won, Christina S.; Lan, Tian; VanderMolen, Karen M.; Dawson, Paul A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Paine, Mary F.
The grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Only naringin has been shown clinically to inhibit intestinal OATP; other constituents have not been evaluated. The effects of a modified grapefruit juice devoid of furanocoumarins (~99%) and polymethoxyflavones (~90%) on fexofenadine disposition were compared to effects of the original juice. Extracts of both juices inhibited estrone 3-sulfate and fexofenadine uptake by similar extents in OATP-transfected cells (~50% and ~25%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n=18) were administered fexofenadine (120 mg) with water, grapefruit juice, or modified grapefruit juice (240 ml) by randomized, three-way crossover design. Compared to water, both juices decreased fexofenadine geometric mean AUC and Cmax by ~25% (p≤0.008 and p≤0.011, respectively), with no effect on terminal half-life (p=0.11). Similar effects by both juices on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics indicate furanocoumarins and polymethoxyflavones are not major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction. PMID:23878024
In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...
Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí
Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu
The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 °C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 °C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min
Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C
Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as
Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei
Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691
Buettner, A; Schieberle, P
By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract prepared from fresh grapefruit juice, 37 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256 and subsequently identified. Among them the highest odor activities (FD factors) were determined for ethyl butanoate, p-1-menthene-8-thiol, (Z)-3-hexenal, 4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentane-2-one, 1-heptene-3-one, and wine lactone. Besides the 5 last mentioned compounds, a total of 13 further odorants were identified for the first time as flavor constituents of grapefruit. The data confirmed results of the literature on the significant contribution of 1-p-menthene-8-thiol in grapefruit aroma but clearly showed that a certain number of further odorants are necessary to elicit the typical grapefruit flavor.
Miyata, Masaaki; Takano, Hiroki; Guo, Lian Q; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi
Influence of grapefruit juice intake on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver DNA damage was examined using a Comet assay in F344 rats given 5 mg/kg AFB1 by gavage. Rats allowed free access to grapefruit juice for 5 days prior to AFB1 administration resulted in clearly reduced DNA damage in liver, to 65% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. Furthermore, rats treated with grapefruit juice extract (100 mg/kg per os) for 5 days prior to AFB1 treatment also reduced the DNA damage to 74% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. No significant differences in the portal blood and liver concentrations of AFB1 were observed between grapefruit juice intake rats and the controls. In an Ames assay with AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, lower numbers of revertant colonies were detected with hepatic microsomes prepared from rats administered grapefruit juice, compared with those from control rats. Microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was also lower with rats given grapefruit juice than with control rats. Immunoblot analyses showed a significant decrease in hepatic CYP3A content, but not CYP1A and CYP2C content, in microsomes of grapefruit juice-treated rats than in non-treated rats. No significant difference in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione content was observed in the two groups. GSTA5 protein was not detected in hepatic cytosol of the two groups. In microsomal systems, grapefruit juice extract inhibited AFB1-induced mutagenesis in the presence of a microsomal activation system from livers of humans as well as rats. These results suggest that grapefruit juice intake suppresses AFB1-induced liver DNA damage through inactivation of the metabolic activation potency for AFB1 in rat liver.
Yoshioka, Saburo; Hamada, Atsuhide; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Onogawa, Masahide; Kyotani, Shojiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Nishioka, Yutaka
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with the deposition of lipid droplets in the liver, and is characterised histologically by the infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatocellular degeneration and liver fibrosis. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the onset and deterioration of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We previously reported that an Eriobotrya japonica seed extract, extracted in 70% ethanol, exhibited antioxidant actions in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of this extract in a rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The seed extract was given in the drinking water to fats being fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet for 15 weeks. Increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly inhibited in rats fed the seed extract compared with the group on the diet alone. Formation of fatty droplets in the liver was also inhibited. Antioxidant enzyme activity in liver tissue was higher than in the diet-only group and lipid peroxidation was reduced compared with rats that also received the extract. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was lower in the rats given the seed extract than in the diet-only group. In the former, liver tissue levels of transforming growth factor-beta and collagen were also decreased. Thus, the E. japonica seed extract inhibited fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad
Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly ( P < 0.05) affected by all the variables. Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.
Balu, Muthaiya; Sangeetha, Purushotham; Haripriya, Dayalan; Panneerselvam, Chinnakannu
Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in discrete regions of the central nervous system of young and aged rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into four groups: Group I-control young rats, Group II-young rats treated with grape seed extract (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days, Group III-aged control rats and Group IV-aged rats supplemented with grape seed extract (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. Age-associated increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, striatum and the hippocampus regions of aged rats (Group III). Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of non-enzymic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, Vitamin C and Vitamin E were found to be significantly decreased in all the brain regions studied in aged rats when compared to young rats. However, normalized lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defenses were reported in the grape seed extract-supplemented aged rats. These findings demonstrated that grape seed extract enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the incidence of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in the central nervous system of aged rats.
Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong
The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hilf, Mark E
Huanglongbing is an economically damaging disease of citrus associated with infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Transmission of the organism via infection of seeds has not been demonstrated but is a concern since some citrus varieties, particularly those used as rootstocks in commercial plantings are propagated from seed. We compared the incidence of detection of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' DNA in individual fruit peduncles, seed coats, seeds, and in germinated seedlings from 'Sanguenelli' sweet orange and 'Conners' grapefruit fruits sampled from infected trees. Using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) we detected pathogen DNA in nucleic acid extracts of 36 and 100% of peduncles from 'Sanguenelli' and from 'Conners' fruits, respectively. We also detected pathogen DNA in extracts of 37 and 98% of seed coats and in 1.6 and 4% of extracts from the corresponding seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners', respectively. Small amounts of pathogen DNA were detected in 10% of 'Sanguenelli' seedlings grown in the greenhouse, but in none of 204 extracts from 'Conners' seedlings. Pathogen DNA was detected in 4.9% and in 89% of seed coats peeled from seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners' which were germinated on agar, and in 5% of 'Sanguenelli' but in none of 164 'Conners' seedlings which grew from these seeds on agar. No pathogen DNA was detected in 'Ridge Pineapple' tissue at 3 months post-grafting onto 'Sanguenelli' seedlings, even when pathogen DNA had been detected initially in the 'Sanguenelli' seedling. Though the apparent colonization of 'Conners' seeds was more extensive and nearly uniform compared with 'Sanguenelli' seeds, no pathogen DNA was detected in 'Conners' seedlings grown from these seeds. For either variety, no association was established between the presence of pathogen DNA in fruit peduncles and seed coats and in seedlings.
Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.
Colchicine is a toxic alkaloid compound from the Colchicum autumnale plant. Colchicine can be used in agriculture as anti-mitosis in the procurement of plants with polyploid cells. Gloriosa superba is an herb contains colchicine as a mutagen (polyploid) potential in its parts, especially in the seeds. The aims of this research were to determine colchicine content from aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed obtained from Sukoharjo and Gunung Kidul. Gloriosa superba seed samples were obtained naturally in January - April 2017. Samples were divided into immature seed samples from Mulur, Sukoharjo, Central Java and old seed samples from Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. Extraction seeds of Gloriosa superba using the maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). Determination content of colchicine extract using TLC-Densitometry method. The results indicated that colchicine content of old seed Gloriosa superba samples 37,6 μg/μl (± 6,63) higher than colchicine content of immature seed Gloriosa superba samples 12,84 μg/μl (± 2,88)
Du, Huanan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Ruchun; Zhang, Lu; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou
Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work. The tocopherol content was 200.6±0.3 mg/100 g oil. The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid (56.5%) and oleic acid (34.2%). The saturated fatty acids included palmitic acid (4%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid (60.6%), oleic acid (33.6%) and linolenic acid (3.2%). According to the 1,3-random-2-random hypothesis, the dominant triacylglycerols were LLL (18%), LLnL (1%), LLP (2%), LOL (10%), LLSt (1.2%), PLP (0.2%), LLnP (0.1%), LLnO (0.6%) and LOP (1.1%). This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.
Lin, Tianxing; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan
Millettia pachycarpa Benth is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the genus Millettia, as it is widely used in traditional practices like agricultural pesticides, blood tonics, fish poison, and treatments for cancer and infertility. The crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa had insecticidal activity on cabbage aphids. The conventional extract approach with three kinds of organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone was used for extracting of crude extract of seeds of M. pachycarpa. The leaf immersion method in a petri dish was used to measure contact activity on cabbage aphids. The field measurement method in a cabbage field was used to measure the control effect. The result indicated that the average mortality rate of cabbage aphids reached 91.3 percent under the action of crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa, indicating that contacting activity against cabbage aphid was strong. After the crude extract was sprayed for 2 days, the proofread control effect of 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract against cabbage aphid was 85.0 percent. After 7 days of spraying, this number increased to 92.2 percent. The study concluded that crude extract of the seeds of M. pachyarpa extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone had demonstrable contact activity against cabbage aphid and 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract had significant control effect against the larvae of cabbage aphid.
Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun
The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936
Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun
The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.
Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta
Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956
Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji
Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed.
Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin
The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184
Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin
The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.
El Fouhil, Ahmed F; Ahmed, Aly M; Darwish, Hasem H; Atteya, Muhammad; Al-Roalle, Ali H
To investigate the safety of date seed extract administration, and to compare between toxic effects of diabetes on rats treated with insulin versus rats treated with insulin-seed extract. This study was performed in the Anatomy Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from August to December 2010. One hundred rats were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 was given daily ingestions of 10 ml of date seed extract. Animals of groups 3 and 4 were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection, and were given daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks. Group 4 received, in addition, daily ingestions of 10 ml of seed extract. Group 5 were made diabetic with streptozotocin and then given the seed extract only. At the end of experiment, rats were decapitated, and the sera were separated for estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels. Livers and kidneys were processed for light microscopic study. The mean values of all tested serum levels were significantly higher in Group 3 compared to Groups 1, 2 and 4 (with the exception of ALT in the case of Group 4). There was no significant change when comparing the mean values of Groups 1, 2, and 4. Livers and kidneys of rats in Groups 1, 2, and 4 showed normal histology, while those of Group 3 showed histopathological changes. Date seed extract administration is safe on the liver and kidney. In addition, insulin-date seed extract combination minimizes the toxic effects of diabetes on these organs.
... red-fleshed grapefruit and are in the following forms of units: Whole sections or broken sections..., and pieces of peel. (ii) The finished food contains per 500 grams (17.6 ounces) not more than: (a) An...
... red-fleshed grapefruit and are in the following forms of units: Whole sections or broken sections..., and pieces of peel. (ii) The finished food contains per 500 grams (17.6 ounces) not more than: (a) An...
... red-fleshed grapefruit and are in the following forms of units: Whole sections or broken sections..., and pieces of peel. (ii) The finished food contains per 500 grams (17.6 ounces) not more than: (a) An...
Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin
Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141
Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem
Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.
Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).
Martincigh, Bice S; Ollengo, Moses A
The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Exposure of the extract to UV radiation increased the UV absorption capacity of the extract. All sunscreens showed an improved photostability in the extract. The inherent photo-instability of BMDBM when exposed to UV radiation was almost eliminated in the presence of grape seed extract. A mixture of all three sunscreens in the extract showed very high photostability and a red shift covering the entire UVB and UVA regions, thereby improving the broad-spectrum protection. The incorporation of grape seed extract in sunscreen and other cosmetic formulations for topical application boosts photoprotection by stabilizing the UV filters and enhancing broad-spectrum coverage. This in turn helps in reducing the amounts of absorbers and other additives incorporated in a sunscreen product and consequently lowers the risk of an unprecedented buildup of photoproducts whose toxicities are currently unknown. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.
Goldfarb, D S; Asplin, J R
An increased risk of nephrolithiasis has been associated with the ingestion of grapefruit juice in epidemiological studies. To our knowledge the basis of this effect of grapefruit juice has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of grapefruit juice consumption on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity. Ten healthy men and women between ages of 25 and 40 years participated. Each subject drank 240 ml. of tap water at least 3 times daily for 7 days during the control period. This period was followed by a second 7 days experimental period during which they drank 240 ml. of grapefruit juice 3 times daily. In each 7-day period urine was collected for 24 hours during the last 3 days. Urine chemical analysis was performed, supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated and urinary lithogenicity was measured. Urine volume and creatinine excretion were the same during the control and experimental periods. Grapefruit juice ingestion was associated with an increase in mean oxalate excretion plus or minus standard deviation of 41.1 +/- 9.2 to 51.9 +/- 12.0 mg. per 24 hours (p = 0.001) and in mean citrate excretion of 504.8 +/- 226.5 to 591.4 +/- 220.0 mg. per 24 hours (p = 0.01). There was no net change in the supersaturation or upper limit of metastability of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate or uric acid. Crystal aggregation and growth inhibition by urinary macromolecules was not affected by grapefruit juice ingestion. Offsetting changes in urine chemistry caused by the ingestion of grapefruit juice led to no net change in calculated supersaturation. No changes in lithogenicity were demonstrated. The results do not demonstrate an effect of grapefruit juice for increasing lithogenicity. The basis of the observations of epidemiological studies remain unexplained.
Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.
Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.
Bhaskar, Anusha; Vidhya, V G; Ramya, M
The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pririens (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood glucose levels after an oral glucose load from 127.5+/-3.2 to 75.6+/-4.8 mg% 2 h after oral administration of seed extract. It also significantly lowered the blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats from 240.5+/-7.2 to 90.6+/-5.6 mg% after 21 days of daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Thus, this study shows that M. pruriens has an anti-hyperglycemic action and it could be a source of hypoglycemic compounds.
Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H
Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.
Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...
Although seed meal from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is a potential tool for controlling weeds as a consequence of contained glucosinolate substrates that are enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce phytotoxic products, use is limited by batch-to-batch variability and logistical constraints. Our obj...
Li, Hui; Hu, Jiangyu; Ouyang, Hui; Li, Yanan; Shi, Hui; Ma, Chengjin; Zhang, Yongkang
Supercritical CO2 was used as solvent for the extraction of aucubin from the seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. The co-solvent composition was tested and extraction conditions were optimized. Results showed that the best co-solvent was a water-ethanol mixture (1 + 3, v/v), and the highest yield was obtained when the extraction was performed under 26 MPa at extraction and separation temperatures of 55 and 30 degrees C for 120 min, using 6 mL co-solvent/g material at a CO2 flow rate of 20 L/h. In a comparison of the supercritical CO2 and Soxhlet extraction methods, the Soxhlet method needed 3 h to extract 10 g material, whereas the supercritical CO2 extraction technique needed only 2 h to extract 100 g material, thus showing a high extraction capability. The supercritical CO2 extraction produced a higher yield, with a lower cost for the extraction. Owing to the advantages of low extraction temperature, high yield, and ease of separating the product from the solvent, supercritical CO2 extraction is likely to be developed into an ideal technique for the extraction of aucubin, a compound with thermal instability, from the seeds of this plant.
Shao, Dongyan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli; Yue, Tianli; Zhang, Ang; Li, Xuan
Value of tomato seed has not been fully recognized. The objectives of this research were to establish suitable processing conditions for extracting oil from tomato seed by using solvent, determine the impact of processing conditions on yield and antioxidant activity of extracted oil, and elucidate kinetics of the oil extraction process. Four processing parameters, including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size were studied. A second order model was established to describe the oil extraction process. Based on the results, increasing temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, and extraction time increased oil yield. In contrast, larger particle size reduced the oil yield. The recommended oil extraction conditions were 8 min of extraction time at temperature of 25 °C, solvent-to-solids ratio of 5/1 (v/w) and particle size of 0.38 mm, which gave oil yield of 20.32% with recovery rate of 78.56%. The DPPH scavenging activity of extracted oil was not significantly affected by the extraction parameters. The inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) of tomato seed oil was 8.67 mg/mL which was notably low compared to most vegetable oils. A 2nd order model successfully described the kinetics of tomato oil extraction process and parameters of extraction kinetics including initial extraction rate (h), equilibrium concentration of oil (C(s) ), and the extraction rate constant (k) could be precisely predicted with R(2) of at least 0.957. The study revealed that tomato seed which is typically treated as a low value byproduct of tomato processing has great potential in producing oil with high antioxidant capability. The impact of processing conditions including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size on yield, and antioxidant activity of extracted tomato seed oil are reported. Optimal conditions and models which describe the extraction process are recommended. The information is vital for determining the extraction processing conditions for industrial
Kupidłowska, Ewa; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Stepień, Joanna; Corbineau, Francoise; Vinel, Dominique; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Janeczko, Anna; Bogatek, Renata
One commonly observed effect of phytotoxic compounds is the inhibition or delay of germination of sensitive seeds. Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds were incubated with aqueous extracts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. Although sunflower phytotoxins did not influence seed viability, extracts completely inhibited seed germination. Inhibition of germination was associated with alterations in reserve mobilization and generation of energy in the catabolic phase of germination. Degradation of lipids was suppressed by sunflower foliar extracts resulting in insufficient carbohydrate supply. The lack of respiratory substrates and decrease in energy (ATP) generation resulted in suppression of the anabolic phase of seed germination and ultimately growth inhibition.
Chis, Irina C; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton, Adriana; Simedrea, Ramona; Muresan, Adriana; Postescu, Ion-Dan; Decea, Nicoleta
In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml/rat), at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 20 consecutive days after the induction of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced by an i.p. injection with streptozotocin for groups II and III. TheTBARS, carbonylated proteins, were measured in the plasma and in the supernatant of liver homogenisates, and superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in the haemolysates of RBCs and supernatant of liver homogenisates. The results showed that oral administration of grape seed extract (100 mg/kg/day) reduced the levels of lipid peroxides and carbonylated proteins and improved the antioxidant activity in plasma and hepatic tissue in rats treated with grape seed natural extract as compared with the diabetic control rats. These results suggested that the grape seed extract enhanced the antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species produced under hyperglycaemic conditions, hence protecting the liver cells.
Hamza, Alaaeldin A
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aminyoto, M.; Ismail, S.
Nigella sativa L. (NS) from Ranunculaceae family is known as black cumin in Indonesia. The seed has been used as an aphrodisiac in ethnobotanical studies and reported to have pharmacological activities such as antihypertensive through the relaxant effect of vascular smooth muscles but the direct effect to the blood vessels of the corpus cavernosum is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of NS seed extract on penile erection in vitro. NS seeds were macerated in ethanol solvent for three days in room temperature and repeated for two times. Penile erection responses was assessed using isolated rat corpus cavernosum in Krebs-Henseleit solution, temperature 37°C, pH 7.4, aerated with carbogen gas. After acclimation, corpus cavernosum was contracted with a phenylephrine solution. Ethanolic extract of NS seeds or control solution were given after reaching the plateu phase of the highest contraction. This study showed that the contraction response of the corpus cavernosum decreased after addition of NS extract and this action was increased with the addition of the extract concentration. This study concluded that NS seed ethanol extract affects the penile erection response directly through the relaxation of blood vessels in the corpus cavernosum.
... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...
... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...
... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...
Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney
Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.
Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Nagaich, Upendra; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal
Acacia catechu Willd ( Fabaceae ), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of A. catechu seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. A. catechu ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining. A. catechu ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC 50 value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells. The ethanol seed extracts of A. catechu was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells. Acacia catechu ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin Acacia catechu seed (ACS) extract significantly ( P < 0.001) inhibits the active proliferation of human oral
Idris, M. A.; Jami, M. S.; Hammed, A. M.
This paper presents the statistical optimization study of disinfection inactivation parameters of defatted Moringa oleifera seed extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells. Three level factorial design was used to estimate the optimum range and the kinetics of the inactivation process was also carried. The inactivation process involved comparing different disinfection models of Chicks-Watson, Collins-Selleck and Homs models. The results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization process revealed that only contact time was significant. The optimum disinfection range of the seed extract was 125 mg/L, 30 minutes and 120rpm agitation. At the optimum dose, the inactivation kinetics followed the Collin-Selleck model with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.6320. This study is the first of its kind in determining the inactivation kinetics of pseudomonas aeruginosa using the defatted seed extract.
Braddock, R J; Bryan, C R
Limonin glucoside (LG) and phlorin were extracted from citrus fruit tissues and assayed by capillary electrophoresis (CE). LG was determined in dried [1.20 +/- 0.10 mg of dry weight (dw)] and wet peel residues (1.16 +/- 0.04 mg of dw), orange juice finisher pulp (0.58 +/- 0.03 mg of dw), dried grapefruit seeds (2.70 +/- 0.15 mg of dw), and 50 degrees Brix molasses (2225 +/- 68 mg/L). Phlorin was purified from orange peel residue and grapefruit albedo, and concentrations were determined in some citrus products. Phlorin and LG were extracted from residues with water/pectinase or with water solutions of methanol and ethanol. Efficient LG extraction from grapefruit seeds (2.40 +/- 0.15 mg/g) was achieved with 50-65% methanol, solvent polarity P' approximately equal to 7-8. Extracts were purified and concentrated by adsorptive resins and HPLC to obtain 95% pure compounds of LG and phlorin. CE analysis did not require extract purification beyond filtration. LG and phlorin migrated as anions in electropherograms containing peaks representing other citrus flavonoids and limonoid glucosides.
Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.
Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom
In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.
Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai
The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate.
Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid
Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.
Ghafar, Siti Aisyah Abd; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Tahir, Paridah Md; Ismail, Maznah
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) a plant of the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa. Kenaf seeds contain alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β-sitosterol, vitamin E and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. In the present study we examined the hypothesis that kenaf seed 'supercritical fluid extract' (SFE) extract could suppress the early colon carcinogenesis in vivo by virtue of its bioactive compounds. To accomplish this goal, 60 male rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups which were (1) negative control group [not induced with azoxymethane (AOM)]; (2) positive control group (induced with AOM but received no treatment); (3) group treated with 500 mg/kg kenaf seed SFE extract; (4) group treated with 1000 mg/kg kenaf seed SFE extract; (5) group treated with 1500 mg/kg kenaf seed SFE extract. At 7 weeks of age, all rats except the negative control group received 15 mg/kg of AOM injection subcutaneously once a week for 2 weeks. Rats were euthanized at 13 weeks of the experiment. Number of ACF (mean±SD) ranged from 84.4±4.43 to 179.5±12.78 in group 2, 3, 4, 5. ACF reductions compared with the untreated group were 45.3, 51.4 and 53.1% in rats fed with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. There were no significant differences in weight gain among groups. Our finding indicates that kenaf seed SFE extract reduced AOM-induced ACF in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis
Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.
Tian, Yuting; Xu, Zhenbo; Zheng, Baodong; Martin Lo, Y
The effectiveness of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) was evaluated using a variety of solvents. Petroleum ether was the most effective for oil extraction, followed by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, acetone, and isopropanol. Several variables, such as ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and the ratio of solvent volume and seed weight (S/S ratio) were studied for optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest oil yield, 25.11% (w/w), was obtained using petroleum ether under optimal conditions for ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and S/S ratio at 140 W, 40 °C, 36 min, and 10 ml/g, respectively. The PSO yield extracted by UAE was significantly higher than by using Soxhlet extraction (SE; 20.50%) and supercriti cal fluid extraction (SFE; 15.72%). The fatty acid compositions were significantly different among the PSO extracted by Soxhlet extraction, SFE, and UAE, with punicic acid (>65%) being the most dominant using UAE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M.
Abstract An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107
Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M
An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee
This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.
Adebayo, Ismail Abiola; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohd Razip
Moringa oleifera belongs to plant family, Moringaceae and popularly called "wonderful tree", for it is used traditionally to cure many diseases including cancer in Africa and Asia, however, there is limited knowledge on cytotoxic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds on MCF7 breast cancer cell. The present study evaluated antiproliferative effect on MCF7 of the seed. Seeds of Moringa oleifera were grinded to powder and its phytochemicals were extracted using water and 80% ethanol solvents, part of the ethanolic extract were sequentially partitioned to fractions with four solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and n-butanol). Antiproliferative effects on MCF7 of the samples were determined. Finally, potent samples that significantly inhibited MCF7 growth were tested on MCF 10A. Crude water extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions of the seeds inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 with the following IC 50 values 280 μg/ml, 130 μg/ml and 26 μg/ml respectively, however, of the 3 samples, only hexane fraction had minimal cytotoxic effect on MCF 10A (IC 50 > 400μg/ml). Moringa oleifera seed has antiproliferative effect on MCF7.
Adebayo, Ismail Abiola; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohd Razip
Background: Moringa oleifera belongs to plant family, Moringaceae and popularly called “wonderful tree”, for it is used traditionally to cure many diseases including cancer in Africa and Asia, however, there is limited knowledge on cytotoxic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds on MCF7 breast cancer cell. The present study evaluated antiproliferative effect on MCF7 of the seed. Materials and Methods: Seeds of Moringa oleifera were grinded to powder and its phytochemicals were extracted using water and 80% ethanol solvents, part of the ethanolic extract were sequentially partitioned to fractions with four solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and n-butanol). Antiproliferative effects on MCF7 of the samples were determined. Finally, potent samples that significantly inhibited MCF7 growth were tested on MCF 10A. Results: Crude water extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions of the seeds inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 with the following IC50 values 280 μg/ml, 130 μg/ml and 26 μg/ml respectively, however, of the 3 samples, only hexane fraction had minimal cytotoxic effect on MCF 10A (IC50 > 400μg/ml). Conclusion: Moringa oleifera seed has antiproliferative effect on MCF7. PMID:28573245
Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O
This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.
Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail
A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.
Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...
Orifici, Stefania C; Capitani, Marianela I; Tomás, Mabel C; Nolasco, Susana M
Chia mucilage has potential application as a functional ingredient; advances on maximizing its extraction yield could represent a significant technological and economic impact for the food industry. Thus, first, the effect of mechanical agitation time (1-3 h) on the exudation of chia mucilage was analyzed. Then, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal combination of the independent variables temperature (15-85 °C) and seed: water ratio (1: 12-1: 40.8 w/v) for the 2 h exudation that give maximum chia mucilage yield. Experiments were designed according to central composite rotatable design. A second-order polynomial model predicted the variation in extraction mucilage yield with the variables temperature and seed: water ratio. The optimal operating conditions were found to be temperature 85 °C and a seed: water ratio of 1: 31 (w/v), reaching an experimental extraction yield of 116 ± 0.21 g kg -1 (dry basis). The mucilage obtained exhibited good functional properties, mainly in terms of water-holding capacity, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The results obtained show that temperature, seed: water ratio, and exudation time are important variables of the process that affect the extraction yield and the quality of the chia mucilage, determined according to its physicochemical and functional properties. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol
Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847
Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard
Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.
Xiao-Qin Yang; Hui Pan; Tao Zeng; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse
Seeds were collected from locally and naturally grown Chinese tallow trees (CTT) and characterized for general physical and chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the lipids. The effects of four different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, diethyl ether, and 95 % ethanol) and two extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional...
Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yongliang; Xiang, Fu; Li, Shiming; Yang, Guliang
Momordica charantia L., a vegetable crop with high nutritional value, has been used as an antimutagenic, antihelminthic, anticancer, antifertility, and antidiabetic agent in traditional folk medicine. In this study, the antifungal activity of M. charantia seed extract toward Fusarium solani L. was evaluated. Results showed that M. charantia seed extract effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani, with a 50% inhibitory rate (IC 50 ) value of 108.934 μg/mL. Further analysis with optical microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the seed extract led to deformation of cells with irregular budding, loss of integrity of cell wall, as well as disruption of the fungal cell membrane. In addition, genomic DNA was also severely affected, as small DNA fragments shorter than 50 bp appeared on agarose gel. These findings implied that M. charantia seed extract containing α-momorcharin, a typical ribosome-inactivating protein, could be an effective agent in the control of fungal pathogens, and such natural products would represent a sustainable alternative to the use of synthetic fungicides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...
The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microflora ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting ...
Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...
El Fouhil, Ahmed F; Ahmed, Aly M; Atteya, Muhammad; Mohamed, Raeesa A; Moustafa, Amr S; Al-Roalle, Ali H; Darwish, Hasem H
To investigate the possible mechanism, by which an extract from date seeds exert its hypoglycemic effect. This study was performed at the Anatomy Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May to December 2012. Eighty rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received no treatment. Group 2 received daily ingestions of 10 ml of date seed extract for 8 weeks. Animals of groups 3 and 4 were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection, and were given daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks. Group 4 received, in addition, daily ingestions of 10 ml of seed extracts. Rats were sacrificed, and the sera were separated for estimation of serum C-peptide levels. Pancreatic tissues were processed for histological study of the islet cells, immunohistochemical study for insulin secretion and image analysis for insulin quantification. Mean serum C-peptide level was significantly higher in group 4 compared to group 3. Pancreatic islets from rats of group 3 showed weak immunoreactivity for insulin, while those of group 4 showed strong immunoreactivity in some hypertrophied beta cells. Immunopositive cells were detected in the wall of interlobular ducts and in centroacinar cells of pancreas only in group 4. Quantification of insulin immunoreactivity showed a marked reduction in islet size and extent of insulin immunoreactivity in diabetic compared to control groups. Date seed extracts may stimulate endogenous insulin secretion through extra-islet sources.
Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...
Sikora, E; Michorczyk, P; Olszańska, M; Ogonowski, J
The aim of this work was an elaboration of mild cleansing compositions, containing supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds (SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil), as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. The influence of concentration of the oil on user properties of shower/bath products was studied. A series of products (shower/bath cosmetics) composed mainly of mild surfactants (amphoacetates, sulfosuccinates, betaines) and containing different amounts of the oil (0.5 up to 5.0%) were prepared. For the stable products (formulations containing up to 2% of the oil), the influence of the SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil addition on the products' stability, foam ability, surface tension, pH and rheological properties was studied. Moreover, the skin compatibility and moisturizing efficiency of the cleansing products were recorded in a group of 15 volunteers (including 10 women and five men, aged 20-30 years), using skin diagnosis system AramoTS, Aram Huvis Co. Additionally, characterization of CO2 extract from strawberry seeds was performed. Measurements of the oil's analytical constants, that is acid value and saponification number, were conducted according to Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 660:2010 and PN-EN ISO 3657:2013, respectively. The oil concentration influences stability of the products. Only the formulations containing 0.5-2% of the extract have shown high stability. Moreover, used in the amount up to 2% the SC-CO2, strawberry seed oil does not affect significantly the cleansing and foaming properties of the products. The obtained shower/bath cosmetics showed good user properties and additionally good skin-moisturizing effect. The supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds, rich source of unsaturated fatty acid, could be successfully used in the formulation of body washing compositions as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M
It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration.
Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad
In this study, the antioxidant effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60 °C was determined. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was used as positive control in the experiment. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to BHA up to 21 days. When antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with BHA, the effect of 0.5 % extract concentration was more remarkable for olive oil up to 21 days. After 14 days of assay, all of seed extracts was effective at 60 °C in comparison with control. On the other hand, an important increase was observed in both the peroxide and free fatty acidity values during the experiment period. It concluded that date seed extract could be used as a oxidative inhibitor agent in oil and oil products.
Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet
Summary In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability. PMID:27904383
Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet
In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.
Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike
The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses.
Cancer is an unnatural type of tissue growth in which the cells exhibit unrestrained division, leading to a progressive increase in the number of dividing cells. It is now the second largest cause of death in the world. The present study concerned antioxidant, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities and protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in methanol extracts of flowers, fruits and seeds of Hypericum amblysepalum. Antioxidant properties including free radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and amounts of total phenolic compounds were evaluated using different tests. Protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in extracts were determined by HPLC. Cytotoxic effects were determined using the MTT test with human cervix cancer (HeLa) and rat kidney epithelium cell (NRK-52E) lines. Acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities were measured by by Ellman method. Total phenolic content of H. amblysepalum seeds was found to be higher than in fruit and flower extracts. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the obtained extracts gave satisfactory results versus butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as controls. Reducing power activity was linearly proportional to the studied concentration range: 10-500 μg/ mL LC50 values for H. amblysepalum seeds were 11.7 and 2.86 respectively for HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity was 76.9±0.41 for seed extract and higher than with other extracts. The present results suggested that H. amblysepalum could be a potential candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human cervical cancer, and good source of natural antioxidants.
Kumar, M.; Kannan, A.; Bhar, R.; Gulati, A.; Gaurav, A.; Sharma, V. K.
Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS) extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control), T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50). Animals in group III (T2) were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI), and group II (T1) were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1) or TSS (T2) supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05) in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis. PMID:27608635
Kumar, M; Kannan, A; Bhar, R; Gulati, A; Gaurav, A; Sharma, V K
An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS) extract. Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T 0 (control), T 1 , and T 2 , consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50). Animals in group III (T 2 ) were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI), and group II (T 1 ) were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T 2 . Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. The tea seed (T 1 ) or TSS (T 2 ) supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p<0.05) for T 1 and T 2 as compared to T 0 . The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05) for T 1 and T 2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05) in T 2 as compared with T 0 and T 1 . Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.
Singh, Aarti; Ahmad, Anees
Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity. PMID:28930268
Singh, Aarti; Ahmad, Anees
Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD), Solvent Extraction (SE), Ultrasonication (US), and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi . A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD) under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar), temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C), and CO₂ flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min). Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO₂ methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w , respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC 50 (Inhibition Concentration) values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL -1 , respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO₂ method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.
Norodin, N. S. M.; Salleh, L. M.; Hartati; Mustafa, N. M.
Swietenia mahagoni (Mahogany) is a traditional plant that is rich with bioactive compounds. In this study, process parameters such as particle size, extraction time, solvent flowrate, temperature and pressure were studied on the extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Swietenia mahagoni seeds was extracted at a pressure of 20-30 MPa and a temperature of 40-60°C. The effect of particle size on overall extraction of essential oil was done at 30 MPa and 50°C while the extraction time of essential oil at various temperatures and at a constant pressure of 30 MPa was studied. Meanwhile, the effect of flowrate CO2 was determined at the flowrate of 2, 3 and 4 ml/min. From the experimental data, the extraction time of 120 minutes, particle size of 0.5 mm, the flowrate of CO2 of 4 ml/min, at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperature of 60°C were the best conditions to obtain the highest yield of essential oil.
VanderMolen, Karen M.; Cech, Nadja B.; Paine, Mary F.
Introduction Grapefruit juice can increase or decrease the systemic exposure of myriad oral medications, leading to untoward effects or reduced efficacy. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been established as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, while flavonoids have been implicated as inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated absorptive uptake in the intestine. The potential for drug interactions with a food product necessitates an understanding of the expected concentrations of a suite of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive compounds. Objective Develop methods for the rapid quantitation of two furanocoumarins (bergamottin and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin) and four flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, narirutin, and hesperidin) in five grapefruit juice products using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Methodology Grapefruit juice products were extracted with ethyl acetate; the concentrated extract was analyzed by UPLC using acetonitrile:water gradients and a C18 column. Analytes were detected using a photodiode array detector, set at 250 nm (furanocoumarins) and 310 nm (flavonoids). Intraday and interday precision and accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Results Rapid (<5.0 min) UPLC methods were developed to measure the aforementioned furanocoumarins and flavonoids. R2 values for the calibration curves of all analytes were >0.999. Considerable between-juice variation in the concentrations of these compounds was observed, and the quantities measured were in agreement with the concentrations published in HPLC studies. Conclusion These analytical methods provide an expedient means to quantitate key furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice and other foods used in dietary substance-drug interaction studies. PMID:23780830
Vandermolen, Karen M; Cech, Nadja B; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H
Grapefruit juice can increase or decrease the systemic exposure of myriad oral medications, leading to untoward effects or reduced efficacy. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been established as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, while flavonoids have been implicated as inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated absorptive uptake in the intestine. The potential for drug interactions with a food product necessitates an understanding of the expected concentrations of a suite of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive compounds. Develop methods for the rapid quantitation of two furanocoumarins (bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin) and four flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, narirutin and hesperidin) in five grapefruit juice products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Grapefruit juice products were extracted with ethyl acetate; the concentrated extract was analysed by UPLC using acetonitrile:water gradients and a C18 -column. Analytes were detected using a photodiode array detector, set at 250 nm (furanocoumarins) and 310 nm (flavonoids). Intraday and interday precision and accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Rapid (< 5.0 min) UPLC methods were developed to measure the aforementioned furanocoumarins and flavonoids. R(2) values for the calibration curves of all analytes were >0.999. Considerable between-juice variation in the concentrations of these compounds was observed, and the quantities measured were in agreement with the concentrations published in HPLC studies. These analytical methods provide an expedient means to quantitate key furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice and other foods used in dietary substance-drug interaction studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.
Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains colchicine in all parts of organs, especially in the seeds. Its extract is as a mutagen to produce plants with polyploid cells. Artemisia annua is a plant that produces active ingredients artemisinin as malarial drugs, hemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-bacterial. The aims of this research was to determine the effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as a mutagen to Artemisia annua morphology. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained from Sukoharjo using maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). The extracts were diluted (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for Artemisia annua sprinkling with different times (0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Observations of morphology Artemisia annua included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width and leaf length. The treatments did not affect plant morphology observation included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width, and leaf length. The EB treatment (100%, 30 minutes) was higher (120 cm) than other. In all treatments stem circumference about 2.5 cm, number of branches ranged between 40-50, leaves width ranged 9-16c m, and leaf length ranged 8-15 cm.
Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956
Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Chou, Su-Tze; Huang, Pai-Jane; Mong, Mei-Chin; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Hsueh, Yu-Pin; Jhan, Jyun-Kai
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase activities of ethanol extracts from the peels and the seeds of Kyoho grapes and Red Globe grapes (KG-PEE, KG-SEE, RGG-PEE, and RGG-SEE). The total phenolic content in KG-SEE and RGG-SEE was 400 +/- 11 and 339 +/- 7 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively, about 22 times and 13 times that in KG-PEE and RGG-PEE, respectively. Both seed extracts showed significantly higher anti-tyrosinase activity than the peel extracts due to their high total phenolic content. The gallic acid content in RGG-SEE was twice that in KG-SEE, and gallic acid showed high anti-tyrosinase activity; thus, RGG-SEE had higher anti-tyrosinase activity than KG-SEE. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the inhibitory mechanism of the ethanol extracts from the grapes was a mix-type inhibition. Grape seed has a greater total phenolic content and has potential as a skin-lighting agent.
El-Fouhil, Ahmed F; Ahmed, Aly M; Darwish, Hasem H
To investigate the efficacy of an aqueous extract from date seeds on diabetic rats. The study was performed in the Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between November 2008 and December 2009. Eighty adult albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was used as healthy control. Group 2 was given daily ingestions of 10 ml of the date seed extract. Animals of groups 3 and 4 were made diabetic by injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats of group 3 received daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks while group 4 received ingestions of 10 ml of extract in addition to insulin. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured once weekly. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also estimated. There is a significant change in the mean blood glucose levels between group 3 and group 4 from week 2. The mean blood glucose levels of group 4, every 2 consecutive weeks, showed a significant decrease until week 6. The HbA1c was significantly lower in group 4 compared to group 3. The hypoglycemic effect of date seed extract combined with insulin, decreases the blood glucose level significantly toward normal when compared to the effect of insulin administered as a single drug for treatment of diabetes.
Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (λ) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, λ decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on λ. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.
Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha
The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.
Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar; De, Apurba; Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K
Mucuna pruriens Linn. (Fabaceae) is a tropical legume, traditionally used for controlling blood pressure. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the successful strategies for controlling hypertension. The present study evaluated the ACE inhibition potential of the standardized extract of M. pruriens seeds. Standardization of the extract and its fractions were carried out by RP-HPLC method [methanol and 1% v/v acetic acid in water (5:95 v/v)] using levodopa as a marker. The ACE inhibition activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL) using the HPLC-DAD and the UV spectrophotometric method. The liberation of hippuric acid (HA) from hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) was estimated in the spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC assay at 228 nm. Methanol extract and aqueous fraction showed a maximum activity with IC50 values of 38.44 ± 0.90 and 57.07 ± 2.90 µg/mL (RP-HPLC), and 52.68 ± 2.02 and 67.65 ± 2.40 µg/mL (spectrophotometry), respectively. The study revealed that the aqueous extract contains the highest amount of levodopa. Eventually the methanol extract showed highest ACE inhibition activity except levodopa alone. It was further observed that the inhibition was altered with respect to the change in the content of levodopa in the extract. Thus, it can be assumed that levodopa may be responsible for the ACE inhibition activity of M. pruriens seeds. It can be concluded that M. pruriens seed is a potential ACE inhibitor can be explored further as an effective antihypertensive agent.
Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois
Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda
Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.
Armah-Agyeman, Grace; Gyamerah, Michael; Biney, Paul O; Woldesenbet, Selamawit
Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio-oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production. The results show that coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds contain known triglycerides which are 983 and 1000 g kg(-1) respectively of the fatty acids found in edible vegetable oils such as sunflower, corn and soybean oils. In addition, the triglyceride yields of 53-67 g kg(-1) of the seed samples are in the range of commercial oil-producing seeds such as corn (42 g kg(-1) ). The results also indicate that the two non-edible oils could be used as substitutes for edible oil for biodiesel production. In addition, the use of seeds of switchgrass for non-edible oil production (as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel) further increases the total biofuel yield when switchgrass is cultivated for use as energy feedstock for pyrolysis oil and biodiesel production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Masohan, A; Parsad, G; Khanna, M K; Chopra, S K; Rawat, B S; Garg, M O
A new method is presented for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of trace amounts (up to 0.15 ppm) of benzene in crude as well as refined vegetable oils obtained by extraction with food grade hexane (FGH), and in the oil seed cakes left after extraction. The method involves the selection of two solvents; cyclohexanol, for thinning of viscous vegetable oil, and heptane, for azeotroping out trace benzene as a concentrate from the resulting mixture. Benzene is then estimated in the resulting azeotrope either by UV spectroscopy or by GC-MS subject to availability and cost effectiveness of the latter. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method is within 1-3% error. This method is suitable for estimating benzene in vegetable oils and oil seed cakes.
Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit
Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4-15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically combed. Head lice were collected and examined. The neem seed extract shampoo proved to be highly effective against all stages of head lice. No obvious differences regarding the efficacy of the shampoo were observed between an exposure time of 10, 15 or 30 min. No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed.
Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping
Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 °C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.
Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D’Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano
Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects. PMID:22312277
Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano
Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.
Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin
Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping
Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626
Abdel-Hafez, S M N; Rifaai, R A; Abd Elzaher, W Y
The aim of the study was to assess the possible protective role of grape seeds extract (GSE) in ameliorating the toxic effects of paracetamol overdose on the rat renal cortical tissue. Paracetamol is one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Unfortunately, it was reported as the most common cause of toxic ingestion in the world. Grape seeds extract (GSE) is known to have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, GSE group, paracetamol group and GSE with paracetamol group. Kidney specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immunohisto-chemical studies. The study showed marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in serum urea and creatinine levels with significant decrease in renal superoxide dismutase with paracetamol group. Furthermore, Proximal (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules showed marked degeneration, dense nuclear staining, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and partial loss of the brush borders. Most tubules were dilated, irregular and were filled with hyaline casts. PCT and DCT showed less PAS reaction and more COX-2 and caspase expression if compared with the control and the GSE groups. Concomitant administration of grape seeds extract with paracetamol revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. Proximal and distal convoluted tubules showed less PAS reaction and more COX2 and caspase expression if compared with the control and the GSE. Concomitant administration of GSE with paracetamol revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. Grape seeds extract provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in paracetamol induced renal cortical toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in oxidative damage and apoptosis (Tab. 1, Fig. 7, Ref. 55).
Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed
Pharmacological and preventive properties of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts are well known, but the anticancer activity of alcoholic extracts and oil of Petroselinum sativum seeds on human breast cancer cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of these extracts against MCF-7 cells. Cells were exposed to 10 to 1000 μg/ml of alcoholic seed extract (PSA) and seed oil (PSO) of Petroselinum sativum for 24 h. Post-treatment, percent cell viability was studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that PSA and PSO significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Concentrations of 50 μg/ml and above of PSA and 100 μg/ml and above of PSO were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells. Cell viability at 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA was recorded as 81%, 57%, 33%, 8% and 5%, respectively, whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml of PSO values were 90%, 78%, 62%, and 8%, respectively by MTT assay. MCF-7 cells exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA and PSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment with PSA and PSO of Petroselinum sativum induced cell death in MCF-7 cells.
Majekodunmi, Stephen O; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Umukoro, Solomon; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A
To explore the antidiabetic properties of Mucuna pruriens(M. pruriens). Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice. Results showed that the administration of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose > 450 mg/dL) resulted in 18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) resulted in 59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (P<0.001). It also showed that the antidiabetic activity of M. pruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration of M. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes. The study clearly supports the traditional use of M. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N
A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility
Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J
The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano
The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.
Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano
The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637
Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda
Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong
Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg -1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g -1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g -1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg -1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O 2 kg -1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kiss, Anna K; Derwińska, Małgorzata; Dawidowska, Anna; Naruszewicz, Marek
In this study, for the first time, we used the in vitro metallopeptidase model for the identification of a potential novel activity of defatted evening primrose seed extracts. Prepared extracts of different polarity (aqueous, 60% ethanolic, isopropanolic, and 30% isopropanolic) at concentrations of 1.5-100 microg/mL exhibited a significant and dose dependent inhibition of three tested enzymes. The 50% inhibition of enzymes activity showed that aminopeptidase N (APN) was the enzyme affected to the greatest extent with IC50 at the level of 2.8 microg/mL and 2.9 microg/mL for aqueous and 30% isopropanolic extracts, respectively. The activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was quite strongly inhibited by the extracts as well. The HPLC-DAD analysis and bioguided fractionation led to the identification of four active compounds: (-)-epicatechin gallate, proanthocyanidin B3, oenothein B, and penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG). Oenothein B has been shown previously to inhibit metallopeptidases. The three other compounds are known to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but they have not been previously reported to inhibit the NEP and APN activity. PGG and procyanidins with different degrees of polymerization, as the dominating compounds in O. paradoxa seeds, seemed to play a role in the crude extract activity.
Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y
In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).
Sunar, Serap; Yildirim, Nalan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Agar, Guleray
In this research, the methanolic extracts of Convolvulus arvensis were tested for genotoxic and inhibitor activity on the total soluble protein content and the genomic template stability against corn Zea mays L. seed. The methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of C. arvensis were diluted to 50, 75 and 100 μl concentrations and applied to corn seed. The total soluble protein and genomic template stability results were compared with the control. The results showed that especially 100 μl extracts of diluted leaf, stem and root had a strong inhibitory activity on the genomic template stability. The changes occurred in random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of C. arvensis extract treatment included variation in band intensity, loss of bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. Also, the results obtained from this study revealed that the increase in the concentrations of C. arvensis extract increased the total soluble protein content in maize. The results suggested that RAPD analysis and total protein analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals.
Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin
Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.
Landa, Premysl; Marsik, Petr; Havlik, Jaroslav; Kloucek, Pavel; Vanek, Tomas; Kokoska, Ladislav
Seed extracts from six species of the genus Nigella (Family Ranunculaceae)-Nigella arvensis, Nigella damascena, Nigella hispanica, Nigella nigellastrum, Nigella orientalis, and Nigella sativa-obtained by successive extraction with n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 strains of pathogenic bacteria and yeast using the microdilution method as well as for anti-inflammatory properties by in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 assay. Chemical characterization of active extracts was carried out including free and fixed fatty acid analysis. Comparison of antimicrobial activity showed that N. arvensis chloroform extract was the most potent among all species tested, inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial and yeast strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/mL. With the exception of selective inhibitory action of n-hexane extract of N. orientalis on growth of Bacteroides fragilis (MIC = 0.5 mg/mL), we observed no antimicrobial activity for other Nigella species. Anti-inflammatory screening revealed that N. sativa, N. orientalis, N. hispanica, N. arvensis n-hexane, and N. hispanica chloroform extracts had strong inhibitory activity (more than 80%) on COX-1 and N. orientalis, N. arvensis, and N. hispanica n-hexane extracts were most effective against COX-2, when the concentration of extracts was 100 microg/mL in both COX assays. In conclusion, N. arvensis, N. orientalis, and N. hispanica seeds, for the first time examined for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, revealed their significant activity in one or both assays.
Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine
Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.
Guo, Sen; Guo, Tiantian; Cheng, Ni; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Yunting; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Cao, Wei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng
Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae), its stem barks are known as Cortex fraxini ( qín pí) listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Phytochemical study has indicated that methanol extracts from Qinpi has protective effect on acute liver injury. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of EtOH-water extract from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. The EtOH-water extract significantly alleviated liver damage as indicated by the decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced the pathological tissue injury induced by CCl 4 . Quantitative analysis of seven major constituents ( 1-7 ) in EtOH-water extract (EWE) was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). The current research indicates that the EWE from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance decreased liver index, inhibited the increase of serum aminotransferase induced by CCl 4 , and decreased hepatic MDA content, SOD and GSH-Px activities. These results suggested that the pretreatment with EWE protected mice against CCl 4 -induced liver injuries. Based on the results, the EtOH-water extract from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance is efficacious for prevention and treatment of CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in mice. Secoiridoid and tyrosol glucosides might be the active ingredients responsible for the biological and pharmacological activities of hepatoprotection.
Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali
Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812
Lee, E Y; Choi, E-J; Kim, J A; Hwang, Y L; Kim, C-D; Lee, M H; Roh, S S; Kim, Y H; Han, I; Kang, S
Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions are important in controlling hair growth and the hair cycle. The β-catenin pathway of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) plays a pivotal role in morphogenesis and normal regeneration of hair follicles. Deletion of β-catenin in the dermal papilla reduces proliferation of the hair follicle progenitor cells that generate the hair shaft and induces an early onset of the catagen phase. In this study, a modulator of the Wnt/β-catenin activity was studied in oriental herb extracts on cultured human DPCs. The effect of Malva verticillata (M. verticillata) seeds on human DPCs was investigated by a Wnt/β-catenin reporter activity assay system (β-catenin-TCF/LEF reporter gene) and cell proliferation analysis. The synthesis of the factors related to hair growth and cycling was measured at both the mRNA and the protein level by semi-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. An extract from M. verticillata seeds increased Wnt reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner and also led to increased β-catenin levels in cultured human DPCs. Myristoleic acid, identified as an effective compound of M. verticillata seeds, stimulated the proliferation of DPCs in a dose-dependent manner and increased transcription levels of the downstream targets: IGF-1, KGF, VEGF and HGF. Myristoleic acid also enhanced the phosphorylation of MAPKs (Akt and p38). Overall, the data suggest that this extract of M. verticillata seeds could be a good candidate for treating hair loss by modulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in DPCs. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Cristóbal-Luna, José Melesio; Álvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mcfad) is a perenifolium tree 5-6 m high with a fruit of about 15 cm in diameter, protected by the peel we can find about 11-14 segments (carpels), each of which is surrounded by a membrane and each containing the juice sacs, as well as the seeds. The fruit is made up of numerous compounds, and is known to have nutritive value because of the presence of various vitamins and minerals, among other chemicals. The fruit is also used in the field of gastronomy. Information has been accumulated regarding the participation of the fruit structures in a variety of biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive effects, surely related with the presence of the numerous chemicals that have been determined to constitute the fruit. Such studies have been carried out in different in vitro and in vivo experimental models, and in a few human assays. The information published so far has shown interesting results, therefore, the aims of the present review are to initially examine the main characteristics of the fruit, followed by systematization of the acquired knowledge concerning the biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive effects produced by the three main structures of the fruit: peel, seed, and pulp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sannino, M; Del Piano, L; Abet, Massimo; Baiano, S; Crimaldi, M; Modestia, F; Raimo, F; Ricciardiello, G; Faugno, S
The aim of this study was to investigate how the combination of extraction parameters, such as extraction temperature seeds preheating and screw rotation speed, influenced the yield and chemical quality of tobacco seed oil (TSO). For its peculiar properties, TSO can be used for several purposes, as raw material in the manufacturing of soap, paints, resins, lubricants, biofuels and also as edible oil. TSO was obtained using a mechanical screw press and the quality of the oil was evaluated by monitoring the free fatty acids (FFA), the peroxide value (PV), the spectroscopic indices K 232 , K 270 and ΔK and the fatty acid composition. The maximum extraction yield, expressed as percent of oil mechanically extracted respect to the oil content in the seeds, determined by solvent extraction, was obtained with the combination of the highest extraction temperature, the slowest screw rotation speed and seeds preheating. Under these conditions yield was 80.28 ± 0.33% (w/w), 25% higher than the lowest yield obtained among investigated conditions. The extraction temperature and seed preheating showed a significant effect on FFA, on spectroscopic indices K 232 , K 270 and ΔK values. The average values of these parameters slightly increased rising the temperature and in presence of preheating, the screw rotation speed did not affect the chemical characteristic tested. In the extraction conditions investigated no significant changes in PV and fatty acids composition of oil were observed.
Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia
The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid-liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29 h) and the solid-liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 gdw mL(-1)), were investigated (where dw = dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high levels of both total polyphenols (73.66 mg(Gallic Acid Equivalent) gdw(-1)) and flavonoids (30.90 mg(Catechin Equivalent) gdw(-1)), being the optimum extraction time 19 h approximately. The main phenolic compounds analysed with high performance liquid chromatography were catechin and quercetin with a maximum extraction yield obtained at 29 h (362.23 and 339.35 mg/100 gdw, respectively). Concentration of the polyphenols and their antiradical powers are demonstrated to have a significant linear correlation.
Godkar, Praful B; Gordon, Richard K; Ravindran, Arippa; Doctor, Bhupendra P
Aqueous extracts of Celastrus paniculatus (CP) seed have been reported to improve learning and memory in rats. In addition, these extracts were shown to have antioxidant properties, augmented endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and decreased lipid peroxidation in rat brain. However, water soluble extracts of CP seed (CP-WSE) have not been evaluated for their neuroprotective effects. In the study reported here, we used enriched forebrain primary neuronal cell (FBNC) cultures to study the neuroprotective effects of three CP-WSE extracts (a room temperature, WF; a hot water, HF; and an acid, AF) on glutamate-induced toxicity. FBNC were pre-treated with the CP-WSE and then with glutamate to evaluate the protection afforded against excitatory amino acid-induced toxicity. The criteria for neuroprotection were based on the effects of CP-WSE on a mitochondrial function test following glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-treatment of neuronal cells with CP-WSE significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal death. To understand the molecular mechanism of action of CP-WSE, we conducted electrophysiological studies using patch-clamp techniques on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated whole-cell currents in FBNC. WSE significantly and reversibly inhibited whole-cell currents activated by NMDA. The results suggest that CP-WSE protected neuronal cells against glutamate-induced toxicity by modulating glutamate receptor function.
Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed
Escalated sebum fabrication is seen with an unattractive look and adds to the growth of acne. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream on human cheek skin sebum and erythema content. For this purpose, base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base (control) were prepared for single blinded and comparative study. Healthy males were instructed to apply the base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base twice a day to their cheeks for 12 weeks. Adverse events were observed to determine skin irritation. Measurements for sebum and erythema content were recorded at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th week in a control room with Sebumeter and Mexameter. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract was found to be safe in volunteers. Measurements demonstrated that skin sebum and erythema content of base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract treated side showed significant decrease (p<0.05) compared with base treated side. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract showed safety. It was well tolerated for the reduction of skin sebum and erythema content. Its improved efficacy could be suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrhea, papules and pustules to get attractive facial appearance.
Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah
Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2 000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014
Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A
The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.
Sodeifian, Gholamhossein; Sajadian, Seyed Ali; Honarvar, Bizhan
Extraction of oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was designed using central composite design to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters including pressure, temperature, particle size and extraction time on the oil yield. Maximum extraction yield predicted from response surface method was 71.53% under the process conditions with pressure of 220 bar, temperature of 35 °C, particle diameter of 0.61 mm and extraction time of 130 min. Furthermore, broken and intact cells model was utilised to consider mass transfer kinetics of extracted natural materials. The results revealed that the model had a good agreement with the experimental data. The oil samples obtained via supercritical and solvent extraction methods were analysed by gas chromatography. The most abundant acid was linolenic acid. The results analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid contents of the oils obtained by the supercritical and solvent extraction techniques.
Lautié, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle
The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55°C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053
Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.
Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey
In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil
Grape seed products (winery by-products) are valuable vegetable sources to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, 21 treatments of frankfurters, in three different groups, including 0%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% grape seed oil (GSO), and 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% grape seed flour (GSF) were produced in order to compare the differences among them during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Increasing the level of GSO made the frankfurters lighter in color (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of all the 21 frankfurters were under the limit of deterioration (2.0 mg malonaldehite kg⁻¹ treatment) during 90 days' storage. However, increasing the amount of additives (GSE, GSO and GSF) led to a decrease in overall acceptability for each group. According to the general comparison of the three frankfurter groups in terms of lipid oxidation, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of the frankfurters including GSE and GSF were found to be similar, but the frankfurters containing GSO exhibited the highest lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). While the products including GSE were the most acceptable group in terms of overall acceptability, the group produced with GSF received the lowest points (P < 0.05). Although the three grape seed products have partially undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurters, all these additives showed different positive influences in the production of frankfurters. The results showed that the group of frankfurters including GSE was the best of three different groups of products due to the lipid oxidation and overall acceptability results. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh
Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.
Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee
Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.
Zhang, Zhen-Shan; Liu, Yu-Lan; Che, Li-Ming
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO 2 ) technology was used to extract oil from Eucommia ulmoides seed. The optimum conditions and significant parameters in SC-CO 2 were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The qualities of the extracted oil were evaluated by physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, vitamin E composition. It was found that the optimum extraction parameters were at pressure of 37 MPa, temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 125 min and CO 2 flow rate of 2.6 SL/min. Pressure, temperature and time were identified as significant parameter effecting on extraction yield. The importance of evaluated parameters decreased in the order of pressure > extraction time > temperature > CO 2 flow rate. GC analysis indicated that E. ulmoides seed oil contained about 61% of linolenic acid and its fatty acid composition was similar with that of flaxseed oil and perilla oil. The content and composition of vitamin E was determined using HPLC. The E. ulmoides seed oil was rich in vitamin E (190.72 mg/100 g), the predominant vitamin E isomers were γ- tocopherol and δ- tocopherol, which accounted for 70.87% and 24.81% of the total vitamin E, respectively. The high yield and good physicochemical properties of extracted oil support the notion that SC-CO 2 technology is an effective technique for extracting oil from E. ulmoides seed.
Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M
Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Singh, Siddharth; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 38.93-74.77% as compared to ascorbic acid (64.26-82.58%). The IC(50) values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 74.73 and 26.68 microg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extract was also found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system. Measurement of total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of C. bonducella was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 62.50mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 109.85, 102.65 and 89.84 microg/ml, respectively. However, the IC(50) values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 70.79, 65.98 and 36.68 microg/ml respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that C. bonducella has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent.
Wang, Li; Wu, Min; Liu, Hua-Min; Ma, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong
Chinese quince seed (CQS) is an underutilized oil source and a potential source of unsaturated fatty acids and α-tocopherol-rich oil. Subcritical fluid (SCF) extraction is executed at lower pressures and temperatures than the pressures and temperatures used in supercritical fluid extraction. However, no studies on the SCF extraction of CQS oil are reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of SCF for the extraction of CQS oil and to compare the use of SCF with the classical Soxhlet (CS) and supercritical CO₂ (SC-CO₂) extraction methods. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the extraction conditions: temperature (45-65 °C), time (30-50 min), and solvent/solid ratio (5-15 mL/g). The optimization results showed that the highest yield (27.78%) was obtained at 56.18 °C, 40.20 min, and 12.57 mL/g. The oil extracted by SCF had a higher unsaturated fatty acid content (86.37%-86.75%), higher α-tocopherol content (576.0-847.6 mg/kg), lower acid value (3.97 mg/g), and lower peroxide value (0.02 meq O₂/kg) than extractions using CS and SC-CO 2 methods. The SCF-defatted meal of oilseed exhibited the highest nitrogen solubility index (49.64%) and protein dispersibility index (50.80%), demonstrating that SCF extraction was a promising and efficient technique as an alternative to CS and SC-CO 2 methods, as very mild operating conditions and an eco-friendly solvent can be used in the process with maximum preservation of the quality of the meal.
Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D
Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 h at 37 degrees C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy.
Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...
Our previous discoveries of grapefruit furanocoumarin binding to edible fungi led us to investigate the possible roles of dietary factors in this binding phenomenon. In this present study sequestration of grapefruit furanocoumarins by foods was investigated by characterizing the binding between thes...
Some furanocoumarins in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) are associated with the so-called grapefruit juice effect. Previous phytochemical quantification and genetic analysis suggested that the synthesis of these furanocoumarins may be controlled by a single gene in the pathway. In this study, cDNA-ampl...
Ambrosino, P; Fresa, R; Fogliano, V; Monti, S M; Ritieni, A
A new supercritical extraction methodology was applied to extract azadirachtin A (AZA-A) from neem seed kernels. Supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were used as extractive agents in a three-separation-stage supercritical pilot plant. Subcritical conditions were tested too. Comparisons were carried out by calculating the efficiency of the pilot plant with respect to the milligrams per kilogram of seeds (ms/mo) of AZA-A extracted. The most convenient extraction was gained using an ms/mo ratio of 119 rather than 64. For supercritical extraction, a separation of cuticular waxes from oil was set up in the pilot plant. HPLC and electrospray mass spectroscopy were used to monitor the yield of AZA-A extraction.
Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng
To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.
An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Oboh, Ganiyu; Odubanjo, Veronica O; Bello, Fatai; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Nwanna, Emem E; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O
Avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine for the treatment/management of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, information on the mechanism of actions is limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of P. americana leaf and seed aqueous extracts on some enzymes linked with AD (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] activities) and their antioxidant potentials in vitro. The inhibitory effects of extracts on AChE and BChE activities and antioxidant potentials (inhibition of Fe2+- and sodium nitroprusside-induced thiobarbiturate reactive species [TBARS] production in rat brain homogenates, radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide] scavenging and iron [Fe] chelation abilities) were investigated. Phenolic content and phytochemical screening were carried out. Alkaloid profile was also determined using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The extracts inhibited AChE and BChE activities and prooxidant-induced TBARS production in a dose-dependent manner, with the seed extract having the highest inhibitory effect and the leaf extract exhibiting higher phenolic content and radical scavenging abilities, but lower Fe chelation ability compared with that of the seed. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids in both extracts, whereas the total alkaloid profile was higher in the seed extract than in the leaf extract, as revealed by GC-FID. The anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activities of avocado leaf and seed could be linked to their phytoconstituents and might be the possible mechanisms underlying their use as a cheap and natural treatment/management of AD. However, these extracts should be further investigated in vivo.
Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...
Wang, Xiao-liang; Zhang, Yu-jie; Chen, Ming-xia; Wang, Ze-feng
To optimize extraction technology of the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa with the targets of the total saponin, total jujuboside A and B and total flavonoids. In the method of one-way and orthogonal tests, ethanol concentration, amount of ethanol, extraction time and extraction times were the factors in orthogonal test, and each factor with three levels. Ethanol concentration and extraction times had significant effect on all the targets, other factors should be selected in accordance with production practice. The best extraction technology is to extract for three times with 8 fold ethanol solution (60%), and 1.5 h each time.
Yousuf, R G; Winterburn, J B
Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated. Results include fructose extraction from date seeds and a mass transfer model to describe the process, demonstrating that the high nutrient content of date seeds makes them a promising raw material for microbial growth and that a meaningful amount of PHB can be produced without supplementation. Maximum dry cell weight and PHB concentrations were 6.3g/l and 4.6g/l respectively, giving a PHB content of 73%, when an initial fructose concentration of 10.8g/l was used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gong, Wanying; Huang, Yewei; Ji, Aibing; Peng, Wenshu; Liu, Cong; Zeng, Yin; Yang, Ruijuan; Yan, Liang; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun
Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed cake (a by-product of tea-seed oil) is an abundant resource with poor utilisation. C. sinensis var. assamica seed saponin (CSS) is one kind of non-ionic surfactant. In this study, the CSS extraction conditions were optimised by response surface methodology (RSM) and then the CSS detergent was developed. Additionally, the safety and decontamination ability of the developed detergent were evaluated. The optimised extraction conditions were including the extracting temperature of 40.04 °C, extraction time of 4.97 h, ethanol concentration of 64.11% and liquid-solid ratio of 14.57:1 mL g -1 . The formula of the CSS detergent was as follows: 20% crude CSS, 0.3% oxidised tea polyphenols (OTPs), 0.2% nisin, 0.3% sodium dehydroacetate, 0.7% sodium alginate and 0.5% sodium polyacrylate. The LD 50 of the CSS detergent exceeds 14 g kg -1 in mice, indicating the detergent was non-toxic. Both of the emulsifying and the pesticide residues removal abilities of the CSS detergent were significantly stronger than the commercial detergent. A natural tea seed saponin detergent with good safety and decontamination ability was successfully developed. This can make better use of the tea seed cake, thereby creating added value in the tea seed oil industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, María Pilar
Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880
EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere
Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349
Ezejiofor, Anthonet Ndidi; Okorie, Abednego; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere
The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Goyal, Shivangi; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Ajeet; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee; Nimesh, Surendra
In this study, the authors report a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) seed extract. They explored several parameters dictating the biosynthesis of TFG-AgNPs such as reaction time, temperature, concentration of AgNO 3 , and TFG extract amount. Physicochemical characterisation of TFG-AgNPs was done on dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size determination studies using DLS revealed of TFG-AgNPs size between 95 and 110 nm. The antibacterial activity was studied against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus . The biosynthesised TFG-AgNPs showed remarkable anticancer efficacy against skin cancer cell line, A431 and also exhibited significant antioxidant efficacy.
da Costa, Russany Silva; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane M; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Converti, Attilio; Silva Júnior, José O C; Perego, Patrizia
Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.) is a popular Amazonian fruit because of its intense aroma and nutritional value, whose lipid fraction is alternatively used in cosmetics. To preserve active principles and ensure their controlled release, extract was microencapsulated by spray drying. Influence of spray-drying conditions on microencapsulation of cupuassu seed by-product extract was investigated according to a 3 3 -Box Behnken factorial design, selecting inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration and feed flowrate as independent variables, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, antiradical power, yields of drying and microencapsulation as responses. Fitting the results by second-order equations and modelling by Response Surface Methodology allowed predicting optimum conditions. Epicatechin and glycosylated quercetin were the major microencapsulated flavonoids. Microparticles showed satisfactory antiradical power and stability at 5 °C or under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, thus they may be used to formulate new foods or pharmaceuticals.
Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H
Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinent, Montserrat; Castell-Auví, Anna; Genovese, Maria Inés; Serrano, Joan; Casanova, Angela; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna
The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco-2 and the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. We show that GSPE prevents tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg kg(-1) body weight cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE kg(-1) body weight reduced ROS in fasted animals and also decreased ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short-term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin-rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms from those of GSPE. Natural proanthocyanidin-rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the GI tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone-secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Suwari, Kotta, Herry Z.; Buang, Yohanes
Optimizing the soxhlet extraction of oil from seed kernel of Feun Kase (Thevetia peruviana) for biodiesel production was carried out in this study. The solvent used was petroleum ether and methanol, as well as their combinations. The effect of three factors namely different solvent combinations (polarity), extraction time and extraction temperature were investigated for achieving maximum oil yield. Each experiment was conducted in 250 mL soxhlet apparatus. The physicochemical properties of the oil yield (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and water content) were also analyzed. The optimum conditions were found after 4.5 h with extraction time, extraction temperature at 65 oC and petroleum ether to methanol ratio of 90 : 10 (polarity index 0.6). The oil extract was found to be 51.88 ± 3.18%. These results revealed that the crop oil from seed kernel of Feun Kase (Thevetia peruviana) is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.
Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama
Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.
Zhou, Juan; Yang, Wu-shuang; Suo, Da-qin; Li, Ying; Peng, Lu; Xu, Lan-xi; Zeng, Kai-yue; Ren, Tong; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Li-chao; Jin, Xin
The extract of Moringa oleifera seeds has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, we assessed the neuropharmacological effects of 70% ethanolic M. oleifera seed extract (MSE) on cognitive impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. MSE (250 or 500 mg/kg) was administered to mice by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days, and cognitive impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (4 mg/kg) for 1 or 6 days. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. MSE pretreatment significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and enhanced cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB in the hippocampus were significantly decreased by scopolamine, but these decreases were reversed by MSE treatment. These results suggest that MSE-induced ameliorative cognitive effects are mediated by enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmission system and neurogenesis via activation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MSE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its mechanism might be modulation of cholinergic activity via the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways. PMID:29740317
Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N
The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal
Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800
Zhou, Juan; Yang, Wu-Shuang; Suo, Da-Qin; Li, Ying; Peng, Lu; Xu, Lan-Xi; Zeng, Kai-Yue; Ren, Tong; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Li-Chao; Jin, Xin
The extract of Moringa oleifera seeds has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, we assessed the neuropharmacological effects of 70% ethanolic M. oleifera seed extract (MSE) on cognitive impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. MSE (250 or 500 mg/kg) was administered to mice by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days, and cognitive impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (4 mg/kg) for 1 or 6 days. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. MSE pretreatment significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and enhanced cholinergic system reactivity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Additionally, the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB in the hippocampus were significantly decreased by scopolamine, but these decreases were reversed by MSE treatment. These results suggest that MSE-induced ameliorative cognitive effects are mediated by enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmission system and neurogenesis via activation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MSE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its mechanism might be modulation of cholinergic activity via the Akt, ERK1/2, and CREB signaling pathways.
Kumar, Mahesh; Govindrajan, Jeyabalan; Nyola, Narendra Kumar
Background: Indian traditional system of medicine uses Pithecellobium dulce for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: This study aims to develop an extract rich in saponins derived from seeds of the plant and to evaluate its antihyperglycemic potential in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Defatted seeds were extracted with methanol and processed to afford saponin-enriched fraction (Pithecellobium dulce saponin-enriched fraction [PDSEF]). This fraction was evaluated for its potential to inhibit enzymes such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in vitro. The fraction was subjected to oral toxicity study followed by in vivo sucrose tolerance test. An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for fingerprinting of the fraction. Results: The method adopted for enrichment of saponins was robust enough to enrich saponin content to 96.37% ±1.21% w/w. PDSEF displayed superior inhibition of enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase with IC50 of 5.12 ± 0.15 μg/ml and 17.28 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively) compared to acarbose. It was found to be safe in mice up to 2000 mg/kg and significantly prevented blood glucose level in sucrose tolerance test by inhibiting enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of sucrose. Conclusion: PDSEF displayed excellent antihyperglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo and should be evaluated further to develop it as a promising drug for the management of diabetes mellitus. SUMMARY Saponin enriched fraction from P. dulce seeds showed significant inhibition of key enzymes responsible for digestion of polysaccharides. The saponin enriched fraction was found to be safe in mice and prevented blood glucose level in mice in sucrose tolerance test. Abbreviations Used: PDSEF: Pithecellobium dulce saponin-enriched fraction, IC50: Inhibitory concentration 50, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography PMID:29333038
Dehghanian, Farzaneh; Kalantaripour, Taj Pari; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Elyasi, Leila; Oloumi, Hakime; Pour, Fatmeh Mehdi; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly. Because the existing treatments for Alzheimer's disease only offer limited symptomatic alleviation, more efficient therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Date seed is a hepatoprotective and neuroprotective agent. Date seed extract (DSE) has bioactive components like phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins. In view of the ameliorative effects of DSE against an oxidative injury, the current study was designed to reveal whether DSE has a neuroprotective resource in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease. In the current study, 24 adult male Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into three groups (n=8) of: Sham (Distilled Water, 3μl intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection), β-Amyloid (β-amyloid, 3μl ICV injection), and DSE-treated groups (80mg/kg, Intraperitoneal (IP) injection), for 12days. Twelve days after Alzheimer induction, behavioral analysis, the Morris Water Maze (MWM), as well as western blot and histological studies were performed to reveal the neuroprotective potential of DSE in rats. Administration of DSE significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by Aβ in the MWM test. DSE significantly decreased the caspase-3 expression level in the treated group. In addition, DSE reduced the number of degenerated neurons in the hippocampal CA1 subfield of the DSE treated rats. These results demonstrate that DSE may have beneficial effects in the prevention of Aβ-induced Alzheimer in a rat model. Date seed extract may have advantageous effects in preventing Alzheimer's disease in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Afifi, Hanan S; Hashim, Isameldin B; Altubji, Sabreen I
The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of crude fiber, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from date seeds powder, using Response Surface Methodology. A central composite design with four independent variables; concentration of ethanol (X 1 = 25, 50 and 75% v/v), solvent: sample ratio (X 2 = 40:1, 50:1 and 60:1 v/w), temperature (X 3 = 45, 55 and 65 °C), and extraction time (X 4 = 1, 2 and 3 h) and a three level face centered cube design were used. A total of twenty nine experimental runs with five replicates at the central point were used to study the response variables using two extraction cycles. Maximum phenolic compound content (71.6 mg GAE/100 g) was extracted using 50% ethanol solution with 40:1 solvent: sample ratio for 1 h at 55 °C. While the maximum antioxidant activity (55.02 µmol Fe(II)/g) was obtained using similar ethanol concentration and solvent: sample ratio except at lower temperature (45 °C) for 2 h. On other hand, the maximum flavonoids content (455.77 mg CEQ/100 g) was reached by using 50% concentration, 50:1 solvent: sample ratio at 65 °C for 3 h. In contrast, the content of fiber was not affected by the different extraction conditions. Results indicate that using combination of extracted conditions, have a great potential for extracting all depending compounds except crude fiber.
Weidner, Stanisław; Powałka, Anna; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard
Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds— while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161
Makino, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Fumika; Mizukami, Hajime
Herb-drug interaction has attracted attention as medicinal topics recently. However, the drug information is sometimes confusing. Previous in vitro studies revealed that schisandra fruit had strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and claimed the possibilities of its herb-drug interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of schisandra fruit and shoseiryuto, an herbal formula in Japanese traditional kampo medicine containing eight herbal medicines including schisandra fruit, on rat CYP3A activity in vitro, and the effect of shoseiryuto on pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, in comparison with those of grapefruit juice, a well-characterized natural CYP3A inhibitor. Shoseiryuto and its herbal constituents, schisandra fruit, ephedra herb and cinnamon bark exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect of CYP3A. Although shoseiryuto inhibited rat CYP3A activity in vitro with a degree comparable to grapefruit juice, shoseiryuto did not significantly affect a plasma concentration profile of nifedipine in rats as grapefruit juice did. These results indicate that in vivo experiments using the extract of herbal medicine prepared with the same dosage form as patients take are necessary to provide proper information about herb-drug interaction.
Andor, Bogdan; Alexa, Ersilia; Hogea, Elena; Coricovac, Dorina; Pătrașcu, Jenel Marian; Mioc, Marius; Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina
In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein) and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds. PMID:28090213
Belayneh, Henok D; Wehling, Randy L; Cahoon, Edgar B; Ciftci, Ozan N
Camelina seed is a new alternative omega-3 source attracting growing interest. However, it is susceptible to oxidation due to its high omega-3 content. The objective of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of the camelina seed oil at the extraction stage in order to eliminate or minimize the use of additive antioxidants. Camelina seed oil extracts were enriched in terms of natural antioxidants using ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) extraction. Oxidative stability of the camelina seed oils extracted by ethanol modified SC-CO 2 was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and compared with cold press, hexane, and SC-CO 2 methods. Nonisothermal oxidation kinetics of the oils obtained by different extraction methods were studied by DSC at varying heating rates (2.5, 5, 10, and 15 °C/min). Increasing ethanol level in the ethanol-modified SC-CO 2 increased the oxidative stability. Based on oxidation onset temperatures (T on ), SC-CO 2 containing 10% ethanol yielded the most stable oil. Oxidative stability depended on the type and content of the polar fractions, namely, phenolic compounds and phospholipids. Phenolic compounds acted as natural antioxidants, whereas increased phospholipid contents decreased the stability. Study has shown that the oxidative stability of the oils can be improved at the extraction stage and this may eliminate the need for additive antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Jamil, Subia; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Afroz, Syeda; Ahmed, Shadab
Despite the widespread use of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds in traditional medicine, the need to establish the safety of the Vernonia anthelmintica is required to ascertain the safe use of this herbal medicine. The aim of the present study is to establish the acute toxicity profile of different extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica. Hexane and ethanol extract of Vernonia Anthelmintica has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality potential. Water decoction (WDVA), Hexane (HEVA) and Ethanol (EEVA) extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica has also been evaluated for their in-vivo acute oral toxicity in mice by Lorke's method. Phytochemistry of all three extracts was also evaluated for the presence of their secondary metabolites. All three extracts showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids, while alkaloids, tannins and fixed oils were present in HEVA and EEVA. Furthermore EEVA also showed presence of carbohydrates and HEVA also showed the presence of cardiac glycosides. Ethanol and hexane extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica showed a positive cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality test at 24 hours with LC50 104.16 (224.0-48.05)μg/ml and 216.11μg/ml (378.2-128.7) respectively as compared to standard drug etoposide LC50 7.46μg/ml. The oral LD50 for EEVA, HEVA and WDVA in mice by Lorke's method was greater than 5000mg/kg. The result of brine shrimp lethality test clearly exhibited the presence of bioactive compounds with cytotoxic potential; however seems to be safe for oral use since LD50 was higher than 5000mg/kg and thus safety of acute dosing in vivo practices is justified.
Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali
In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.
Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio
The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 μg of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 μg estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p⟨0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p⟨0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p⟨0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons.
Boye, Alex; Boampong, Victor Addai; Takyi, Nutifafa; Martey, Orleans
The seeds of Parkia clappertoniana Keay (Family: Fabaceae) are extensively used in food in the form of a local condiment called 'Dawadawa' in Ghana and consumed by all class of people including sensitive groups such as pregnant women and children. Also, crudely pounded preparations of P. clappertoniana seeds are used as labor inducing agent in farm animals by local farmers across northern Ghana where nomadism is the livelihood of most indigenes. Ecologically, P. clappertoniana is extensively distributed across the savannah ecological zone of many African countries where just like Ghana it enjoys ethnobotanical usage. Although, many studies have investigated some aspects of the pharmacological activity of P. clappertoniana, none of these studies focused on the reproductive system, particularly its effects on reproductive performance and toxicity. To contribute, this study assessed the effect of aqueous seed extract of P. clappertoniana (PCE) on reproductive performance and toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats and ICR mice. After preparation of PCE, it was then tested on rodents at different gestational and developmental windows (1-7, 8-14, and 15-term gestational days) to assess the following: mating behavior, implantation rate, maternal and developmental toxicities. Generally, animals were randomly grouped into five and treated as follows: normal saline group (5ml/kg po), cytotec (misoprostol) group (200mg/kg po), folic acid group (5mg/kg po), and PCE groups (100, 200, and 500mg/kg po), however, these groupings were varied to suit the specific requirements of some parameters. For acute toxicity, animals were orally administered PCE (3 and 5g/kg for mice and rats respectively). PCE-treated rats showed improved mating behavior compared to control rats. PCE improved implantation rate compared to misoprostol-treated rats. On the average, PCE-treated rats delivered termed live pubs at 21 days compared to that of folic acid-treated rats at 23 days. Also, PCE-treated rats
Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian
A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hasan, Marghoob; Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf
Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. In folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. The date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene. This study intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities of date seed extract in diabetes-induced rats. Total of seven groups of rats, consisting of control rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100g/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat. To evaluate the anti-diabetic property, glucose and weight was analysed weekly and at the end of eight week all rats were sacrificed. To evaluate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were estimated. Liver enzymes and kidney function tests were performed. Moreover to verify the glycaemic effect; glycated haemoglobin and serum insulin was performed. Aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100 gm/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat brings a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison of control rats. There were significant differences in the investigated clinical chemistry and oxidative stress parameters between control and diabetic rats with both seed extract of Ajwa and Sukkari dates. Present study verifies the antidiabetic property, of aqueous seed extracts of two different varieties of dates namely Ajwa and Sukkari of Kingdom of Saudi on streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats. Prolong treatments with the extract restores the function of liver and kidney and balance the oxidative stress condition in diabetic treated rats.
Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Rizza, Luisa; Cristani, Mariateresa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Saija, Antonina; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio
Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, known for their high antioxidant activity, and contained not only in the seeds but also in the skin. A pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte, Sicily, Italy. The purpose of our study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of two polyphenol-rich extracts from skins (TP) and decorticated seeds (SP) of Bronte pistachios, and to verify the potential use of these extracts for topical photoprotective products. Chemical analysis showed that the TP and SP extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds, but the TP extract is about ten times richer in phenols than the SP extract, being anthocyanins the most abundant compounds found in the TP extract. Both these extracts, and especially the TP extract, possess good radical scavenger/antioxidant properties, as shown in a series of in vitro assays carried out using homogenous and non-homogenous chemical environment. Furthermore both the TP extract and, although at a lower degree, the SP extract reduce, when topically applied, UV-B-induced skin erythema in human volunteers. These findings suggest that extracts from Bronte TP and SP could be successfully employed as photoprotective ingredients in topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Orlikowski, L B
Grapefruit extract at dose 40 micrograms/cm3 inhibited Phytophtora cryptogea linear growth about 50% and almost completely suppressed zoosporangia formation. Drenching of gerbera plants with the extract at dose 165 micrograms/cm3 reduced population density of the pathogen about 70% and this high efficacy was noted at least one month after application. Treatment of gerberas with grapefruit extract resulted in protection of about 50% of plants against the pathogen. Biological activity of purple coneflower extract was lower than extract from grapefruit. Significant decrease of population density of the pathogen during the first 5 days and increase of gerbera healthy stand was observed, however, in peat treated with that extract.
Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.
Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema
Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.
Jiamboonsri, Pimsumon; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Chomnawang, Mullika T
Plant extracts are a valuable source of novel antibacterial compounds to combat pathogenic isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global nosocomial infection. In this study, the alcoholic extract from Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') seed kernel extract (MSKE) and its phenolic principles (gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucopyranose) demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and 19 clinical MRSA isolates in studies of disc diffusion, broth microdilution and time-kill assays. Electron microscopy studies using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed impaired cell division and ultra-structural changes in bacterial cell morphology, including the thickening of cell walls, of microorganisms treated with MSKE; these damaging effects were increased with increasing concentrations of MSKE. MSKE and its phenolic principles enhanced and intensified the antibacterial activity of penicillin G against 19 clinical MRSA isolates by lowering the minimum inhibitory concentration by at least 5-fold. The major phenolic principle, pentagalloylglucopyranose, was demonstrated to be the major contributor to the antibacterial activity of MSKE. These results suggest that MSKE may potentially be useful as an alternative therapeutic agent or an adjunctive therapy along with penicillin G in the treatment of MRSA infections.
Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong
The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.
Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma
The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.
Lee, Hooi Xian; Ahmad, Fisal; Saad, Bahruddin; Ismail, Mohd Nazri
Date fruits are well known to be very nutritious. Nevertheless, the protein contents of the fruit, particularly the seed and flesh, are still understudied, largely due to their difficult physical characteristics. This study was conducted to compare three different protein extraction methods which were the trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone (TCA-A), phenol (Phe), and TCA-acetone-phenol (TCA-A-Phe), and to perform proteomic analysis on date palm seed and flesh. Phe extraction method showed the highest protein yields for both seed (8.26 mg/g) and flesh (1.57 mg/g). Through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Phe, and TCA-A-Phe extraction methods were shown to be efficient in removing interfering compounds and gave well-resolved bands over a wide range of molecular weights. Following liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, about 50-64% of extracted proteins were identified with known functions including those involved in glycolysis, Krebs cycle, defense, and storage. Phe protein extraction method was proven to be the optimal method for date flesh and seed.
Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun
Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.
Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Alvarez, I; Vega, E; Brenes, A
Grape seed extract and grape pomace are rich sources of polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of polyphenols, the solubilisation of carbohydrate, and the antioxidant capacity of these grape by-products after enzymatic reaction with carbohydrases (cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities) and tannase for 24h. The use of tannase in these by-products, and pectinase in grape pomace changed the galloylated form of catechin to its free form, releasing gallic acid and increasing the antioxidant activity. In grape pomace, cellulase treatment was not efficient for phenolic release and antioxidant activity improvement. The addition of carbohydrases to grape pomace, either alone or in combination, degraded the cell wall polysaccharides, increasing the content of monosaccharides. These results provide relevant data about the potential of pectinase, tannase and combinations of enzymes on the release of polyphenols and monosaccharides from grape by-products, improving the antioxidant capacity and the nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine
Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury.
Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E
The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors.
Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine
The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.
Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J
Among other natural flocculant/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG) and Gu-Zhu (GZ) models were used to adjust experimental data in a solid-liquid adsorption hypothesis. Last one resulted to be the most accurate one. Several data fit parameters were determined, as Freundlich order, which was found to be 1.66, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter from FFG model, which was found to be 4.87; and limiting Moringa surfactant adsorption capacity from GZ model, which was found to be 2.13 x 10(-3)mol/g.
Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.
This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).
Jayanegara, Anuraga; Harahap, Rakhmad P; Rozi, Richard F; Nahrowi
This experiment aimed to evaluate the nutritive composition and in vitro rumen fermentability and digestibility of intact and lipid-extracted winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond. Soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond were subjected to lipid extraction and chemical composition determination. Lipid extraction was performed through solvent extraction by Soxhlet procedure. Non-extracted and extracted samples of these materials were evaluated for in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility assay using rumen: Buffer mixture. Parameters measured were gas production kinetics, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, ammonia, in vitro dry matter (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test. Soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond contained high amounts of ether extract, i.e., above 20% DM. Crude protein contents of soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond increased by 17.7, 4.7, 55.2, and 126.5% after lipid extraction, respectively. In vitro gas production of intact winged bean was the highest among other materials at various time point intervals (p<0.05), followed by soybean > rubber seed > tropical almond. Extraction of lipid increased in vitro gas production, total VFA concentration, IVDMD, and IVOMD of soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond (p<0.05). After lipid extraction, all feed materials had similar IVDMD and IVOMD values. Lipid extraction improved the nutritional quality of winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond.
Belhadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Fakhreddine, Khaskhoussi; Maillard, Elisa; Dal, Stéphanie; Sigrist, Séverine
Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (-48%, p < 0.001) and disruption of insulin secretion ( p < 0.001) associated with of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant signaling pathway. Cell pre-treatments with extracts considerably increased cell viability (+86% p < 0.001) for simmondsin and +74% ( p < 0.001) for aqueous extract and insulin secretion. The extracts also markedly decreased ROS (-69% ( p < 0.001) for simmondsin and -59% ( p < 0.001) for aqueous extract) and caspase-3 activation and improved antioxidant defense, inhibiting p22phox and increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels (+70%, p < 0.001) for aqueous extract. Simmondsin had no impact on Nrf2 levels. The richness and diversity of molecules present in jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia.
Belhadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Fakhreddine, Khaskhoussi; Maillard, Elisa; Dal, Stéphanie; Sigrist, Séverine
Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (−48%, p < 0.001) and disruption of insulin secretion (p < 0.001) associated with of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant signaling pathway. Cell pre-treatments with extracts considerably increased cell viability (+86% p < 0.001) for simmondsin and +74% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract and insulin secretion. The extracts also markedly decreased ROS (−69% (p < 0.001) for simmondsin and −59% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract) and caspase-3 activation and improved antioxidant defense, inhibiting p22phox and increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels (+70%, p < 0.001) for aqueous extract. Simmondsin had no impact on Nrf2 levels. The richness and diversity of molecules present in jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia. PMID:29558444
Navarro Del Hierro, Joaquín; Herrera, Teresa; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo; Martin, Diana
The efficient production of saponin-rich extracts is of increasing interest due to the bioactive properties that have being demonstrated for these compounds. However, saponins have a poor bioavailability. In this respect, the knowledge about the bioaccessibility of saponins as a first step before bioavailability has been scarcely explored. In this study, the production of ultrasound-assisted extracts of saponins from edible seeds (quinoa, soybean, red lentil, fenugreek and lupin) was carried out with ethanol, ethanol:water or water. Extraction yield, total saponin (TSC), fat and total phenolics content (TPC) were determined. Then, the bioaccessibility of saponins after the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the extracts was determined and the effect of TPC and fat in the extracts on bioaccessibility was evaluated. The highest saponin-rich extracts were obtained by ethanol, being fenugreek and red lentil the richest extracts (12% and 10%, respectively). Saponins from ethanol:water extracts displayed variable bioaccessibility (from 13% for fenugreek to 83% for lentil), but a bioaccessibility closer to 100% was reached for all ethanol extracts. Correlation studies showed that TPC of the extracts negatively affected the bioaccessibility of saponins, whereas fat of the extracts enhanced this parameter. As summary, ultrasound-assisted extraction is shown as an efficient method for obtaining saponin-rich extracts from edible seeds, being ethanol the most advantageous solvent due to the richness of saponins and the successful bioaccessibility from these extracts, likely caused by the co-extracted fat with ethanol. Regardless of the extracts, phenolic compounds or fat may hinder or enhance the bioaccessibility of saponins, respectively. Additionally, an adequate balance between saponins to lipids has shown to be relevant on such an effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ΔH, E a , and ΔS, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975
Bhuiyan, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain; Kim, Joo Youn; Ha, Tae Joung; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok
The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean (cv. Cheongja 3, Glycine max (L.) MERR.) seed coat against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and glutamate-induced cell death in rat primary cortical neurons. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assays were employed to assess cell membrane damage and viability of primary neurons, respectively. OGD-induced cell death in 7 d in vitro primary cortical neurons was found to be OGD duration-dependent, and approximately 3.5 h of OGD resulted in ≈60% cell death. Treatment with black soybean anthocyanins dose-dependently prevented membrane damage and increased the viability of primary neurons that were exposed to OGD. Glutamate-induced neuronal cell death was dependent on the glutamate concentration at relatively low concentrations and the number of days the cells remained in culture. Interestingly, black soybean anthocyanins did not protect against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. They did, however, inhibit the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and preserve mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in primary neurons exposed to OGD. In agreement with the neuroprotective effect of crude black soybean anthocyanins, purified cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the major component of anthocyanins, also offered dose-dependent neuroprotection against OGD-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, black soybean C3G markedly prevented excessive generation of ROS and preserved MMP in primary neurons that were exposed to OGD. Collectively, these results suggest that the neuroprotection of primary rat cortical neurons by anthocyanins that were extracted from black soybean seed coat might be mediated through oxidative stress inhibition and MMP preservation but not through glutamate-induced excitotoxicity attenuation.
Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José
Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... interaction can be a concern, says Shiew Mei Huang, PhD, of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. ... juice or eating grapefruit while taking the drug, Huang says. Here are examples of some types of ...
Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E
Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ζ potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order cream
Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C
Seed of Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) has been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria as a prophylactic oral antisnake remedy. In the present studies, we investigated the protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) against histopathological changes induced by intravenous injection of Naja sputatrix (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen. The induced changes were prevented by pretreatment of the rats with MPE. Our results suggest that MPE pretreatment protects rat heart and liver blood vessels against cobra venom-induced damages.
Diab, Kawthar Ae
In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.
Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B
Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jo, Kyungae; Jeon, SangDuk; Ahn, Chang-Won; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo
We evaluated the sleep enhancement activity of the medicinal herbs valerian (Valeriana officinalis), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), lotus seed (Nelumbo nucifera), Gastrodia elata, Polygonatum sibiricum, and baekbokryung (Poria cocos), which can relieve insomnia in a Drosophila model. Locomotor activity was measured in the Drosophila model to evaluate the sleep activity of Korean medicinal herbs traditionally used as sleep aids. The group treated with lotus seed extract showed less nocturnal activity. Treatment with 10 or 20 mg/mL of P. sibiricum significantly reduced nocturnal activity compared to the control group (P<0.05). The activity and sleep bouts of fruit flies were significantly decreased by a high-dose treatment (10 mg/mL) of lotus or P. sibiricum extracts at night. Caffeine-treated Drosophila showed increased nocturnal activity and decreased total sleep time (P<0.05). Flies receiving the 10 mg-doses of lotus seed or P. sibiricum extract showed significantly different nocturnal locomotor activity and total sleep time compared to caffeine-treated Drosophila. Lotus seed and P. sibiricum extracts are attractive and valuable sleep-potentiating nutraceuticals. PMID:29333381
Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...
A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...
Saryono, S.; Eliyan, J.; Herdiati, D.; Khikmatullah, AA; Silvana, CP; Adi, HP
This is the first study to investigate the completely anti-atherogenic effect of Deglet Noor Date seeds methanol extract administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. About 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. The normal control (NC) group, Hypercholesterolemic Control (HC) group was given high cholesterol diet, and Simvastatin Control (SC) group was given 0.18 mg/200g simvastatin after high cholesterol diet induction. The treatment groups of T0.25, T0.5 and T1 were given supplementation of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg of dates seed extract after high cholesterol diet induction, respectively for 21 days. Blood was collected from orbitals plexus vein for plasma lipid profile analysis. The levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) values were significantly decreased (p<0.05) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats after supplemented with date seeds extract (T0.25, T0.5 and T1) but not in Triglycerides (TG). Along with that, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the T1 group was the best anti-atherogenic activity in compared to other groups. Results showed that plasma lipid profile was significant to get better after supplemented with date seeds extract.
San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee
The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.
Albarelli, Juliana Q.; Santos, Diego T.; Cocero, María José; Meireles, M. Angela A.
Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the benefits of enhancing the bioactive compounds concentration through physical processes and of integrating the proposed annatto seeds biorefinery to a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery, which produces its essential inputs, e.g., CO2, ethanol, heat and electricity. For this, first, different configurations were modeled and simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus® to determine the mass and energy balances. Next, each configuration was economically assessed using MATLAB. SFE proved to be decisive to the economic feasibility of the proposed annatto seeds-sugarcane biorefinery concept. SFE pretreatment associated with sequential fine particles separation process enabled higher bixin-rich extract production using low-pressure solvent extraction method employing ethanol, meanwhile tocotrienols-rich extract is obtained as a first product. Nevertheless, the economic evaluation showed that increasing tocotrienols-rich extract production has a more pronounced positive impact on the economic viability of the concept. PMID:28773616
Diaconu, Camelia Harapu; Cuciureanu, Magdalena; Vlase, L; Cuciureanu, Rodica
Food-drug interactions are increasingly recognized as important clinical events which may change significantly the bioavailability of oral administrated drugs. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) demonstrated multiple interactions with drugs leading to loss of the therapeutic effects or increased side-effects. GFJ decreases pre-systemic metabolism through a) competitive or mechanism-based inhibition of gut wall CYP3A4 isoenzymes and b) P-glycoprotein (P-gp), c) multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP2) or d) organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibition. Although, GFJ presents high amounts of flavonoids (e.g. naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (e.g. 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) are the main chemicals involved in the pharmacokinetic interactions. As compounds of GFJ show additive or synergistic effects, all the major furanocoumarins are necessary for the maximal inhibitory effect. Also, related citrus fruits (sweeties, pummelo and sour orange) or various plants containing furanocoumarins may present pharmacological interactions, yet to be discovered.
Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Arola, Lluís; Pinent, Montserrat
Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) modulates glucose homeostasis and insulinemia in several animal models. Under pathological conditions, insulin levels are dependent on pancreatic beta-cell functionality, as well as on the beta-cell mass expansion or apoptosis in the pancreas. In this study, we analysed the effects of GSPE on modulating apoptosis and proliferation in beta-cells. We tested the effects of GSPE in the INS-1E pancreatic beta-cell line, either under basal or altered conditions with high glucose, insulin or palmitate levels. GSPE enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of high glucose and showed clear antiproliferative effects under high glucose, insulin and palmitate conditions. These antiproliferative effects are likely due to high molecular weight compounds contained in the extract. GSPE also modulated pro- and anti-apoptotic markers in the pancreas of rats fed a cafeteria diet, with the effect depending on the dose of GSPE and duration of treatment. Thus, GSPE is able to modulate apoptosis and proliferation of beta-cells under altered, but not basal, conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad
Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Bido, Graciene de Souza; Silva, Hingrid Ariane da; Bortolo, Tiara da Silva Coelho; Maldonado, Marcos Rodrigues; Marchiosi, Rogério; Dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) is an efficient cover forage that controls weeds, pathogens and nematodes, and the non-protein amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is its main allelochemical. The effects of 3 g L -1 of an aqueous extract of velvet bean seeds, along with 0.5 mM L-DOPA for comparison, were evaluated in roots, stems and leaves of soybean (Glycine max). The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were determined, along with the lignin content and its monomeric composition. The results revealed similar effects caused by L-DOPA and the aqueous extract. Both treatments reduced PAL and CAD activities, lignin, and lignin monomer contents in roots; PAL and CAD activities in stems, and CAD activity in leaves. These findings provide further evidence that the effects of velvet bean cover forage on root lignification were due to the L-DOPA, its major allelochemical.
Ngandjui Tchangoue, Yvan Anderson; Djumyom Wafo, Guy Valerie; Wanda, Christian; Soh Kengne, Ebenezer; Kengne, Ives Magloire; Kouam Fogue, Siméon
The removal of pathogens in irrigation water is of great importance in developing countries. Indeed, wastewater generally reused for agriculture in countries such as Cameroon is associated with health and environmental concerns. Recent studies have shown a strong disinfectant action of the natural coagulant from the seeds of Moringa oleifera. These findings have raised the question whether or not they can be used to polish effluents from natural systems treating faecal sludge. This paper deals with trials carried out to investigate the effect of these extracts in reducing faecal indicators from initially treated faecal sludge leachate. Bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters were used to determine the optimum conditions and assess treatment efficacy. Settling time of 3 h at a concentration of extracts between 267 and 333 mg/L permitted to reduce Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from 4.85 to 3.92 ulog (86.74%) and from 5.75 to 4.87 ulog (86.39%) respectively with 1 ulog equal to 90%. For the same settling time and at a concentration of 333 mg/L, faecal streptococci were removed from 6.40 to 5.67 ulog (81.33%). This level of removal suggests that this natural coagulant cannot be used alone for disinfection of heavily loaded effluent. Further investigations are therefore still needed to fulfil the Cameroon and WHO guidelines for safe reuse in agriculture.
Dhand, Vivek; Soumya, L; Bharadwaj, S; Chakra, Shilpa; Bhatt, Deepika; Sreedhar, B
A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3+extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV-vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459 nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM-EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800-1500 cm(-1) indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20-30 nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jaszewska, E; Kosmider, A; Kiss, A K; Naruszewicz, M
The purpose of the study was a comparison of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract (EPE) effect with the activity of individual constituents of the extract: pentagalloylglucose (PGG), gallic acid, (+)-catechin and the procyanidin fraction, as well as an assessment of the combined effect of EPE and vincristine (VCR) in the absence or presence of MRP1 (indomethacin) and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) inhibitors, on two human cancer cell lines, metastatic melanoma (HTB-140) and hepatoma (HepG2). The presence of EPE, PGG and procyanidins caused a marked reduction in viability (MTT assay) and rise in mortality (LDH release assay) of HTB-140 cells. The combined use of EPE (25 μg/mL) and VCR (1 μM) in HTB-140 and HepG2 cells produced an increased cytotoxicity as compared to vincristine alone - by more than 4 and 1.5 times, respectively. In HTB-140 cells, the level of intracellular ATP (measured by bioluminescence) was lowered over 7-fold as a result of exposure to the combination of EPE and VCR, while the addition of MRP-1 inhibitor did not cause an increased cytotoxicity or further lowering of the ATP level. Our results demonstrate that EPE, containing PGG and procyanidins, significantly increased the sensitivity of cancer cells, particularly the melanoma cells, to the action of vincristine.
This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764
Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F
Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
Moore, Candace R; Gronwall, David S; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P
Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 10(3) seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6-4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool.
Assad, Tahira; Khan, Rafeeq Alam
Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding. Effect on anxiety was assessed by Hole board test and Light and Dark transition models.Phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and Rota rod test were performed to assess effect on sedation and motor coordination. In Hole board test, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds decreased the number of head dips in mice at all the three doses. In Light and Dark transition model, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds increased the period spent in the light box and the number of moves among the two compartments at 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control animals. In phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, T. foenum-graecum L. seeds did not reveal any sedative effect. In Rota rod test, extract exhibited significant skeletal muscle relaxant effect at 200 mg/kg (at 90 min) as compared to the control animals. Results of our study shows significant antianxiety effects of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds and may also recommend improved adverse effect profile as compared to diazepam.
Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ashour, AbdelKader E; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed
A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100 mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals.
da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; Soares, Ricardo Andrade; de Melo Cunha, Letícia L; Carvalho, Lenize C R M; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro
Previously, we have demonstrated that the seeds of Euterpe oleracia Mart. (açaí) are rich in polyphenols with antihypertensive and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the renal protective effects of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the seeds of açaí (ASE) fruits in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension. Young male Wistar rats were used to obtain 2K1C and sham groups. Animals received ASE (200 mg/(kg·day) in drinking water) or vehicle for 40 days. We evaluated serum and urinary parameters, renal structural changes, and oxidative status. The increase in systolic blood pressure of the 2K1C group was accompanied by a decrease in left kidney volume and number of glomeruli, as well as an increase in glomerular volume and collagen deposition. ASE prevented the alterations of these parameters, except the reduced kidney volume. Serum levels of urea and creatinine and urinary protein excretion were increased in the 2K1C group and treatment with ASE improved all these functional parameters. The increased oxidative damage in the 2K1C group, assessed by lipid and protein oxidation, was prevented by ASE. The nitrite content and both expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) were lower in the 2K1C group and restored by ASE. ASE substantially reduced renal injury and prevented renal dysfunction in 2K1C rats probably through its antihypertensive and antioxidant effects, providing a natural resource for treatment and prevention of renovascular hypertension-related abnormalities.
Obembe, O M; Kayode, J
The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids.
Ekanem, A P; Wang, M; Simon, J E; Obiekezie, A I; Morah, F
Methanol extracts of the seeds of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) were active against gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus L. Pisces Cyprinidae) monogenean parasites. The seed extract of P. guineense was administered at different concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg/L) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. There was a higher efficacy of the effects of the extracts against fish parasites under in vitro situations than under in vivo. Three major compounds (piperanine, N-isobutyl (E,E)-2,4 decadienamide and Deltaalpha,beta-dihydrowasanine) were identified from the seed extract of Piper guineense by LC-MS analysis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed
The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). These plant extracts had lower toxicity compared with miltefosine. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of the methanolic extracts of C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...
Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D
Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this
Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang
Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively.
Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E
The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( < 0.01) that were later isolated and identified by their 16S RNA gene sequence as . The isolates and other known rumen pure cultures ( JB1, B159, HD4, B, F, MD1, SR) were evaluated for the ability to degrade ergovaline in vitro. Pure culture cell suspensions were incubated as described above and samples were taken at 0 and 48 h for ergovaline analysis. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure of SAS. All HAB, including the isolates, tested degraded ergovaline (54 to 75%; < 0.05). B14 was also able to degrade ergovaline but to a lesser capacity (12%; < 0.05), but all other bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their
Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Pal, Dilipkumar; Bhattacharya, Shiladitya; Chakrabarty, Sumit
The methanolic extract of both Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed showed marked protection against convulsion induced by chemoconvulsive agents in mice. The catecholamines contained were significantly increased in the processed extract treated mice. The amount of GABA, which is most likely to be involved in seizure activity, was increased significantly in mice brain after a six week treatment. Results of the present study revealed that both the processed extracts showed a significant anticonvulsive property by altering the level of catecholamines and brain amino acids in mice.
Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji
A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.
Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Pal, D K; Bhattacharya, S
Methanolic extract (ME) of both C. reflexa stem and C. olitorius seed arrested the normal oestrus cycle of adult female mouse and significantly decreased the weight of ovaries and uterus. The cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents in ovaries were significantly increased in the treated mice. Two key enzymes, delta5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were decreased significantly in ME of both C. reflexa stem and C. olitorius seed after 17 days of treatment. High level of substrates and low level of enzymes indicate the inhibition of steroidogenesis in treated mice and may be due to the presence of flavonoids.
Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur
Introduction Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. Aim To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Materials and methods Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Results Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Conclusion Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. How to cite this article Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185. PMID:27843246
Swadas, Milan; Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185.
Río Segade, Susana; Torchio, Fabrizio; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Giacosa, Simone; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rolle, Luca
This study represents the first time that the extraction of phenolic compounds from the seeds is assessed from instrumental texture properties for dehydrated grapes. Nebbiolo winegrapes were postharvest dehydrated at 20°C and 41% relative humidity. During the dehydration process, sampling was performed at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% weight loss. The extractable fraction and extractability of phenolic compounds from the seeds were determined after simulated maceration. The evolution of mechanical and acoustic attributes of intact seeds was also determined during grape dehydration to evaluate how these changes affected the extraction of phenolic compounds. The extractable content and extractability of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins, as well as the galloylation percentage of flavanols, might be predicted easily and quickly from the mechanical and acoustic properties of intact seeds. This would help in decision-making on the optimal dehydration level of winegrapes and the best management of winemaking of dehydrated grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint
Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P < 0.01) and 53.13 % (P < 0.01), while the chemoprophylactic activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P < 0.05) at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively as compared to the negative control. Mice treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg extract were significantly (P < 0.05) lived longer and gained weight as compared to negative control in 4-day suppressive test. From this study, it can be concluded that the seed extract of Brassica nigra showed good chemosuppressive and moderate chemoprophylactic activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.
Nagy, J; Schipper, H G; Koopmans, R P; Butter, J J; Van Boxtel, C J; Kager, P A
The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coadministering albendazole (10 mg/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered with water, a fatty meal, or grapefruit juice plus cimetidine (10 mg/kg). In comparison to water, maximum ABZSX concentration (Cmax) was enhanced 6.5-fold by a fatty meal (from 0.24 +/- 0.09 mg/l to 1.55 +/- 0.30 mg/l; mean +/- SD; P < 0.001) and 3.2-fold by grapefruit juice (from 0.24 +/- 0.09 mg/l to 0.76 +/- 0.37 mg/L; P = 0.031). When grapefruit juice was combined with cimetidine, Cmax was significantly lower than with grapefruit juice alone (0.41 +/- 0.29 mg/l and 0.76 +/- 0.37 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.022). The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-omega)) followed a comparable pattern. Half-life (T(1/2)) was 8.8 +/- 4.2 hr and 8.2 +/- 4.3 hr after administration with water or a fatty meal (P = 1.000). Grapefruit juice shortened T(1/2) by 46% (P = 0.026). We hypothesize that albendazole is metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes in the intestinal mucosa. This process can be inhibited by grapefruit juice. Cimetidine decreased albendazole bioavailability.
Xie, Qing; Guo, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Wen
Oxidative stress has been recognized as a critical pathogenetic mechanism for the initiation and the progression of hepatic injury in a variety of liver disorders. Antioxidants, including many natural compounds or extracts, have been used to cope with liver disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were pre-treated with different doses of CSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg body weight) or distilled water for 5 days, then were injected intraperitoneally with CCl(4) (0.1% in corn oil, v/v, 20 ml/kg body weight), and sacrificed at 16 hours after CCl(4) exposure. The serum aminotransferase activities, histopathological changes, hepatic and mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activities were examined. Consistent with previous studies, acute CCl(4) administration caused great lesion to the liver, shown by the elevation of the serum aminotransferase activities, mitochondria membrane permeability transition (MPT), and the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. However, these adverse effects were all significantly inhibited by CSE pretreatment. CCl(4)-induced decrease of the CYP2E1 activity was dose-dependently inhibited by CSE pretreatment. Furthermore, CSE dramatically decreased the hepatic and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased the hepatic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels, and restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). These results suggested that CSE could protect mice against CCl(4)-induced liver injury via enhancement of the antioxidant capacity.
Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders
Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shao, Yanli; Park, Bongkyun; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan
Nephrotoxicity is a main problem in cancer patients using cisplatin. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are the important mechanisms of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the extracts of morning glory on nephrotoxicity by cisplatin in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK-293) and mice. Previous studies have reported that morning glory extracts showed potent activity on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. However, the protective effects of the n-hexane layer of morning glory seed (MGs-Hx) on nephrotoxicity and its mechanisms have not been clearly understood. Oral administration with MGs-Hx showed protective effects in vivo experiments test and the treatment of MGs-Hx in a concentration of 100mg/kg/day had significant effect both of decreasing serum creatinine, BUN, serum uric acid level and reduced iNOS, COX-2 mRNA expressions with low side-effect. Moreover, cell viability was restored by MGs-Hx treatment compared to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Co-treatment with MGs-Hx and cisplatin showed the significant effect to reduce inflammatory enzyme, iNOS expression and continuous production of NO. In addition, it exhibited a tendency to decreasing expression of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, 8 and 9, and NF-κB translocation to nucleus as well as phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic HEK-293 cells. Our study provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of MGs-Hx and suggests that MGs-Hx might be a potential therapeutic agent to modulate inflammation and apoptosis in nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai
Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats.
Griffin, Laura E; Witrick, Katherine A; Klotz, Courtney; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Fundaro, Gabrielle; McMillan, Ryan P; Hulver, Matthew W; Ponder, Monica A; Neilson, Andrew P
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that grapes and grape-derived products may reduce the risk for chronic disease. Grape seed extract specifically has been gaining interest due to its reported ability to prevent weight gain, moderate hyperglycemia, and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of two doses of grape seed extract (10 and 100 mg kg -1 body wt per d in mice) on markers of metabolic syndrome in the context of a moderately high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the lower dose of grape seed extract was more effective at inhibiting fat gain and improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Neither the high fat diet nor grape seed extract altered skeletal muscle substrate metabolism. Most interestingly, when examining the profile of metabolically active microbiota in the mucosa of the small intestine, cecum, and colonic tissue, grape seed extract seemed to have the most dramatic effect on small intestinal tissue, where the population of Firmicutes was lower compared to control groups. This effect was not observed in the cecal or colonic tissues, suggesting that the main alterations to gut microbiota due to flavan-3-ol supplementation occur in the small intestine, which has not been reported previously. These findings suggest that grape seed extract can prevent early changes in glucose tolerance and alter small intestinal gut microbiota, prior to the onset of skeletal muscle metabolic derangements, when grape seed extract is consumed at a low dose in the context of a moderately high fat diet.
Benaoun, Fatima; Delattre, Cédric; Boual, Zakaria; Ursu, Alina V; Vial, Christophe; Gardarin, Christine; Wadouachi, Anne; Le Cerf, Didier; Varacavoudin, Tony; Ould El-Hadj, Mohamed Didi; Michaud, Philippe; Pierre, Guillaume
Plantago notata (Plantaginaceae) is a spontaneous plant from Septentrional Algerian Sahara currently used by traditional healers to treat stomach disorders, inflammations or wound healing. A water-soluble polysaccharide, called PSPN (PolySaccharide fraction from Plantago Notata), was extracted and purified from the seeds of this semi-arid plant. The structural features of this mucilage were evaluated by colorimetric assays, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 1 H/ 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PSPN is a heteroxylan with a backbone composed of β-(1,3)-d-Xylp and β-(1,4)-d-Xylp highly branched, through (O)-2 and (O)-3 positions of β-(1,4)-d-Xylp by various side chains and terminal monosaccharides such as α-l-Araf-(1,3)-β-d-Xylp, β-d-Xylp-(1,2)-β-d-Xylp, terminal Xylp or terminal Araf. The physico-chemical and rheological analysis of this polysaccharide in dilute and semi diluted regimes showed that PSPN exhibites a molecular weight of 2.3×10 6 g/mol and a pseudoplastic behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols.
Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dong-Woo; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo
The effects of grape seed extract (GSE), a major source of phenolic compounds, were examined on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (12 month-old) mice using Ki67, doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry and 5'-bromo-2-deoxyguanosine (BrdU)/calbindin D-28k (CB) double immunofluorescence study, respectively. GSE (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days, and the animals were treated with 50 mg/kg BrdU intraperitoneally on the day of first GSE treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, Ki67 and DCX immunoreactivity was detected in the subgranular zone of the DG (SZDG). GSE treatment dose-dependently increased the number of Ki67 and DCX immunoreactive cells, particularly the number of DCX immunoreactive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. GSE also dose-dependently increased DCX protein levels. In addition, GSE treatment increased significantly the number of BrdU/CB double labeled granule cells. These results suggest that GSE significantly increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells in the DG, and the consumption of GSE enhances the plasticity of hippocampus in middle-aged mice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Chen; Zheng, Yake; Wu, Tianwen; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated. Here, CCH-related memory impairment was modeled in rats using permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. A Morris water maze task was used to evaluate memory, the levels of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine were used to evaluate cholinergic function, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonic dialdehyde, and catalase. We found that oral administration of GSPE for 1 month can rescue memory deficits. We also found that GSPE restores cholinergic neuronal function and represses oxidative damage in the hippocampus of CCH rats. We propose that GSPE protects memory in CCH rats by reducing ischemia-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. These findings provide a novel application of GSPE in CCH-related memory impairments.
Tang, Cheng-fang; Fang, Ming; Liu, Rui-rui; Dou, Qi; Chai, Zhi-guo; Xiao, Yu-hong; Chen, Ji-hua
Grape seed extract (GSE) is known to have a positive effect on the demineralization and/or remineralization of artificial root caries lesions. The present study aimed to investigate whether biomodification of caries-like acid-etched demineralized dentine, using proanthocyanidins-rich GSE, would promote its remineralization potential. Dentine specimens were acid-etched for 30s, then biomodified using proanthocyanidin-based preconditioners (at different concentrations and pH values) for 2min, followed by a 15-day artificial remineralization regimen. They were subsequently subjected to microhardness measurements, micromorphological evaluation and X-ray diffraction analyses. Stability of the preconditioners was also analyzed, spectrophotometrically. A concentration-dependent increase was observed in the microhardness of the specimens that were biomodified using GSE preconditioners, without pH adjustment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed greater mineral deposition on their surfaces, which was further identified mainly as hydroxylapatite. The absorbances of preconditioner dilutions at pH 7.4 and pH 10.0 decreased at the two typical polyphenol bands. Transient GSE biomodification promoted remineralization on the surface of demineralized dentine, and this process was influenced by the concentration and pH value of the preconditioner. GSE preconditioner at a concentration of 15%, without pH adjustment, presented with the best results, and this may be attributed to its high polyphenolic content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiangju; Qiu, Jie; Zhao, Shaohua; You, Beian; Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xiaopei; Wang, Qian; Gao, Haiqing
Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-β1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.
Jin, Guangwen; Asou, Yoshinori; Ishiyama, Kirika; Okawa, Atsushi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi
Grape-seed extract (GSE) is rich in proanthocyanidins (polymers of flavan-3-ols). GSE is well known to have various beneficial effects to health. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary GSE on the intestinal microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) mice as a model of menopause. Phylum-level analyses using 16S rRNA-targeted group-specific polymerase-chain reaction primers in fecal samples collected 8 weeks postoperatively from OVX mice revealed that the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations became imbalanced as compared with that in sham-operated control mice. That is, the ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes populations in the OVX group were increased significantly. When OVX animals were given dietary GSE, the imbalanced proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations was normalized to that seen in control mice. In addition, the body weight of OVX animals measured at 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly higher than that in sham-operated control animals. Dietary GSE also prevented OVX animals from increasing body weight. Thus, we postulated that GSE can improve imbalanced populations of intestinal microbiota, leading to prevention of obesity under conditions of not only menopause but morbidity. The GSE has a great potential to be a functional food to improve dysbiosis in post-menopausal women. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani
Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977
Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y
Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.
Li, Xiao-li; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Cheng, Mei; Xu, Ling; Li, Xian-hua; Ma, Ya-bing
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) have been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about therapeutic agents against diabetic macrovascular complications. We used streptozocin to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg of body weight) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Aortic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were determined in anesthetized rats. Serum glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined. An electronic microscope was used to observe the changes in aortic ultrastructure. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) protein expression in aortic tissue. GSPEs significantly decreased aortic PWV, blood pressure, and aortic medial thickness (P<0.05), and inhibited the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. GSPEs significantly reduced the AGEs (P<0.05) and the expression of RAGE in aortas of diabetic rats. GSPEs play an important role against diabetic macrovascular complications. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of diabetic macrovascular complications.
Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Han, Li-Kun; Saito, Masato; Sun, Yin-Shi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Zheng, Yi-Nan
To investigate the anti-obesity effects of escins extracted from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata BLUME, anti-obesity models in vitro and in vivo were employed. In a preliminary experiment, different solvent fractions of Aesculus turbinata BlUME as well as two isolated compounds were tested for their effects on pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Subsequently, female ICR mice were fed a high fat diet with or without different concentrations of total escins for 11 weeks to examine body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, and hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) contents. Plasma triacylglycerol levels (TG) after oral administration of lipid emulsions to rats were also investigated. The results showed that total escins (1 mg/ml) as well as two compounds isolated from total escins, namely escin Ib and IIa, showed inhibitory effects on PL activity. In vivo, total escins suppressed the increase in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, TG content, and TC content in mice's liver; TG content in rat plasma was also reduced at 1, 2 and 3 h after oral administration of the lipid emulsion plus different concentrations of escins compared to those in the lipid emulsion groups. Meanwhile, mice fed a high fat diet plus 2% total escins for 3 d had an increased TG level in the feces compared to the HF group. The reason for this may be due to a delay in the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting PL activity.
Kumar, P; Bhandari, U
To evaluate the preventive effects of an aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG) on fat deposition and dyslipidemia in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Neonatal male Wistar rats were injected with MSG (4 g/kg b. w., subcutaneously) from day 2 to 14 after birth, on alternate days. From day 43 to 70, MSG treated rats were administered orally with AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg b. w.). The anthropometric and biochemical parameters were analyzed on day 71. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) reduction in body weight gain, Lee's index, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, adiposity index, blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), cardiac risk indexes (atherogenic index and coronary risk index), and homeostatic model assessment index. AqE-TFG treatment restored the activities of liver and epididymal WAT lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) towards normal levels. Histological studies of liver also supported the experimental findings. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat deposition and dyslipidemia possibly by improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity and down regulation of lipogenic enzymes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Szeto, Yim Tong; Lee, Kit Yee; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon
Grape seed extracts (GSEs) possess a broad spectrum of antioxidative properties that protects various cells from free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, the genoprotective effect of GSE on human lymphocytic DNA was studied using standard and lysed cell comet assays. Lymphocytes from 5 healthy subjects were pretreated with GSE in different concentrations. The standard and lysed cell comet assays were performed on treated, untreated, challenged, and unchallenged cells in parallel. Cells were then subjected to an oxidant challenge induced with 5-min exposures to hydrogen peroxide. In the standard comet assay, GSE significantly diminished hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the lysed cell assay, however, the antioxidant effect was diminished at a higher GSE concentration. Data indicate that the cell membrane might play a role in limiting cellular access to antioxidants, which directly affects the genoprotective or potential pro-oxidant effect of antioxidants on human DNA. Using both standard and lysed cell comet assays in parallel could be a useful way to elucidate the mechanism of protection or damage by antioxidants.
Garde, William K; Buchberger, Steven G; Wendell, David; Kupferle, Margaret J
Wastewater generated from wet processing of coffee cherries degrades stream water quality downstream of processing mills and impacts human health. The widespread popularity of coffee as an export makes this a global problem, although the immediate impact is local. Approximately 40% of all coffee around the world is wet processed, producing wastewater rich in organic nutrients that can be hazardous to aquatic systems. Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract (MOSE) offers promise as a local and affordable "appropriate" coagulation technology for aiding in the treatment of coffee wastewater. Field research was conducted at the Kauai Coffee Company to investigate the application of MOSE to treat coffee fermentation wastewater (CFW). Coagulation tests were conducted at five pH CFW levels (3-7) and MOSE doses (0-4g/L). After settling, TSS, COD, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, and pH of supernatant from each test were measured. MOSE reduced TSS, COD, nitrate, and nitrite in CFW to varying degrees dependent on pH and dose applied. TSS removal ranged from 8% to 54%. Insoluble COD removal ranged from 26% to 100% and total COD removal ranged from 1% to 25%. Nitrate and nitrite reduction ranged from 20% to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M
This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each molecule of the active coagulation component in MOC-SC-PC and form a net-like structure. The coagulation mechanism of MOC-SC-PC seemed to be an enmeshment of Kaolin by the insoluble matters with the net-like structure. In case of Ca2+ ion (bivalent cations), at least 0.2 mM was necessary for coagulation at 0.3 mgC l-1 dose of MOC-SC-PC. Other coagulation mechanisms like compression of double layer, interparticle bridging or charge neutralization were not responsible for the coagulation by MOC-SC-PC.
Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon
Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 μg/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 μg/mL)>CSEH (26.19 μg/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 μg/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132
Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo
Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.
Yaragalla, Srinivasarao; Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya; AlMaadeed, Mariam A; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu
The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4μgml(-1) & 5μgml(-1) of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na
In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.
1. The conditions of extracting nitrogenous, phosphorus-containing and glucosamine-containing components of the seeds of kidney bean have been studied. 2. The dispersing of proteins was incomplete below pH 7, and the exact amount of protein extracted depended on the pH and the ionic strength of the solvent. 3. The extraction of proteins was practically complete in the range pH 7–9, but the relative amounts of the individual proteins obtained still depended on the pH of the extracting media, indicating a pH-dependent association–dissociation reaction between the protein molecules present. 4. The extraction of phosphorus-containing material showed an optimum at pH 6–7, and only a part of this was removed on dialysis. The precipitates obtained with trichloroacetic acid, on the other hand, retained very little phosphorus-containing material. 5. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:14340051
Furanocoumarins (FC) are a class of organic chemical components in grapefruits and other diet plants. Some of them in grapefruit juice can induce potentially adverse interactions with human drugs and in that patients may be advised to avoid the fruit and juice. To develop low FC grapefruit cultivars...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...
Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam
Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501
Allegro, Gianluca; Pastore, Chiara; Valentini, Gabriele; Muzzi, Enrico; Filippetti, Ilaria
The anthocyanin and tannin concentration and composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese berries were investigated from post-veraison to harvest. Exhaustive extraction with methanol and acetone was performed to determine the total flavonoid concentration, while a model hydroalcoholic solution was used to prepare extracts representing the winemaking process. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge of the phenolic maturity of Sangiovese grape. The total anthocyanin concentration increased during ripening, but the quantity of extractable anthocyanins increased more rapidly than the total. The total skin tannin concentration declined from post-veraison to harvest, whereas the extractable portion increased, with little difference in the composition of the fractions. Both the total and extractable seed tannin concentration diminished rapidly just after veraison, and only small fluctuations were detected until harvest. These results indicate that the extractability of anthocyanins and skin tannins increases during ripening, whereas there is no clear trend for seed tannins during the same period. This is the first survey to study the behavior of phenolic compounds during different steps of ripening of Sangiovese grape. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Beveridge, Thomas H J; Girard, Benoit; Kopp, Thomas; Drover, John C G
Grape seed has a well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is currently produced as a specialty oil byproduct of wine manufacture. Seed oils from eight varieties of grapes crushed for wine production in British Columbia were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCE) and petroleum ether (PE). Oil yields by SCE ranged from 5.85 +/- 0.33 to 13.6 +/- 0.46% (w/w), whereas PE yields ranged from 6.64 +/- 0.16 to 11.17 +/- 0.05% (+/- is standard deviation). The oils contained alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol being most important quantitatively. In both SCE- and PE-extracted oils, phytosterols were a prominent feature of the unsaponifiable fraction, with beta-sitosterol quantitatively most important with both extractants. Total phytosterol extraction was higher with SCE than with PE in seven of eight variety extractions. Fatty acid composition of oils from all varieties tested, and from both extraction methods, indicated linoleic acid as the major component ranging from 67.56 to 73.23% of the fatty acids present, in agreement with literature reports.
Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D
Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.
Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki
Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P < 0.01). Present investigations indicated that oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol constituents of grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D
Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K
Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be
Khan, Mohammad Yaseen; Kumar, Vimal
Background In the search of safe and effective lead molecules from natural sources, Mucuna pruriens (MP) L. (Fabaceae) seeds were utilized for exploring the antihypertensive potential. Traditionally, it is used as diuretic and hypotensive. Methods Bioassay-guided fractions were utilized for the isolation of active compounds by column chromatography. IC50 value, enzyme kinetics and inhibition mechanism were determined. In vivo time and dose-dependent hypotensive study followed by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by angiotensin I (3 nmol/kg), angiotensin II (3 nmol/kg), and bradykinin (10 nmol/kg) in anesthetized rats was done. Plasma and tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis by spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of known compounds like genistein, ursolic acid and L-DOPA from the ethyl acetate and water fraction, respectively. In vitro study revealed MP ethyl acetate (MPEA) fraction and genistein as the most active fraction (IC50 156.45 µg/mL) and compound (IC50 253.81 µM), respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. ACE protein precipitation was the suggested mechanism for inhibition. The extract showed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in MAP. Genistein was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 53±1.5 mmHg (40 mg/kg, i.v.). As compared to control, it showed a dose-dependent decrease in plasma ACE activity of 40.61 % and 54.76 % at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. It also decreased the ACE activity in the aorta (107.67nM/ml min at 10 mg, p<0.001; 95.33nM/ml min at 20 mg p<0.001). Captopril was used as a standard for various in vitro and in vivo assays. Conclusions The study revealed the antihypertensive potential of MP seed compounds via ACE inhibition.
Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza
The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.
Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali
In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions.
Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria
Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.
Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M
Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims
Grzybek, Maciej; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Strachecka, Aneta; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Phiri, Andrew M; Paleolog, Jerzy; Tomczuk, Krzysztof
A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo) L. hot water extract (HWE), cold water extract (CWE) or ethanol extract (ETE) on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri). Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01-2.94). A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC) was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative to the currently available
Hassanzadeh Bashtian, Maryam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Esmaily, Habib Allah; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Mohammad Poor, Amir Hooshang
PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and disorders of lipid metabolism as well as infertility. Fenugreek seeds extract is successfully used in lowering blood glucose. Metformin has also the same effect but in a different way. The aim of this study was the assessment of fenugreek effects on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. This was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study was conducted at the Montaserieh Hospital in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The patient population included 58 oligo-anovulatory PCOS women with typical ovaries. Women were randomly allocated to receive hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds in capsules with metformin (n = 30) or placebo capsules with metformin (n = 28) and were assessed before and every 4 weeks within a treatment period of 8 weeks. Menstrual disturbance and metabolic parameters (markers of insulin resistance and hormonal parameters) were measured. Insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) model was not significantly different between two groups. Ultrasound scans were performed before and at the end of 8 weeks treatment with significant decrease in PAO (polycystic appearing ovaries) in group 1 (p = 0/01). Adjuvant therapy to the fenugreek seeds extract (with metformin) in PCOS women improved the sonographic results and menstrual cyclicity. PMID:24250624
Kamali, Mahsa; Bahmanpour, Soghra
One of the major problems of the aged women or older than 35 is getting pregnant in the late fertility life. Fertility rates begin to decline gradually at the age of 30, more so at 35, and markedly at 40. Even with fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization, women have more difficulty in getting pregnant or may deliver abnormal fetus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flax seed hydroalcoholic extract on the fetal brain of aged mice and its comparison with young mice. In this experimental study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls received no special treatment. The experimental mice groups, 3 weeks before mating, were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages. After giving birth, the brains of the fetus were removed. Data analysis was performed by statistical test ANOVA using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The mean fetus brain weight of aged mother groups compared to the control group was increased significantly (P<0.05). This study showed that flax seed hydroalcoholic extract could improve fetal brain weights in the aged groups.
Aboul-Ela, Ezzat I
The protective effect of Nigella sativa seed extract and its main constituents thymoquinone (TQ) was studied on mouse cells infected with schistosomiasis. Bone marrow cells in the in vivo experiments and spleen cells in the in vitro one were used to evaluate the potentially protective effect of these natural compounds on the induction of chromosomal aberrations. Karyotyping of the mice cells illustrated that the main abnormalities were gaps, fragments and deletions especially in chromosomes 2, 6 and some in chromosomes 13 and 14. Both N. sativa extract and TQ were considered as protective agents against the chromosomal aberrations induced as a result of schistosomiasis.
Sica, Domenic A
Drug-drug interactions are commonly recognized occurrences in the hypertensive population. Drug-nutrient interactions, however, are less well appreciated. The grapefruit juice-calcium channel blocker interaction is one that has been known since 1989. The basis for this interaction has been diligently explored and appears to relate to both flavanoid and nonflavanoid components of grapefruit juice interfering with enterocyte CYP3A4 activity. In the process, presystemic clearance of susceptible drugs decreases and bioavailability increases. A number of calcium channel blockers are prone to this interaction, with the most prominent interaction occurring with felodipine. The calcium channel blocker and grapefruit juice interaction should be incorporated into the knowledge base of rational therapeutics for the prescribing physician.
Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar
Use of long period gratings (LPGs) formed in grapefruit photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with thin-film overlay coated on the inner surface of air holes for gas sensing is demonstrated. The finite-element method was used to numerically simulate the grapefruit PCF-LPG modal coupling characteristics and resonance spectral response with respect to the refractive index of thin-film inside the holey region. A gas analyte-induced index variation of the thin-film immobilized on the inner surface of the holey region of the fiber can be observed by a shift of the resonance wavelength. As an example, we demonstrate a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) sensor using grapefruit PCF-LPGs. The sensor exhibits a wavelength blue-shift of ˜820 pm as a result of exposure to DNT vapor with a vapor pressure of 411 ppbv at 25°C, and a sensitivity of 2 pm ppbv-1 can be achieved.
Jaszewska, Edyta; Soin, Magdalena; Filipek, Agnieszka; Naruszewicz, Marek
UVA radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which react with lipids, proteins and other intracellular molecules leading to oxidative stress, cellular damage and ultimately cell death. There is, therefore, a growing need for substances exhibiting antioxidant activity, which may support repair mechanisms of the skin. This study evaluates the protective effect of the aqueous Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, against UVA (25 and 50J/cm(2))-induced changes in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The tested extract (0.1-10μg/ml) has decreased, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the UVA-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium, the ROS production (with the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and lipid peroxidation (utilizing redox reactions with ferrous ions) as compared to the control cells (incubated without the extract). Moreover, the extract increased the number of viable (calcein positive) cells decreasing the number of cells in late apoptosis (annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide positive). Thus our results show that O. paradoxa defatted seeds extract may be beneficial for the prevention of UVA skin damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E
The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P < 0.0001). Haematological parameters and the levels of ALT, AST, albumin and creatinine were not significantly altered. However, the concentration of total proteins was significantly increased in the treated group. In conclusion, the aqueous seed extract of P. americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable.
Marzouk, B; Marzouk, Z; Fenina, N; Bouraoui, A; Aouni, M
Inflammations and immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis are widespread in the entire globe. The treatment of these illnesses is mainly based on the use of synthetic and biotechnological drugs, in recent years. Tunisian traditional medicine is a potential source of new remedies namely Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae): endemic in southern Tunisia and used in folk medicine to treat many inflammation disorders. Our goal was to assess the in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed organic extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and finely methanol extract). Yields of prepared organic extracts are gravimetrically determined. For the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, we have used respectively, the acetic acid writhing test in mice and the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. All extracts displayed an important analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at different doses without inducing any side effects. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed extracts. Experiment results provide scientific insight into the ancient practice of utilizing Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. as analgesic and as anti-inflammatory agents.
Xiaoli Sun; Wengang Li; Jian Li; Yuangang Zu; Chung-Yun Hse; Jiulong Xie; Xiuhua Zhao
Ethanol and hexane mixture agent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was conducted to extract peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) seed oil (PSO). The aim of the study was to optimise the extraction for both yield and energy consumption in mixture agent MAE. The highest oil yield (34.49%) and lowest unit energy consumption (14 125.4 J g -1)...
Dulundu, Ender; Ozel, Yahya; Topaloglu, Umit; Toklu, Hale; Ercan, Feriha; Gedik, Nursal; Sener, Goksel
The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against oxidative liver injury and fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups; control (C), GSE-treated, bile duct ligated (BDL), and BDL and GSE-treated (BDL + GSE) groups. GSE was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg a day orally for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver function and tissue damage, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) were assayed in plasma samples. Liver tissues were taken for determination of the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and plasma TNF-alpha were elevated in the BDL group as compared to the control group and were significantly decreased with GSE treatment. Plasma AOC and hepatic GSH level, depressed by BDL, was elevated back to the control level in the GSE-treated BDL group. Increases in tissue MDA level, MPO activity and collagen content due to BDL were also attenuated by GSE treatment. Furthermore, luminol and lucigenin CL values in the BDL group increased dramatically compared to the control and were reduced by GSE treatment. These results suggest that GSE protects the liver from oxidative damage following bile duct ligation in rats. This effect possibly involves the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation; thus, restoration of oxidant and antioxidant status in the tissue.
Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M
Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. To determine the clinical effect of GSE on CYP2D6, the pharmacokinetic interaction between GSE and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy adult volunteers was examined. In this open label, randomized, cross-over study, 30 subjects were assigned to cohort A or B. Both cohorts ingested 30 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide on day 1 and day 10. Cohort A received 100 mg GSE capsules three times daily on days 8, 9 and 10, while cohort B started with GSE on day -1 until day 1. After urine collection (0-8 h) on day 1 and day 10, the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio was determined. Among 28 evaluable subjects, an increase of the urinary metabolic ratio was observed in 16 subjects (57 %). The mean metabolic ratio (± standard deviation) before and after GSE supplementation was 0.41 (± 0.56) and 0.48 (± 0.59), respectively. This result was neither statistically (P = 0.342) nor clinically [geometric mean ratio 1.10, 90 % CI (0.93-1.30)] significant. Further, the majority (73 %) of the included subjects did not experience any adverse events after intake of dextromethorphan or GSE. Supplementation of GSE did not significantly affect the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio in healthy volunteers. The results of this clinical study indicate that GSE appears to be safe to combine with drugs extensively metabolized by CYP2D6, such as dextromethorphan and tamoxifen.
EPASINGHE, Don Jeevanie; YIU, Cynthia Kar Yung; BURROW, Michael Francis
Abstract Objective This study evaluated the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) incorporation on the mechanical properties, water sorption, solubility, and GSE release from the experimental adhesive resins. Material and Methods An experimental comonomer mixture, consisting of 40% Bis-GMA, 30% Bis MP, 28% HEMA, 0.26% camphorquinone and 1% EDMAB, was used to prepare four GSE-incorporated adhesive resins at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 wt%. The neat resin without GSE was used as the control. Six resin beams (25 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm) per group were prepared for flexural strength and modulus of elasticity evaluations using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Five disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) per group were used for microhardness measurements using a Leitz micro-hardness tester with Leica Qgo software. Five disks (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) per group were prepared and stored in deionized water for 28 days. Water sorption, solubility, and GSE release in deionized water were calculated for each GSE-incorporated adhesive at the end of 28th day. Data was evaluated using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons. Results Flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and microhardness of GSE-incorporated adhesive decreased significantly with incorporation of 1.5% of GSE (p<0.05). Addition of GSE had no effect on the water sorption of the adhesive resins (p=0.33). The solubility of the resin also increased significantly with incorporation of 1.5% of GSE (p<0.05). Quantities of GSE release increased with increased concentration of GSE in the adhesive resin. Conclusion Up to 1% of GSE can be incorporated into a dental adhesive resin without interfering with the mechanical properties or solubility of the resins. PMID:28877280
Rayyan, Mohammad; Terkawi, Tammam; Abdo, Hajer; Abdel Azim, Dalia; Khalaf, Aseel; AlKhouli, Zenab; Meziad, Maha; Alshamma'a, Marwa; Abu Naim, Horiyah
The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of applying grape seed extract (GSE) gel in periodontal pockets for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Eighty-six sites with pocket depth (PD) >4 mm were selected from five systemically-healthy patients in whom scaling, and root planing were performed, and oral instructions were given, a week earlier. PD, gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured, and sites were then divided into the control group (N = 38) and GSE group (N = 48). Four doses of formulated 2% mucoadhesive GSE gel were applied to GSE group sites at baseline visit (T0), and 3, 6, and 9 days after T0. Similarly, a control gel was applied to the control sites. PD, PI, GI and BOP were re-evaluated after 4 weeks and 6 months of first gel application. Paired t test for both the control and GSE groups showed a significant reduction for all variables after 6 months of gel application (P < .05). The independent t test showed a significant difference (P < .05) only in the reduction of gingival index (mean: 0.85 ± 0.77 for control and 1.3 ± 0.8 for GSE) and plaque index (mean: 0.75 ± 0.71 for control and 1.12 ± 0.7 for GSE). The subgingival application of the formulated 2% mucoadhesive GSE gel showed significant improvement in the PI and GI only. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals.
Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Elbez, Yves; Caillard, Philippe; Zamaria, Nicolas; Cloarec, Maurice
The present study investigated the efficacy and safety effects of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic citrus dry extract) in weight management; metabolic parameters; and inflammatory, glycemic and oxidative status. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sinetrol-XPur was given to overweight subjects twice daily with meals in the tested group (N = 47) versus a placebo group (N = 48). Waist and hip circumference and abdominal fat were decreased in the Sinetrol-XPur group as compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001) (-5.71% vs. -1.56% for waist, -4.71% vs. -1.35% for hip and -9.73% vs. -3.18% for fat). Inflammatory markers were reduced (C-reactive protein: -22.87% vs. +61%; fibrinogen: -19.93% vs. -1.61%, p < 0.01). Oxidative stress was lowered as seen by the reduction of malondialdehyde (-14.03% vs. 2.76%) and the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione (17.38% vs. 2.19% and 4.63% vs. -2.36%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. Kidney, liver, and lipid panels remained unchanged. These results indicated that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing abdominal fat, waist and hip circumference, and body weight and for improving inflammatory, glycemic, and oxidative status in healthy overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yourdkhani, Mostafa; Leme-Kraus, Ariene Arcas; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; White, Scott R
To sustain the bioactivity of proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts via encapsulation within biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Polylactide microcapsules containing grape seed extract (GSE) were manufactured using a combination of double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. Microcapsule morphology, size distribution, and cross-section were examined via scanning electron microscopy. UV-vis measurements were carried out to evaluate the core loading and encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules. The bioactivity of extracts was evaluated after extraction from capsules via solvent partitioning one week or one year post-encapsulation process. Fifteen human molars were cut into 7mm×1.7mm×0.5mm thick mid-coronal dentin beams, demineralized, and treated with either encapsulated GSE, pristine GSE, or left untreated. The elastic modulus of dentin specimens was measured based on three-point bending experiments as an indirect assessment of the bioactivity of grape seed extracts. The effects of the encapsulation process and storage time on the bioactivity of extracts were analyzed. Polynuclear microcapsules with average diameter of 1.38μm and core loading of up to 38wt% were successfully manufactured. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean fold increase of elastic modulus values among the samples treated with encapsulated or pristine GSE (p=0.333), or the storage time (one week versus one year storage at room temperature, p=0.967). Polynuclear microcapsules containing proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts were prepared. The bioactivity of extracts was preserved after microencapsulation. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Karahara, Ichirou; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu
How biological form is determined is one of the important questions in developmental biology. Physical forces are thought to be the primary determinants of the biological forms, and several theories for this were proposed nearly a century ago. To evaluate how physical forces can influence biological forms, precise determination of cell and tissue shapes and their geometries is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for visualizing three-dimensional structures without destroying a sample. Because recent progress in micro-CT has enabled visualizing cells and tissues at the sub-micron level, we investigated if we could extract cell and tissue outlines of seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT available at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. We used Arabidopsis seeds because Arabidopsis is a well-known model plant and its seed size is small enough to obtain whole images using the X-ray CT experimental system. We could trace the outlines of tissues in dry seeds using beamline BL20B2 (10 keV, 2.4µm.pixel-1). Although we could also detect the outlines of some cell types, the image resolution was not adequate to extract whole cell edges. To detect the edges of cells in the epidermis and cortex, we obtained CT images using beamline BL20XU (8 keV, 0.5 µm.pixel-1). With these CT images, we could extract the facets and edges of each cell and determine cell vertices. This method enabled us to compare the numbers of cell facets among various cell types. We could also describe cell geometry as a set of points that showed these cell vertices.
Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa
To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.
Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok
Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.
Thouri, Amira; Chahdoura, Hassiba; El Arem, Amira; Omri Hichri, Amel; Ben Hassin, Rihab; Achour, Lotfi
The interest in natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols, is growing more and more thanks to their positive contribution to human health. Thus, the prevention from the harmful action of oxidative stress which has been involved in many diseases such as cancer, inflammation diabetes, and cardiovascular illness. Recent research proved the bioactive compounds richness of date seeds which could be a good biological matrix of natural antioxidants. Unfortunately, an important quantity of Tunisian dates seed is discarded yearly. In this study, different solvents extraction (water, methanol, absolute acetone and aqueous acetone 80%) were used and the evaluation of its effect on phytochemical level, in vitro antioxidant activities, in vitro hyperglycemia key enzymes inhibition and in vivo anti-inflammatory proprieties were established for Tunisian date seeds. The result revealed that the polar solvent exhibited the highest amount of bioactive compounds. The correlation between polyphenol compounds and the antioxidant potentiality explains the powerful effect of used polar solvents on inflammation, TBARS and hyperglycemia inhibition. Furthermore, it showed its higher capacity to scavenge radicals. Therefore, this big waste of Tunisian seeds could be used as cheap source of natural antioxidant compounds which are considered as a health challenge for the poor countries.
Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad
Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause. PMID:26732240
Patel, Dipak; Desai, Swati; Devkar, Ranjitsinh; Ramachandran, A.V.
Coriandrum sativum L. (CS) seeds are known to possess therapeutic potentials against a variety of physiological disorders. This study assesses acute and sub-chronic toxicity profile of hydro-methanolic extract of CS seeds using OECD guidelines. In acute toxicity study, mice were once orally administered 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight of CS extract. There were no any behavioral alterations or mortality recorded in CS treated groups. The LD50 value was more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the sub-chronic oral toxicity study, the animals were orally administered with CS extract (1000, 2000 and 3000mg/kg body weight) daily for 28 days whereas; vehicle control group received 0.5 % carboxy methyl cellulose. There was significant reduction in food intake, body weight gain and plasma lipid profiles of CS2 and CS3 (2000 and 3000 mg/kg body weight respectively) groups as compared to the control group. However, there were no alterations in haematological profile, relative organ weights, histology and plasma markers of damage of vital organs (heart, liver and kidney). The overall finding of this study indicates that CS extract is non-toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight and can be considered as safe for consumption. PMID:27847445
Bonnet-Duquennoy, Mathilde; Dumas, Marc; Debacker, Adeline; Lazou, Kristell; Talbourdet, Sylvie; Franchi, Jocelyne; Heusèle, Catherine; André, Patrice; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Bonté, Frédéric; Kurfürst, Robin
Studying photoexposed and photoprotected skin biopsies from young and aged women, it has been found that a specific zone, composed of the basal layers of the epidermis, the dermal epidermal junction, and the superficial dermis, is major target of aging and reactive oxygen species. We showed that this zone is characterized by significant variations at a transcriptional and/or protein levels. Using low-density DNA chip technology, we evaluated the effect of a natural mixture of Aframomum angustifolium seed extract containing labdane diterpenoids on these aging markers. Expression profiles of normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were studied using a customized cDNA macroarray system containing genes covering dermal structure, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress defense mechanisms. For normal human keratinocyte (NHK) investigations, we chose OLISA technique, a sensitive and quantitative method developed by BioMérieux specifically designed to investigate cell death, proliferation, epidermal structure, differentiation, and oxidative stress defense response. We observed that this extract strongly modified gene expression profiles of treated NHK, but weakly for NHF. This extract regulated antioxidant defenses, dermal-epidermal junction components, and epidermal renewal-related genes. Using low-density DNA chip technology, we identified new potential actions of A. angustifolium seed extract on skin aging.
Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal
The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).
Mornkham, Tanupat; Wangsomnuk, Preeya Puangsomlee; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.
D'hallewin, Guy; Schirra, Mario; Powell, Ann L. T.; Greve, L. Carl; Labavitch, John M.
Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) was extracted from 'Oroblanco' grapefruit type (triploid pummelo-grapefruit) albedo tissue, purified and partially characterized. Extraction was carried out at 4 degrees C with a high ionic strength extraction buffer. After dialysis and concentration by ultrafiltration the extract was chromatographed on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The PGIP activity was bound by the lectin and then eluted using 250 mM alpha-methyl mannopyranoside, resulting in a 17-fold purification of the PGIP and demonstrating its glycoprotein nature. The anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography steps that followed gave a PGIP that was 857-fold purified relative to the initial tissue extract, and having a 44 kDa molecular weight, as estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. PGIP inhibition activity was tested with endo-polygalacturonase (EC 126.96.36.199) produced by Penicillium italicum and Botrytis cinerea. The radial diffusion and reducing sugar assays showed that P. italicum and B. cinerea endo-PGs were affected by PGIP, whereas no endo-PG activity was detected in the culture filtrate of P. digitatum. In vitro tests revealed that PGIP inhibited P. italicum and B. cinerea growth. By contrast, the influence of PGIP on P. digitatum, growth was negligible, perhaps because this fungus does not produce endo-PG. Following heating for 10 min at 65 degrees C the inhibitory activity of PGIP was reduced by 43%. PGIP activity decreased further as heating temperature increased, and was completely suppressed after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min.
Abarikwu, Sunny O; Ogunlaja, Aemere; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Gideon, OlatunBosun
Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) is used in some folk medicines and widely consumed as a spice in some parts of Nigeria. Its efficacy as an anti-androgenic substance has warranted the attention of African scholars. This study evaluated the enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), sperm quality (motility, count, morphology), testosterone level and histo-pathological changes of the testis of rats chronically treated with ethanolic extract of the pods (without seeds), seeds, and fruits (pods + seeds) of Xylopia aethiopica. Male Wistar (224-246 g) rats were treated with the extract of the pods, seeds, and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica at the dose of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt. for 60 days. Serum biochemistry, sperm quality and histo-pathological examination of the testis were assessed for any treatment-related adverse effects. After treatment with Xylopia aethiopica, testosterone level was decreased dose-dependently in the animals treated with the seed extract compared to all other groups. The enzymatic activities of LDH and γ-GT were higher in rats treated with the seed and fruit extracts compared with those treated with the pods. The numbers of motile sperm, and counts were decreased while the numbers of sperm with morphological defects were higher in rats treated with the seed and fruit extracts compared to the control. Histopathological changes of the testis were also more severe in rats treated with the highest dose of the seed extract. We conclude that the compounds related to the anti-infertility effects of Xylopia aethiopica are present in the seeds.
Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A
Glucosinolates are β-thioglycosides which are found naturally in Cruciferae including the genus Brassica. When enzymatically hydrolysed, glucosinolates yield isothiocyanates and give a pungent taste. Both glucosinolates and isothiocyanates have been linked with anticancer activity as well as antifungal and antibacterial properties and therefore the quantification of these compounds is scientifically important. A wide range of literature exists on glucosinolates, however the extraction and quantification procedures differ greatly resulting in discrepancies between studies. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the most popular extraction procedures to identify the most efficacious method and whether each extraction can also be used for the quantification of total isothiocyanates. Four extraction techniques were compared for the quantification of sinigrin from mustard cv. Centennial (Brassica juncea L.) seed; boiling water, boiling 50% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile, boiling 100% methanol and 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol at 70 °C. Prior to injection into the HPLC, the extractions which involved solvents (acetonitrile or methanol) were freeze-dried and resuspended in water. To identify whether the same extract could be used to measure total isothiocyanates, a dichloromethane extraction was carried out on the sinigrin extracts. For the quantification of sinigrin alone, boiling 50% (v/v) acetonitrile was found to be the most efficacious extraction solvent of the four tested yielding 15% more sinigrin than the water extraction. However, the removal of the acetonitrile by freeze-drying had a negative impact on the isothiocyanate content. Quantification of both sinigrin and total isothiocyanates was possible when the sinigrin was extracted using boiling water. Two columns were compared for the quantification of sinigrin revealing the Zorbax Eclipse to be the best column using this particular method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna
The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026
Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A
The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.
Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L; Simmler, Charlotte; Kim, Youjin; Kuhn, Peter; Pauli, Guido F; Raskin, Ilya
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE), and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE), and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM). MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds. Optimization of the extraction process yielded an extract of 38.9% MIC-1. Phytochemical analysis of MSE revealed the presence of acetylated isothiocyanates, phenolic glycosides unique to moringa, flavonoids, fats and fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates. MSE showed a reduction in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (33% at 500 mg/kg MIC-1) comparable to aspirin (27% at 300 mg/kg), whereas CTE did not have any significant effect. In vitro, MIC-1 at 1 μM significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and at 5 μM, the gene expression of LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukins 1β and 6 (IL-1β and IL-6), whereas CEM did not show any significant activity at all concentrations tested. MIC-1 (10μM) was also more effective at upregulating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) than the CEM. Thus, in contrast to CTE and CEM, MSE and its major isothiocyanate MIC-1 displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro, making them promising botanical leads for the mitigation of inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders.
Simmler, Charlotte; Kim, Youjin; Kuhn, Peter; Pauli, Guido F.; Raskin, Ilya
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE), and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE), and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM). MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds. Optimization of the extraction process yielded an extract of 38.9% MIC-1. Phytochemical analysis of MSE revealed the presence of acetylated isothiocyanates, phenolic glycosides unique to moringa, flavonoids, fats and fatty acids, proteins and carbohydrates. MSE showed a reduction in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (33% at 500 mg/kg MIC-1) comparable to aspirin (27% at 300 mg/kg), whereas CTE did not have any significant effect. In vitro, MIC-1 at 1 μM significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and at 5 μM, the gene expression of LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukins 1β and 6 (IL-1β and IL-6), whereas CEM did not show any significant activity at all concentrations tested. MIC-1 (10μM) was also more effective at upregulating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) than the CEM. Thus, in contrast to CTE and CEM, MSE and its major isothiocyanate MIC-1 displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro, making them promising botanical leads for the mitigation of inflammatory-mediated chronic disorders. PMID:28792522
Dorado Achicanoy, Daniela; Hurtado Benavides, Andrés; Martínez-Correa, Hugo A
In the present investigation, the extraction of tamarillo seed oil was conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), under different conditions of pressure (20-38.1 MPa) and temperature (40-64°C). In order to determine the effect that these extraction parameters have over the yield and composition of the oil, a central composite design was used. The optimum yield was 21.07% obtained at 38.1 MPa and 64°C. The fatty acids of the tamarillo seed oil obtained with SC-CO2 were identified: linoleic (70.12%), oleic (16.18%), palmitic (9.68%), stearic (2.12%), linolenic (1.70%), and palmitoleic (0.23%). Other components, such as squalene (2.96-19.75 mg/mL), β-sitosterol (2.05-3.68 mg/mL), cycloartenol (1,23-2.81 mg/mL) dihydrolanosterol (0.28-0.70 mg/mL) sterols and γ-tocopherol (0.89-2.10 mg/mL) were also noted. The extraction kinetic was studied at 27.5 MPa -50°C and 38.1 MPa -64°C. The semi-empirical model of Sovová et al.  described 99.21% of the experimental behavior of extraction kinetics. High yields of tamarillo seed oil, as well as its unique composition of unsaturated fatty acids and minor components, show the potential for its application in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Matscheski, A; Richter, D-U; Hartmann, A-M; Effmert, U; Jeschke, U; Kupka, M S; Abarzua, S; Briese, V; Ruth, W; Kragl, U; Piechulla, B
Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of non-steroidal plant compounds. Because they have chemical structures similar to estrogens they are able to bind on estrogen receptors in humans. In this study, we tested the effects of crude phytoestrogen extracts from rye (Secale cereale), green pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow pea seeds (Pisum sativum cv.) on cell proliferation and the production of progesterone in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3. Isoflavone extracts from green and yellow pea seeds and lignan extracts from rye seeds were obtained, using different extraction methods. Isolated extracts were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast tumor cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. At designated times, aliquots were removed and tested for estradiol and progesterone production. In addition, we tested the effects of the phytoestrogen extracts on cell proliferation. Cell proliferation is significantly inhibited by potential phytoestrogens isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3. We found a correlation between the effects of proliferation and production of estradiol in isoflavone extracts from green and yellow pea seeds in Jeg3 cells. In addition, higher concentrations of isoflavones isolated from green pea seeds and lignans from rye showed also a inhibition of progesterone production whereas higher concentrations of rye lignans elevated estradiol production in Jeg3 cells. A useful indicator test system for potential phytoestrogens could be established. Based on the obtained results it is proposed that green and yellow pea seeds contain measurable concentrations of isoflavones and rye seeds contain lignans which can be isolated and used for special human diet programs. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
El-Fiky, F K; Abou-Karam, M A; Afify, E A
The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose level with a potency similar to that of the biguanide, metformin. The total glycaemic areas were 589.61 +/- 45.62 mg/dl/3 h and 660.38 +/- 64.44 mg/dl/3 h for L. aegyptiaca and metformin, respectively, vs. 816.73 +/- 43.21 mg/dl/3 h for the control (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in normal rats, both treatments produced insignificant changes in blood glucose levels compared to glibenclamide treatment.
... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapefruit import regulation. 944.106 Section 944.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapefruit import regulation. 944.106 Section 944.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapefruit import regulation. 944.106 Section 944.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapefruit import regulation. 944.106 Section 944.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944...
Zhan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Tian, Xing; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Xue, Lin; Tian, Li-Ping
Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris var. megalaspermus Lin et Chao, was also known as watermelon belongs to family Cucurbitaceae, variously used as healthy food and in the treatment of liver and lungs problems. Currently, Citrullus lanatus has become a major economic crop of medicinal and edible effects with regional characteristics. This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the seed melon (Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris var. megalaspermus Lin et Chao) extract (SME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. In this study, mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including normal control, model, silymarin tablets as the positive control, SME 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/kg. After 8 weeks, activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides (TG), hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) were checked. The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutataion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined after SME administration. The hydroxyproline (HYP) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and histopathologic examinations of hepatocyte fibrosis were also determined. Additionally, effects of SME on alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β1) protein expressions were determined. We found that SME could significantly lower the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers AST, ALT, HA and LN (P<0.01). Compared with the CCl 4 -only treatment group, levels of hepatic SOD and GSH-Px were significantly increased, and the MDA levels were remarkably decreased in mice treated by SME at medium dose (400mg/kg) and high dose (800mg/kg) (P<0.01). A histological examination of the liver showed that lesions, including necrosis, lymphocyte infiltration and fatty degeneration, were partially healed by treatment with SME. The results of protein expressions studies displayed that SME could inhibit α-SMA and TGF
Wu, Alex G.; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L.; Waterman, Carrie; Verzi, Michael P.; Raskin, Ilya
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers
Kim, Youjin; Wu, Alex G; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Graf, Brittany L; Waterman, Carrie; Verzi, Michael P; Raskin, Ilya
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers
Zhang, Haili; Liu, Shuang; Li, Lan; Liu, Shisong; Liu, Shuqi; Mi, Jia; Tian, Geng
Several clinical trials have shown that grape seed extract can reduce blood pressure, but the results are often irreproducible. We therefore sought to systematically evaluate the impact of grape seed extract treatment on the changes of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) by meta-analyzing available randomized controlled trials. Trial selection and data extraction were completed independently by 2 investigators. Effect-size estimates were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Twelve articles involving 16 clinical trials and 810 study subjects were analyzed. Overall analyses found significant reductions for SBP (WMD = -6.077; 95% CI: -10.736 to -1.419; P = 0.011) and DBP (WMD = -2.803; 95% CI: -4.417 to -1.189; P = 0.001) after grape seed extract treatment. In subgroup analyses, there were significant reductions in younger subjects (mean age < 50 years) for SBP (WMD = -6.049; 95% CI: -10.223 to -1.875; P = 0.005) and DBP (WMD = -3.116; 95% CI: -4.773 to -1.459; P < 0.001), in obese subjects (mean body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m) for SBP (WMD = -4.469; 95% CI: -6.628 to -2.310; P < 0.001), and in patients with metabolic syndrome for SBP (WMD = -8.487; 95% CI: -11.869 to -5.106; P < 0.001). Further meta-regression analyses showed that age, body mass index, and baseline blood pressure were negatively associated with the significant reductions of SBP and DBP after treatment. There was no indication of publication bias. Our findings demonstrate that grape seed extract exerted a beneficial impact on blood pressure, and this impact was more obvious in younger or obese subjects, as well as in patients with metabolic disorders. In view of the small sample size involved, we agree that confirmation of our findings in a large-scale, long-term, multiple-dose randomized controlled trial, especially among hypertensive patients is warranted.
Onsare, J G; Arora, D S
The increased microbial drug resistance due to biofilms and the side effects associated with the use of conventional drugs is still a major concern in the medical fraternity. This work evaluates the antibiofilm potential of flavonoids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat (SC) in search for green and effective alternatives for overcoming menace of biofilms. The study evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of flavonoids against respective test organisms, inhibition of initial cell attachment as well as disruption of preformed biofilms and metabolic activity of treated biofilms. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity as well as characterization of the active component were also carried out. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the lowest MIC of 0.05 mg ml(-1), the action of flavonoids and gentamicin on initial cell attachment revealed a comparable effect against bacterial biofilms, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with approx. 80% inhibition compared to Candida albicans. Disruption of the preformed biofilms revealed that susceptibility of P. aeruginosa began as early as 4 h of exposure to flavonoids with 88% growth inhibition at the end of 24-h incubation. Encouragingly, t-test analysis on the effect of the extract and the standard antibiotic against each organism indicated no significant variance at P < 0.05. A drastic low metabolic activity exhibited by the treated biofilms as compared to the untreated ones was further supportive of the antibiofilm potential of seed coat flavonoids. The bioactive component from M. oleifera seed coat has exhibited antibiofilm potential against the test organisms belonging to Gram positive, Gram negative and yeast. Antibiofilm potential and biosafety of plant-based flavonoids from M. oleifera seed coat reveal a prospective active principle that could be of use in biofilm-associated menace. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS) was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn). Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:2). The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%), lysine (6.04-8.36%), aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%), glycine (6.07-7.42%), alanine (5.24-6.14%), glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%), valine (4.5-5.50%), proline (3.87-4.81%), serine (4.39-5.18%), threonine (3.44-6.50%), isoleucine (3.30-4.07%), and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%). Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value. PMID:23062269
Küçükkurt, Ismail; Ince, Sinan; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Avci, Gülcan; Yeşilada, Erdem; Bacak, Elif
Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems. In Turkish folk medicine, tea prepared from the crushed seeds was used to pass kidney stone and against stomach ache, while a fraction of seed was swallowed to alleviate hemorrhoids symptoms. In order to evaluate the in vivo effects of escin mixture from Aesculus hippocastanum seed on the blood and tissue antioxidant defense systems in standard pellet diet (SPD) and in high-fat diet (HFD) consumed male mice. Escin mixture was obtained from the ethanol extract of seeds. Escin mixture was administered orally to male mice fed either standard pellet diet (SPD) or high-fat diet (HFD) at 100mg/kg doses daily for 5 weeks and the tissue (liver, kidney and heart) and blood samples were collected at the end of experimental period. The effect of escin mixture on the plasma antioxidant activity; blood and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; erythrocyte and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) in SPD and HFD consumed animals were experimentally studied. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Combined administration of high-fat diet with escin mixture decreased blood (p<0.01), liver (p<0.01), kidney (p<0.05), and heart (p<0.05) of MDA, liver SOD (p<0.01) and CAT (p<0.05) levels and increased blood (p<0.01) and liver GSH (p<0.001) levels in mice. The present results indicate that Aesculus hippocastanum increase the antioxidative defense system of the body and prevent HFD-induced lipid peroxidation in male mice. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Ghegotsky, M R
The purpose of this paper is to overview the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. In addition, we assessed whether these compounds are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically (i.g.). The following plant-originated flavonoid substances were considered; Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper). The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study where used 100% ethanol was applied i.g. to induce gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment with L-NNA. We conclude that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation.
Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A
Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Ding, Qingzhen; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie
A flash extraction method was used to isolate Elaeagnus mollis oil (EMO). The optimal extraction parameters, sample/solvent ratio and extraction temperature, were determined to be 1:10 (g/mL) and 40°C, respectively. Especially, the extraction yield reached 49.30% when the extraction time was as short as 2 min. No obvious difference was observed in fatty acid composition, iodine value, saponification number, total phenolic content and tocopherol content between flash-extracted EMO and Soxhlet-extracted EMO, but their physicochemical values were lower than those of cold-pressed EMO. Cold-pressed EMO had higher oxidation stability, DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities than flash-extracted EMO and Soxlet extracted EMO. The flash extraction is demonstrated to be an alternative, efficient method for the vegetable oil production.
Molho, David A; Sylvia, Stephen M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Merwin, Sara L; Levy, I Martin
To establish the construct validity of an arthroscopic training model that teaches arthroscopic tool skills including triangulation, grasping, precision biting, implant delivery and ambidexterity and uses a whole grapefruit for its training platform. For the grapefruit training model (GTM), an arthroscope and arthroscopic instruments were introduced through portals cut in the grapefruit skin of a whole prepared grapefruit. After institutional review board approval, participants performed a set of tasks inside the grapefruit. Performance for each component was assessed by recording errors, achievement of criteria, and time to completion. A total of 19 medical students, orthopaedic surgery residents, and fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons were included in the analysis and were divided into 3 groups based on arthroscopic experience. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey test were used for statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences in both time to completion and errors between groups, F(2, 16) = 16.10, P < .001; F(2, 16) = 17.43, P < .001. Group A had a longer time to completion and more errors than group B (P = .025, P = .019), and group B had a longer time to completion and more errors than group C (P = .023, P = .018). The GTM is an easily assembled and an alternative arthroscopic training model that bridges the gap between box trainers, cadavers, and virtual reality simulators. Our findings suggest construct validity when evaluating its use for teaching the basic arthroscopic tool skills. As such, it is a useful addition to the arthroscopic training toolbox. There is a need for validated low-cost arthroscopic training models that are easily accessible. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
Concentrations of grapefruit (cv. 'Rio Red'; Citrus paradisi Macf.) bioactives grown under organic and conventional production systems were evaluated after storage at various temperatures. The first experiment was conducted in November 2008 and the second experiment was conducted in February 2011 using commercial production, processing, and packing procedures. The harvested grapefruits were stored at 23 °C (room temperature) or 9 °C for 4 weeks and analyzed for vitamin C, limonoids, and carotenoids at the end of each week using HPLC. Vitamin C levels were higher in organically grown grapefruits (41.8 mg/100 g) compared to conventionally grown grapefruits (39.2 mg/100 g) at 0 days after harvest in the first experiment. However, production system did not significantly affect vitamin C levels in the second experiment. During storage at room temperature, vitamin C degradation losses ranged from 0.5 to 7% for organically produced grapefruits and from 3 to 18% for conventional grapefruits in both experiments. In the first experiment at harvest, organically produced grapefruits had 77% higher (p ≤ 0.05) nomilin than conventionally produced grapefruits, whereas grapefruits grown under the conventional production system had 2-fold higher lycopene levels compared to organic grapefruits. In the second experiment, both β-carotene and lycopene levels were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in conventionally produced grapefruits than in organic grapefruits. Overall, conventional production significantly increased grapefruit carotenoid levels in both experiments. In general, storage temperature (room temperature and 9 °C) had minimal effects on vitamin C degradation but significant effects on the degradation of carotenoids in the first experiment.
Zhang, Y B; Wang, L H; Zhang, D Y; Zhou, L L; Guo, Y X
The objective of this study is to develop a process consisting of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, silica-gel column chromatography and crystallization to optimize pilot scale recovery of schisandrin B (SAB) from Schisandra chinensis seeds. The effects of five independent variables including liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power, extraction time, and temperature on the SAB yield were evaluated with fractional factorial design (FFD). The FFD results showed that the ethanol concentration was the only significant factor for the yield of SAB. Then, with the liquid-solid ratio 5 (mL/g) and ultrasonic power 600 W, the other three parameters were further optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results revealed that the optimal conditions consisted of 95% ethanol, 60 °C and 70 min. The average experimental SAB yield under the optimum conditions was found to be 5.80 mg/g, which was consistent with the predicted value of 5.83 mg/g. Subsequently, a silica gel chromatographic process was used to prepare the SAB-enriched extract with petroleum ether/acetone (95:5, v/v) as eluents. After final crystallization, 1.46 g of SAB with the purity of 99.4% and the overall recovery of 57.1% was obtained from 400 g seeds powder. This method provides an efficient and low-cost way for SAB purification for pharmaceutical industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kokoska, L; Havlik, J; Valterova, I; Sovova, H; Sajfrtova, M; Jankovska, I
Nigella sativa L. seed essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), dry steam distillation (SD), steam distillation of crude oils obtained by solvent extraction (SE-SD), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-SD) were tested for their antibacterial activities, using the broth microdilution method and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the essential oils tested differed markedly in their chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities. The oils obtained by HD and SD were dominated by p-cymene, whereas the major constituent identified in both volatile fractions obtained by SD of extracted oils was thymoquinone (ranging between 0.36 and 0.38 g/ml, whereas in oils obtained by HD and SD, it constituted only 0.03 and 0.05 g/ml, respectively). Both oils distilled directly from seeds showed lower antimicrobial activity (MICs > or = 256 and 32 microg/ml for HD and SD, respectively) than those obtained by SE-SD and SFE-SD (MICs > or = 4 microg/ml). All oil samples were significantly more active against gram-positive than against gram-negative bacteria. Thymoquinone exhibited potent growth-inhibiting activity against gram-positive bacteria, with MICs ranging from 8 to 64 microg/ml.
Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian; Azami, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Ghomashlooyan, Mohsen
Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in human and animals. Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) is a medicinal plant which grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds of this plant have been used to treat parasitic disease, indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Niclosamid and alcoholic seed extract of C. sativum on Hymenolepis nana infection, in vivo and vitro. For in vivo study, Balb/c mice were used, to compare the efficacy of 50 mg/kg body weight (B.W) of Niclosamid with different doses of alcoholic extracts of C. sativum (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg B.W). It was found that the efficacy of Niclosamid had reached 100 % after 11 days post treatment, while the efficacy of 500 and 750 mg/kg B.W of C. sativum reached to 100 % after 15 days after treatment. For in vitro study, special nutrient broth media was used. It was found that the addition of 1000 mg/ml of Niclosamid had paralyzed and killed worms within 5 min, while C. sativum killed them within 30 min. Our results showed that extract of C. sativum has good effect against H. nana and could be use in traditional medicine for treatment of parasitic disease.
Yamakoshi, J; Kataoka, S; Koga, T; Ariga, T
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from grape seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1% and 1% in diets [w/w]) did not appreciably affect the changes in serum lipid profile of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract plus cholesterol than in the plasma of rabbits fed cholesterol alone, but not in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased in rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract. Feeding proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1 and 1% in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a decrease in the number of oxidized LDL-positive macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract. When proanthocyanidin-rich extract was administered orally to rats, proanthocyanidin was detected in the plasma by Porters method but not in the lipoproteins (LDL plus VLDL). In an in vitro experiment using human plasma, proanthocyanidin-rich extract added to the plasma inhibited the oxidation of cholesteryl linoleate in LDL, but not in the LDL isolated after the plasma and the extract were incubated in advance. These results suggested that proanthocyanidins, the major polyphenols in red wine, might trap reactive oxygen species in aqueous series such as plasma and interstitial fluid of the arterial wall, thereby inhibiting oxidation of LDL and showing an antiatherosclerotic activity.
Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A; Abutaha, Nael; Mashaly, Ashraf M A; Nasr, Fahd A; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Wadaan, Mohamed A
Effects of methanol extracts of Xanthium strumarium on different cancer cell lines and on the mortality rates of Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated. Among the cell lines tested, the Jurkat cell line was the most sensitive to the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction, with reported LC 50 values of 50.18 and 48.73 μg/ml respectively. Conversely, methanol extracts were not that toxic to the A549 cell line though the toxicity increased on further purification. The percentage of growth inhibition was dose dependent for the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The results showed that methanol extracts of plant seeds caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml after 24 h of treatment. The LC 50 and LC 90 values of X. strumarium were found to be 531.07 and 905.95 μg/ml against Ae. caspius and 502.32 and 867.63 μg/ml against Cx. Pipiens, respectively. From the investigations, it was concluded that the crude extract of X. strumarium showed a weak potential for controlling the larval instars of Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens . However, on further purification the extract lost the larvicidal activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The ethyl acetate fraction investigated in this study appears to have a weak larvicidal activity but a promising cytotoxic activity. Future studies will include purification and investigation in further detail of the action of X. strumarium on Cancer Cell Lines and mosquitoes.
Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.
We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929
Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I
We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079-0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log(10) decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy.
Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Abidali, Hussein; Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Dholaria, Kevin; Johnson, Cassandra; Kishore, Varsha A; Baltz, Aaron C
Grape seed extract (GSE) supplement use is becoming more popular today for its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic role. We report a 49-year-old male who presented with recurrent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute weakness following GSE use. A thorough medical workup ensued and no causes were identified clinically, procedurally, or with imaging. Symptoms resolved after GSE discontinuation and the patient remained symptom-free 5 years later. This case illustrates the paucity of documented detailed clinical cases and lack of controlled trials detailing a thorough and reproducible adverse effect profile of GSE supplement.
Aybastıer, Önder; Dawbaa, Sam; Demir, Cevdet
Phenolic compounds have been studied elaborately for their efficacy to improve health and to protect against a wide variety of diseases. Herein this study, different analysis methods were implemented to evaluate the antioxidant properties of catechin and cyanidin using their standard substances and as they found in the grape seeds extracts. Total phenol contents were 107.39±8.94mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for grape seed extract (GSE) and 218.32±10.66mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for acid-hydrolyzed grape seed extract (AcGSE). The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD system and the results showed the presence of catechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid in the processed methanolic extract and cyanidin, gallic acid and ellagic acid in the processed acidified methanolic extract. The protective abilities of catechin and cyanidin were tested against the oxidation of DNA. The results showed that cyanidin has better protection of DNA against oxidation than catechin. GSE and AcGSE were revealed to inhibit the oxidatively induced DNA damage. GSE decreased about 57% of damage caused by the Fenton control sample. This study could show new aspects of the antioxidant profiles of cyanidin and catechin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John
The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Saldaña, Marleny D A; Zetzl, Carsten; Mohamed, Rahoma S; Brunner, G
New experimental data on the extraction of caffeine from guaraná seeds and maté tea leaves, and theobromine from cocoa beans, with supercritical CO2 were obtained using a high-pressure extraction apparatus. The effect of the addition of ethanol to carbon dioxide on the extraction efficiency was also investigated. Caffeine extraction yields of 98% of the initial caffeine content in both wet ground guaraná seeds and maté tea leaves were obtained. Extractions of caffeine from guaraná seeds and maté tea leaves also exhibited a retrograde behavior for the two temperatures considered in this work. In the removal of theobromine from cocoa beans, a much smaller extraction yield was obtained with longer extraction periods and consequently larger solvent requirements. The results of this study confirm the higher selectivity of CO2 for caffeine in comparison with that for theobromine, and also the influence of other components in each particular natural product on the extraction of methylxanthines. The effect of the addition of ethanol to carbon dioxide on the extraction of methylxanthines was significant, particularly in the extraction of theobromine from cocoa beans. In general, the use of ethanol results in lower solvent and energy requirements and thereby improved extraction efficiency.
Rababah, Taha M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny
The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.
Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Mirzaei, HabibOllah; Ghodsvali, Alireza; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad
Application of novel technologies such as microwave and pulsed electric fields (PEF) might increase the speed and efficiency of oil extraction. In the present research, PEF (3.25 kV/cm electric field intensity and 30 pulse number) and microwave (540 W for 180 s) pretreatments were used to study the process of oil extraction from black cumin ( Nigella sativa ) seeds. After applying the selected pretreatments, the oil of seeds was extracted with the use of a screw press and the extraction efficiency, refractive index, oil density, color index, oxidative stability, and chemical components of oil and protein of meal were evaluated. The achieved results expressed that PEF and microwave pretreatments increased the oil extraction efficiency and its oxidative stability. Different pretreatments didn't have any significant influence on the refractive index of black cumin seed oil ( p >.05). When microwave and PEF were used, the oil density showed an enhancement as the following: 1.51% and 0.96%, respectively in comparison with the samples with no pretreatments. Evaluation of the extracted oils, using GC/MS analysis indicated that thymoquinone was the dominant phenolic component in the black cumin oil. Finally, the SEM analysis revealed that microwave and PEF can be useful in the extraction of oil from black cumin seeds since these treatments damaged cell walls and facilitated the oil extraction process.
Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe
Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 73.26-78.24% on consumption of the extracts, with greater effect exhibited by the 600 mg/kg extract. In normal rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 34.68-38.9% on consumption of the seed extract. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect on the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. The result suggested restorative (protective) effect of the