Science.gov

Sample records for grapes vitis vinifera

  1. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  2. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  3. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  4. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  5. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  6. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  7. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  8. Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Herbert, K S; Umina, P A; Mitrovski, P J; Powell, K S; Viduka, K; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). The distribution and frequency of phylloxera clone lineages vary within infested regions of Australia, suggesting the introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae with host associations. Virulence levels of particular phylloxera clones may vary on V. vinifera, but much of this evidence is indirect. In this study, we directly tested the performance of phylloxera clones on V. vinifera using an established excised root assay and a new glasshouse vine assessment. In the root assay, grape phylloxera clones differed in egg production and egg to adult survivorship. In the vine assay, clones differed in the number of immature and adult life stages on roots. In addition vine characteristics, including mean stem weight, root weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area, were affected by different phylloxera clones. The two most widespread clones displayed high levels of virulence. These results point to only some phylloxera clones being highly virulent on V. vinifera, helping to explain patterns of field damage, phylloxera distributions and continued survival and production of V. vinifera vines in some infested areas.

  9. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  10. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine.

  11. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine. PMID:28377754

  12. Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2006-01-25

    This paper reports an attempt to functionally and chemically characterize commercial ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. grape skins, grape pomace, and leaves, which are used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. The antioxidant capacity of these ingredients was assessed for the first time by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methodology. Ingredients from grape skins and pomace (n = 17) showed ORAC values from 1.38 to 21.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg whereas ingredients from leaves (n = 4) showed ORAC values from 1.52 to 2.55 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization-mass sprectrometry analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols revealed the authenticity of the ingredients as derived from V. vinifera L. and confirmed large differences in their phenolic content and distribution. A progressive decline in both antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin content of a grape skin ingredient (43 and 40% decrease, respectively) was observed over a 60 day storage period (45 degrees C and 75% relative humidity), demonstrating its poor stability under these conditions.

  13. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  14. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  15. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  16. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  17. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages.

  18. [MAST2-like protein kinase from grape vine Vitis vinifera: cloning of catalytic domain cDNA].

    PubMed

    Briantseva, S A; Gavriushina, E S; Emets, A I; Karpov, P A; Blium, Ia B; Drygin, Iu F; Nadezhdina, E S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our work is the identification of protein kinases phosphorylating microtubule proteins in plant cells. Using bioinformatic approach, we found genes of putative homologues of microtubule-associated mammalian protein kinase MAST2 in higher plant genomes. The gene of closest MAST2 homologue, putative protein, named GMLK (Grape MAST2-Like Kinase, A7NTE9_VITVI), was found in grape Vitis vinifera. We report here the cloning of cDNA of GMLK (A7NTE9) from Pinot Noir grape vine leaves.

  19. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    PubMed

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients.

  20. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  1. Cellular expansion and gene expression in the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Schlosser, J; Olsson, N; Weis, M; Reid, K; Peng, F; Lund, S; Bowen, P

    2008-01-01

    Expression profiles of genes involved in cell wall metabolism and water transport were compared with changes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry growth, basic chemical composition, and the shape, size, and wall thickness of cells within tissues of the berry pericarp. Expression of cell wall-modifying and aquaporin genes in berry pericarp tissues generally followed a bimodal expression profile with high levels of expression coinciding with the two periods of rapid berry growth, stages I and III, and low levels of expression corresponding to the slow-growth period, stage II. Cellular expansion was observed throughout all tissues during stage I, and only mesocarp cellular expansion was observed during stage III. Expansion of only exocarp cells was evident during transition between stages II and III. Cell wall-modifying and aquaporin gene expression profiles followed similar trends in exocarp and mesocarp tissues throughout berry development, with the exception of the up-regulation of pectin methylesterase, pectate lyase, two aquaporin genes (AQ1 and AQ2), and two expansin genes (EXP3 and EXPL) during stage II, which was delayed in the exocarp tissue compared with mesocarp tissue. Exocarp endo-(1-->3)-beta-glucanase and expansin-like gene expression was concurrent with increases in epidermal and hypodermal cell wall thickness. These results indicate a potential role of the grape berry skin in modulating grape berry growth.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated

  3. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  4. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  5. Assessment of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries using a noninvasive chlorophyll fluorescence method.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Meyer, Sylvie; Matteini, Paolo; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2007-02-21

    Anthocyanins (Anths) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries harvested at véraison from Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier cultivars were assessed nondestructively by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra. With increasing Anth content, less excitation light was transmitted to the deeper Chl layers, and thus the ChlF signal decreased proportionally. By applying Beer-Lambert's law, the logarithm of the ratio between the fluorescence excitation spectra (log FER) from a green and a red berry gave the in vivo absorption spectrum of Anths, which peaked at about 540 nm. Absolute quantitative nondestructive determination of Anths for each berry was obtained by the log FER calculated for two excitation wavelengths, 540 and 635 nm (absorbed and not-absorbed by Anths, respectively) of ChlF at 685 nm. Over a range of skin colors going from green to purple, the relationship between the log [ChlF(635)/ChlF(540)] and the Anth concentration of berry extracts was fairly well fitted (r 2 = 0.92) using a power function. Reflectance spectra on the same berry samples were also measured, and Anth reflectance indices, which were originally developed for apples and table grapes, were derived. The log FER Anth index was superior to the reflectance-ratio-based index, but was as good as the color index for red grapes (CIRG) calculated from the whole visible reflectance spectrum. The proposed log FER method, applied by means of suitable portable devices, may represent a new, rapid, and noninvasive tool for the assessment of grape phenolic maturity in vineyards.

  6. Free radical scavenging of grape pomace extracts from Cabernet sauvingnon (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    de Campos, Luanda M A S; Leimann, Fernanda V; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2008-11-01

    Pressed grape pomace obtained from the wine production of Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vintage was dried until 9.8% moisture content, ground and submitted to extraction of soluble components from different extraction techniques. Low pressure extractions were performed with ethanol maceration followed by fractionation with n-hexane, dichloromethane, butanol and ethyl acetate. These solvents were furthermore applied for soxhlet extraction. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was also performed to obtain grape pomace extracts by using pure CO2 and CO2 with ethanol as co-solvent in concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%w/w. The operating condition used in high pressure extractions was 150bar and 40 degrees C. The antioxidant activity of the grape pomace extracts was determined considering the free radical scavenging assay using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and was correlated with the total phenol content determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results obtained in DPPH tests indicate the highest antioxidant activity of 96.6+/-0.3%AA, with an IC50 value of 13+/-1, for the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate in solid-liquid extraction. The highest yield values were achieved in soxhlet extraction with ethanol (13.2%w/w) and with butanol (12.2%w/w), and also by SFE with 15% ethanol (9.2%w/w). The lipophilic composition of grape pomace extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the identification of components like linoleic acid and ethyl linoleate, with important therapeutic activities.

  7. Dynamic Relation between Expansion and Cellular Turgor in Growing Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Matthews, Mark A.; Morrison, Janice C.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the growth and water relations of expanding grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves have been used to determine the relationship between leaf expansion rate and leaf cell turgor. Direct measurement of turgor on the small (approximately 15 micrometer diameter) epidermal cells over the midvein of expanding grape leaves was made possible by improvements in the pressure probe technique. Leaf expansion rate and leaf water status were perturbed by environmentally induced changes in plant transpiration. After establishing a steady state growth rate, a step decrease in plant transpiration resulted in a rapid and large increase in leaf cell turgor (0.25 megapascal in 5 minutes), and leaf expansion rate. Subsequently, leaf expansion rate returned to the original steady state rate with no change in cell turgor. These results indicate that the expansion rate of leaves may not be strongly related to the turgor of the leaf cells, and that substantial control of leaf expansion rate, despite changes in turgor, may be part of normal plant function. It is suggested that a strictly physical interpretation of the parameters most commonly used to describe the relationship between turgor and growth in plant cells (cell wall extensibility and yield threshold) may be inappropriate when considering the process of plant cell expansion. PMID:16665579

  8. QTL analysis for fruit yield components in table grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Fanizza, G; Lamaj, F; Costantini, L; Chaabane, R; Grando, M S

    2005-08-01

    A segregation population of 184 genotypes derived from a pseudo-testcross of table grapes (Vitis vinifera), together with 203 AFLP and 110 SSR markers was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit yield components. Diffferent QTLs, a low percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the QTLs detected and QTL instability over years were detected for each fruit yield component. These results confirm the complex genetic architecture of the yield components in grapevine due to the perennial nature of this species, which has to adapt to yearly variations in climate. Phenotypic correlation analyses between fruit yield components were also performed. The negative correlation between berry weight and the number of berries per cluster seems to have an indirect negative effect on cluster weight, as revealed by the path coefficient analysis; however, this negative correlation was not supported at the molecular level because no coincident QTLs were observed between these traits. Nonetheless, the possibility to select seedless genotypes with large berries without affecting cluster weight needs to be substantiated in future experiments because factors such as sample size and heritability might influence QTL identification in table grapes.

  9. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  10. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits.

  11. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Alain; Torregrosa, Laurent; Iocco, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal co-cultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system which meets the above mentioned criteria.

  12. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  13. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  14. Chemical characterization of red wine grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis interspecific hybrids) and pomace phenolic extracts and their biological activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Thimothe, Joanne; Bonsi, Illeme A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Koo, Hyun

    2007-12-12

    Grapes are rich sources of potentially bioactive polyphenols. However, the phenolic content is variable depending on grape variety, and may be modified during vinification. In this study, we examined the chemical composition and biological activity of phenolic extracts prepared from several red wine grape varieties and their fermented byproduct of winemaking (pomace) on some of the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans a well-known dental pathogen. Grape phenolic extracts were obtained from Vitis vinifera varieties Cabernet Franc and Pinot Noir and Vitis interspecific hybrid varieties Baco Noir and Noiret. The anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols content were highly variable depending on grape variety and type of extract (whole fruit vs fermented pomace). Nevertheless, all grape phenolic extracts remarkably inhibited glucosyltransferases B and C (70-85% inhibition) at concentrations as low as 62.5 microg/mL (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the glycolytic pH-drop by S. mutans cells was inhibited by the grape extracts without affecting the bacterial viability; an effect that can be attributed to partial inhibition of F-ATPase activity (30-65% inhibition at 125 microg/mL; P < 0.01). The biological activity of fermented pomace was either as effective as or significantly better than whole fruit grape extracts. The results showed that grape phenolic extracts, especially from pomace, are highly effective against specific virulence traits of S. mutans despite major differences in their phenolic content.

  15. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  16. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism.

  17. Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine.

  18. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  19. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  20. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sucrose Synthase Gene Family in Grape (Vitis vinifera): Structure, Evolution, and Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Mengqi; Li, Xiaopeng; Jiu, Songtao; Wang, Chen; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-03-28

    Sucrose synthase (SS) is widely considered as the key enzyme involved in the plant sugar metabolism that is critical to plant growth and development, especially quality of the fruit. The members of SS gene family have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes. However, detailed information about this gene family is lacking in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of the grape (V. vinifera) genome and reported that there are five SS genes (VvSS1-5) in the grape genome. Comparison of the structures of grape SS genes showed high structural conservation of grape SS genes, resulting from the selection pressures during the evolutionary process. The segmental duplication of grape SS genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses between grape and soybean (Glycine max) demonstrated that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of grape and soybean. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct evolutionary paths for the grape SS genes. VvSS1/VvSS5, VvSS2/VvSS3 and VvSS4 originated from three ancient SS genes, which were generated by duplication events before the split of monocots and eudicots. Bioinformatics analysis of publicly available microarray data, which was validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvSS genes in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results will be beneficial for further investigations into the functions of SS gene in the processes of grape resistance to environmental stresses.

  2. Phytoseiidae in European grape (Vitis vinifera L.): bio-ecological aspects and keys to species (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    PubMed

    Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Baldassar, Andrea; Duso, Carlo; Kreiter, Serge

    2013-01-01

    The family Phytoseiidae includes many species of predators involved in the control of mite pests of crops all over the world. In European vineyards, these natural enemies play a key role in plant protection as their presence usually makes the use of acaricides unnecessary. Each species has its specific biological features. It is thus of great interest to identify the species reported on grape, Vitis vinifera. The present paper, based on a world database of the family Phytoseiidae and on an analysis of more than 250 publications, presents the 54 species of Phytoseiidae belonging to 15 genera reported on V. vinifera in Europe, and identification keys to species. Online versions of the key (dichotomous and polytomous) with illustrations are available at http://wwwl.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/phytoseiidae/sitewebvineyards2/index.htm. An analysis of the biogeographic distribution of these species and their prey has also been carried out. Most species reported on V. vinifera in Europe are rare; only five species are frequently observed: Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) pyri, Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus, Euseius finlandicus and Phytoseius finitimus. The 12 countries where Phytoseiidae have been reported from grapes have been unevenly surveyed, the most well-known faunas being from Italy, Greece and France. These species are reported to prey upon the main species of mite pests of grapes.

  3. Varietal Dependence of GLVs Accumulation and LOX-HPL Pathway Gene Expression in Four Vitis vinifera Wine Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Ke-Ji; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Variety is one of the major factors influencing grape and wine aromatic characteristics. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), derived from lipoxygenase-hydroperoxides lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway, are important components for the aromatic quality of grapes and wines. However, the varietal difference regarding GLVs accumulation and related gene expression are poorly studied. This work exhibited that the accumulation of various GLVs and the expression of LOX-HPL pathway genes in four Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars: Syrah, Muscat Tchervine, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay. The results showed a variety dependence of GLVs profile. Muscat Tchervine harvested grapes contained less C6 aldehydes and the most abundant esters, which corresponded to very low VvLOXA and VvHPL1 expression abundance as well as high VvAAT transcript in this variety. High expression level of both VvLOXA and VvHPL1 paralleled with higher level of C6 aldehydes together with higher alcohols in Syrah grape. Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay grapes had high aldehydes and alcohols as well as low esters, which were resulted from their higher expression level of VvLOXA or VvHPL1 and lower VvAAT. From these above corresponding relations, it is concluded that VvLOXA, VvHPL1 and VvAAT in the LOX-HPL pathway are targets for altering GLVs composition in the grape varieties. PMID:27886056

  4. Ecophysiological and phytochemical response to ozone of wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Alessio; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Rita Santamaria, Anna; Nicoletti, Marcello; Toniolo, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Bernardini, Alessandra; Pasqua, Gabriella; Manes, Fausto

    2015-12-18

    Vitis vinifera sensitivity to tropospheric ozone (O3) has been evidenced in several studies. In this work, physiological and metabolic effects of O3 on two wine cultivars of V. vinifera (i.e. Maturano and San Giuseppe) have been studied. Moreover, chlorogenic acid (CGA) production, in consideration of its importance in the biosynthetic pathway of polyphenols and as antioxidant, has been investigated. Maturano cultivar resulted more sensitive to O3, as evidenced by the gas exchange reduction at the early stage of treatment, and by the increase in Ci/Ca and the decoupling of net photosynthesis and the stomatal conductance at the end of the treatment. Unexpectedly, O3 did not activate stilbene production. Ozone induced an early CGA decrease, significantly more consistent in cv. Maturano, and an increase after 8 days, more consistent in cv. S. Giuseppe. These results suggest that CGA could be considered a biochemical marker of O3-induced stress in V. vinifera.

  5. Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols from grapes and wines of Vitis vinifera cv. Cesanese d'Affile.

    PubMed

    Mulinacci, N; Santamaria, A R; Giaccherini, C; Innocenti, M; Valletta, A; Ciolfi, G; Pasqua, G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the amount of some potential health-promoting phenols in the grape of Vitis vinifera cv. Cesanese d'Affile and in wines made from these grapes. The analyses were performed using HPLC/DAD/MS. The accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flavan-3-ols in the seed was determined at different stages of ripening of the grape (i.e. green, veraison, middle stage of ripening, and complete ripening). Thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the skin at all stages of ripening, except the green stage. With regard to flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin gallate were detected in all of the seed samples. The highest (+)-catechin content was found in the seeds of the green grape (2 mg g(-1) DW), whereas in the seeds from the completely ripe grape the content was more than ten times lower. The highest catechin content in the seed was correlated with the lowest anthocyanin content in the skin. The wines produced in the years 2004 and 2005 showed, at wavelengths of 520 and 280 nm, almost identical quali-quantitative chromatographic profiles, with high concentrations of anthocyanin 3-O-glucosides, low concentrations of acylated anthocyanins, and trace amounts of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin.

  6. Chemical Changes in Grape Stem and Their Relationship to Stem Color throughout Berry Ripening in Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yudan; Kravchuk, Olena; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-01-22

    Little attention has been paid to the color change or chemical compositional changes that occur in grape stems and how this correlates with the berry ripening process. Recently we have found that the change in grape peduncle color of Shiraz (Vitis vinifera) from green at veraison to predominantly brown at harvest occurs in parallel with berry ripening and as such may represent a new way of assisting in the prediction of grape maturity and harvest date. We have now investigated further the link between certain key chemical compositional changes that occur in the grape stem (peduncle and rachis) from veraison to harvest and how these attributes correlate with the observed color change in the vineyard. We report that peduncle moisture content has an excellent linear correlation with the color hue value and is negatively correlated in a strong fashion with the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment ratio (Ca+b/Cx+c) within the peduncles. Significant differences in the moisture content, total chlorophylls (including chlorophyll a and b levels), total carotenoids, total phenolics, and the antioxidant capacity (DPPH) levels between the peduncles and rachises were found as they evolve from veraison to harvest. Finally, we have demonstrated for the first time that peduncle moisture content codevelops with the prototypical berry ripeness parameters ((o)Brix, pH, TA), which provides for the development of a new approach for viticulturists and winemakers to evaluate grape ripeness through peduncle moisture levels and therefore assist in harvest decision making.

  7. The comparative analysis of the potential relationship between resveratrol and stilbene synthase gene family in the development stages of grapes (Vitis quinquangularis and Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangli; He, Mingyang; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Huan; Ding, Jiahua; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; He, Jing; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is positively correlated with grapevine disease resistance and its consumption is also highly beneficial to human health. HPLC analyses showed that resveratrol content was significantly higher in most wild Chinese grapevines than in most European Vitis vinifera grapevine cvs. Fruit of the wild Chinese genotype Vitis quinquangularis Danfeng-2 contains much higher levels of resveratrol than some others. Because stilbene synthase is responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, 41 full-length stilbene synthase genes were isolated from Danfeng-2 using the RACE method. A neighbor-joining tree of the STS family displayed high similarity between Danfeng-2 and V. vinifera cv. Pinot Noir. The content of the endogenous stilbene synthase family in tissues and the expression levels induced by powdery mildew were both higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Moreover, expression in the berry was significantly higher than in the leaves. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol accumulation was consistent with endogenous STS gene expressions, and that both were higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Therefore, STS genes and producing resveratrol from V. quinquangularis played more important role in Vitis resistance. Otherwise, the gene VqSTS6 was markedly higher than the other VqSTS genes in the six tissues/organs assayed by Real-time PCR, which will offer a useful basis for commercial application of resveratrol from Chinese wild grapes.

  8. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape.

  9. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  10. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  11. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  12. Biochemical and genetic polymorphisms for carboxylesterase and acetylesterase in grape clones of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Orasmo, Gleice Ribeiro; Oliveira-Collet, Sandra A; Lapenta, Ana Sílvia; de Fátima P S Machado, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was employed to show the highest number of esterase loci and to detect alpha- and beta-esterase polymorphisms in leaf buds of Vitis vinifera cultivars. A total of 16 esterase isozymes were detected in leaf buds from 235 plants including Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil cultivars. Biochemical characterization of the grape esterases using ester substrates revealed alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases with inhibitor tests distinguishing both carboxylesterases (EST-2, EST-3, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7, EST-8, EST-9, EST-10, and EST-16 isozymes) and acetylesterases (EST-4, EST-11, EST-12, EST-13, EST-14, EST-15 isozymes). No allele variation for alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases was detected; however, EST-3 alpha-carboxylesterase was absent in 61.7% of vines, and EST-4 alpha/beta-acetylesterase was absent in one vine of Rubi cv. Null EST-3 carboxylesterase phenotype (61.7%) cannot be explained in this article, but the high genetic polymorphism in four V. vinifera clones is a positive aspect for genetic selection and development of new clones with different characteristics.

  13. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  14. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  15. Proanthocyanidin composition and antioxidant potential of the stem winemaking byproducts from 10 different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-12-05

    Stem byproducts from 10 different grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents, flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin profiles, and antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, and ORAC assays, with a view to the recovery of their natural bioactive compounds. Stems from Callet, Syrah, Premsal Blanc, Parellada, and Manto Negro varieties yielded the highest total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents and showed the greatest antioxidant capacities, whereas Chardonnay and Merlot stems presented the lowest values. Varieties differed significantly (p<0.05) with regard to both the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of their stems. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were observed when stems from red and white varieties were considered separately. For the 10 grape varieties investigated, this is the first study presenting a detailed description of their stem flavan-3-ol composition determined by HPLC-UV-fluo. All of the analyses confirmed the stem byproducts as a potential polyphenol-rich source, especially promising in the case of the Callet variety.

  16. Flavanol quantification of grapes via Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry. Application to the differentiation among clones of Vitis vinifera L. cv Rufete grapes.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Escribano-Bailon, M Teresa

    2017-02-03

    The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and inter-day precision (lower than 5%) and the LOD and LOQ values, low enough to quantify flavanols in grapes, are good results from the method validation procedure. Its usefulness has also been tested by determining the detailed composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv Rufete grapes. Seventy-two (38 non-galloylated and 34 galloylated) and 53 (24 procyanidins and 29 prodelphinidins) flavanols have been identified and quantified in grape seed and grape skin, respectively. The use of HCA and PCA on the detailed flavanol composition has allowed the differentiation among Rufete clones.

  17. Ontology-oriented retrieval of putative microRNAs in Vitis vinifera via GrapeMiRNA: a web database of de novo predicted grape microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Barbara; Caprera, Andrea; Cestaro, Alessandro; Merelli, Ivan; Del Corvo, Marcello; Fontana, Paolo; Milanesi, Luciano; Velasco, Riccardo; Stella, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Background Two complete genome sequences are available for Vitis vinifera Pinot noir. Based on the sequence and gene predictions produced by the IASMA, we performed an in silico detection of putative microRNA genes and of their targets, and collected the most reliable microRNA predictions in a web database. The application is available at . Description The program FindMiRNA was used to detect putative microRNA genes in the grape genome. A very high number of predictions was retrieved, calling for validation. Nine parameters were calculated and, based on the grape microRNAs dataset available at miRBase, thresholds were defined and applied to FindMiRNA predictions having targets in gene exons. In the resulting subset, predictions were ranked according to precursor positions and sequence similarity, and to target identity. To further validate FindMiRNA predictions, comparisons to the Arabidopsis genome, to the grape Genoscope genome, and to the grape EST collection were performed. Results were stored in a MySQL database and a web interface was prepared to query the database and retrieve predictions of interest. Conclusion The GrapeMiRNA database encompasses 5,778 microRNA predictions spanning the whole grape genome. Predictions are integrated with information that can be of use in selection procedures. Tools added in the web interface also allow to inspect predictions according to gene ontology classes and metabolic pathways of targets. The GrapeMiRNA database can be of help in selecting candidate microRNA genes to be validated. PMID:19563653

  18. Effect of two different treatments for reducing grape yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on wine composition and quality: berry thinning versus cluster thinning.

    PubMed

    Gil, M; Esteruelas, M; González, E; Kontoudakis, N; Jiménez, J; Fort, F; Canals, J M; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Zamora, F

    2013-05-22

    The influence of two treatments for reducing grape yield, cluster thinning and berry thinning, on red wine composition and quality were studied in a Vitis vinifera cv Syrah vineyard in AOC Penedès (Spain). Cluster thinning reduced grape yield per vine by around 40% whereas berry thinning only reduced it by around 20%. Cluster thinning grapes had higher soluble solids content than control grapes, and their resultant wines have greater anthocyanin and polysaccharide concentrations than the control wine. Wine obtained from berry thinning grapes had a higher total phenolic index, greater flavonol, proanthocyanidin, and polysaccharide concentrations, and lower titratable acidity than the control wine. Wines obtained from both treatments were sufficiently different from the control wine to be significantly distinguished by a trained panel in a triangular test. Even though both treatments seem to be effective at improving the quality of wine, berry thinning has the advantage because it has less impact on crop yield reduction.

  19. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  20. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  1. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed Central

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  2. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  3. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Results Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. Conclusions In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated

  4. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  5. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  6. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  7. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-09-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu's assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower concentrations were effective compared to higher concentrations, whereas gluco-amylase enzyme did not show remarkable variations. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were significantly higher in the cellulase digested grape pomace compared to the gluco-amylase digested and the not digested grape pomace. It is notable that enzymatic digestions were efficient for extracting polyphenols from grape pomace. The underutilized grape pomace polyphenols can be further used for food safety as a natural antioxidant.

  8. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.

  9. Morphological and phylogenetic identification of Botrytis sinoviticola, a novel cryptic species causing gray mold disease of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y J; Zhang, J; Wang, X D; Yang, L; Jiang, D H; Li, G Q; Hsiang, T; Zhuang, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five isolates of Botrytis collected from table grapes (Vitis vinifera) with gray mold symptoms in China were identified based on morpho-cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar (20 C) and/or phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2). Isolates of different species of Botrytis were compared with fenhexamid sensitivity, Bc-hch gene-RFLP haplotyping and pathogenicity to V. vinifera. The 75 isolates comprise two species, B. cinerea (63 isolates) and an undescribed Botrytis sp. (12 isolates) described here as Botrytis sinoviticola Zhang et al. sp., nov. Both B. sinoviticola (Bs) and B. cinerea (Bc) were found to have 20 C optimum for mycelial growth and 25 C for conidial germination. Sensitivity to fenhexamid was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for Bc (EC50 = 0.04 ± 0.01 μg mL(-1)) than for Bs (EC50 = 0.08 ± 0.02 μg mL(-1)). Digestion of the PCR amplicons of the Bc-hch gene with Hha I generated two haplotypes, Group I haplotype for Bs and Group II haplotype for Bc. Bs infected table grapes (leaves, berries) only through wounds, whereas Bc infected both injured and non-injured tissues of table grapes. This study suggests that Bs is a cryptic species sympatric with Bc on table grapes in China.

  10. Distribution of resveratrol and stilbene synthase in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and the effect of UV-C on its accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ke; Yang, Hao-Ru; Wen, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Current research indicated that the resveratrol was mainly accumulated in the skin of grape berry, however, little is yet known about the distribution of resveratrol, as well as the regulation mechanism at protein level and the localization of stilbene synthase (malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.95; STS), a key enzyme of resveratrol biosynthesis, in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Resveratrol, whose constitutive level ranged from 0.2 mg kg(-1) FW to 16.5 mg kg(-1) FW, could be detected in stem, axillary bud, shoot tip, petiole, root and leaf of grape plants. Among them, stem phloems presented the most abundant of resveratrol, and the leaves presented the lowest. Interestingly, the level of STS mRNA and protein were highest in grape leaves. And the analysis of immunohistochemical showed the tissue-specific distribution of STS in different organs, presenting the similar results compared with the amount of protein. And the subcellular localization revealed that the cell wall in different tissues processed the most golden particles representing STS. Subjecting to UV-C irradiation, resveratrol and STS were both intensely stimulated in grape leaves, with the similar response pattern. Results above indicated that distribution of resveratrol and STS in grape was organ-specific and tissue-specific. And the accumulation of resveratrol induced by UV-C was regulated by transcriptional and translational level of STS.

  11. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  12. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera L. and hybrid red grapes by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of berry skin anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2012-05-09

    Among the methods that have been developed for anthocyanin characterization, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers several analytical advantages in terms of speed, minimal sample handling, specificity, and reliability, without requiring any previous chromatographic separation. This study used MALDI-TOF MS to profile the anthocyanins from the berry skins of 23 red grape varieties clustered as (i) authentic Vitis vinifera grapes, (ii) American hybrid cultivars, and (iii) Casavecchia cultivars, previously characterized as functional crosses of V. vinifera with nondefined hybrid grapevines. Anthocyanin profiling demonstrated evidence of several varietal traits that enabled the differentiation of authentic V. vinifera from hybrid cultivars on a molecular basis. In particular, acyl 3,5-O-diglucoside anthocyanins were established as easily monitored molecular markers of the hybrid varieties. It was also demonstrated that MALDI-post source decay MS is a powerful tool to differentiate isobaric 3,5-O-diglucosides and their derivatives, which prevail in hybrid cultivars, from acylated 3-O-glucoside anthocyanins.

  13. Perturbation of polyamine catabolism affects grape ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Ali, Kashif; Choi, Young H; Sousa, Lisete; Verpoorte, Rob; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Fortes, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are economically the most important fruit worldwide. However, the complexity of biological events that lead to ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood, particularly the role of polyamines' catabolism. The transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data were studied during ripening of Trincadeira grapes submitted to guazatine treatment, a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase activity. The mRNA expression profiles of one time point (EL 38) corresponding to harvest stage was compared between mock and guazatine treatments using Affymetrix GrapeGen(®) genome array. A total of 2113 probesets (1880 unigenes) were differentially expressed between these samples. Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for EL 35 (véraison berries), EL 36 (ripe berries) and EL 38 (harvest stage berries). Metabolic profiling using HPLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed increase of putrescine, proline, threonine and 1-O-ethyl-β-glucoside in guazatine treated samples. Genes involved in amino acid, carbohydrate and water transport were down-regulated in guazatine treated samples suggesting that the strong dehydrated phenotype obtained in guazatine treated samples may be due to impaired transport mechanisms. Genes involved in terpenes' metabolism were differentially expressed between guazatine and mock treated samples. Altogether, results support an important role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening namely in cell expansion and aroma development.

  14. Evolution of volatile compounds during the development of cabernet sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kalua, Curtis M; Boss, Paul K

    2009-05-13

    The evolution of volatile compounds was explored in grape berries at fortnightly intervals from fruit-set to late ripening to identify when biosynthetic pathways may be targeted for enhancement of grape and wine aroma. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) fully recognized patterns in berry physiological developmental stages with most of the variance (>99.0%) explained. The preveraison berry developmental stage was identified as a transition stage for volatile compound biosynthesis when most compounds were potentially sequestered to nonvolatile conjugates and berries lost their potential to synthesize esters and terpenes. Terpenes (predominantly eucalyptol, beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene) characterized early berry development, whereas benzene derivatives (2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethanal) appeared toward late ripening. Furthermore, C(6) volatile compounds changed from acetate esters to aldehydes and finally to alcohols during early, middle, and late berry developmental stages, respectively. The dominance of alcohols in the late stages of berry development, preceded by aldehydes, offers an opportunity for alcohols to aldehydes ratios to be used in the prediction of harvest timing for enhanced grape and wine aroma. The evolution of volatile compounds during berry development suggests a greater dependency on enzyme activity and specificity than extent of fatty acid unsaturation. The dependence of the stage of berry development on the accumulation of the products of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acetyl transferase (AAT), and enal isomerase enzyme activity from the lipoxygenase pathway raises possibilities for the manipulation of aroma profiles in grapes and wines.

  15. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  16. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela A; Salvador, Ana Augusta; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2013-04-10

    The possibility of increasing the aggregated value of the huge amount of residues generated by wineries around the world foment studies using the grape pomace - the residue from the wine production, composed by seed, skin and stems - to obtain functional ingredients. Nowadays, consumers in general prefer natural and safe products mainly for food and cosmetic fields, where the supercritical fluid extraction is of great importance due to the purity of the extracts provided. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the global extraction yield, the antimicrobial activity and the composition profile of Merlot and Syrah grape pomace extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and CO2 added with co-solvent at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures of 50 and 60 °C. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Soxhlet and by ultrasound-assisted leaching extraction methods. The main components from the extracts, identified by HPLC, were gallic acid, p-OH-benzoic acid, vanillic acid and epicatechin. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated using four strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei). Despite lower extraction yield results, the supercritical fluid extracts presented the highest antimicrobial effectiveness compared to the other grape pomace extracts due to the presence of antimicrobial active compounds. Syrah extracts were less efficient against the microorganisms tested and Merlot extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination.

  19. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  20. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  1. Morphological variability in leaves and molecular characterization of novel table grape candidate cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Alba, Vittorio; Bergamini, Carlo; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Gasparro, Marica; Perniola, Rocco; Genghi, Rosalinda; Antonacci, Donato

    2014-06-01

    The present work report the characterization of twenty-one table grapes candidate cultivars plus five registered ones included as reference, by means of 47 ampelographic traits, 23 ampelometric measurements and six microsatellite loci. The final goal of the research was to analyse the possibility of reducing the number of morphological and molecular tools required for a precise and effective description of a grape genotype or cultivar. This would be of great help for future biodiversity description on a larger sample of more than 300 table grapes accessions today grown at the 'Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (C.R.A.)-Unità di ricerca per l'uva da tavola e la vitivinicoltura in ambiente mediterraneo (Bari-Italy)'. OIV ampelographic traits showed a clear distinction among all twenty-six genotypes analysed, suggesting the relevant morphological variability investigated. Principal component analysis based on ampelometric traits revealed main veins ON(3), ON(4) and O(3)N(4); ratios between main veins; angles between main veins and of petiolar sinus, to be the most effective records in differentiating cultivars, for a total variation of 69.9 % described by the first three components. Molecular analysis based on six microsatellite loci was performed on all genotypes, providing a detailed molecular profile and a dendrogram of genetic similarity, in which all genotypes were clearly distinguishable. Finally, with the goal of using the minimum possible number of markers to differentiate genotypes, microsatellites VVMD5 and VVMD27 were selected to be sufficient to distinguish among all the candidate cultivars included in the analysis, representing a possible 'step by step' approach when a molecular characterization has to be undertaken on a large number of genotypes, by first testing few markers and increasing their number only if necessary.

  2. Application of statistical downscaling technique for the production of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitán Fernández, E.; García Moreno, R.; Pino Otín, M. R.; Ribalaygua Batalla, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and soil are two of the most important limiting factors for agricultural production. Nowadays climate change has been documented in many geographical locations affecting different cropping systems. The General Circulation Models (GCM) has become important tools to simulate the more relevant aspects of the climate expected for the XXI century in the frame of climatic change. These models are able to reproduce the general features of the atmospheric dynamic but their low resolution (about 200 Km) avoids a proper simulation of lower scale meteorological effects. Downscaling techniques allow overcoming this problem by adapting the model outcomes to local scale. In this context, FIC (Fundación para la Investigación del Clima) has developed a statistical downscaling technique based on a two step analogue methods. This methodology has been broadly tested on national and international environments leading to excellent results on future climate models. In a collaboration project, this statistical downscaling technique was applied to predict future scenarios for the grape growing systems in Spain. The application of such model is very important to predict expected climate for the different growing crops, mainly for grape, where the success of different varieties are highly related to climate and soil. The model allowed the implementation of agricultural conservation practices in the crop production, detecting highly sensible areas to negative impacts produced by any modification of climate in the different regions, mainly those protected with protected designation of origin, and the definition of new production areas with optimal edaphoclimatic conditions for the different varieties.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Jun; Guo, Chunlei; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Plant respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh) genes appear to play crucial roles in plant development, defense reactions and hormone signaling. In this study, a total of seven rboh genes from grape were identified and characterized. Genomic structure and predicted protein sequence analysis indicated that the sequences of plant rboh genes are highly conserved. Synteny analysis demonstrated that several Vvrboh genes were found in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of the respective lineages. The expression pattern of Vvrboh genes in different tissues was assessed by qRT-PCR and two were constitutively expressed in all tissues tested. The expression profiles were similarly analyzed following exposure to various stresses and hormone treatments. It was shown that the expression levels of VvrbohA, VvrbohB and VvrbohC1 were significantly increased by salt and drought treatments. VvrbohB, VvrbohC2, and VvrbohD exhibited a dramatic up-regulation after powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr.) inoculation, while VvrbohH was down-regulated. Finally, salicylic acid treatment strongly stimulated the expression of VvrbohD and VvrbohH, while abscisic acid treatment induced the expression of VvrbohB and VvrbohH. These results demonstrate that the expression patterns of grape rboh genes exhibit diverse and complex stress-response expression signatures. PMID:24351809

  4. Rate of degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Upadhyay, Ajay Kumar; Adsule, Pandurang G; Patil, Sangram H; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Jadhav, Deepak R

    2006-10-01

    Rates of degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl residues in grape are reported. The dissipation behavior of both insecticides followed first-order rate kinetics with similar patterns at standard and double-dose applications. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin were lost with pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 12.0-12.5 and 15.0-15.5 days, corresponding to the applications at 25 and 50 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. In the case of methomyl, residues were lost with PHI of 55.0 and 61.0 days, following applications at 1 and 2 kg a.i. ha-1, respectively. The PHI, recommended on the basis of the experimental results, was shown to be effective in minimizing residue load of these insecticides below their maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vineyard samples.

  5. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes ( Vitis vinifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    1999-06-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1-2°C). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. In addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5-1.0 kGy for Helwani and 1.5-2.0 kGy for Baladi, and the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties.

  7. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars.

  8. Effect of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaf extract on alcohol induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Suresh, Arumugam

    2008-05-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major medical complication of drinking alcohol. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of alcohol liver disease. The present study was carried to evaluate the effect of grape leaf extract (GLEt) on antioxidant and lipid peroxidation states in liver and kidney alcohol induced toxicity. In vitro studies with DPPH* and ABTS*(+) (cation radical) showed that GLEt possesses antioxidant activity. In vivo administration of ethanol (7.9 g/kg bw/day) for 45 days resulted an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT), lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides) in liver and kidney with significantly lower activity of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) in liver and kidney as compared with control rats. Administration of ethanol along with GLEt significantly decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum towards near normal level. GLEt at a dose of 100 mg/kg was highly effective than 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight. In addition GLEt also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and addition, significantly restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level in liver and kidney of alcohol administration rats. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver and kidney. Our data suggest that GLEt exerts its protective effect by decreased the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidants status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant in alcohol induced oxidative damage in rats.

  9. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-08-01

    Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  11. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Jianqiang; Shellie, Krista C; Wang, Hua; Qian, Michael C

    2012-09-15

    The effect of deficit irrigation and a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grapes was investigated over two growing seasons in semi-arid, south-western Idaho. Vines were provided with differential amounts of water based on their estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET(c)) throughout berry development, and particle film was applied to half of the vines in each irrigation main plot. Free and bound volatile compounds in grapes were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The concentrations of free C(6) compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol) decreased, and bound terpene alcohols (nerol and geraniol) and C(13)-norisoprenoids (β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-β-damascenone, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 3-oxo-α-ionol) increased in berries each year in response to severity of vine water stress. Concentrations of C(13)-norisoprenoids and bound forms of nerol and geraniol were positively correlated with their concentrations in the corresponding wines. Particle film application had minimum effect on free and bound volatile composition in the grapes, and there was no interactive effect between particle film and deficit irrigation. However, particle film application enhanced the total amount of berry anthocyanins.

  12. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  13. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  14. Accumulation of tocopherols and tocotrienols during seed development of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallée).

    PubMed

    Horvath, G; Wessjohann, L; Bigirimana, J; Monica, H; Jansen, M; Guisez, Y; Caubergs, R; Horemans, N

    2006-01-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols are present in mature seeds. Yet, little is known about the physiological role and the metabolism of these compounds during seed development. Here we present data on tocopherol and tocotrienol accumulation during seed development in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallée (Royal). This species was chosen for its ability to synthesize both tocopherols and tocotrienols. It is shown here for the first time that during seed development there are significant differences in localization and accumulation kinetics of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are found homogeneously dispersed throughout all tissues of the seed, in concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 microg tocopherol per g dry weight. Tocopherol levels decrease gradually during seed development. In contrast, tocotrienols are only found in the endosperm of the seeds, accumulating in a sigmoid fashion during the maturation period of seed development. Tocotrienol levels were found to be (54+/-7.4) microg/g dry seed in 90-day-old seeds of V. vinifera L. Furthermore, tocotrienol biosynthesis is demonstrated in these seeds during tocotrienol accumulation and in an endosperm fraction isolated at 75 days after flowering.

  15. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  16. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  17. Comparative Genomic Analysis of the GRF Genes in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd), Poplar (Populous), Grape (Vitis vinifera), Arabidopsis and Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. Previous studies on GRF family members focused either on a single or a small set of genes. Here, a comparative genomic analysis of the GRF gene family was performed in poplar (a model tree species), Arabidopsis (a model plant for annual herbaceous dicots), grape (one model plant for perennial dicots), rice (a model plant for monocots) and Chinese pear (one of the economical fruit crops). In total, 58 GRF genes were identified, 12 genes in rice (Oryza sativa), 8 genes in grape (Vitis vinifera), 9 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, 19 genes in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and 10 genes in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri). The GRF genes were divided into five subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis, which was supported by their structural analysis. Furthermore, microsynteny analysis indicated that highly conserved regions of microsynteny were identified in all of the five species tested. And Ka/Ks analysis revealed that purifying selection plays an important role in the maintenance of GRF genes. Our results provide basic information on GRF genes in five plant species and lay the foundation for future research on the functions of these genes. PMID:27933074

  18. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  19. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol.

  20. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  1. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems.

  2. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2012-01-01

    Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. 'Freedom' and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2 °C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9-12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a >1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps, suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants.

  3. Metabolism of geraniol in grape berry mesocarp of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Scheurebe: demonstration of stereoselective reduction, E/Z-isomerization, oxidation and glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Luan, Fang; Mosandl, Armin; Münch, Andreas; Wüst, Matthias

    2005-02-01

    The metabolism of deuterium labeled geraniol in grape mesocarp of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Scheurebe was studied by in vivo-feeding experiments. Stereoselective reduction to (S)-citronellol, E/Z-isomerization to nerol, oxidation to neral/geranial and glycosylation of the corresponding monoterpene alcohols could be demonstrated. Time course studies including the determination of conversion rates revealed that the activity of these secondary transformations of monoterpenes is dependent on the ripening stage and can be distinguished from the development of the primary monoterpene synthase activities by the sharp increase at the end of the ripening period. The stereoselective biosynthesis of the potent odorant cis-(2S,4R)-rose oxide from labeled geraniol in grape berry mesocarp is demonstrated as well. Since (S)-citronellol is the precursor of cis-(2S,4R)-rose oxide it can be concluded that especially the last part of the ripening period is important for the generation of this potent odorant. This finding confirms the conclusion that a higher concentration of flavor compounds could be established in the berries by leaving the fruit on the vine for extended periods.

  4. Transporters expressed during grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) development are associated with an increase in berry size and berry potassium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher; Shin, Ryoung; Liu, Weihong; Thomas, Mark R; Schachtman, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    Potassium accumulation is essential for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growth and development, but excessive levels in berries at harvest may reduce wine quality particularly for red wines. In addition to decreasing the free acid levels, potassium also combines with tartaric acid to form largely insoluble potassium bitartrate. This precipitates during winemaking and storage, resulting in an increase in wine pH that is associated with negative impacts on wine colour, flavour, and microbiological stability. For these reasons, a better understanding of potassium transport and accumulation within the vine and berries is important for producing fruit with improved winemaking characteristics. Here two genes encoding KUP/KT/HAK-type potassium transporters that are expressed in grape berries are described. Their function as potassium transporters was demonstrated by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The two transporters are expressed most highly in the berry skin during the first phase of berry development (pre-veraison), with similar patterns in two grapevine varieties. The timing and location of expression of these transporters are consistent with an involvement in potassium accumulation in grape berries.

  5. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  6. Metabolism of terpenes in the response of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaf tissues to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the terpene profiles as determined by GC-EIMS analysis of in vitro cultured plants of Vitis vinifera exposed to a "field-like" dose of UV-B (4.75 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) administered at two different fluence rates (low, 16 h at 8.25 μW cm(-2), and high 4 h at 33 μW cm(-2)). Low UV-B treatment increased levels of the membrane-related triterpenes sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol, more notable in young leaves, suggesting elicitation of a mechanism for grapevine acclimation. By contrast, accumulation of compounds with antioxidant properties, diterpenes α and γ tocopherol and phytol, the sesquiterpene E-nerolidol and the monoterpenes carene, α-pinene and terpinolene had maximum accumulation under high UV-B, which was accentuated in mature leaves. Also the levels of the sesquiterpenic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA) increased under high UV-B, although 24 h post irradiation ABA concentrations decreased. Such increments of antioxidant terpenes along with ABA suggest elicitation of mechanism of defense. The adaptative responses induced by relatively low UV-B irradiations as suggested by synthesis of terpenes related with membrane stability correlated with augments in terpene synthase activity.

  7. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  8. Comparative Effect of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera) and Ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients and Methods: In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in both grape seed and Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions: In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. PMID:28074795

  9. Effects of chilling and ABA on (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-06-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10/sup 19/ becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free (/sup 3/H)GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26/sup 0/C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble (/sup 3/H) metabolites formed at 26/sup 0/C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA/sub 12/ aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ treatment at 26/sup 0/C, reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H) GA/sub 4/ but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs).

  10. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  11. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  12. Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation, N-Glycosylation and Lys-Acetylation in Grape (Vitis vinifera) Mesocarp and Exocarp Owing to Lobesia botrana Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N.; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R.; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; Thelen, Jay J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  13. Color recovery in berries of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) 'Benitaka', a bud sport of 'Italia', is caused by a novel allele at the VvmybA1 locus.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Shozo; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Shiraishi, Mikio; Mitani, Nobuhito; Yakushiji, Hiroshi; Koshita, Yoshiko

    2009-04-01

    Color mutations in grape berry skin are relatively frequent events, and can be easily seen in the vineyard. Both light-red-skinned 'Ruby Okuyama' and more intense and uniform rosy-skinned 'Benitaka' (Vitis vinifera L.) are bud sports of white-skinned 'Italia'. Previously, we reported that 'Ruby Okuyama' was caused by the recovery of VvmybA1 expression, which may have occurred as a result of intra-LTR (long terminal repeat) recombination within a retrotransposon, Gret1. However, the molecular basis of the color recovery in 'Benitaka' has not been elucidated so far. Here, we found that the VvmybA1 locus of 'Benitaka' is heterozygous for the VvmybA1a allele (non-functional) and a novel VvmybA1(BEN) allele, and that VvmybA1(BEN) restored VvmybA1 transcripts. We hypothesized that VvmybA1(BEN) allele was caused by homologous recombination between VvmybA1a and VvmybA3. In addition, the content and composition of anthocyanins in berry skins differed greatly between 'Ruby Okuyama' and 'Benitaka'. The levels of expression of the genes for flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), O-methyltransferase (OMT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were associated with differences in the anthocyanin content and composition between the two cultivars.

  14. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  15. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines, Vitis vinifera, in Washington and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in eastern Washington and Idaho to determine the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wine grape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards. The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington and Idaho wine grape vineyards were Meloidogyne hapla, Paratylenchus ...

  16. Influence of plant water status on the production of C13-norisoprenoid precursors in Vitis vinifera L. Cv. cabernet sauvignon grape berries.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Dry, Peter R; Loveys, Brian R

    2007-05-30

    The influence of irrigation strategy on grape berry carotenoids and C13-norisoprenoid precursors was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Two irrigation treatments were compared, one in which vines received reduced irrigation applied alternately to either side of the vine (partial rootzone drying, PRD) and a second control treatment in which water was applied to both sides of the vine. Over the two years of the experiments, PRD vines received on average 66% of the water applied to the controls. Initially, the PRD treatment did not alter midday leaf (psiL) and stem (psiS) water potential relative to the control, but decreased stomatal conductance (gs). Continued exposure to the PRD treatment resulted in treated grapevines experiencing hydraulic water deficit relative to the control treatment and induced lowered midday psiL and psiS, which was also reflected in decreased berry weight at harvest. In both irrigation treatments, the most abundant grape berry carotenoids, beta-carotene and lutein, followed the developmental pattern typical of other grape varieties, decreasing post-veraison. At certain points in time, as the fruit approached maturity, the concentration of these carotenoids was increased in fruit of PRD-treated vines relative to the controls. This effect was greater for lutein than for beta-carotene. PRD consistently caused increases in the concentration of hydrolytically released C13-norisoprenoids beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene in fruit at harvest (24 degrees Brix) over two seasons. The effect of the PRD treatment on the concentration of hydrolytically released C13-norisoprenoids was greater in the second of the two seasons of the experiment and was also reflected in an increase in total C13-norisoprenoid content per berry. This suggests that the increases in the concentration of the C13-norisoprenoids in response to PRD were independent of water deficit induced changes in berry size and

  17. 'Fortified' wines volatile composition: Effect of different postharvest dehydration conditions of wine grapes cv. Malvasia moscata (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Urcan, Delia Elena; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Río Segade, Susana; Raimondi, Stefano; Bertolino, Marta; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Pop, Nastasia; Rolle, Luca

    2017-03-15

    The impact of postharvest dehydration on the volatile composition of Malvasia moscata grapes and fortified wines produced from them was assessed. The ripeness effect of fresh grapes on volatile compounds of dehydrated grapes was evaluated for the first time in this study. Fresh grape berries were densimetrically sorted, and more represented density classes were selected. Dehydration of riper berries (20.5 °Brix) led to volatile profiles richer in terpenes, particularly linalool and geraniol. The effect of dehydration rate on the volatile composition of dehydrated grapes and fortified wines was also evaluated. Fast dehydration grapes were richer in total free terpenes, and the resulting wines contained greater amounts of volatile compounds. The predominant compounds were free esters, but linalool, rose oxide, citronellol and geraniol can also contribute to wine aroma, particularly for fast dehydration. β-Damascenone can be an active odorant, although its contribution was greater in wines made from slow dehydrated grapes.

  18. Effect of power ultrasound application on aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.): experimental kinetics and modeling.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, M R; Comas-Serra, F; Femenia, A; Rosselló, C; Simal, S

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of both conventional (mechanical stirring, 200rpm) and acoustic (55±5kHz, 435±5W/L) aqueous extraction of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace by-products (Vitis vinifera L.) have been experimentally evaluated and modeled at different extraction temperatures (20, 35 and 50°C). A gradual and significant increase of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was observed as the temperature increased, the highest values being obtained in the case of the extraction assisted acoustically. According to the results, the acoustic assistance of the extraction process led to aqueous extracts with phenolic and antioxidant characteristics similar to those obtained with mechanical stirring, working under lower temperature conditions and during less operating time. Specifically, the conventional extraction of total phenolics at 35 and 50°C did not differ significantly from extractions assisted with power ultrasound at 20 and 35°C, respectively; and the acoustic process required approximately 3, 4 and 8 times less time, at 20, 35 and 50°C, than the conventional extraction to obtain extracts with similar characteristics. The extraction curves obtained for total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS and FRAP methods, were properly represented by a modified Weibull model for both conventional and acoustic extractions within the temperature range 20-50°C, presenting an average percentage of explained variance⩾97.9%, and an average mean relative error⩽7.0%. A high correlation (r(2)⩾0.992) was observed between the experimental and simulated values for all the quality attributes in study.

  19. Effects of cluster light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine accumulation and degradation patterns in red wine grapes ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Franc).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Intrigliolo, Diego S; Lakso, Alan N; Sacks, Gavin L

    2008-11-26

    The effects of light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) accumulation and degradation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc berries were assessed by comparison of shaded and exposed clusters within the same vine throughout a growing season. Twenty-seven vines were shoot-thinned to create regions of high and low cluster-light exposure within each vine. Samples were collected at 10 time points starting from 5 to 130 days postbloom. The experimental design allowed for intravine comparison of IBMP levels between treatments at each time. Vine-to-vine variability of IBMP and the correlation of IBMP to malic acid were also evaluated. Cluster exposure reduced accumulation of IBMP at all preveraison time points by 21-44%, but did not increase postveraison degradation. Significant vine-to-vine variability in IBMP content was observed, with the highest level of IBMP in shaded berries in the most vigorous block of vines. Although IBMP concentration by weight decreased significantly due to dilution just prior to color change (veraison), no significant IBMP degradation per berry occurred until after color change (day 70 postbloom). By contrast, malic acid degradation began prior to color change, and malic acid concentrations were not affected by cluster exposure preveraison, but were affected postveraison. A survey of 13 sites in New York state (Seneca Lake) showed that IBMP concentrations at 2 weeks preveraison were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.936, p < 0.0001) to levels at harvest, whereas classic grape maturity indices at harvest were uncorrelated with IBMP at harvest. In summary, light exposure conditions critically influence IBMP accumulation but not IBMP degradation.

  20. Isolation, identification and sequence analysis of a thioredoxin h gene, a member of subgroup III of h-type Trxs from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Askari).

    PubMed

    Japelaghi, Reza Heidari; Haddad, Raheem; Garoosi, Ghasem-Ali

    2012-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous proteins which play a regulatory role in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to other organisms, plants have a great number of Trx types, consisting of six well-defined groups: f, m, x, and y in chloroplasts, o in mitochondria, and h mainly in cytosol. A full-length cDNA, designated VvCxxS2, encoding Trx h polypeptide was isolated and cloned from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Askari) berries organ by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA was 381 bp nucleotides in length with a deduced amino acid of 126 residues, possessing a WCIPS active site, which belongs to the subgroup III of h-type Trxs based on phylogenetic analysis. The calculated molecular mass and the predicted isoelectric point of the deduced polypeptide are 14.25 kDa and 4.68, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic DNA fragment of VvCxxS2 gene revealed that this gene possesses two introns at positions identical to the previously sequenced Trx h genes. A modeling analysis indicated that VvCxxS2 shares a common structure with other Trxs, and is preferably reduced by Grx rather than NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR). The deduced protein sequence showed a high similarity to Trx h from other plants, in particular from castor bean (Ricinus communis), Betula pendula and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that the transcripts of VvCxxS2 gene are present in all plant organs and different developmental stages. In addition, the higher expression of the VvCxxS2 gene was observed in berry organ as compared to the other organs.

  1. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-12-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R (2) = 0.96, P < 0.0001. The kinetics of caffeic acid formation with time in response to initial p-coumaric acid levels and at different grape skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K (m) of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid.

  2. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  3. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  4. [Biology, thermal requirements and fertility life table of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italia].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rodrigo C F; de Oliveira, José V; Haji, Francisca N P; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    The mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) constitutes one of the main pest of grape crop at the Submédio São Francisco Valley. The objective of this work was to study the biology of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), to determine its thermal requirements and its fertility life table in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italy. Acclimatized chambers (BOD) were used, adjusted to the temperatures of 18, 22, 25, 28 and 32 degrees C, relative humidity of 65 +/- 10% and alternated light of 12h. Egg-adult period was 3.4 and 6.8 days for males and 3.5 and 7.4 days for females, respectively at 32 degrees C and 18 degrees C. At the temperatures of 18, 25 and 32 degrees C, each female deposited, respectively, 16.5, 44.3 and 13.3 eggs. The stages of egg, larva and pupa and egg-adult period presented, respectively, thermal thresholds of 11.23, 9.45, 12.19, and 9.71 degrees C and thermal constant of 28.51, 14.59, 8.33, and 62.73 degrees-day. The mean duration of one generation (T) was 25.6, 10.8 and 8.2 days, respectively, at the temperatures of 18, 25 and 32 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R0) at the temperature of 25 degrees C was the highest, corresponding to an increase of 30.12 times at each generation. The intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) was 0.10 (18 degrees C), 0.31 (25 degrees C) and 0.12 (32 degrees C) and the finite ratio of population increase (lambda) was 1.10 (18 degrees C), 1.36 (25 degrees C) and 1.13 (32 degrees C). According to the mean temperature values, P. latus can have 95 and 99 generations/year, respectively, for the municipal districts of Petrolina, PE and Juazeiro, BA.

  5. Polyphenol content in white table grape (Vitis Vinifera) berries of cultivar Italia: interactive effect of irrigation, delayed harvest and storage.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Laganà, Aldo; Samperi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol concentrations were quantified by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in white table grape. The experimental vineyard was subjected to different kinds of water supply and supply rates. Samples from the same vineyards were also analysed after 6 weeks of storage in a refrigerator and after 6 weeks of delayed harvesting. Berry skins and seeds were analysed separately. A statistical treatment of the screening kind, namely the 2(k) full factorial design, was used for the interpretation of results. Storage, delayed harvesting and the different kinds of water supply appeared to be the variables most affecting grape polyphenol content. In some cases, results showed that polyphenol content diminished by more than 50% after 6 weeks if the grapes were stored in a refrigerator, or if a sprinkler was used for irrigation.

  6. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).

  7. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Materials and Methods: Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. Results: As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Conclusions: Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts. PMID:26729960

  8. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins.

  9. Genome-wide identification, evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) zinc finger-homeodomain gene family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yin, Xiangjing; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-03

    Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD) genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD) in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity.

  10. Correlation of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine to 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine during maturation of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Leclerc, Sophie; Sacks, Gavin L

    2010-09-08

    Environmental factors affecting degradation of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP, "green pepper aroma") in wine grapes (V. vinifera) are widely studied, but the degradation pathway is not defined. We hypothesized that IBMP is demethylated to 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine (IBHP) during fruit maturation effectively reversing the final putative step of IBMP biosynthesis. A quantification method for IBHP was developed using solid-phase extraction coupled to one- or two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a recovery of ca. 80%. IBMP and IBHP in bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and V. vinifera (cv. 'Cabernet Franc', 'Riesling', 'Pinot noir') were then measured at different maturities. IBMP and IBHP were inversely correlated in both bell peppers (R2=0.958) and Cabernet Franc grapes (R2=0.998) over a range of maturities. In bell peppers, we observed a significant decline in IBMP (125 to 15 ng/mL) and increase in IBHP (undetectable to 42 ng/mL) during ripening. In grapes, all cultivars had comparable IBHP concentrations preveraison (64 to 88 pg/mL) but differed in IBHP concentration by 2 orders of magnitude at the final sampling point (undetectable to 235 pg/mL). Higher preveraison IBMP was correlated with higher final IBHP across the three grape cultivars, with the order Cabernet Franc>Riesling>Pinot noir for both IBMP and IBHP. Acid hydrolysis resulted in a significant increase (33%) in IBHP in Cabernet Franc, indicating that IBHP exists partially in a bound form in grapes.

  11. Direct in situ measurement of cell turgor in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries during development and in response to plant water deficits.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tyler R; Matthews, Mark A; Shackel, Ken A

    2006-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. berries are non-climacteric fruits that exhibit a double-sigmoid growth pattern, and at the point known as 'veraison', which is just before the beginning of the second period of rapid fruit growth, these berries undergo several abrupt physiological changes. Cell pressure probe was used to examine the in situ turgor (P) of cells in the mesocarp during berry development and in response to plant water deficits. Initial tests comparing attached and detached berries demonstrated that cell P was stable for up to 48 h after detachment from the vine, provided that water loss from the berry was prevented. Cell P at pre-dawn was on the order of 0.25 MPa pre-veraison (PreV) and was reduced by an order of magnitude to 0.02 MPa post veraison (PostV). Cell P declined slightly but significantly with depth from the berry surface PreV, but not PostV. When water was withheld from potted vines, cell P declined about 0.2 Mpa, as pre-dawn vine water potential declined about 0.6 MPa over 12 d, whereas cell P was completely insensitive to a 1.10 MPa decrease in pre-dawn vine water potential after veraison. Rewatering of stressed plants also resulted in a 24 h recovery of cell P before, but not after veraison. The substantial decline in cell P around veraison is consistent with the decline in berry firmness that is known to occur at this time, and the PostV insensitivity of P to changes in vine water status is consistent with current hypotheses that the PostV berry is hydraulically isolated from the vine. The fact that a measurable P of about 0.02 MPa and typical cell hydraulic/osmotic behaviour were exhibited in PostV berries, however, indicates that cell membranes remain intact after veraison, contrary to many current hypotheses that veraison is associated with a general loss of membrane function and cellular compartmentation in the grape berry. We hypothesize that cell P is low in the PostV berry, and possibly other fleshy fruits, because of the presence of regulated

  12. Relationship between skin cell wall composition and anthocyanin extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo at different grape ripeness degree.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between cell wall composition and extractability of anthocyanins from red grape skins was assessed in Tempranillo grape samples harvested at three stages of ripening (pre-harvest, harvest and over-ripening) and three different contents of soluble solids (22, 24 and 26 °Brix) within each stage. Cell wall material was isolated and analysed in order to determine cellulose, lignin, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, protein, total polyphenols index and the degree of esterification of pectins. Results showed the influence of ripeness degree and contents of soluble solids on cell wall composition. Furthermore, principal components analysis was applied to the obtained data set in order to establish relationships between cell wall composition and extractability of anthocyanins. Total insoluble material exhibits the biggest opposition to anthocyanin extraction, while the highest amounts of cellulose, rhamnogalacturonans-II and polyphenols were positively correlated with anthocyanin extraction. Moreover, multiple linear regression was performed to assess the influence of the cell wall composition on the extraction of anthocyanin compounds. A model connecting cell wall composition and anthocyanin extractabilities was built, explaining 96.2% of the observed variability.

  13. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  14. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  15. Characterization of an antifungal and cryoprotective class I chitinase from table grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Caballero, Carlos; Romero, Irene; Goñi, Oscar; Escribano, M Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M Teresa

    2009-10-14

    Gene expression of a class I chitinase (Vcchit1b) in the skin of table grapes was analyzed as a molecular marker for changes induced at low temperature and also to study the effect of high CO(2) levels modulating transcript levels at 0 degrees C. An active recombinant VcCHIT1b was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and as the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, it was solubilized and refolded. The purified recombinant chitinase showed an optimum pH of 6.0 and a temperature of 50 degrees C, retaining activity at 0 and -10 degrees C. Purified chitinase exerted in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore, recombinant chitinase was able to cryoprotect lactate dehydrogenase against freeze/thaw inactivation. However, the recombinant VcCHIT1b did not show any antifreeze activity when the thermal hysteresis activity was measured using differential scanning calorimetry.

  16. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  17. Anatomical, histological, and histochemical changes in grape seeds from Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet franc during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Yves; Miñana-Castelló, Maria Teresa; Chevalier, Michel

    2006-11-29

    Cabernet franc berries were sampled at five stages from berry set to harvest from an experimental vineyard in mid Loire Valley. Seeds were collected from representative berries in term of stage of development. The evolution of seed was followed both macro- and microscopically. For microscopy analysis, seeds were cut, put in a fixation solution, and cut into thin sections with a microtome. Five staining solutions were used for each seed sample: toluidine blue O, phloroglucinol, periodic acid-Schiff's reagent and naphtol blue black, vanillin, and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde. Toluidine blue O staining revealed the evolution of tissue structures during grape seed development. We studied the changes in chemical compounds (lignin, polysaccharides, proteins, and tannins) with the other reagents. Seed lignification was achieved at veraison. Proanthocyanidins were localized in epidermis, inner cells of the soft seed coat, and inner cell layer of the inner integument. Finally, the localization of flavan-3-ols was linked with changes in cell walls of the outer integument.

  18. Residue evaluation of imidacloprid, spirotetramat, and spirotetramat-enol in/on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Kumar, Sampath; Prakash, G S

    2015-10-01

    A combination of imidacloprid and spirotetramat effectively controls sucking pests on grapevines. Residues of these insecticides on grapes were evaluated after treatment with spirotetramat 12% + imidacloprid 12% (240 SC) three times at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1). The samples were extracted and purified by QuEChERS method and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (imidacloprid) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (spirotetramat and its metabolite spirotetramat-enol). Satisfactory results were obtained with ranges of 80.6-98.6% for the recovery, 3.1-10% for the relative standard deviation range, and 9.8-15.6% for the uncertainty. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.015 μg mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. Initial residue concentrations of imidacloprid after the 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments were 0.912 (half-life 11 days) and 1.681 mg kg(-1) (half-life 12.4 days), respectively. For spirotetramat + spirotetramat-enol, the residue concentrations were 1.337 (half-life 5.6 days) and 2.0 mg kg(-1) (half-life 7.6 days) for the 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively. Spirotetramat degraded faster than spirotetramat-enol. After treatment at 90 g a.i. ha(-1), the initial residues of both insecticides were within European Union maximum residue limits and a 1-day pre-harvest interval (PHI) was adequate for safe consumption of grapes. After treatment at 180 g a.i. ha(-1), the required PHI was 7 day. Therefore, a PHI of 7 day should be used after treatment with imidacloprid and spirotetramat.

  19. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  20. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  1. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress by a grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extract in normal and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Postescu, Ion Dan; Chereches, Gabriela; Tatomir, Corina; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2012-07-01

    The major limitation of Doxorubicin (Dox) clinical use is the development of chronic and acute toxic side effects induced through the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present work was designated to investigate in vitro effects of a red grape-seed hydroethanolic extract Burgund Mare (BM), in associated administration with Dox (30 min before drug administration) in normal (Hfl-1) and tumor cell lines (HepG2 and Mls). The BM concentrations administered were below the level of the extract cytotoxiciy threshold (40 μg gallic acid [GA] Eq/mL; 37.5, 25.0, and 12.5 μg GA Eq/mL). The antioxidant capacity of the BM extract was assessed by measuring the acute toxicity at 24 h, lipid peroxides (LP), and protein oxidation. In normal cells, the product statistically decreased cytotoxicity and markedly inhibited LP and protein carbonyl (PC) formation, in a dose-dependent relationship. On contrary, in tumor cells, such treatment resulted in a reversed effect, cell death, malondialdehyde, and PC contents increasing with BM dose enhancement. BM extract treatment prior to subsequent administration of Dox afforded a differential protection against Dox-negative toxic side effects in normal cells without weakening (even enhancing) Dox's antitumor activity.

  2. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Effect on Biofilm Production of a White Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Filocamo, Angela; Bisignano, Carlo; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a white grape juice extract (WGJe) against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and the fungus Aspergillus niger. WGJe was also tested on the production of bacterial biofilms in vitro. Results. WGJe inhibited in vitro most Gram-positive bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P being the most sensitive strain (MIC values of 3.9 μg/mL). The effect was bactericidal at the concentration of 500 μg/mL. Amongst the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the only susceptible strain (MIC and MBC of 2000 μg/mL). No effect on the growth of Candida sp. and the fungus Aspergillus niger was detected (MIC values > 2000 μg/mL). WGJe inhibited the biofilms formation of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions. WGJe exerted both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity in vitro. The presented results could be used to develop novel strategies for the treatment of skin infections and against potential respiratory pathogens. PMID:26770255

  3. Grape seed extract Vitis vinifera protects against radiation-induced oxidative damage and metabolic disorders in rats.

    PubMed

    Saada, Helen N; Said, Ussama Z; Meky, Nefissa H; Abd El Azime, Afrag S

    2009-03-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different tissues provoking oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in heart and pancreas tissues associated with serum metabolic disturbances. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 5 Gy gamma-radiation. GSE-treated irradiated rats received 100 mg GSE/kg/day, by gavage, for 14 days before irradiation. The animals were killed on days 1, 14 and 28 after irradiation. Significant decreases of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities associated with significant increases of TBARS levels were recorded in both tissues after irradiation. GSE administration pre-irradiation significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress in heart tissues which was substantiated by a significant amelioration of serum LDH, CPK and AST activities. GSE treatment also attenuated the oxidative stress in pancreas tissues which was associated with a significant improvement in radiation-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE would protect the heart and pancreas tissues from oxidative damage induced by ionizing irradiation.

  4. Genetic diversity in somatic mutants of grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Italia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Maia, S H Z; Mangolin, C A; Collet, S A O; Machado, M F P S

    2009-01-13

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to detect polymorphism and to examine relationships among four table grape clones from northwestern Paraná, in southern Brazil. The 10 primers used for RAPD fingerprints generated 126 reproducible fragments, of which 63, 68, 76, and 72 were polymorphic in cultivars Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil, respectively. Among the primers, OPP-08 generated the highest number of fragments, whereas OPE-15 was the most efficient for discriminating polymorphic fragments. The distribution of the clones by cluster analysis indicated that there were no differences in RAPD markers between the colored mutant and the original clone (cultivar Italia), supporting the hypothesis that the non-colored and the colored mutant are the same cultivar. However, we found high levels of polymorphism within and between the cultivars Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil (65.1%), contrary to a previous hypothesis that the four clones are genetically uniform. This confirmed our expectation of genetic variation among the clones and within each clone. We conclude that the primers are useful for analyzing the development of the genetic diversity within each of these clones.

  5. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  6. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  7. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system.

  8. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  9. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  10. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  11. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  12. The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo) Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Inmaculada; Uriarte, David; Hernández, Marcos; Llerena, José Luis; Valdés, María Esperanza; Espinosa, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning) lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) unaffected. PMID:27869671

  13. The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo) Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Inmaculada; Uriarte, David; Hernández, Marcos; Llerena, José Luis; Valdés, María Esperanza; Espinosa, Francisco

    2016-11-17

    A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning) lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) unaffected.

  14. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  15. Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...

  16. Can Pierce’s disease PdR1 resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  17. Characterization of the ABA signal transduction pathway in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-05-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants including the response to abiotic stress. ABA signal transduction consists of a double-negative regulatory mechanism, whereby ABA-bound PYR/RCARs inhibit PP2C activity, and PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s. We studied and analyzed the various genes participating in the ABA signaling cascade of the grape (Vitis vinifera). The grape ABA signal transduction consists of at least six SnRK2s. Yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between core components of grape ABA signal transduction. We found that a total of forty eight interactions can occur between the various components. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses such as drought, high salt concentration and cold, were applied to vines growing in a hydroponic system. These stresses regulated the expression of various grape SnRK2s as well as ABFs in leaves and roots. Based on the interactions between SnRK2s and its targets and the expression pattern, we suggest that VvSnRK2.1 and VvSnRK2.6, can be considered the major VvSnRK2 candidates involved in the stomata response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, we found that the expression pattern of the two grape ABF genes indicates organ specificity of these genes. The key role of ABA signaling in response to abiotic stresses makes the genes involve in this signaling potential candidates for manipulation in programs designed to improve fruit tree performance in extreme environments.

  18. Antioxidant properties of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2009-12-01

    Currants and sultanas (Vitis vinifera L., Family Vitaceae) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used widely in the Mediterranean diet. We investigated the polar methanol extracts from the raisins for the antiradical activity, polyphenol content, cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, total glutathione (GSH) levels, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Extracts exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and inhibited tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cytotoxicity, GSH decrease, and LDL oxidation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the characteristic apoptotic patterns with tBHP and inhibition with the extracts. Elevated levels of total GSH and unaltered levels of GSSG with extract treatment demonstrated the induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The antioxidant activity was correlated to the polyphenolic content. Greek currants and sultanas are suggested as antioxidant components of the Mediterranean basin.

  19. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  20. A knowledge base for Vitis vinifera functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) is the most important fruit species in the modern world. Wine and table grapes sales contribute significantly to the economy of major wine producing countries. The most relevant goals in wine production concern quality and safety. In order to significantly improve the achievement of these objectives and to gain biological knowledge about cultivars, a genomic approach is the most reliable strategy. The recent grapevine genome sequencing offers the opportunity to study the potential roles of genes and microRNAs in fruit maturation and other physiological and pathological processes. Although several systems allowing the analysis of plant genomes have been reported, none of them has been designed specifically for the functional analysis of grapevine genomes of cultivars under environmental stress in connection with microRNA data. Description Here we introduce a novel knowledge base, called BIOWINE, designed for the functional analysis of Vitis vinifera genomes of cultivars present in Sicily. The system allows the analysis of RNA-seq experiments of two different cultivars, namely Nero d'Avola and Nerello Mascalese. Samples were taken under different climatic conditions of phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. The BIOWINE web interface is equipped with data analysis modules for grapevine genomes. In particular users may analyze the current genome assembly together with the RNA-seq data through a customized version of GBrowse. The web interface allows users to perform gene set enrichment by exploiting third-party databases. Conclusions BIOWINE is a knowledge base implementing a set of bioinformatics tools for the analysis of grapevine genomes. The system aims to increase our understanding of the grapevine varieties and species of Sicilian products focusing on adaptability to different climatic conditions, phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. PMID:26050794

  1. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  2. A core-shell column approach to a comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography phenolic analysis of Vitis vinifera L. and interspecific hybrid grape juices, wines, and other matrices following either solid phase extraction or direct injection.

    PubMed

    Manns, David C; Mansfield, Anna Katharine

    2012-08-17

    Four high-throughput reverse-phase chromatographic protocols utilizing two different core-shell column chemistries have been developed to analyze the phenolic profiles of complex matrices, specifically targeting juices and wines produced from interspecific hybrid grape cultivars. Following pre-fractionation via solid-phase extraction or direct injection, individual protocols were designed to resolve, identify and quantify specific chemical classes of compounds including non-anthocyanin monomeric phenolics, condensed tannins following acid hydrolysis, and anthocyanins. Detection levels ranging from 1.2 ppb to 27.5 ppb, analyte %RSDs ranging from 0.04 to 0.38, and linear ranges of quantitation approaching five orders of magnitude were achieved using conventional HPLC instrumentation. Using C(18) column chemistry, the non-anthocyanin monomeric protocol effectively separated a set of 16 relevant phenolic compounds comprised flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols in under 14 min. The same column was used to develop a 15-min protocol for hydrolyzed condensed tannin analysis. Two anthocyanin protocols are presented, one utilizing the same C(18) column, best suited for anthocyanidin and monoglucoside analysis, the other utilizing a pentafluorophenyl chemistry optimized to effectively separate complex mixtures of coexisting mono- and diglucoside anthocyanins. These protocols and column chemistries have been used initially to explore a wide variety of complex phenolic matrices, including red and white juices and wines produced from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grape cultivars, juices, teas, and plant extracts. Each protocol displayed robust matrix responses as written, yet are flexible enough to be easily modified to suit specifically tailored analytical requirements.

  3. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  4. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  5. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms.

  6. Ultrastructural study of archaeological Vitis vinifera L. seeds using rapid-freeze fixation and substitution.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Vignani, Rita; Ciacci, Andrea; Nardini, Alessandra; Valenti, Marco; Cantini, Federico; Ciampolini, Fabrizio; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of Vitis vinifera seeds from different archaeological sites was studied. Preservation status differed between sites. Preliminary investigations of grape seeds from Poggio Bacherina (Chianciano Terme, Siena) and Miranduolo (Chiusdino, Siena) showed collapsed or charred tegument, making this material suitable for morphometric studies only. Rapid-freeze fixation and substitution of grape seeds from Shahr-I Sokhta in Iran and via De' Castellani in Florence revealed well preserved tegument suitable for chemical and cytochemical analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to determine chemical composition. Cytochemical analysis based on fluorescent staining with DAPI suggested the presence of cytoplasm residues.

  7. VitisGen: accelerating grape cultivar improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisGen is a multiple institute collaborative project funded by the USDA SCRI program, with a long term goal to accelerate grape cultivar improvement by using cutting-edge molecular marker technologies, rigorous centralized facilities to characterize traits, and molecular breeding expertise. The ge...

  8. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-García, R; Ruiz-García, L; Bolling, L; Ocete, R; López, M A; Arnold, C; Ergul, A; Söylemezoğlu, G; Uzun, H I; Cabello, F; Ibáñez, J; Aradhya, M K; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I; Balint, S; Cenis, J L; Costantini, L; Goris-Lavets, S; Grando, M S; Klein, B Y; McGovern, P E; Merdinoglu, D; Pejic, I; Pelsy, F; Primikirios, N; Risovannaya, V; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A; Snoussi, H; Sotiri, P; Tamhankar, S; This, P; Troshin, L; Malpica, J M; Lefort, F; Martinez-Zapater, J M

    2006-10-01

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations.

  9. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  10. Changes in the triterpenoid content of cuticular waxes during fruit ripening of eight grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown in the Upper Rhine Valley.

    PubMed

    Pensec, Flora; Pączkowski, Cezary; Grabarczyk, Marta; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bénard-Gellon, Mélanie; Bertsch, Christophe; Chong, Julie; Szakiel, Anna

    2014-08-13

    Triterpenoids present in grape cuticular waxes are of interest due to their potential role in protection against biotic stresses, their impact on the mechanical toughness of the fruit surface, and the potential industrial application of these biologically active compounds from grape pomace. The determination of the triterpenoid profile of cuticular waxes reported here supplements existing knowledge of the chemical diversity of grape, with some compounds reported in this species for the first time. Common compounds identified in eight examined cultivars grown in the Upper Rhine Valley include oleanolic acid, oleanolic and ursolic acid methyl esters, oleanolic aldehyde, α-amyrin, α-amyrenone, β-amyrin, cycloartanol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, erythrodiol, germanicol, lupeol accompanied by lupeol acetate, campesterol, cholesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, whereas 3,12-oleandione was specific for the Muscat d'Alsace cultivar. Changes in the triterpenoid content of cuticular waxes were determined at three different phenological stages: young grapes, grapes at véraison (the onset of ripening), and mature grapes. The results reveal a characteristic evolution of triterpenoid content during fruit development, with a high level of total triterpenoids in young grapes that gradually decreases with a slight increase in the level of neutral triterpenoids. This phenomenon may partially explain changes in the mechanical properties of the cuticle and possible modulations in the susceptibility to pathogens of mature grapes.

  11. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    PubMed

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-08

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield.

  12. Anthocyanin yield and skin softening during maceration, as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Simone; Marengo, Fabio; Guidoni, Silvia; Rolle, Luca; Hunter, Jacobus J

    2015-05-01

    Anthocyanin and mechanical properties were evaluated on Shiraz grapes, picked from both sides of North-South and East-West vineyard row orientations at two harvest dates. Wines were made from each combination. The evaluation and evolution of crushed skin mechanical properties during maceration-fermentation, as also affected by grape ripeness, are shown for the first time. No significant differences in anthocyanin content were found in the grapes between the two vineyard row orientations. However, a significant decrease in anthocyanins and berry skin break force (also referred as skin hardness or strength) was found between the two harvest dates. During maceration, a reduction in the crushed berry skin break force of more than 15% occurred. The intact berries and macerated skins showed similarity in skin break energy values. The anthocyanin profile of the grapes and of the wines prominently displayed malvidin forms, changed mainly by the ripeness level of the grapes.

  13. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81–10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00–1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37–80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines. PMID:27732619

  14. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential.

  15. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  16. The role of hexokinases from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) in regulating the expression of cell wall invertase and sucrose synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Li, L M; Yang, P P; Gong, C L

    2014-02-01

    In plants, hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) involved in hexose phosphorylation, plays an important role in sugar sensing and signaling. In this study, we found that at Phase I of grape berry development, lower hexose (glucose or fructose) levels were concomitant with higher HXK activities and protein levels. After the onset of ripening, we demonstrated a drastic reduction in HXK activity and protein levels accompanied by a rising hexose level. Therefore, our results revealed that HXK activity and protein levels had an inverse relationship with the endogenous glucose or fructose levels during grape berry development. A 51 kDa HXK protein band was detected throughout grape berry development. In addition, HXK located in the vacuoles, cytoplasm, nucleus, proplastid, chloroplast, and mitochondrion of the berry flesh cells. During grape berry development, HXK transcriptional level changed slightly, while cell wall invertase (CWINV) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) expression was enhanced after véraison stage. Intriguingly, when sliced grape berries were incubated in different glucose solutions, CWINV and SuSy expression was repressed by glucose, and the intensity of repression depended on glucose concentration and incubation time. After sliced, grape berries were treated with different glucose analogs, CWINV and SuSy expression analyses revealed that phosphorylation of hexoses by hexokinase was an essential component in the glucose-dependent CWINV and SuSy expression. In the meantime, mannoheptulose, a specific inhibitor of hexokinase, blocked the repression induced by glucose on CWINV and SuSy expression. It suggested that HXK played a major role in regulating CWINV and SuSy expression during grape berry development.

  17. Identification of S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione and its bisulfite adduct in grape juice from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc as new potential precursors of 3SH.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Böcker, Caroline; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Moine, Virginie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-05-15

    Two main precursors (S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-glutathione) of 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH, formerly named 3-mercaptohexanol) have been identified so far in grape juice but a correlation between precursor concentrations in grape juices and 3SH concentrations in wines is not always observed. This suggests that there may be other compounds associated with the aromatic potential. In this work, S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione (Glut-3SH-Al) and its bisulfite (Glut-3SH-SO3) adduct were identified in Sauvignon blanc grape juice by liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform mass spectrometry experiments. A partial purification of the compounds was carried out by Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) on the reverse phase using 5L of grape juice. The addition of synthetized Glut-3SH-Al and Glut-3SH-SO3 in the synthetic medium induced a significant release of 3SH after fermentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Glut-3SH-Al and its bisulfite adduct are present in grape juice and could be considered as new direct 3SH precursors with molar conversion yields close to 0.4%.

  18. Optimization of a method for the extraction and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls during ripening in grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot).

    PubMed

    Kamffer, Zindi; Bindon, Keren A; Oberholster, Anita

    2010-06-09

    An extraction method to identify and quantify the carotenoid and chlorophyll profile of lyophilized tissue from unripe (green) to ripe (red) Merlot grape berries was developed. The RP-HPLC method baseline separated all of the carotenoids and chlorophylls and their derivatives. Problems encountered during sample storage and extraction are discussed as well as possible alternative methods. This study confirmed that carotenoids and chlorophylls decreased on a per berry (microg/berry) and concentration (microg/g) basis from veraison to harvest over two growing seasons. The carotenoid 5,8-epoxy-beta-carotene was quantified for the first time in grapes and represents a significant amount of the total carotenoids present at harvest. All the carotenoids and chlorophylls except beta-carotene appeared to be sensitive to seasonal variation in climatic conditions. Lutein and beta-carotene were found to be the most abundant carotenoids present in Merlot grape berries together with chlorophyll a for both seasons studied.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  20. Metabolic profiling reveals coordinated switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.), a non-climacteric fleshy fruit.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Léon, Céline; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of grape berries from either field-grown vines or fruiting cuttings grown in the greenhouse. Principal component analysis readily discriminated the various stages of berry development, with similar trajectories for field-grown and greenhouse samples. This showed that each stage of fruit development had a characteristic metabolic profile and provided compelling evidence that the fruit-bearing cuttings are a useful model system to investigate regulation of central carbon metabolism in grape berry. The metabolites measured showed tight coordination within their respective pathways, clustering into sugars and sugar-phosphate metabolism, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, there was a pronounced shift in metabolism around veraison, characterized by rapidly increasing sugar levels and decreasing organic acids. In contrast, glycolytic intermediates and sugar phosphates declined before veraison but remained fairly stable post-veraison. In summary, these detailed and comprehensive metabolite analyses revealed the timing of important switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism, which could be related to transcriptional and developmental changes within the berry to achieve an integrated understanding of grape berry development. The results are discussed in a meta-analysis comparing metabolic changes in climacteric versus non-climacteric fleshy fruits.

  1. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone.

  2. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    PubMed

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment.

  3. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    PubMed

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  4. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol

    PubMed Central

    May, Bianca; Lange, B. Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-2H2]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose and [5,5-2H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. PMID:23954075

  5. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    PubMed

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries.

  6. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-11-30

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. In addition, data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim ofmore » this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic

  7. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-11-30

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. In addition, data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst

  8. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as “microbial terroir.” The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi. PMID

  9. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health.

  10. Use of response surface methodology for the assessment of changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries during ripening.

    PubMed

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Vilanova, Mar; Río Segade, Susana; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giordano, Manuela; Rolle, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The changes in the volatile composition of Moscato bianco grapes were evaluated during ripening. Grape berries were sampled for five weeks (16-20 °Brix) and sorted for each date in ten density classes (1.05-1.12g/cm(3)). The highest total concentration of free terpenes was found at 19.3 °Brix; however, total concentration of the bound fraction increased significantly throughout ripening. Response surface methodology was used to assess the simultaneous effect of sampling time and berry density on the volatile composition, which was satisfactorily fitted to regression models for some key terpene compounds. Total free and bound terpenes were more affected by grape density than by sampling date. The same behaviour was observed for free and bound linalool and bound nerol, whereas the stronger effect of sampling date was exhibited for bound t-rose oxide, c-rose oxide and geraniol. The results showed that the sampling strategy impacted strongly on the aroma quality of berries.

  11. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  12. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  14. Effect of acoustic frequency and power density on the aqueous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.) - a response surface approach.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Knoerzer, Kai; Sabarez, Henry; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Femenia, Antoni

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of grape pomace was investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to evaluate the effect of acoustic frequency (40, 80, 120kHz), ultrasonic power density (50, 100, 150W/L) and extraction time (5, 15, 25min) on total phenolics, total flavonols and antioxidant capacity. All the process variables showed a significant effect on the aqueous UAE of grape pomace (p<0.05). The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) generated satisfactory mathematical models which accurately explain the behavior of the system; allowing to predict both the extraction yield of phenolic and flavonol compounds, and also the antioxidant capacity of the grape pomace extracts. The optimal UAE conditions for all response factors were a frequency of 40kHz, a power density of 150W/L and 25min of extraction time. Under these conditions, the aqueous UAE would achieve a maximum of 32.31mg GA/100g fw for total phenolics and 2.04mg quercetin/100g fw for total flavonols. Regarding the antioxidant capacity, the maximum predicted values were 53.47 and 43.66mg Trolox/100g fw for CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively. When comparing with organic UAE, in the present research, from 12% to 38% of total phenolic bibliographic values were obtained, but using only water as the extraction solvent, and applying lower temperatures and shorter extraction times. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies specifically addressing the optimization of both acoustic frequency and power density during aqueous-UAE of plant materials have been previously published.

  15. Antioxidant profile and in vitro cardiac radical-scavenging versus pro-oxidant effects of commercial red grape juices ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aglianico N.).

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manfra, Michele; Stiuso, Paola; Coppola, Luigi; Russo, Mariateresa; Gomez Monterrey, Isabel Maria; Campiglia, Pietro

    2012-09-26

    Several works have reported on the pharmaceutical usefulness of grape phytochemicals. Nevertheless, the scientific literature needs further studies to consider grape extracts as useful dietary supplements. The aim of the present work was to hypothesize for the first time the use of whole commercial red grape juices as food supplements potentially useful against both physiological and induced cardiac oxidative stress. First of all, the results indicated a good antioxidant stability of the juice sample to lyophilization that may be reasonably regarded as a suitable process for the formulation of food supplements. Then, the processed sample (lioRGJ) was tested on cardiac-derived H9C2 myocytes to ascertain its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase-3 activity incubating cardiomyocytes with lioRGJ at increasing doses (0.01-1 μg). Experiments showed an appreciable direct radical-scavenging activity at a maximum sample dose of 0.01 μg that made the caspase-3 activity decrease by about 47% (P < 0.001). Cardiac cells were exposed to 1 μM doxorubicin and its combination with different doses of lioRGJ. A maximum sample aliquot of 0.01 μg seemed to effectively contrast the induced oxidant injury, decreasing the ROS levels by about 31% and depressing the caspase-3 activity by about 60% (P < 0.001). In both assays, pro-oxidant effects at higher sample concentrations were detected as indicated by the increase in both ROS generation and apoptotic activity. The data suggested the possible employment of the juice sample as a food supplement with prospective cardioprotective benefits, although further studies are needed to optimize its dosages to avoid harmful pro-oxidant effects.

  16. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. PMID:25506607

  17. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    PubMed

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated.

  18. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Liu, Cai-Yun; Liu, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Yue-Ling; Xu, Rui-Rui

    2016-09-01

    In plants, the transcription factor families have been implicated in many important biological processes. These processes include morphogenesis, signal transduction and environmental stress responses. Proteins containing the lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), which encodes a zinc finger-like domain are only found in plants. This finding indicates that this unique gene family regulates only plant-specific biological processes. LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of plants such as Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, poplar, apple and tomato. However, relatively little is known about the LBD genes in grape (Vitis vinifera). In this study, we identified 40 LBD genes in the grape genome. A complete overview of the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, structures and expression profiles of this gene family during development in grape is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LBD genes could be divided into classes I and II, together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. We mapped the 40 LBD genes on the grape chromosomes (chr1-chr19) and found that 37 of the predicted grape LBD genes were distributed in different densities across 12 chromosomes. Grape LBDs were found to share a similar intron/exon structure and gene length within the same class. The expression profiles of grape LBD genes at different developmental stages were analysed using microarray data. Results showed that 21 grape LBD genes may be involved in grape developmental processes, including preveraison, veraison and ripening. Finally, we analysed the expression patterns of six LBD genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reation analysis. The six LBD genes showed differential expression patterns among the three representative grape tissues, and five of these genes were found to be involved in responses to mannitol, sodium chloride, heat stress and low temperature treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the LBD gene family in

  19. Differences in Vvufgt and VvmybA1 Gene Expression Levels and Phenolic Composition in Table Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) 'Red Globe' and Its Somaclonal Variant 'Pink Globe'.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Luis; Sáez, Vania; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Castro, María H; Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia

    2017-04-05

    A novel 'Red Globe' (RG)-derived grape variety, 'Pink Globe' (PG), was described and registered as a new genotype, with earlier ripening and sweeter taste than those of RG. Microsatellite analysis revealed that PG and RG are undifferentiable; however, the PG VvmybA1c contains six single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding and noncoding region, possibly related to the reduced VvmybA1 expression levels. Conversely, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed significantly lower anthocyanin content in PG skin than in RG skin, and PG had no detectable trihydroxylated anthocyanins. Total flavonols did not differ between the variants, although some quercetin derivate concentrations were lower in PG. HPLC-FLD analysis revealed slightly higher concentrations of epicatechin and a procyanidin dimer in PG seeds, although the antioxidant capacity of crude extracts from either variety did not differ significantly. These differences, particularly in monomeric anthocyanin content, can be attributed to altered activity of a MYB-type transcription factor, reducing Vvufgt expression.

  20. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-04

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  1. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding.

  2. Protective effects of proanthocyanidins of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds on DNA damage induced by Doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Alexandre Azenha Alves; Graf, Ulrich; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2009-07-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are naturally occurring oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ol monomer units widely found in the leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, nuts and barks of many plants. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been used as nutritional supplements, as antioxidants, in preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and for dislipidemy treatment. The anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin (Doxorubicin, DXR) is a cancer chemotherapeutic agent that interferes with the topoisomerase II enzyme and generates free radicals. In the present study, GSPs (1.680, 3.375, or 6.750 mg/mL) alone were examined for genotoxicity, and combined with DXR (0.125 mg/mL) for antigenotoxicity, using the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) versions of the wing somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. The results observed in both crosses were rather similar. GSPs themselves did not show genotoxicity at the doses used. GSPs suppressed the DNA damage induced by DXR in a dose-dependent manner. Comparison of the frequencies of wing spots in the marker-heterozygous (MH) flies and balancer-heterozygous (BH) flies from both crosses, indicated that induced recombination was the major response for the treatments with DXR alone. The co-treatments demonstrated that GSPs have some anti-mutagenic activity; however, anti-recombinagenic activity was the major response.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the berry skin of two red grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in which anthocyanin synthesis is sunlight-dependent or -independent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben-Hong; Cao, Yue-Gang; Guan, Le; Xin, Hai-Ping; Li, Ji-Hu; Li, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Global gene expression was analyzed in the berry skin of two red grape cultivars, which can ('Jingyan') or cannot ('Jingxiu') synthesize anthocyanins after sunlight exclusion from fruit set until maturity. Gene transcripts responding to sunlight exclusion in 'Jingyan' were less complex than in 'Jingxiu'; 528 genes were induced and 383 repressed in the former, whereas 2655 genes were induced and 205 suppressed in 'Jingxiu'. They were regulated either in the same or opposing manner in the two cultivars, or in only one cultivar. In addition to VvUFGT and VvMYBA1, some candidate genes (e.g. AOMT, GST, and ANP) were identified which are probably involved in the differential responses of 'Jingxiu' and 'Jingyan' to sunlight exclusion. In addition, 26 MYB, 14 bHLH and 23 WD40 genes responded differently to sunlight exclusion in the two cultivars. Interestingly, all of the 189 genes classified as being relevant to ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation were down-regulated by sunlight exclusion in 'Jingxiu', but the majority (162) remained unchanged in 'Jingyan' berry skin. It would be of interest to determine the precise role of the ubiquitin pathway following sunlight exclusion, particularly the role of COP9 signalosome, cullins, RING-Box 1, and COP1-interacting proteins. Only a few genes in the light signal system were found to be regulated by sunlight exclusion in either or both cultivars. This study provides a valuable overview of the transcriptome changes and gives insight into the genetic background that may be responsible for sunlight-dependent versus -independent anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skin.

  4. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth.

  5. Ampelometric Leaf Trait and SSR Loci Selection for a Multivariate Statistical Approach in Vitis vinifera L. Biodiversity Management.

    PubMed

    Alba, Vittorio; Bergamini, Carlo; Genghi, Rosalinda; Gasparro, Marica; Perniola, Rocco; Antonacci, Donato

    2015-08-01

    High estimated heritability values were recently revealed for mature leaf traits in grape (Vitis vinifera L.), thus redeeming ampelography in the era of molecular markers. The "Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV)" set a list of hundreds of descriptors for grapevine in order to standardize ampelographic and ampelometric scores. Therefore, the selection and reduction of the number of OIV codes can represent a major goal for leaner biodiversity assessment studies. The identification of ampelometric traits associated with grape diversity allows to construct Classification Trees with chi squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) algorithm, a stepwise model-fitting method that produces a tree diagram in which at each step the sample pool is splitted based on the independent variables statistically different for the dependent variable. A collection of 100 table and wine grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) was characterized and evaluated by means of six microsatellites and twenty-two ampelometric traits on mature leaves. Nine ampelometric traits were selected by principal component analysis and employed to build the classification trees based on CHAID algorithm. The strategy can represent an effective tool for grape biodiversity management, right allocations, and identification of new grape genotypes, implemented by a further microsatellite investigation only when unsolved cases occur, allowing faster and cheaper results.

  6. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA of Vitis vinifera and the issue of rampant horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Viola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of grape (Vitis vinifera), the largest organelle genome sequenced so far, is presented. The genome is 773,279 nt long and has the highest coding capacity among known angiosperm mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). The proportion of promiscuous DNA of plastid origin in the genome is also the largest ever reported for an angiosperm mtDNA, both in absolute and relative terms. In all, 42.4% of chloroplast genome of Vitis has been incorporated into its mitochondrial genome. In order to test if horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has also contributed to the gene content of the grape mtDNA, we built phylogenetic trees with the coding sequences of mitochondrial genes of grape and their homologs from plant mitochondrial genomes. Many incongruent gene tree topologies were obtained. However, the extent of incongruence between these gene trees is not significantly greater than that observed among optimal trees for chloroplast genes, the common ancestry of which has never been in doubt. In both cases, we attribute this incongruence to artifacts of tree reconstruction, insufficient numbers of characters, and gene paralogy. This finding leads us to question the recent phylogenetic interpretation of Bergthorsson et al. (2003, 2004) and Richardson and Palmer (2007) that rampant HGT into the mtDNA of Amborella best explains phylogenetic incongruence between mitochondrial gene trees for angiosperms. The only evidence for HGT into the Vitis mtDNA found involves fragments of two coding sequences stemming from two closteroviruses that cause the leaf roll disease of this plant. We also report that analysis of sequences shared by both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes provides evidence for a previously unknown gene transfer route from the mitochondrion to the chloroplast.

  8. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  9. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  10. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries.

  11. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development.

  12. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    PubMed Central

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  13. Transport and accumulation of flavonoids in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Braidot, Enrico; Zancani, Marco; Petrussa, Elisa; Peresson, Carlo; Bertolini, Alberto; Patui, Sonia; Macrì, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants that represent a huge portion of the soluble phenolics present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). These compounds play different physiological roles and are often involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stress. Even if the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways have been largely characterized, the mechanisms of their transport and accumulation in cell wall and vacuole are still not completely understood. This review analyses the known mechanisms of flavonoid uptake and accumulation in grapevine, with reference to the transport models and membrane carrier proteins described in other plant species. The effect of different environmental factors on flavonoid biosynthesis and transporters is also discussed. PMID:19513253

  14. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  15. Identification of Vitis vinifera (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase by in silico screening of full-length cDNA ESTs and functional characterization of recombinant terpene synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The flavour and aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape varieties is dominated by volatile terpenes and small volatile aldehydes. Monoterpenes contribute to the final grape and wine aroma and flavour in form of free volatiles and as glycoside conjugates of monoterpene alcohols. Typical monoterpenol components of the cultivar Gewürztraminer and other aroma-rich grape varieties are linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, and alpha-terpineol. In a functional genomics effort to identify genes for the formation of monoterpene alcohols in V. vinifera, a database of full-length cDNA sequences was screened in silico and yielded two clones for putative monoterpene synthases. The gene products were functionally characterized by expression in Escherichia coli, in vitro enzyme assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) product identification as multi-product (-)-alpha-terpineol synthases.

  16. Hairy root culture optimization and resveratrol production from Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sayed Mehdi; Bahramnejad, Bahman; Douleti Baneh, Hamed; Emamifar, Aryo; Goodwin, Paul H

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced in very low levels in grapes. To achieve high yield of resveratrol in wild grape, three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402, were used to induce hairy roots following infection of internodes, nodes or petioles of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris accessions W2 and W16, and cultivar Rasha. The effects of inoculation time, age of explants, bacterial concentration and co-cultivation times were examined on the efficiency of the production of hairy roots. Strains Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402 all induced hairy roots in the tested genotypes, but the efficiency of ArA4 strain was higher than the other strains. The highest hairy root production was with using internodes as explants. The transformation of hairy roots lines was confirmed by PCR detection of rolB gene. Half Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was better for biomass production compared with MS medium. HPLC analysis of resveratrol production in the hairy root cultures showed that all the genotypes produced higher amounts of resveratrol than control roots. The highest amount of resveratrol was produced from W16 internode cultures, which was 31-fold higher than that of control root. Furthermore, TLC analysis showed that treatments of hairy roots with sodium acetate and jasmonate elevated resveratrol levels both in hairy root tissue and excreted into the half MS medium. These results demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous factors can affect resveratrol production in hairy root culture of grape, and this strategy could be used to increase low resveratrol production in grapes.

  17. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats), due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol), is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS) with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars. PMID:21062440

  18. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  19. Structure and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins having putative Rubisco activase function from Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Rubisco is a very large, complex and one of the most abundant proteins in the world and comprises up to 50% of all soluble protein in plants. The activity of Rubisco, the enzyme that catalyzes CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis, is regulated by Rubisco activase (Rca). In the present study, we searched for hypothetical protein of Vitis vinifera which has putative Rubisco activase function. The Arabidopsis and tobacco Rubisco activase protein sequences were used as seed sequences to search against Vitis vinifera in UniprotKB database. The selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera were subjected to sequence, structural and functional annotation. Subcellular localization predictions suggested it to be cytoplasmic protein. Homology modelling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera. Template search revealed that all the hypothetical proteins share more than 80% sequence identity with structure of green-type Rubisco activase from tobacco, indicating proteins are evolutionary conserved. The homology modelling was generated using SWISS-MODEL. Several quality assessment and validation parameters computed indicated that homology models are reliable. Further, functional annotation through PFAM, CATH, SUPERFAMILY, CDART suggested that selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera contain ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) and belong to the AAA+ super family of ring-shaped P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases. This study will lead to research in the optimization of the functionality of Rubisco which has large implication in the improvement of plant productivity and resource use efficiency.

  20. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase.

  1. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  2. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Marsoni, Milena; Bracale, Marcella; Espen, Luca; Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Vannini, Candida

    2008-02-01

    Two dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry has been used to study the somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera, by comparing embryogenic and non embryogenic calluses of the Thompson seedless cv. More than 1,000 spots were reproducibly resolved in colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue stained gels over a pI nonlinear range of 3-10 in the first dimension and using homogeneous 12.5% polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. The expression pattern of 35 spots differed significantly between the two samples. These spots were processed by mass spectrometry analysis and the protein identity was assigned by using both the non-redundant protein and EST databases. Several responsive proteins, some already known to be involved in the somatic embryogenesis process while others, for the first time put into relation with this process, have been described. Moreover, they have been subdivided in functional categories, and their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance in the somatic embryogenesis process.

  3. 76 FR 3573 - Proposed Addition of New Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    .... Auxerrois is a white Vitis vinifera grape variety widely grown in the Alsace region of France. The... Italian Vitis vinifera variety, Biancolella is grown on the islands of Ischia and Capri and in the... Rotta Winery, Templeton, California, petitioned TTB to add ``Black Monukka,'' a black Vitis...

  4. The peripheral xylem of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). 1. Structural integrity in post-veraison berries.

    PubMed

    Chatelet, David S; Rost, Thomas L; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    During the development of many fleshy fruits, water flow becomes progressively more phloemic and less xylemic. In grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the current hypothesis to explain this change is that the tracheary elements of the peripheral xylem break as a result of berry growth, rendering the xylem structurally discontinuous and hence non-functional. Recent work, however, has shown via apoplastic dye movement through the xylem of post-veraison berries that the xylem should remain structurally intact throughout berry development. To corroborate this, peripheral xylem structure in developing Chardonnay berries was investigated via maceration and plastic sectioning. Macerations revealed that, contrary to current belief, the xylem was comprised mostly of vessels with few tracheids. In cross-section, the tracheary elements of the vascular bundles formed almost parallel radial files, with later formed elements toward the epidermis and earlier formed elements toward the centre of the berry. Most tracheary elements remained intact throughout berry maturation, consistent with recent reports of vascular dye movement in post-veraison berries.

  5. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  6. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  7. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  8. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves.

  9. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  10. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-08

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  11. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic ('seedless') table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine.

  12. A Candidate-Gene Association Study for Berry Colour and Anthocyanin Content in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Silvana; Lau, Winston; Eiras Dias, José; Fevereiro, Pedro; Maniatis, Nikolas

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA) concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST). Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, MYCA, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHSA). Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYCB, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies. PMID:23029369

  13. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  14. Localization of stilbene synthase in Vitis vinifera L. during berry development.

    PubMed

    Fornara, V; Onelli, E; Sparvoli, F; Rossoni, M; Aina, R; Marino, G; Citterio, S

    2008-01-01

    The localization of stilbene synthase (STS) (EC 2.3.1.95) in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated during fruit development. The berries were collected at 2, 4, 7, 11, and 15 weeks postflowering from the cultivar Nebbiolo during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that berries accumulated cis- and trans-isomers of resveratrol mainly in the exocarp throughout fruit development. Immunodetection of STS protein was performed on berry extracts and sections with an antibody specifically developed against recombinant grape STS1. In agreement with resveratrol presence, STS was found in berry exocarp tissues during all stages of fruit development. The labeled epidermal cells were few and were randomly distributed, whereas nearly all the outer hypodermis cells were STS-positive. The STS signal decreased gradually from exocarp to mesocarp, where the protein was detected only occasionally. At the subcellular level, STS was found predominantly within vesicles (of varying size), along the plasma membrane and in the cell wall, suggesting protein secretion in the apoplast compartment. Despite the differences in fruit size and structure, the STS localization was the same before and after veraison, the relatively short developmental period during which the firm green berries begin to soften and change color. Nevertheless, the amount of protein detected in both exocarp and mesocarp decreased significantly in ripe berries, in agreement with the lower resveratrol content measured in the same tissues. The location of STS in exocarp cell wall is consistent with its role in synthesizing defense compounds and supports the hypothesis that a differential localization of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic machinery regulates the deposition of specific secondary products at different action sites within cells.

  15. Berry morphology and composition in irrigated and non-irrigated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sofo, Adriano; Nuzzo, Vitale; Tataranni, Giuseppe; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Scopa, Antonio

    2012-07-15

    The present study was carried out in a 5-year-old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Aglianico) located in Southern Italy. Half of the plants (IRR) were fully irrigated, whereas the other half were not irrigated (NIRR). In both of the treatments, plant water status, gas exchange, photosynthetic efficiency and productive performance were determined. The arid conditions resulted in significant decreases in stem water potential in NIRR (minimum values of -1.34 and -1.52 MPa in IRR and NIRR, respectively). The values of yield per plant, cluster weight and total berry weight were significantly higher in IRR. Grape berries were separated into four weight classes, and morphometric and microscopic analyses were carried out to measure and calculate berry skin characteristics. Irrigation determined a marked shift toward heavier (+23% in the class ≥ 1.25 g) and bigger (336.35 mm³ vs 299.15 mm³) berries, and induced significant changes in other morphometric berry parameters. No differences among berry weight classes and irrigation treatments were observed for berry skin thickness. In all of the berry weight classes, total anthocyanins extracted from berry skins were significantly higher in NIRR than in IRR (12301.53 and 9585.52 mg kg⁻¹ fresh berry skin, respectively), and appeared to be positively related to berry weight, whereas total flavonols were not significantly different between the two treatments. Qualitative changes in the levels of single anthocyanin and flavonol compounds were detected between IRR and NIRR. In addition, iron, copper and zinc, whose high concentration can negatively affect wine quality, were significantly higher in the IRR treatment. The results highlighted that the absence of irrigation did not determine decreases in grape quality. Such data can be of primary importance in environments where water availability is by far the most important limiting factor for plant growth.

  16. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  17. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  18. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-Glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins in red grapes (Vitis genus) are important components of wine and beneficial to human health. These antioxidant compounds are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigm...

  19. VitisGen on the road: mapping the way to the next generation of grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NIFA VitisGen project (Award No. 2011-51181-30635) aims to optimize grape cultivar improvement through the integration of grape breeding, cutting edge genomics technology, precision phenotyping, socioeconomic research, and extension. VitisGen is a five-year project involving 25 co-PIs at 11...

  20. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  1. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  2. The Synthesis and Accumulation of Resveratrol Are Associated with Veraison and Abscisic Acid Concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) Berry Skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junfang; Wang, Shuqin; Liu, Guotian; Edwards, Everard J.; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA) can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening) and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA) on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin, and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis), i.e., 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity). Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 days pre-veraison, veraison or 7 days post-veraison), thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 days pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27857716

  3. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  4. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard.

  5. Branch Development Controls Leaf Area Dynamics in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Growing in Drying Soil

    PubMed Central

    LEBON, ERIC; PELLEGRINO, ANNE; LOUARN, GAËTAN; LECOEUR, JEREMIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Soil water deficit is a major abiotic stress with severe consequences for the development, productivity and quality of crops. However, it is considered a positive factor in grapevine management (Vitis vinifera), as it has been shown to increase grape quality. The effects of soil water deficit on organogenesis, morphogenesis and gas exchange in the shoot were investigated. • Methods Shoot organogenesis was analysed by distinguishing between the various steps in the development of the main axis and branches. Several experiments were carried out in pots, placed in a greenhouse or outside, in southern France. Soil water deficits of various intensities were imposed during vegetative development of the shoots of two cultivars (‘Syrah’ and ‘Grenache N’). • Key Results All developmental processes were inhibited by soil water deficit, in an intensity-dependent manner, and sensitivity to water stress was process-dependent. Quantitative relationships with soil water were established for all processes. No difference was observed between the two cultivars for any criterion. The number of leaves on branches was particularly sensitive to soil water deficit, which rapidly and strongly reduced the rate of leaf appearance on developing branches. This response was not related to carbon availability, photosynthetic activity or the soluble sugar content of young expanding leaves. The potential number of branches was not a limiting factor for shoot development. • Conclusions The particularly high sensitivity to soil water deficit of leaf appearance on branches indicates that this process is a major determinant of the adaptation of plant leaf area to soil water deficit. The origin of this particular developmental response to soil water deficit is unclear, but it seems to be related to constitutive characteristics of branches rather than to competition for assimilates between axes differing in sink strength. PMID:16679414

  6. Stilbenes from Vitis vinifera L. Waste: A Sustainable Tool for Controlling Plasmopara Viticola.

    PubMed

    Gabaston, Julien; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Biais, Benoît; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Renouf, Elodie; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Richard, Tristan; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-05

    Stilbene-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera waste (cane, wood, and root) were characterized by UHPLC-MS. Eleven stilbenes were identified and quantified as follows: ampelopsin A, (E)-piceatannol, pallidol, (E)-resveratrol, hopeaphenol, isohopeaphenol, (E)-ε-viniferin, (E)-miyabenol C, (E)-ω-viniferin, r2-viniferin, and r-viniferin. The fungicide concentration inhibiting 50% of growth of Plasmopara viticola sporulation (IC50) was determined for the extracts and also for the main compounds isolated. r-Viniferin followed by hopeaphenol and r2-viniferin showed low IC50 and thus high efficacy against Plasmopara viticola. Regarding stilbene extracts, wood extract followed by root extract showed the highest antifungal activities. These data suggest that stilbene complex mixtures from Vitis vinifera waste could be used as a cheap source of bioactive stilbenes for the development of natural fungicides.

  7. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  8. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety. PMID:27462558

  9. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of the UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Concord grape (Vitis labrusca).

    PubMed

    Hall, Dawn; Yuan, Xiao Xin; Murata, Jun; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanidin substrates at the 3-O-position is crucial for the red pigmentation of grape berries and wine. The gene that encodes the enzyme involved in this reaction has been cloned from Vitis labrusca cv. Concord, heterologously expressed, and the recombinant enzyme (rVL3GT) was characterized. VL3GT has 96% amino acid sequence identity with Vitis vinifera VV3GT and groups phylogenetically with several other flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferases. In vitro substrate specificity studies and kinetic analyses of rVL3GT indicate that this enzyme preferentially glucosylates cyanidin as compared with quercetin. Crude protein extracts from several Concord grape tissues were assayed for glucosyltransferase activity with cyanidin and quercetin as acceptor substrates. A comparison of the VL3GT activities toward with these substrates showed that the 3GT enzyme activity is consistent with the expression of VL3GT in these tissues and is coincident with the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in both location and developmental stages. Enzyme activities in grape mesocarp, pre-veraison exocarp, leaf, flower bud, and flower tissues glucosylated quercetin but not cyanidin at high rates, suggesting the presence of additional enzymes which are able to glucosylate the 3-O-position of flavonols with higher specificity than anthocyanidins.

  10. Comparison of a retrotransposon-based marker with microsatellite markers for discriminating accessions of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, G C; Ferreira, J L; Rocha, H S; Borém, A; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A

    2012-05-21

    Identification and knowledge concerning genetic diversity are fundamental for efficient management and use of grapevine germplasm. Recently, new types of molecular markers have been developed, such as retrotransposon-based markers. Because of their multilocus pattern, retrotransposon-based markers might be able to differentiate grapevine accessions with just one pair of primers. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this type of marker, we compared retrotransposon marker Tvv1 with seven microsatellite markers frequently used for genotyping of the genus Vitis (VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD5, VVMD27, VVMD31, VVS2, and VZAG62). The reference population that we used consisted of 26 accessions of Vitis, including seven European varieties of Vitis vinifera, four North American varieties and hybrids of Vitis labrusca, and 15 rootstock hybrids obtained from crosses of several Vitis species. Individually, the Tvv1 and the group of seven SSR markers were capable of distinguishing all accessions except 'White Niagara' compared to 'Red Niagara'. Using the Structure software, the retrotransposon marker Tvv1 generated two clusters: one with V. vinifera plus North American varieties and the other comprising rootstocks. The seven SSR markers generated five clusters: V. vinifera, the North American varieties, and three groups of rootstock hybrids. The percentages of variation explained by the first two components in the principal coordinate analysis were 65.21 (Tvv1) and 50.42 (SSR markers) while the Mantel correlation between the distance matrixes generated by the two types of markers was 42.5%. We conclude that the Tvv1 marker is useful for DNA fingerprinting, but it lacks efficiency for discrimination of structured groups.

  11. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  13. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  14. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  15. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  16. Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is a natural component of sunlight, which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. The nature of the response to UV-B is dependent on fluence rate, dose, duration and wavelength of the UV-B treatment. Some reports have analyzed the changes in gene expression caused by UV-B light on several plant species using microarray technology. However, there is no information on the transcriptome response triggered by UV-B in grapevine. In this paper we investigate the gene expression responses of leaves from in vitro cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants subjected to the same dose of biologically effective UV-B radiation (4.75 kJ m-2 d-1) administered at two different fluence rates (16 h at ≅ 8.25 μW cm-2, 4 h at ≅ 33 μW cm-2) using a new custom made GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip®. Results The number of genes modulated by high fluence rate UV-B doubled the number of genes modulated by low fluence UV-B. Their functional analyses revealed several functional categories commonly regulated by both UV-B treatments as well as categories more specifically modulated depending on UV-B fluence rate. General protective responses, namely the induction of pathways regulating synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds such as the Phenylpropanoid pathway, the induction of different antioxidant defense systems and the activation of pathways commonly associated with pathogen defense and abiotic stress responses seem to play critical roles in grapevine responses against UV-B radiation. Furthermore, high fluence rate UV-B seemed to specifically modulate additional pathways and processes in order to protect grapevine plantlets against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, stop the cell cycle progression, and control protein degradation. On the other hand, low fluence rate UV-B regulated the expression of specific responses in the metabolism of auxin and abscisic acid as well as in the modification of cell walls that could be involved

  17. Validation of an extraction method on whole pericarp of grape berry (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) to study biochemical and molecular aspects of flavan-3-ol synthesis during berry development.

    PubMed

    Verries, Clotilde; Guiraud, Jean-Luc; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Vialet, Sandrine; Terrier, Nancy; Ollé, Didier

    2008-07-23

    An extraction method on grape berry was optimized for the total flavan-3-ol content measurement with regard to the nature of the sample and the duration of its extraction. This extraction was performed for the first time on the whole pericarp. Flavan-3-ol extractions were achieved on Shiraz ripe samples of pericarp versus skin within different durations: the best results were obtained for the whole pericarp and 1 h duration. Therefore, this more convenient protocol was used to investigate the flavan-3-ol content at different stages through berry development, in parallel with the abundance of transcripts involved in their biosynthesis. Furthermore, flavan-3-ol extractions on pericarp analysis confirmed their presence in both pulp and skin. For the first time, the flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in pulp was demonstrated with both biochemical and transcriptomic analyses since the presence of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR2) and anthocyanin reductase (ANR) transcripts was revealed by real-time PCR. In addition, the percentage of epigallocatechin was different in pulp and skin.

  18. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (−)-rotundone

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (−)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (−)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (−)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (−)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (−)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (−)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. PMID:26590863

  19. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    PubMed

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotseridis, Yorgos; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2006-07-12

    The influence of site on grape and wine composition was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko in the Nemea appellation area in southern Greece. Three nonirrigated plots were studied during the 1997 and 1998 vintages, which were typically very hot and without summer rainfall. Vines were subjected to different water regimens as a result of the variation of soil water-holding capacity and evaporative demand. Vine water status was determined by means of predawn leaf water potential. Differences in vine water status between sites were highly correlated with the earliness of shoot growth cessation and veraison. Grape composition was monitored during fruit ripening. Water deficit accelerated sugar accumulation and malic acid breakdown in the juice. Early water deficit during the growth period was demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolics in berry skins. A similar pattern was observed for the phenolic content of wines elaborated after vinification of grapes harvested on each plot, in both seasons. Limited water availability seemed to increase glycoconjugates of the main aromatic components of grapes as a quantitative increase in levels of bound volatile compounds of the experimental wines was observed under water deficit in both years. Wines produced from grapes of stressed vineyards were also preferred in tasting trials.

  20. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits.

  1. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. IMPORTANCE The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All

  2. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  3. [Significant improved anthocyanins biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera by process intensification].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Yu, Xing-Ju; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-03-01

    The low-production is a ubiquitous problem and has prevented the commercialization of secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture. In order to examine the effective approaches to improvement of secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture, the investigation of anthocyanins accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, had been initiated in our laboratory. In this present research, various elicitors and the precursor of phenylalanine were used in combination to enhance the anthocyanins production in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. And an integrated process with the combination of elicitation, precursor feeding and light irradiation was reported for rational bioprocess design. Among the combination treatment of phenylalanine feeding and several elicitors (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, dextran T-40, methyl jasmonate, extracts of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium orthoceras), the combination with methyl jasmonate gave the highest anthocyanins production in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. When compared to the controls, the anthocyanins content (CV/g, FCW) and production (CV/L) increased by 2.7-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively. The optimum time for the addition of phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate was 4 days after inoculation. Two cell lines with different anthocyanins-producing capacity responded differently to the optimum combination treatment of 30 micromol/L phenylalanine feeding, 218 micromol/L methyl jasmonate elicitation and 3000 to approximately 4000 1x light illumination. The high-and low-anthocyanins-producing cell lines of VV05 and VV06 produced the maximum of 2975 and 4090 CV/L of anthocyanins that were 2.5- and 5.2-fold of the controls, respectively.

  4. Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses.

  5. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  6. Gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Lunenfeld, B

    1968-03-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems.

  7. Gonadotropin Promotion of Adventitious Root Production on Cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera 1

    PubMed Central

    Leshem, Y.; Lunenfeld, B.

    1968-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA3-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems. PMID:5641189

  8. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  9. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. "Flame seedless" stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed.

  10. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal.

  11. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts.

  12. Seasonal pattern of apoplastic solute accumulation and loss of cell turgor during ripening of Vitis vinifera fruit under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hiroshi; Matthews, Mark A.; Shackel, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a novel pressure membrane (PM) apparatus for the extraction of apoplastic fluid from field-grown grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, our hypothesis that significant apoplast solutes accumulate at the beginning of the ripening process (i.e. veraison), and that this accumulation might contribute to progressive berry softening due to a progressive loss of mesocarp cell turgor pressure (P) was tested. It was necessary to correct the solute potential (Ψs) of fluid collected with the PM for dilution due to the presence of a dead volume in the apparatus, but after correction, the Ψs obtained with the PM agreed with that obtained by low speed centrifugation. A clear decline in fruit apoplastic solute potential (ψSA) began approximately 10 d prior to fruit coloration, and it was found to be coincident with a decline in mesocarp cell P and fruit elasticity (E). By late in fruit development when berry growth ceased (90 d after anthesis), both apoplast and fruit Ψs reached almost –4 MPa. These results support the hypothesis that a decrease in ψSA is responsible for the observed loss in mesocarp cell P, and is the mechanistic cause of berry softening. PMID:19386616

  13. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  14. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  15. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  16. Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Anna; Stagos, Dimitrios; Galitsiou, Elissavet; Spyrou, Argiris; Haroutounian, Serko; Portesis, Nikolaos; Trizoglou, Ioanna; Wallace Hayes, A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Grape extracts and wine have been studied widely due to their beneficial effects on human health. However, there are only few studies from grape stems extracts. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was the assessment in stem extracts from Greek Vitis vinifera varieties of the total polyphenolic content (TPC), the identification of the polyphenols present in them, and the evaluation of their antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and inhibition of liver (HepG2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell growth. The range of the TPC in grape stem extracts was from 345 to 584 mg GAE/g dry weight. Moreover, stem extracts contained different classes of polyphenols as flavonols, flavanols, procyanidins, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In DPPH and ABTS assays, the IC50 values of the stem extracts had an average of 7.8 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.6 μg/mL respectively. Also, all stem extracts inhibited OH- and ROO-induced DNA damage dose dependent with average IC50 values of 478 ± 217 and 1.15 ± 0.85 μg/mL respectively. Furthermore, stem extracts inhibited at low concentrations the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells with average IC50 values of 50 ± 12 and 32 ± 16 μg/mL respectively. The above activities of grape stem extracts were comparable to those of seed extracts.

  17. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen.

  18. Characterization of potential ABA receptors in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Zheng, Chuanlin; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-02-01

    Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress-related genes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key endogenous messenger in a plant's response to such stresses. A novel ABA binding mechanism which plays a key role in plant cell signaling cascades has recently been uncovered. In the absence of ABA, a type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) interacts and inhibits the kinase SnRK2. Binding of ABA to the PYR/PYLs receptors enables interaction between the ABA receptor and the PP2C protein, and abrogates the SnRK2 inactivation. The active SnRK2 is then free to activate the ABA-responsive element Binding Factors which target ABA-dependent gene expression. We used the grape as a model to study the ABA perception mechanism in fruit trees. The grape ABA signaling cascade consists of at least seven ABA receptors and six PP2Cs. We used a yeast two-hybrid system to examine physical interaction in vitro between the grape ABA receptors and their interacting partners, and found that twenty-two receptor-PP2C interactions can occur. Moreover, quantifying these affinities by the use of the LacZ reporter enables us to show that VvPP2C4 and VvPP2C9 are the major binding partners of the ABA receptor. We also tested in vivo the root and leaf gene expression of the various ABA receptors and PP2Cs in the presence of exogenic ABA and under different abiotic stresses such as high salt concentration, cold and drought, and found that many of these genes are regulated by such abiotic environmental factors. Our results indicate organ specificity in the ABA receptor genes and stress specificity in the VvPP2Cs. We suggest that VvPP2C4 is the major PP2C involved in ABA perception in leaves and roots, and VvRCAR6 and VvRCAR5 respectively, are the major receptors involved in ABA perception in these organs. Identification, characterization and manipulation of the central players in the ABA signaling cascades in fruit trees is

  19. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  20. Co-evolution between Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus and Vitis vinifera L. leads to decreased defence responses and increased transcription of genes related to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Cuozzo, Danila; Fasoli, Marianna; Pagliarani, Chiara; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Pezzotti, Mario; Mannini, Franco

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a widespread virus infecting Vitis spp. Although it has established a compatible viral interaction in Vitis vinifera without the development of phenotypic alterations, it can occur as distinct variants that show different symptoms in diverse Vitis species. The changes induced by GRSPaV in V. vinifera cv 'Bosco', an Italian white grape variety, were investigated by combining agronomic, physiological, and molecular approaches, in order to provide comprehensive information about the global effects of GRSPaV. In two years, this virus caused a moderate decrease in physiological efficiency, yield performance, and sugar content in berries associated with several transcriptomic alterations. Transcript profiles were analysed by a microarray technique in petiole, leaf, and berry samples collected at véraison and by real-time RT-PCR in a time course carried out at five grapevine developmental stages. Global gene expression analyses showed that transcriptomic changes were highly variable among the different organs and the different phenological phases. GRSPaV triggers some unique responses in the grapevine at véraison, never reported before for other plant-virus interactions. These responses include an increase in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation, a moderate reduction in the photosynthesis rate and some defence mechanisms, and an overlap with responses to water and salinity stresses. It is hypothesized that the long co-existence of grapevine and GRSPaV has resulted in the evolution of a form of mutual adaptation between the virus and its host. This study contributes to elucidating alternative mechanisms used by infected plants to contend with viruses.

  1. Characterization of expression dynamics of WOX homeodomain transcription factors during somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Minuto, Martina; Boccacci, Paolo; Perrone, Irene; Vallania, Rosalina; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Different cultivars of Vitis vinifera vary in their potential to form embryogenic tissues. The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) genes have been shown to play an important role in coordinating the gene transcription involved in the early phases of embryogenesis. The expression dynamics of 12 VvWOX genes present in the V. vinifera genome in embryogenic and other tissues of 'Chardonnay' were analysed. In order to understand the influence of WOX genes on the somatic embryogenic process, their expression profiles were compared in two cultivars of V. vinifera ('Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon') that show different aptitudes for embryogenesis. The expression of all VvWOX genes was influenced by culture conditions. VvWOX2 and VvWOX9 were the principal WOX genes expressed during the somatic embryogenesis process, and the low aptitude for embryogenesis of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was generally correlated with the low expression levels of these VvWOX genes. VvWOX3 and VvWOX11 were strongly activated in correspondence to torpedo and cotyledonary stages of somatic embryos, with low expression in the earlier developmental stages (pre-embryogenic masses and globular embryos) and during embryo germination. VvWOX genes appeared to be key regulators of somatic embryogenesis in grapevine, and the regulation of these genes during early phases of somatic embryogenesis differed between the two cultivars of the same species.

  2. Phenolic composition of the edible parts (flesh and skin) of Bordô grape (Vitis labrusca) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-12-28

    The aim of this study was the detailed characterization of the phenolic composition and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Bordô grape (Vitis labrusca) cultivated in South Brazil. The edible parts of Bordô grapes (flesh and skin) contained 1130 mg/kg of total phenolic compounds (as gallic acid), mainly located in the skins. Anthocyanin content in the skins was high, largely as 3,5-diglucosides (1359 mg/kg, as malvidin 3,5-diglucoside). Total flavonols accounted for 154 μmol/kg, mainly located in the skins and with myricetin 3-glucoside as the principal flavonol in both grape parts. Very low amounts of flavan-3-ol monomers and dimers and low amounts of polymeric proanthocyanidins, with a composition similar to that reported for V. vinifera grape varieties, were found in Bordô grape skins. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives mainly derived from caffeic acid and were found in the skins in high amounts, ten times higher than in the flesh (total amount: 483 μmol/kg). Finally, the Bordô grape cultivar can be considered a high resveratrol producer (10.91 mg/kg) and also exhibited a high value of total antioxidant capacity (37.6 ± 1.0 mmol/kg, as Trolox).

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A.

  4. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines.

  5. Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from pigmented Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures as putative anthocyanin transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Curtin, Chris; Bézier, Annie; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The ligandin activity of specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is necessary for the transport of anthocyanins from the cytosol to the plant vacuole. Five GSTs were purified from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux cell suspension cultures by glutathione affinity chromatography. These proteins underwent Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry fingerprinting, with the resultant fragments aligned with predicted GSTs within public databases. The corresponding coding sequences were cloned, with heterologous expression in Escherichia coli used to confirm GST activity. Transcriptional profiling of these candidate GST genes and key anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (PAL, CHS, DFR, and UFGT) in cell suspensions and grape berries against anthocyanin accumulation demonstrated strong positive correlation with two sequences, VvGST1 and VvGST4, respectively. The ability of VvGST1 and VvGST4 to transport anthocyanins was confirmed in the heterologous maize bronze-2 complementation model, providing further evidence for their function as anthocyanin transport proteins in grape cells. Furthermore, the differential induction of VvGST1 and VvGST4 in suspension cells and grape berries suggests functional differences between these two proteins. Further investigation of these candidate ligandins may identify a mechanism for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation in planta and in vitro suspension cells.

  6. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  7. Chitosan improves development, and protects Vitis vinifera L. against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ait Barka, E; Eullaffroy, P; Clément, C; Vernet, G

    2004-03-01

    We evaluated the potential of chitosan both to stimulate plant development and to induce protection from Botrytis cinerea in Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. The presence of 1.75% (v/v) chitogel in the culture medium was the optimal concentration for in vitro grapevine plantlet growth, as determined by measurements on enhancement of root and shoot biomass. Photosynthesis and related parameters were also stimulated in chitogel-treated plantlets. Chitogel reduced the development of Botrytis cinerea and induced cytological alterations to the pathogen. When challenged with the fungus, a significant decrease in disease incidence was observed in plants growing on medium supplemented with chitogel. Furthermore, exogenous foliar applications of chitogel to plantlets growing on chitogel-free medium sensitized them so as to be protected against Botrytis cinerea attack. Our results indicate that chitogel can be used in the vineyard as a means to attain protection against Botrytis cinerea and that its application may counteract the wide use of chemical pesticides.

  8. Broad-spectrum of antimicrobial properties of commercial wines from different Vitis vinifera L. varieties.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Aleksandra; Arsić, Biljana; Radovanović, Vladimir; Jovančičević, Branimir; Nikolić, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods. The correlation between amounts of phenolics and antibacterial activities of investigated wines were studied by application of statistical (PCA, factor and cluster) analyses. This study gives the possibility to predict the biological quality of the wine from the same cluster towards bacteria without "wet" analysis. Obtained results can to be useful both to wine producers for the formation of market price of wine, and to wine consumers in choosing quality red wine with high content of polyphenols.

  9. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds display cardioprotection in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    Berti, F; Manfredi, B; Mantegazza, P; Rossoni, G

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, increasing evidence has suggested that the consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol is inversely correlated with mortality from myocardial infarction. There is also some evidence that the protective effects of wine might be more pronounced than those of other alcoholic beverages. These observations prompted us to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Vitis vinifera seeds in experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury. An isolated rabbit heart preparation paced electrically was used to evaluate the effects of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of oligomeric procyanidins isolated from Vitis vinifera seeds on myocardial reperfusion injury after 40 min of low-flow (1 ml/min) ischemia. Infusion of the heart with 100 or 200 microg/ml procyanidins dose-dependently reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure during ischemia, decreased coronary perfusion pressure, improved cardiac mechanical performance upon reperfusion, increased the release of 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1alpha into the perfusate in both the preischemic and the reperfusion periods and suppressed rhythm irregularity. Procyanidins dose-dependently relaxed human internal mammary aortic (IMA) rings (with intact endothelium) precontracted with norepinephrine. This effect was completely abolished in IMA-rings without functional endothelium or when this vascular tissue was pretreated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) or with guanylate cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). In conclusion, these results indicate that procyanidins could be of therapeutical potential in cardiovascular diseases. However, further investigations are required for a better definition of the mode of action of these oligomers.

  10. Removal of PFOA and PFOS from aqueous solutions using activated carbon produced from Vitis vinifera leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Fagbayigbo, Bamidele Oladapo; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Fatoki, Olalekan Siyanbola; Akenga, Terresa Ayuko; Olatunji, Olatunde Stephen

    2017-04-05

    The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons. The effect of solution concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature was evaluated to optimize the removal efficiency of activated carbons. Adsorption isotherm models were used to analyse the equilibrium data obtained, and kinetic models were applied to study sorption mechanisms. The results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm with both AC-KOH and AC-H3PO4 having high K f values. Maximum adsorption capacities for AC-H3PO4 were 78.90 and 75.13 mg/g for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. Equilibrium was reached before 60 min on both adsorbents, and thermodynamic studies indicated that the process was exothermic and spontaneous. Surface morphology showed the abundance of microspores (>60%) with BET total surface area of 295.488 and 158.67 m(2)/g for AC-H3PO4 and AC-KOH activated carbons, respectively. Removal efficiencies were 95 and 90% for PFOA using AC-H3PO4 and AC-KOH, respectively; corresponding values for PFOS were 94 and 88%. Adsorbents' removal capacities depended on the physicochemical characteristics of adsorbents.

  11. Isolation, functional characterization, and expression analysis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) hexose transporters: differential roles in sink and source tissues.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew A; Davies, Christopher; Dry, Ian B

    2007-01-01

    Three hexose transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, and VvHT5) were cloned from Vitis vinifera L. and functionally characterized in the hexose transport-impaired Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant EBY.VW4000. Both VvHT4 and VvHT5 facilitated glucose uptake, with K(m)s of 137 muM and 89 muM, respectively. VvHT3 was not functional in the yeast system but a VvHT3:GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein was targeted to the plasma membrane in plant cells. In young 'sink' leaves, transcript levels of all five VvHTs and a cell wall invertase (VvcwINV) were low. In mature leaves, there were increased levels of VvHT1, VvHT3, VvHT5, and VvcwINV transcripts, suggesting that mature leaves may have an increased capacity for apoplastic sucrose hydrolysis and hexose retrieval. In grape berries, VvHT1, VvHT2, and VvHT3 transcript levels were found to be significantly higher than those of VvHT4 and VvHT5. VvHT1 was most highly expressed early in berry development but decreased during the period of rapid sugar accumulation, while VvHT2 and VvHT3 expression remained high during this accumulation phase. VvcwINV expression occurred throughout berry development but peaked just prior to veraison. It is clear that the machinery to transport the hexose molecules produced through the cleavage of sucrose, by cell wall invertase, is present in the berry. This agrees with the suggestion that hexose accumulation to high levels during the ripening phase occurs through an apoplastic pathway. Interestingly, there is no direct relationship between VvHT gene expression and hexose accumulation, which suggests either that transcription is not the main determinant of transport activity or that other transport pathways are also active.

  12. Chemopreventive effects of Calluna vulgaris and Vitis vinifera extracts on UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Filip, A; Clichici, S; Daicoviciu, D; Catoi, C; Bolfa, P; Postescu, I D; Gal, A; Baldea, I; Gherman, C; Muresan, A

    2011-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy in the management of cutaneous neoplasia. The study investigated the protective activity of Calluna vulgaris (Cv) and red grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety) (BM) extracts in vivo on UVB-induced deleterious effects in SKH-1 mice skin. Forty SKH-1 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): control, UVB irradiated, Cv + UVB irradiated, BM+UVB irradiated. Both extracts were applied topically on the skin in a dose of 4 mg/40 μl/cm(2) before UVB exposure - single dose. The effects were evaluated in skin 24 hours after irradiation through the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and sunburn cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 levels. The antioxidant activity of BM extract was higher than those of Cv extract as determined using stable free radical DPPH assay and ABTS test. One single dose of UVB generated formation of CPDs (p<0.0001) and sunburn cells (p<0.0002) and increased the cytokine levels in skin (p<0.0001). Twenty hours following irradiation BM extract inhibited UVB-induced sunburn cells (p<0.02) and CPDs formation (p<0.0001). Pretreatment with Cv and BM extracts resulted in significantly reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with UVB alone (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that BM extracts might be a potential candidate in preventing the damages induced by UV in skin.

  13. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine.

  14. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation.

  15. Characterization of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) are intra-vacuolar structures capable of concentrating anthocyanins and are present in over 50 of the highest anthocyanin-accumulating plant species. Presence of AVIs alters pigment intensity, total anthocyanin levels, pigment hue and causes bathochromic shifts in a spatio-temporal manner within various flowers, vegetables and fruits. A year-long study on Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures found a strong correlation between AVI prevalence and anthocyanin content, but not the number of pigmented cells, growth rate or stilbene content. Furthermore, enhancement of the prevalence of AVIs and anthocyanins was achieved by treatment of V. vinifera cell suspension cultures with sucrose, jasmonic acid and white light. A unique autofluorescence of anthocyanins was used to demonstrate microscopically that AVIs proceed from the cytosol across the tonoplast and were able to coalesce intravacuolarly, with fewer, larger AVIs predominating as cells mature. Purification and characterisation of these bodies were performed, showing that they were dense, highly organic structures, with a lipid component indicative of membrane-encasement. These purified AVIs were also shown to comprise long-chain tannins and possessed an increased affinity for binding acylated anthocyanins, though no unique protein component was detected.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  17. [Effect of homogeneity on cell growth and anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Mei-Fang; Yu, Xing-Ju

    2006-09-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. To understand the instability, the investigation of anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, has been initiated in our laboratory. Suspension culture of a relatively homogeneous cell line E of V. vinifera, was established by long-term cell line selection by anthocyanin content differentiation. The aggregate size of E was smaller than that of other cell lines obtained by routine screening method. The variation coefficients of anthocyanin content in suspension cultures of E were 8.7% in long-term subcultures and 5% in repeated flasks, respectively. The effects of elicitor, precursor feeding and light irridiation on biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of E had been investigated and the results showed that all the variation coefficients were lower than 12% and this indicated the importance of homogeneity on stable production in plant cell culture. With the combination treatment of 30micromol/L phenylalanine and 218micromol/L methyl jasmonate in the dark in suspension cultures of E, the anthocyanin content and production in suspension culture of E was 5.89-fold and 4.30-fold of the controls, respectively, and all the variation coefficients of biomass and anthocyanin accumulation were lower than those of the controls in 5 successive subcultures.

  18. A novel emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel arabinogalactan polysaccharide (FGP) is described that is produced in large quantities from the cut stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11....

  19. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  20. VvBOR1, the grapevine ortholog of AtBOR1, encodes an efflux boron transporter that is differentially expressed throughout reproductive development of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Kasai, Koji; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Tapia, Jaime; Fujiwara, Toru; González, Enrique

    2012-02-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for normal development of roots, shoots and reproductive tissues in plants. Due to its role in the structure of rhamnogalacturonan II, a polysaccharide required for pollen tube growth, B deficiency has been associated with the occurrence of parthenocarpic seedless grapes in some varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Despite that, it is unclear how B is mobilized and accumulated in reproductive tissues. Here we describe the characterization of an efflux B transporter, VvBOR1, homolog to AtBOR1, which is involved in B xylem loading in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. VvBOR1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed in A. thaliana localizes in the proximal plasma membrane domain in root pericycle cells, and VvBOR1 overexpression restores the wild-type phenotype in A. thaliana bor1-3 mutant plants exposed to B deficiency. Complementation of a mutant yeast strain indicates that VvBOR1 corresponds to a B efflux transporter. Transcriptional analyses during grapevine reproductive development show that the VvBOR1 gene is preferentially expressed in flowers at anthesis and a direct correlation between the expression pattern and B content in grapes was established, suggesting the involvement of this transporter in B accumulation in grapevine berries.

  1. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11...

  2. Reference gene validation for quantitative RT-PCR during biotic and abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies.

  3. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  4. Expression Profiles and DNA-Binding Affinity of Five ERF Genes in Bunches of Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal Treated with High Levels of CO2 at Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Irene; Vazquez-Hernandez, Maria; Escribano, M. I.; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play an important role in plants by regulating defense response through interaction with various stress pathways. After harvest, table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest storage at 0°C, such as fungal attack, water loss and rachis browning. The application of a 3-day high CO2 treatment maintained fruit quality and activated the induction of transcription factors belonging to different families such as ERF. In this paper, we have isolated five VviERFs from table grapes cv. Cardinal, whose deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain. The phylogeny and putative conserved motifs in VviERFs were analyzed and compared with those previously reported in Vitis. VviERFs-c gene expression was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the different tissues of bunches stored at low temperature and treated with high levels of CO2. The results showed that in most of the tissues analyzed, VviERFs-c gene expression was induced by the storage under normal atmosphere although the application of high levels of CO2 caused a greater increase in the VviERFs-c transcript accumulation. The promoter regions of two PRs (pathogenesis related proteins), Vcchit1b and Vcgns1, were obtained and the in silico analysis revealed the presence of a cis-acting ethylene response element (GCC box). In addition, expression of these two PR genes was analyzed in the pulp and rachis of CO2-treated and non-treated table grapes stored at 0°C and results showed significant correlations with VviERF2-c and VviERF6L7-c gene expression in rachis, and between VviERF11-c and Vcchit1b in pulp. Finally by using electro mobility shift assays, we denoted differences in binding of VviERFs to the GCC sequences present in the promoters of both PRs, with VviERF6L7-c being the only member which did not bind to any tested probe. Overall, our results suggest that the beneficial effect of high CO2

  5. Expression Profiles and DNA-Binding Affinity of Five ERF Genes in Bunches of Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal Treated with High Levels of CO2 at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Romero, Irene; Vazquez-Hernandez, Maria; Escribano, M I; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play an important role in plants by regulating defense response through interaction with various stress pathways. After harvest, table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest storage at 0°C, such as fungal attack, water loss and rachis browning. The application of a 3-day high CO2 treatment maintained fruit quality and activated the induction of transcription factors belonging to different families such as ERF. In this paper, we have isolated five VviERFs from table grapes cv. Cardinal, whose deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain. The phylogeny and putative conserved motifs in VviERFs were analyzed and compared with those previously reported in Vitis. VviERFs-c gene expression was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the different tissues of bunches stored at low temperature and treated with high levels of CO2. The results showed that in most of the tissues analyzed, VviERFs-c gene expression was induced by the storage under normal atmosphere although the application of high levels of CO2 caused a greater increase in the VviERFs-c transcript accumulation. The promoter regions of two PRs (pathogenesis related proteins), Vcchit1b and Vcgns1, were obtained and the in silico analysis revealed the presence of a cis-acting ethylene response element (GCC box). In addition, expression of these two PR genes was analyzed in the pulp and rachis of CO2-treated and non-treated table grapes stored at 0°C and results showed significant correlations with VviERF2-c and VviERF6L7-c gene expression in rachis, and between VviERF11-c and Vcchit1b in pulp. Finally by using electro mobility shift assays, we denoted differences in binding of VviERFs to the GCC sequences present in the promoters of both PRs, with VviERF6L7-c being the only member which did not bind to any tested probe. Overall, our results suggest that the beneficial effect of high CO2

  6. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M.; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions. PMID:27252720

  7. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar

  8. Changes in the proteome of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) during long-term drought stress.

    PubMed

    Król, Angelika; Weidner, Stanisław

    2017-04-01

    The essence of exploring and understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses lies in the determination of patterns of the expression of proteins, identification of stress proteins and their association with the specific functions in metabolic pathways. To date, little information has been provided about the proteomic response of grapevine to the persistent influence of adverse environmental conditions. This article describes changes in the profile of protein accumulation in leaves of common grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seedlings in response to prolonged drought. Isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2 DE), and the proteins whose level of accumulation changed significantly due to the applied stress factors were identified with tandem mass spectrometry MALDI TOF/TOF type. Analysis of the proteome of grapevine leaves led to the detection of many proteins whose synthesis changed in response to the applied stressor. Drought caused the most numerous changes in the accumulation of proteins associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, mostly connected with the pathways of glycolysis and photosystem II protein components. The biological function of the identified proteins is discussed with reference to the stress of drought. Some of the identified proteins, especially the ones whose accumulation increased during drought stress, may be responsible for the adaptation of grapevine to drought.

  9. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  10. Resistance to Water Transport in Shoots of Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Hans R.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    Apparent resistances to water transport in the liquid phase were determined from measurements of soil, root, basal shoot internode, shoot apex, and leaf water potentials and water flux in Vitis vinifera (cv White Riesling) during soil drying. Predawn water potential differences (ΔΨ) in the shoots accounted for 20% of the total ΔΨ between the soil and the shoot apex when plants were well-watered but increased to about 90% when shoot growth ceased. The ΔΨ from soil to root was essentially constant during this period. At low water potential, the ΔΨ in the shoot was persistent when transpiration was low (predawn) or completely prevented (plant bagging). The apparent hydraulic resistance between the basal shoot internode and most rapidly expanding leaf (or shoot apex) increased several-fold when water was withheld. Leaf and internode expansion both exhibited high sensitivity to increasing hydraulic resistance. Measurements of pneumatic resistance to air flow through frozen internode segments indicated progressive vapor-filling of vessels as soil drying progressed. From these observations and others in the literature, it was suggested that embolization may be a common occurrence and play an important role in the inhibition of shoot growth at moderate water deficits. PMID:16666373

  11. In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Craig Robert; McElrone, Andrew Joseph; Choat, Brendan; Lee, Eric Franklin; Shackel, Kenneth Andrew; Matthews, Mark Allen

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance water transport through plant xylem is vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction during periods of increased tension on the xylem sap, often coinciding with drought. While the effects of local and systemic embolism on plant water transport and physiology are well documented, the spatial patterns of embolism formation and spread are not well understood. Using a recently developed nondestructive diagnostic imaging tool, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, we documented the dynamics of drought-induced embolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) plants in vivo, producing the first three-dimensional, high-resolution, time-lapse observations of embolism spread. Embolisms formed first in the vessels surrounding the pith at stem water potentials of approximately –1.2 megapascals in drought experiments. As stem water potential decreased, embolisms spread radially toward the epidermis within sectored vessel groupings via intervessel connections and conductive xylem relays, and infrequently (16 of 629 total connections) through lateral connections into adjacent vessel sectors. Theoretical loss of conductivity calculated from the high-resolution x-ray computed tomography images showed good agreement with previously published nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and hydraulic conductivity experiments also using grapevine. Overall, these data support a growing body of evidence that xylem organization is critically important to the isolation of drought-induced embolism spread and confirm that air seeding through the pit membranes is the principle mechanism of embolism spread. PMID:23463781

  12. The epimerase activity of anthocyanidin reductase from Vitis vinifera and its regiospecific hydride transfers.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Mahmoud; Chaudière, Jean; Manigand, Claude; Maugé, Chloé; Bathany, Katell; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Gallois, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) from Vitis vinifera catalyzes an NADPH-dependent double reduction of anthocyanidins producing a mixture of (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-flavan-3-ols. At pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C, the first hydride transfer to anthocyanidin is irreversible, and no intermediate is released during catalysis. ANR reverse activity was assessed in the presence of excess NADP(+). Analysis of products by reverse phase and chiral phase HPLC demonstrates that ANR acts as a flavan-3-ol C(3)-epimerase under such conditions, but this is only observed with 2R-flavan-3-ols, not with 2S-flavan-3-ols produced by the enzyme in the forward reaction. In the presence of deuterated coenzyme 4S-NADPD, ANR transforms anthocyanidins into dideuterated flavan-3-ols. The regiospecificity of deuterium incorporation into catechin and afzelechin - derived from cyanidin and pelargonidin, respectively - was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electro- spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), and it was found that deuterium was always incorporated at C(2) and C(4). We conclude that C(3)-epimerization should be achieved by tautomerization between the two hydride transfers and that this produces a quinone methide intermediate which serves as C(4) target of the second hydride transfer, thereby avoiding any stereospecific modification of carbon 3. The inversion of C(2) stereochemistry required for 'reverse epimerization' suggests that the 2S configuration induces an irreversible product dissociation.

  13. Relative Susceptibility of Vitis vinifera Cultivars to Vector-Borne Xylella fastidiosa through Time

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce’s disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols. PMID:23424629

  14. Biomolecule-mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Bhavesh, Riju; Park, Jongbong; Ganbold, Bilguun; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2014-02-27

    Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently the gained attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green approach to biosynthesize selenium nanoparticles (Se-np) using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extracts. The biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopic images revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles and a size range of 3-18 nm. Dynamic light scattering also confirmed the average particle size of 8.12 ± 2.5 nm with 0.212 PDI. The crystalline nature of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Moreover, as inferred from the FTIR spectrum, the presence of highly stable lignin biopolymer on the surface of selenium nanoballs suggests a possible role as capping agent.

  15. Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2003-07-01

    Jasmonic acid altered the accumulation of major anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cell culture. Peonidin 3-glucoside content at day three was increased from 0.3 to 1.7 mg g(-1) dry cell wt while other major anthocyanins were increased by smaller increments. By day 14, the content of methylated and acylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside) was 6.3 mg g(-1) DCW, in response to treatment with jasmonic acid, and comprising approximately 45% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the untreated control culture contained 1.2 mg g(-1) DCW which made up approximately 32% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. Light further enhanced anthocyanin accumulation induced by jasmonic acid elicitation. The content of peonidin 3-glucoside at day 3 was 6.6 mg g(-1) DCW, 22-fold higher than control cultures while the content in response to light irradiation alone was 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW. When a highly pigmented cell line was elicited with jasmonic acid total anthocyanins increased from 9.2 to 20.7 mg g(-1) DCW, but there was no change in the anthocyanin composition.

  16. Inflorescence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): a high ability to distribute its own assimilates.

    PubMed

    Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Maillard, Pascale; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Gross, Patrick; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of carbon (C) into whole grapevine fruiting cuttings was investigated during flower development to determine the relative contribution of inflorescence and leaf photoassimilates in the total C balance and to investigate their partitioning towards other plant organs. A (13)C labelling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates by leaves and inflorescences in grapevine. Investigations were carried out at various stages of flower/berry development, from separated cluster to fruit set, using grapevine fruiting cuttings with four leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay). This is the first study reporting that, during its development, (i) the carbon needs of the inflorescence were met by both leaf and inflorescence photosynthesis, and (ii) the inflorescence amazingly participated significantly to the total C balance of grapevine cuttings by redistributing an important part of its own assimilates to other plant organs. With regard to flowering, 29% of C assimilated by the inflorescence remained in the inflorescence, while partitioning towards the stem reached 42% and, as a lower proportion, 15% in leaves, and 14% in roots.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of tendril and inflorescence development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Carmona, María J

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes.

  18. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  19. Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols.

  20. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-ε-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest.

  1. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling.

  2. Influence of intra-shoot trophic competition on shoot development in two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Louarn, Gaëtan; Christophe, Angélique; Lebon, Eric; Lecoeur, Jérémie

    2008-09-01

    The effect of trophic competition between vegetative sources and reproductive sinks on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) shoot development was analyzed. Two international cultivars (Grenache N and Syrah) grown in pots, which were well watered, were studied. A large range of trophic competition levels was obtained by modifying the cluster loads per plant. An analytical breakdown of the branching system was used to analyze the effects of trophic competition. Phytomer production on the primary axis and the probability and timing of axillary budburst were not affected by trophic competition. However, the duration of development and leaf production rate for secondary axes were both significantly affected. The impact of trophic competition differed within the P0-P1-P2 architectural module, locally within the shoot and between cultivars. Trophic competition reduced the organogenesis of secondary axes most strongly close to clusters, on P1-P2 phytomers and in Grenache N. Based on these results, a modeling approach simulating sink strength variation and the local effects of sink proximity would be more relevant than a model considering only development as a function of thermal time or the global distribution of available biomass.

  3. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T; Koumbi, Lemonica; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2008-01-01

    Currants and Sultanas (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used broadly in the Mediterranean diet. We aimed to investigate the gastric cancer preventive activity of methanol extracts obtained from currants from three different origins in Greece (Vostizza, Nemea, and Messinia) as well as methanol extracts obtained from Sultanas cultivated in the island of Crete as to inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of inflammation. All extracts from 500 microg dried raisins studied suppressed cell proliferation, significantly those obtained from Sultanas from Crete and currants from Nemea. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V labeled cells indicated that Cretan Sultana, Nemea, and Messinia currants at 500 microg dried product/ml medium significantly induced cell death. All extracts from 500 microg dried raisins statistically decreased protein and mRNA levels of ICAM-1 in TNF-alpha stimulated cells. Measurement of IL-8 protein levels and quantification for IL-8 mRNA showed no significant decrease. These results indicate that the methanol extracts from currants, rich in phenolic compounds, exhibit cancer preventive efficacy by limiting cell proliferation, inducing cell death, and suppressing ICAM-1 levels in AGS cells.

  4. Investigations on the leaf surface ultrastructure in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bensalem-Fnayou, A; Jellouli, N; Bouamama, B; Mliki, A; Ghorbel, A

    2009-01-01

    Several Scanning microscopy techniques were used to investigate the leaf surface ultrastructure in the local "Razegui" grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.). Conventional scanning electron microscopy performed on glutaraldehyde-fixed samples allowed observation of well-preserved epidermal cells with an overlaying waxy layer. At a high magnification, the waxy layer exhibited crystalline projections in the form of horizontal and vertical platelets. Also, to avoid eventual ultrastructural alterations inherent in the use of solvents during sample preparation, fresh leaf blade samples were directly observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. A classical image of convex living epidermal cells was observed. At 2400x magnification, epicuticular waxes exhibited a granular structure. However, high-magnification images were not obtained with this device. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) performed on fresh leaf blade samples allowed observation of a textured surface and heterogeneous profiles attributed to epicuticular wax deposits. AFM topography images confirmed further, the presence of irregular crystalloid wax projections as multishaped platelets on the adaxial surface of grapevine leaf.

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of Vitis vinifera leaf tissues showing atypical symptoms of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Vecchione, A; Zulini, L; Pertot, I

    2005-01-01

    In an abandoned farm in Tuscany a year by year regression of downy mildew disease on grapevines was observed and a decrease in virulence as well as vigor and fertility of the causal fungus, Plasmopara viticola. Anomalous spots of the fungus (i.e. atypical coloration of leaves or mosaic) on leaf tissues of a sensitive Vitis vinifera grapevine were observed. The anomalous symptoms were often associated with the typical 'oil spots' and were present under environmental conditions favourable for a normal development of the disease. An ultrastructural study was carried out on leaf tissues of grapevine plants aimed at clarifying the cause of this phenomenon and detecting whether there were alterations in P. viticola mycelium and endophytes present. ELISA was also performed to check the presence of grapevine viruses in the plants. TEM results demonstrated that characteristic P. viticola was present in leaf samples showing oil spots, while, both the fungus and the host tissues showed cytological alterations in leaves with mosaic symptoms. Finally, hyphae were absent in leaf tissues without downy mildew spots, but showing severe ultrastructural modifications. Several plant virus infections were found in these grapevines. Literature reports that the development and sporulation of some phytopathogenic fungi inside their hosts can be limited by virus infections. Further experimental approaches are required to determine if resistance to P. viticola can be induced by viral infections in grapevines.

  6. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  7. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  8. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, was introduced into Europe more than 160 years ago and is now distributed everywhere that grapes are grown. To understand the invasion history of this pathogen we investigated the evolutionary relationships between introduced populations of Europe, Australia and the western United States (US) and populations in the eastern US, where E. necator is thought to be native. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that populations of E. necator in the eastern US are structured based on geography and Vitis host species. Results We sequenced three nuclear gene regions covering 1803 nucleotides from 146 isolates of E. necator collected from the eastern US, Europe, Australia, and the western US. Phylogeographic analyses show that the two genetic groups in Europe represent two separate introductions and that the genetic groups may be derived from eastern US ancestors. Populations from the western US and Europe share haplotypes, suggesting that the western US population was introduced from Europe. Populations in Australia are derived from European populations. Haplotype richness and nucleotide diversity were significantly greater in the eastern US populations than in the introduced populations. Populations within the eastern US are geographically differentiated; however, no structure was detected with respect to host habitat (i.e., wild or cultivated). Populations from muscadine grapes, V. rotundifolia, are genetically distinct from populations from other Vitis host species, yet no differentiation was detected among populations from other Vitis species. Conclusions Multilocus sequencing analysis of the grape powdery mildew fungus is consistent with the hypothesis that populations in Europe, Australia and the western US are derived from two separate introductions and their ancestors were likely from native populations in the eastern US. The invasion history of E. necator follows a pattern consistent with plant

  9. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity.

  10. Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2013-06-12

    Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed.

  11. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  12. The crucial role of Φ- and K-segments in the in vitro functionality of Vitis vinifera dehydrin DHN1a.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Escribano, Ma Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, Ma Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs), group II LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins, are among the most commonly observed proteins which accumulate in plants in response to cold and any other environmental factors, causing the dehydration of cells. In previous studies, we isolated a YSK2-type VvcDHN1a gene from table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) which presented two spliced variants (the spliced, DHN1a_s and the unspliced, DHN1a_u). Their expression was induced by low temperature storage and CO2, although with different accumulation patterns. DHN1a_u codifies for a truncated YS protein lacking Ф- and K-segments, which might affect its functionality. In this work, we expressed both DHN1a_s and DHN1a_u recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We carried out a number of in vitro assays to analyze the implications that Ф- and K-segments have in the protective role of VvcDHN1 against different abiotic stresses and their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results showed that unlike DHN1a_u, DHN1a_s has a potent cryoprotective effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity, protects malate dehydrogenase against dehydration and partially inhibits B. cinerea growth. Moreover, the DHN1a promoter presented cis-regulatory elements related to cold and drought, as well as biotic stress-related elements. We also observed that both spliced variants interact weakly with DNA, suggesting that K-segments are not involved in DNA binding. Overall, this work highlights the crucial role of Ф- and K-segments in DHNs function in plant response to abiotic stress showing for the first time, the potential role of the V. vinifera DHN1a_s in the protection against freezing and dehydration as well as inhibiting B. cinerea growth.

  13. Stimulation of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Cl Mauro, M; Nef, C; Fallot, J

    1986-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent diploid plants have been obtained from anthers of Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon, a cultivar so far considered as recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration. Anthers enclosing microspores near the first pollen mitosis were found to be the most responsive. However, from a practical point of view anther length proved to be an easier criterium for determining the optimal physiological anther stage. Calli derived from the anther somatic tissues produced embryoids only when cultured on a medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate. Glutamine and adenine were found to stimulate this embryoid production. Evidence is presented that early removal of cotyledons increases the frequency of normal development of embryoids into plantlets.

  14. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself.

  15. Influence of a deficit irrigation regime during ripening on berry composition in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in semi-arid areas.

    PubMed

    López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; Díaz, Antonio; Ramírez, Pilar; Morales, José

    2007-11-01

    A study was made of the effects of irrigation management strategies during ripening on the quality of Spanish field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (Baladi, Airén, Montepila, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains and Pedro Ximénez) grown under the "Montilla-Moriles" Appellation of Origin in Cordoba, Spain. From 1999 to 2002, two water-availability regimes were established: irrigation and non-irrigation. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of irrigation on berry development and ripening, and hence on grape juice quality. Changes in phenological stages, vegetative growth, vineyard yield, berry weight, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, malic acid, and potassium content were monitored. No significant differences were noted in phenological phases between the non-irrigation and deficit irrigation regimes. The Ravaz index, pruning weight, vineyard yield and berry weight were significantly higher in all varieties and years under deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation induced higher titrable acidity, higher malic acid and potassium contents and a lower pH, but had no significant effects on berry sugar accumulation or tartaric acid content. Deficit irrigation thus appears to be a promising technique for the production of quality young wines in semi-arid areas.

  16. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  17. Stilbenes and tyrosol as target compounds in the assessment of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of Vitis vinifera red wines from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gris, Eliana Fortes; Mattivi, Fulvio; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2011-07-27

    The contents of stilbene monomers, cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid, trans-piceid, and tyrosol, were quantified in Vitis vinifera red wines, cvs. Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese, and Syrah, 2006 and 2007 vintages, from the São Joaquim region, a new grape-growing region at southern Brazil. Moreover, the effect of chronic consumption of these wines on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities was monitored in C57BL6 LDL receptor knockout mice and treated with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Red wines from this region had substantial levels of resveratrols (the predominant forms were glycoside and trans) and tyrosol. Biomonitoring of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in vivo revealed that consumption of these wines increased the antioxidant capacity and reduced the hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia promoted by the hypercholesterolemic diet. Significant correlations were found between the increase of antioxidant capacity markers, the decrease of lipid levels promoted by wine consumption, and the contents of stilbenes and tyrosol, supporting the important biological activity of these compounds.

  18. Variability in chemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv Mencía from different geographic areas and vintages in Ribeira Sacra (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Vilanova, M; Rodríguez, I; Canosa, P; Otero, I; Gamero, E; Moreno, D; Talaverano, I; Valdés, E

    2015-02-15

    A chemical study was conducted from 2009 to 2012 to examine spatial and seasonal variability of red Vitis vinifera Mencía located in different geographic areas (Amandi, Chantada, Quiroga-Bibei, Ribeiras do Sil and Ribeiras do Miño) from NW Spain. Mencía samples were analysed for phenolic, (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, acids and resveratrol), nitrogen (TAC, TAN, YAN and TAS) and volatiles compounds (alcohols, C6 compounds, ethyl esters, terpenes, aldehydes, acids, lactones, volatile phenols and carbonyl compounds) by GC-MS and HPLC. Results showed that the composition of Mencía cultivar was more affected by the vintage than the geographic area. The amino acid composition was less affected by both geographic origin and vintage, showing more varietal stability. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to experimental data showed a good separation of Mencía grape according to geographical origin and vintages. PCA also showed high correlations between the ripening ratio and C6 compounds, resveratrol and carbonyl compounds.

  19. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  20. A modern ampelography: A genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated pheno...

  1. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  2. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit.

  3. Flowers regulate the growth and vascular development of the inflorescence rachis in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; McCully, Margaret E; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-11-01

    The rachis, the structural framework of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence (and subsequent bunch), consists of a main axis and one or more orders of lateral branches with the flower-bearing pedicels at their fine tips. The rachis is crucial both for support, and transport from the shoot. Earlier suggestions that the flowers per se affect normal rachis development are investigated further in this study. Different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100) of flowers were removed manually one week before anthesis on field-grown vines. Treatment effects on subsequent rachis development (curvature, vitality, anatomy, starch deposit) were assessed. Sections, both fixed and embedded, and fresh hand-cut were observed by fluorescence and bright-field optics after appropriate staining. Emphasis was on measurement of changes in cross-sectional area of secondary xylem and phloem, and on maturation of fibres and periderm. Specific defects in rachis development were dependent on the percent and location of flower removal one week prior to anthesis. The rachises curved inwards where most of the flowers were removed. When fully de-flowered, they became progressively necrotic from the laterals back to the primary axes and from the distal to the proximal end of those axes, with a concurrent disorganisation of their anatomy. A few remaining groups of flowers prevented desiccation and abscission of the rachis axes proximal to the group, but not distally. Flower removal (50%) reduced rachis elongation, while 75% removal reduced xylem and phloem area and delayed phloem fibre and periderm development. 75% flower removal did not affect starch present in the rachis during berry development. Developing flowers affect the growth and vitality of the rachis and the development of its vascular and support structures. The extent of these effects depends on the cultivar and the number and position of flowers remaining after some are removed one week before anthesis.

  4. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Debez, Ahmed; Mahmoudi, Henda; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-05-01

    Morpho-physiological responses to bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency were investigated in five Vitis vinifera L. Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Blanc3, Arich Dressé, Beldi, and Balta4). One-month-old woody cuttings were cultivated for 85days on a free calcareous soil irrigated with tap water containing increasing bicarbonate levels (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16mM NaHCO(3)). After this screening, a second experiment compared root biochemical responses of two contrasting genotypes (tolerant-sensitive) dealing with bicarbonate-induced iron deprivation (20microM Fe+/-10mM HCO(3)(-)) for 75days. Using morpho-physiological criteria, grapevine tolerance to HCO(3)(-)-induced Fe shortage appeared to be genotype-dependent: Balta4 and Beldi varieties showed the highest leaf-chlorosis score (especially at the extreme HCO(3)(-) levels), in contrast to Khamri variety. Growth parameters (shoot height, total leaf area, leaf number, and biomass production) as well as juvenile leaf chlorophyll content were also differently affected depending on both genotype and bicarbonate dose. At 16mM HCO(3)(-), Khamri was the less sensitive variety, contrasting with Balta4. On the other hand, chlorophyll content correlated positively with HCl-extractible Fe content of the juvenile leaves, suggesting that the grapevine response to iron deficiency may partly depend on to the plant ability to adequately supply young leaves with this element. Root biochemical responses revealed a relatively higher root acidification capacity in Khamri (tolerant) under Fe-deficiency while no significant changes occurred in Balta4 (sensitive). In addition, Fe(III)-reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) activities were strongly stimulated by Fe-deficiency in Khamri, while remaining constant in Balta4. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis.

  5. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  6. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  7. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    PubMed

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  8. Evolution of the VvMybA gene family, the major determinant of berry colour in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Lacombe, T; Le Cunff, L; Boursiquot, J-M; This, P

    2010-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the grape transcription factor family VvMybA are responsible for variation in anthocyanin content in the berries of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa). Previous study has shown that white grapes arose through the mutation of two adjacent genes: a retroelement insertion in VvMybA1 and a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation in VvMybA2. The purpose of this study was to understand how these mutations emerged and affected genetic diversity at neighbouring sites and how they structured the genetic diversity of cultivated grapevines. We sequenced a total of 3225 bp of these genes in a core collection of genetic resources, and carried out empirical selection tests, phylogenetic- and coalescence-based demographic analyses. The insertion in the VvMybA1 promoter was shown to have occurred recently, after the mutation of VvMybA2, both mutations followed by a selective sweep. The mutational pattern for these colour genes is consistent with progressively relaxed selection from constrained ancestral coloured haplotypes to light coloured and finally white haplotypes. Dynamics of population size in the VvMybA genes showed an initial exponential growth, followed by population size stabilization. Most ancestral haplotypes are found in cultivars from western region, whereas recent haplotypes are essentially present in table cultivars from eastern regions where intense breeding practices may have replaced the original diversity. Finally, the emergence of the white allele was followed by a recent strong exponential growth, showing a very fast diffusion of the initial white allele.

  9. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding.

  10. Distribution of YLOID in soil-grapevine system (Vitis vinifera L.) as tool for geographical characterization of agro-food products. A two years case study on different grafting combinations.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Tutone, Livia; Saiano, Filippo

    2017-04-15

    The knowledge of a chemistry relationship between the soil and the agricultural products is an important tool for the quality assessment of food. We studied YLOID (Y, La and lanthanoids), recognized as very useful tracers due their coherent and predictable behavior, to trace and evaluate their distribution from soil to the grape in Vitis vinifera L. Because much of the world's viticulture is based on grafting, and rootstocks have proved affect vine growth, yield, fruit and wine quality, we carried out experimental trials to analyse the YLOID distribution of two different red cultivars, grafted onto six different rootstocks, on the same soil. The YLOID amounts, the relationship Heavy vs Light YLOID and the pattern of YLOID were calculated. The results showed that the different grafting combinations were not able to induce significant differences in YLOID uptake from the soil maintaining the same fingerprint (with the exception of Eu).

  11. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  13. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  14. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism.

  15. Nuclear DNA content of Vitis vinifera cultivars and ploidy level analyses of somatic embryo-derived plants obtained from anther culture.

    PubMed

    Leal, F; Loureiro, J; Rodriguez, E; Pais, M S; Santos, C; Pinto-Carnide, O

    2006-09-01

    Flow cytometry was employed to determine the ploidy level of Vitis vinifera L. somatic embryo-derived plants obtained from anther culture. Only one among the 41 analysed plants (2.4%) presented somaclonal variation (tetraploidy); the other plants were diploid. No significant differences (Pvinifera cultivars was also estimated using flow cytometry. A non-significant variation was found among the cultivars, with DNA content ranging from 1.17 pg/2C (cv. 'Tinta Barroca' and 'Viosinho') to 1.26 pg/2C (cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). These results and previous studies on other Vitis species suggest that Vitis genome is stable with regard to nuclear DNA content.

  16. Free the tannins: the role of grape pathogenesis-related proteins in limiting condensed tannin extraction during winemaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape-derived condensed tannins (CT) are important to the mouthfeel of red wines, but CT concentrations in red wines produced from wild Vitis species or their hybrids are often lower than corresponding wines produced from European wine grapes (V. vinifera), potentially decreasing their utility. Thes...

  17. Polyphenolic diversity and characterization in the red-purple berries of East Asian wild Vitis species.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya; Kamigakiuchi, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Mochioka, Ryosuke; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2017-02-01

    Grapes (Vitis spp.) produce diverse polyphenolic compounds, which are phytochemicals that contribute to human health. In this study, the polyphenolic profiles of the red-purple berries of two wild grape species native to Japan, Vitis ficifolia and V. coignetiae, and their interspecific hybrid cultivars were investigated and compared with the profiles of V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were present at lower concentrations in both skins and seeds of wild grape species and their hybrid cultivars than those in V. vinifera cultivars. They also differed in their composition, consisting mainly of epicatechin in wild grape species, but containing considerable amounts of both epigallocatechin in the skins and epicatechin gallate in the seeds of V. vinifera. In contrast, V. ficifolia varieties and their hybrid cultivars accumulated high concentrations of diverse anthocyanins, and whose compositions of anthocyanins and flavonols differed between species in their degree of modification by glucosylation, acylation, methylation and B-ring hydroxylation. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the polyphenolic constituents clearly separate V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars from the wild grape species as well as between wild grape species, V. coignetiae and V. ficifolia. Intermediate compositions were also observed in the hybrid cultivars between these wild grape species and V. vinifera.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  19. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses.

  20. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  1. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  2. An update on VitisGen: recent advances in using DNA marker technologies in U.S. grape breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NIFA VitisGen project involves a multidisciplinary team of 25 co-PIs at 11 institutions aiming to optimize grape cultivar improvement. To this end, an impressive collection of phenotypic data and high-resolution genetic maps has been developed for seventeen F1 families. Here, we will prese...

  3. Cooking impact in color, pigments and volatile composition of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca).

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriano; Pereira, José Alberto; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2017-04-15

    Grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca) under culinary treatment (blanching and boiling at 60, 75 and 90min) were studied for their color, pigments and volatile fraction changes. Blanching and boiling caused a decrease in luminosity and a loss of green coloration in both varieties, while a yellow-brownish color arose. Significant correlations were established between the loss of green color (monochromatic variable a(∗)) and the total chlorophylls content. The main volatiles in fresh leaves [(Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate] were drastically reduced by blanching and suppressed by boiling. Other compounds like pentanal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2 one arose from blanching and boiling. A boiling time of 60min is adequate for the culinary process of grapevine leaves, since the product is considered edible and the pigments and volatile changes are not as drastic as observed at 75 and 90min of boiling.

  4. Determination and imaging of metabolites from Vitis vinifera leaves by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Gregory; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Maunit, Benoît; Frache, Gilles; Merdinoglu, Didier; Muller, Jean-François

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of grapevine phytoalexins at the surface of Vitis vinifera leaves has been achieved by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToFMS) without matrix deposition. This simple and rapid sampling method was successfully applied to map small organic compounds at the surface of grapevine leaves. It was also demonstrated that the laser wavelength is a highly critical parameter. Both 266 and 337 nm laser wavelengths were used but the 266 nm wavelength gave increased spatial resolution and better sensitivity for the detection of the targeted metabolites (resveratrol and linked stilbene compounds). Mass spectrometry imaging of grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon leaves revealed specific locations with respect to Plasmopara viticola pathogen infection or light illumination.

  5. Effects of elicitors on the production of resveratrol and viniferins in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Italia.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; Mulinacci, Nadia; Valletta, Alessio; Innocenti, Marzia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2011-09-14

    Methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid and chitosan were tested as elicitors on cell suspension cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cv Italia to investigate their effect on stilbene production. Stilbene accumulation in the callus, grown under nonelicited conditions, was also investigated. Calli and cell suspensions were obtained in a B5 culture medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA and 1 mg L(-1) KIN. Stilbene determination was achieved by HPLC/DAD/MS. Whereas callus biosynthesized only piceid, cell suspensions elicited with jasmonates produced several stilbenes, mainly viniferins. In suspended cells, methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid were the most effective in stimulating stilbene biosynthesis, whereas chitosan was less effective; in fact, the amount of stilbenes obtained with this elicitor was not significantly different from that obtained for the control cells. The maximum production of total stilbenes was at day 20 of culture with 0.970 and 1.023 mg g(-1) DW for MeJA and JA, respectively.

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of Vitis vinifera L. leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Orhan, Nilüfer; Ergun, Ender; Ergun, Fatma

    2007-05-30

    The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract and its four different fractions (CHCl(3), EtOAc, n-BuOH, and remaining water fraction) of Vitis vinifera L. leaves was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The ethanolic extract was found active at 125mg/kg dose (per os). The ethanolic extract was fractionated through successive solvent-solvent extractions and the n-BuOH fraction in 83mg/kg dose possessed remarkable antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Liver damage was assessed by using biochemical parameters (plasma and liver tissue MDA [malondialdehyde], transaminase enzyme levels in plasma [AST-aspartate transaminase, ALT-alanine transferase] and liver GSH [glutathione] levels). Additionally, the pathological changes in liver were evaluated by histopathological studies. Legalon 70 Protect was used as standard natural originated drug.

  7. Stilbene production in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Red Globe and Michele Palieri elicited by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, A R; Antonacci, D; Caruso, G; Cavaliere, C; Gubbiotti, R; Lagana, A; Valletta, A; Pasqua, G

    2010-09-01

    Cell cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cvs Michele Palieri and Red Globe were cultured in order to stimulate stilbene production. In the calli, stilbene production peaked at day 22 of culture for both cultivars; the main compound was trans-piceid, followed by cis-piceid. Methyl jasmonate, which was added to cell suspensions in the first half of the exponential growth phase, enhanced stilbene accumulation, producing mainly trans-piceid and epsilon-viniferin. Other stilbenoids, though in lower quantities, were identified by liquid chromatography/positive electrospray mass spectrometry. epsilon-Viniferin and trans-resveratrol were the main compounds released into the culture medium. The total quantity of stilbenes was genotype dependent, with a better response found for the cv Red Globe.

  8. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning.

  9. Transgenic plants from shoot apical meristems of Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M; Li, Z T; Dhekney, S A; Gray, D J

    2007-12-01

    Shoot apical meristem explants of Vitis vinifera "Thompson Seedless" were used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. It was determined that the meristems had to be subjected to a dark growth phase then wounded to obtain transgenic plants. Morphological and histological studies illustrated the role of wounding to expose apical meristem cells for transformation. A bifunctional egfp/nptII fusion gene was used to select kanamycin resistant plants that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). Kanamycin at a concentration of 16 mg L(-1) in selection medium resulted in recovery of non-chimeric transgenic plants that uniformly expressed GFP, whereas 8 mg L(-1) kanamycin allowed non-transgenic and/or chimeric plants to develop. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of transgenes and their stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants. Up to 1% of shoot tips produced stable transgenic cultures within 6 weeks of treatment, resulting in a total of 18 independent lines.

  10. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, E; Di Lorenzo, C; Colombo, E; Colombo, F; Fumagalli, M; Frigerio, G; Restani, P; Dell'Agli, M

    2015-08-01

    Botanicals are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, with increased usage in the general population, in many different types of products, including foods and plant food supplements. Several reports support for the beneficial effects of botanicals against gastrointestinal inflammation. However, no studies regarding the anti-inflammatory activity in the gastrointestinal tract of red vine leaves have been reported so far. The present work investigates the biological activity of Vitis vinifera L. water extract (VVWE) from dried leaves in two in vitro models of gastric and intestinal inflammation. The extract was characterized by a validated HPLC-DAD method, and tested on human epithelial gastric (AGS) and intestinal (Caco-2) cells with the aim to investigate the inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion and promoter activity, before and after in vitro gastric or gastrointestinal digestion. Our results show that the water extract from red vine leaves inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and expression in human gastric epithelial cells; the effect should be maintained, although to a lesser extent, after gastric digestion. In contrast, the effect after intestinal digestion is dramatically decreased since degradation of the active components in the gut does not allow the extract to efficiently counteract TNFα or IL-1β induced IL-8 expression and the NF-κB pathway. The main molecular target of VVWE at the gastric level includes TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and occurs at concentrations easily reachable after PFS consumption based on red vine leaf water extract as the ingredient. Our findings suggest that PFS containing water extracts from Vitis vinifera L. leaves could be useful to inhibit/attenuate gastric inflammation inhibiting IL-8 secretion and expression through impairment of the NF-κB pathway.

  11. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  12. Temperature and CO2 dependency of the photosynthetic photon flux density responses of leaves of Vitis vinifera cvs. Chardonnay and Merlot grown in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons of the photosynthetic responses to light and temperature between related cultivars are important to understand how well matched they are to the climate where they are grown. Photosynthetic light responses at a range of leaf temperatures and two CO2 concentrations were measured on leaves of two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) Chardonnay and Merlot vines growing in field conditions. The objective was to assess the interaction between photon flux density (PFD), leaf temperature and CO2 on photosynthesis and to compare the two cultivars. Merlot leaves maintained higher light-saturated rates of photosynthesis at all leaf temperatures compared with the Chardonnay leaves. At low temperatures, a reduced photon yield offset with a high stomatal conductance accounted for the low rates of the Chardonnay leaves. At moderate to high temperatures, photon yields, PFDs at light saturation and stomatal conductances did not account for differences between Merlot and Chardonnay leaves. At elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol(-1)) concentrations, the differences in photosynthetic performance between the cultivars were enhanced, with 30% higher light saturated rates for Merlot compared with Chardonnay leaves. Merlot berries accumulated more sugar, consistent with published data. These results demonstrate Chardonnay, unlike Merlot, appeared to be poorly matched to the hot climate. However, considering the current market and political trends, low alcoholic wines (and, thus, low sugar grapes) should be preferred. Especially in hot climates, it is always hard to obtain such kind of wines and, thus, the most interesting agronomical challenge, especially for Chardonnay vines could be interpreted in an opposite way.

  13. Effects of severity of post-flowering leaf removal on berry growth and composition of three red Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Kotseridis, Yorgos; Georgiadou, Afroditi; Tikos, Panagiotis; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Koundouras, Stefanos

    2012-06-13

    The effects of the severity of post-flowering leaf removal on the growth and phenolic composition of berry skin and seeds were studied in three Vitis vinifera L. genotypes over two consecutive seasons, 2007 and 2008. The study was conducted in a commercial vertical shoot positioned (VSP)-trained nonirrigated vineyard of northern Greece, planted with cultivars Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Sangiovese. Three different severities of leaf removal in the fruit zone were applied manually at berry set: nondefoliated (ND), removal of the lateral shoots of the first six basal nodes (LR), and full removal of the total leaf area (main leaves and lateral shoots) of the first six basal nodes (FR). Grape samples were obtained at commercial harvest. Leaf removal decreased yield per vine and cluster weight in Merlot and Sangiovese. Cluster compactness was reduced with the severity of defoliation only in Merlot, due to a decrease in berry number per cluster; berry fresh weight was unaffected in both cultivars. On the contrary, in Cabernet Sauvignon, yield was unaffected but berry size was restrained by leaf removal. Skin and seed mass followed variations in berry mass (except for seed mass in Sangiovese). Fruit zone leaf removal did not affect must soluble solids and increased titratable acidity only in Merlot. Defoliation increased skin anthocyanins in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in the order FR > LR > ND but significantly reduced seed flavan-3-ols mainly as a result of the reduction in catechin and epicatechin amount. For these varieties, FR had lower seed flavan-3-ols than ND in both varieties, whereas LR had intermediate values. However, in Sangiovese, the highest seed phenolic content was recorded in LR. The results showed that post-flowering leaf removal improved the overall berry composition in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon but had limited effect in Sangiovese.

  14. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine.

  15. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  16. Assessing the Impact of Temperature on Grape Phenolic Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by da...

  17. Geochemical behaviour of rare earths in Vitis vinifera grafted onto different rootstocks and growing on several soils.

    PubMed

    Censi, P; Saiano, F; Pisciotta, A; Tuzzolino, N

    2014-03-01

    The geochemical behaviour of lanthanides and yttrium (Rare Earth Elements, REEs) has been investigated mainly in geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. This behaviour is assessed according to features recorded in sequences of REE concentrations along the REE series normalised with respect to a reference material. In this study, the geochemical behaviour of REE was investigated in different parts of Vitis vinifera specimens grown off-soil, on soils of different nature and grafted onto several rootstocks in order to evaluate effects induced by these changes. The results indicated that roots are the plant organs where REEs are preferentially concentrated, in particular elements from Sm to Ho (middle REE, MREE) whereas Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts. The geochemical behaviour of REE suggests that MREE enrichments in roots are due to preferential MREE interactions with biological membranes or to surface complexation with newly formed phosphates. Eu-positive anomalies suggest that Eu(3+) can form stable organic complexes in place of Ca(2+) in several biological processes in xylem fluids. The possibility that Eu mobility in these fluids can be enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu(2+) cannot be ruled out. The assessment of the geochemical behaviour of REE according to the theory of the Tetrad Effect carried out confirms that REEs coming from soil are scavenged onto root tissues or mineral surfaces whereas their behaviour in aerial parts of V. vinifera is driven by dissolved complexation.

  18. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  19. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Fauconneau, B; Waffo-Teguo, P; Huguet, F; Barrier, L; Decendit, A; Merillon, J M

    1997-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions were used to isolate and characterize the flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes) found in red wine. Furthermore, we showed that astringin is produced although this stilbene has not previously been reported to be a constituent of V. vinifera or wine. The ability of these compounds to act as radical scavengers was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical. Antioxidant activities were assessed by their capacity to prevent Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and their action on Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins. The results showed that astringin has an important antioxidant effect similar to that of trans-resveratrol, and a higher radical scavenger activity than the latter. Astringinin appeared to be more active. These data indicate that phenolic compounds (stilbenes, catechins, anthocyanins) exhibit interesting properties which may account in part for the so-called "French paradox," i.e. that moderate drinking of red wine over a long period of time can protect against coronary heart disease.

  20. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-02-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause-effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed.

  1. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause–effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  2. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  3. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  4. Effect of artificial shading on the tannin accumulation and aromatic composition of the Grillo cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background White wine quality, especially in warm climates, is affected by sunlight and heat stress. These factors increase the probability that ambering processes will occur and reduce the potential flavour compounds. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunlight reduction on the accumulation of polyphenolic and aromatic compounds. Results This study was conducted in a commercial vineyard containing V. vinifera L. cv Grillo. Opaque polypropylene boxes (100% shading) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) net bags (50% shading) were applied at fruit set. The effect of the shaded treatments was compared to the exposed fruit treatment. The shaded treatments resulted in heavier berries and lower must sugar contents than the exposed treatments. Proanthocyanidins and total polyphenol levels were similar in the exposed and bagged grapes; however, the levels were always lower in the boxed fruit. At harvest, the highest aroma level was measured in the boxed fruits. Conclusions The boxed fruit had less sugar, fewer proanthocyanidins and more flavours than the exposed grapes. The reduction in flavanols reactive to p-dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde as (+)-catechin equivalents and total skin proanthocyanidins is an important result for the white winemaking process. In addition, the higher level of aromatic compounds in shaded grapes at harvest is an important contribution to the development of different wine styles. PMID:24195612

  5. Color and polyphenolic stability in extracts produced from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Jorge A; Lee, Joon-Hee; Talcott, Stephen T

    2009-09-23

    The muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) industry of the southern United States is largely devoid of value-added processes that capture the phytochemical content of wine and juice byproducts. Methods to recover and stabilize polyphenolics from muscadine grape pomace following juice manufacture were evaluated in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials. In laboratory-scale trials using osmotic equilibration, water-based extracts from juice pomace initially extracted 31-42% of total polyphenolics, 26-32% of total ellagic acid, and 36-62% of total anthocyanins. When adsorbed onto Amberlite XAD-4 resin to concentrate polyphenolics, these extracts lost 10.5% of their total ellagic acid from inefficient adsorption to the solid phase support. Subsequent pilot-scale trials were evaluated using hot water extracts from grape juice pomace followed by aerobic yeast fermentation to remove sugars and comparison to reversed phase C(18) and Amberlite XAD-4. Extracts were also concentrated using spray-drying and vacuum evaporation. Fermentation had a minor impact on the retention of most polyphenolic compounds evaluated, yet resulted in a 16.3% decrease in antioxidant capacity. Spray-drying resulted in a 30.3% loss in total anthocyanins, a 21.5% loss in total phenolics, and a 23.3% decrease in antioxidant activity, whereas vacuum evaporation had no deleterious impact on these parameters. The physiology of the muscadine grape and its unique phytochemical composition has limited utilization of pomace from wine and juice manufacture. However, these studies demonstrated the potential to extract and concentrate polyphenolic-rich extracts for use in value-added applications.

  6. Examination of Correlation between Histidine and Cadmium Absorption by Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. Using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods wereused for the determination of histidine and cadmium in Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. leaves taken from industrial area including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. To histidine determination by HPLC-MS, flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized as 0.2 mL · min⁻¹, 70 V, 15 µL and 20 °C, respectively. For extraction of histidine from plants, distilled water was used by applying on 90 °C and 30 min. The concentrations (as mg · kg⁻¹) of histidine were found to be in range of 8~22 for Eleagnus angustifolia L., 10~33 for Vitis vinifera L. and 6~11 for Nerium oleander L. The concentrations of cadmium were found to be in ranges of 6~21 µg · kg⁻¹ for Vitis vinifera L. 15~110 µg · kg⁻¹ for Eleagnus angustifolia L. and 63~218 µg · kg⁻¹ for Nerium oleander L.

  7. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  8. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols are an important class of secondary metabolites with significant benefits to human nutrition and health. As a part of our effort to assess grape germplasm for its potential health and nutrition value, we evaluated the polyphenolic profiles in the ripe berry samples of 344 European grape ...

  9. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera.

  10. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva; Pidra, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase).

  11. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  12. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Margină, Denisa; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Grădinaru, Daniela; GuȚu, Claudia; Voicu, Sorina; Dinischiotu, Anca; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-11-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4-39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  13. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  14. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  15. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-03-30

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: 'Chardonnay' (CH) and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine.

  16. Enhanced extracellular production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells by using cyclodextrins and coronatine.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Lorena; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, María A

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the effect of cyclodextrin and coronatine on both trans-resveratrol production and the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera L. cv Monastrell suspension cultured cells were evaluated. The results showed the maximum level of trans-resveratrol produced by cells and secreted to the culture medium with 50 mM cyclodextrins and 1 μM coronatine. Since the levels of trans-resveratrol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. In addition, all the analysed genes were induced by cyclodextrins and/or coronatine. The expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase genes was greatly enhanced by coronatine although an increase in the amount of trans-resveratrol in the spent medium was not detected. Therefore, despite the fact that trans-resveratrol production is related with the expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic process, other factors may be involved, such as post-transcriptional and post-traductional regulation. The expression maximal levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase genes were found with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with coronatine suggesting that the activity of these enzymes could be not only important for the formation of intermediates of trans-R biosynthesis but also for those intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of lignins and/or flavonoids.

  17. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  18. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: ‘Chardonnay’ (CH) and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine. PMID:28358354

  19. Enhanced resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures by heavy metals without loss of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Kastell, Anja; Speiser, Claire; Smetanska, Iryna

    2013-09-01

    The effects of heavy metal ions (Co(2+), Ag(+), Cd(2+)) on cell viability and secondary metabolite production, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures, were investigated. Of these, Co at all three used concentrations (5.0, 25, and 50 μM), Ag, and Cd at low concentration (5.0 μM) were most effective to stimulate the phenolic acid production, increasing the 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol up to 1.6-fold of the control level (250.5 versus 152.4 μmol/g), 4 h after the treatments. Meanwhile, the elicitors at effective concentrations did not suppress cell growth, while the cell viability maintained. In contrast, Ag and Cd at high concentrations (25 and 50 μM) remarkably reduced the cell viability, decreasing the cell viability up to about 15 % of the control level, 24 h after the treatments. The heavy metal ions did not affect the anthocyanin production. These observations show how, in a single system, different groups of secondary products can show distinct differences in their responses to potential elicitors. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, peroxidase activity, medium pH value, and conductivity were only slightly elevated by the heavy metal ions. The results suggest that some of the secondary metabolites production was stimulated by the used elicitors, but there was not a stress response of the cells.

  20. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  1. In-vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera) in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Aslan, Mustafa; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ergun, Fatma; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2006-11-24

    The acute and the subacute (15 days) hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (250, 500 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. were evaluated in this study. The aqueous extract was further fractionated through successive solvent extractions and the acute effect of different doses of its subfractions, 25 mg/kg for ethylacetate fraction, 80 mg/kg for n-butanol fraction and 375 mg/kg for remaining aqueous fraction were investigated using normal, glucose-hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were measured according to the glucose oxidase method. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity of the test samples was studied in the liver, kidney and heart tissues of diabetic rats by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathion (GSH) levels. All results were compared to the diabetic control groups. The results showed that EtOAc Fr. was rich in polyphenolics and possessed a significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity equipotent with the reference hypoglycaemic agent (tolbutamide), when evaluated in diabetic rats.

  2. Comparative anatomy and morphology of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) somatic embryos from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, S; Bondada, Bhaskar R; Li, Zhijian; Gray, D J

    2003-07-01

    Ontogeny of somatic embryos of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) produced from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses (PEM) was compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Somatic embryos produced from solid-medium-derived PEM (SPEM) had large cotyledons, little or no visible suspensor structure, and a relatively undeveloped concave shoot apical meristem, whereas those from liquid-medium-derived PEM (LPEM) had smaller cotyledons, a distinct suspensor, and a flat-to-convex shoot apical meristem. The convex shoot apical meristem in LPEM-derived somatic embryos formed as early as the heart stage of development; it was 4-6 cell layers deep and rich in protein. Suspensors persisted in fully developed and mature LPEM-derived somatic embryos. The SPEM-derived somatic embryos exhibited dormancy, as do mature zygotic embryos, which also have a rudimentary suspensor, whereas LPEM-derived embryos were not dormant. We hypothesize that the presence of a persistent suspensor in LPEM-derived somatic embryos modulates development, ultimately resulting in rapid germination and a high plant-regeneration rate.

  3. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process. PMID:22192855

  4. Changes of defense proteins in the extracellular proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures in response to elicitors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Esteso, M J; Sellés-Marchart, S; Vera-Urbina, J C; Pedreño, M A; Bru-Martinez, R

    2009-12-01

    In plant cells, elicitors induce defense responses that resemble those triggered by pathogen attack, such as the synthesis of phytoalexins and pathogen-related proteins which accumulate in the extracellular space. In the search for the particular proteins involved in defense responses, we investigated the changes in the extracellular proteome of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell suspension in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Twenty-five of the 39 spots differentially expressed in 2-D gels were identified and found to be encoded by 10 different genes: three secretory peroxidases, chitinase-III, beta-1,3-glucanase, thaumatin-like, SGNH plant lipase-like, NtPR27-like, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and subtilisin-like protease. Most of them belong to the pathogenesis-related type proteins. A new class III secretory basic peroxidase and chitinase III were strongly induced in cultures treated with MBCD alone or combined with MeJA, while cultures treated with MeJA alone displayed a general repression of most of the extracellular proteins. Some of the proteins induced in grapevine cell cultures by MBCD are induced in other species by activators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a form of plant immunity. Collectively, the results suggest that treatment with MBCD resembles the effect of SAR induction agents in cell cultures.

  5. Compatible GLRaV-3 viral infections affect berry ripening decreasing sugar accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Vega, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Cramer, Grant R; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-10-01

    Virus infections in grapevine cause important economic losses and affect fruit quality worldwide. Although the phenotypic symptoms associated to viral infections have been described, the molecular plant response triggered by virus infection is still poorly understood in Vitis vinifera. As a first step to understand the fruit changes and mechanisms involved in the compatible grapevine-virus interaction, we analyzed the berry transcriptome in two stages of development in the red wine cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon infected with Grapevine leaf-roll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3). Analysis of global gene expression patterns indicate incomplete berry maturation in infected berries as compared to uninfected fruit suggesting viral infection interrupts the normal berry maturation process. Genes with altered expression in berries harvested from GLRaV-3-infected vines as compared to uninfected tissue include anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism genes. The reduction in transcript accumulation for sugar and anthocyanin metabolism during fruit development is consistent with a dramatic reduction in anthocyanin biosynthesis as well as reduced sugar levels in berries, a hallmark phenotypic change observed in virus infected grapevines. Analysis of key regulatory factors provides a mechanism for the observed gene expression changes. Our results provide insight into commonly observed phenotypic alterations in virus infected vines and the molecular mechanisms associated with the plant response to the virus during berry ripening.

  6. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  7. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  8. Diurnal temperature range compression hastens berry development and modifies flavonoid partitioning in grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperatures during the day and night are known to influence grape berry metabolism and resulting composition. In this study, the flavonoid composition of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot berries was investigated as a function of diurnal temperature range (DTR). The DTR was compressed by c...

  9. Assessing the Impact of Temperature on Grape Phenolic Metabolism Using Multiple Chromatographic Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by ...

  10. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly [1]. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and

  11. Influence of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in Vitis vinifera L. canes.

    PubMed

    Gorena, Tamara; Saez, Vania; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2014-07-15

    Increasing evidence for the health benefits of E-resveratrol has triggered interest in stilbenoids in grapes, wine and by-products. Less attention has been paid to stilbenoid levels in viticulture residues. However, grape canes are a promising source of stilbenoids and have economic potential because they are a source of high-value phytochemicals. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in grape canes. In most samples, the predominant stilbenoid was (E)-resveratrol, followed by (E)-ε-viniferin. In Pinot Noir canes stored after pruning at room temperature, the stilbenoid levels increased significantly after 8 months. The concentration was increased by up to fivefold, reaching 4,777 mg kg(-1)dw (dry weight). This effect did not occur in frozen, lyophilised or milled material. Branches collected directly from the plants after grape vintage and those remaining on the plant after pruning showed only a small increase in stilbenoid levels.

  12. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  13. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape.

    PubMed

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R; Owens, Christopher L; Brown, Patrick J; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D; Buckler, Edward S

    2011-03-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity.

  14. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.

  15. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  16. Varietal relationship between instrumental skin hardness and climate for grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Rolle, Luca; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Schneider, Anna; Spanna, Federico; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-10-12

    The main aims of this work were to classify 30 colored and white wine grape varieties according to the berry skin hardness, to assess the influence of annual variations in climate on the berry skin hardness, and to establish significant relationships among berry skin mechanical properties and some climatic-bioclimatic indices calculated for different grape-ripening periods, close to the harvest date. The results obtained show that the most influential bioclimatic indices on the skin mechanical attributes were temperature parameters. In the same season, the influence of the production area was also evaluated, precipitation parameters being the best correlated with the berry skin hardness. This first work has permitted us to know the relationship among skin texture characteristics and seasonal climatic indices.

  17. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  18. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  19. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  20. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  1. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. Conclusions/Significance A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are present from early

  2. Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN.

    PubMed

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-04-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream.

  3. Developing an Alternative to Sulfur Dioxide for Maintaining Quality and Reducing Decay of Table Grapes during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, SO2 is dangerous to people who are allergic to sulfites and its application has been rest...

  4. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient targeted mutagenesis in Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chong; Liu, Xianju; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Yi; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    The type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) has been successfully applied to edit target genes in multiple plant species. However, it remains unknown whether this system can be used for genome editing in grape. In this study, we described genome editing and targeted gene mutation in ‘Chardonnay’ suspension cells and plants via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) were designed to target distinct sites of the L-idonate dehydrogenase gene (IdnDH). CEL I endonuclease assay and sequencing results revealed the expected indel mutations at the target site, and a mutation frequency of 100% was observed in the transgenic cell mass (CM) as well as corresponding regenerated plants with expression of sgRNA1/Cas9. The majority of the detected mutations in transgenic CM were 1-bp insertions, followed by 1- to 3-nucleotide deletions. Off-target activities were also evaluated by sequencing the potential off-target sites, and no obvious off-target events were detected. Our results demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient and specific tool for precise genome editing in grape. PMID:27576893

  6. [Impact of subculture cycles and inoculum sizes on suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Quan-Li; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-11-01

    The commercial application of plant cell cultures is often hindered by the instability of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the metabolite yield fluctuates and decline dramatically over subcultures. This study proposed that such instability is due to the fluctuations of culture variables. To validate this hypothesis, the effects of the fluctuations of two culture variables (subculture cycle and inoculum size) on the biomass, anthocyanin biosynthesig, intracellular carbon, nitrogen and phosphate during continuous 10 subculture cycles were investigated. The subculture cycle was fluctuated for 12h in a 7 day cycle (6.5, 7 and 7.5 d), and the inoculum size was fluctuated by 20% on basis of 2.00 g (1.60, 2.00 and 2.40 g). It was found that all the measured culture parameters fluctuated over the 10 subculture cycles. The fluctuation in terms of inoculum sizes had a greater effect on the stability of anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of V. vinifera. Among all the subculture conditions investigated, 7d-subculture cycle and 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to hold the relatively stable anthocyanin production. The anthocyanin yield presented a negative correlation with intracellular sucrose content or intracellular total phosphate content.

  7. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  8. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  9. Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles exhibit chemopreventive potential, antioxidant activity and induce apoptosis through mutant p53, Bcl-2 and pan cytokeratin down-regulation in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, J Grace; Narendhirakannan, R T

    2017-03-07

    Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using Vitis vinifera peel and seed aqueous extracts and characterized by Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. On topical application, peel and seed gold nanoparticles demonstrated chemopreventive potential by significantly (p<0.05) reducing the cumulative number of tumors while increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities in the gold nanoparticles treated mice. The down-regulated expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and the levels of pan-cytokeratins might have facilitated the process of apoptosis in the chemical carcinogenesis process. The results were supported by the histopathological evaluation which exhibited mild dysplasia and acanthosis in the skin tissues of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs treated mice. Based on the present study, the chemopreventive action of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs is probably due to its ability to stimulate the antioxidant enzymes within the cells and suppressed abnormal skin cell proliferation that occurred during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis.

  10. Developmental parameters and seasonal phenology of Calepitrimerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in wine grapes of western Oregon.

    PubMed

    Walton, V M; Dreves, A J; Coop, L B; Jones, G V; Skinkis, P A

    2010-12-01

    Developmental parameters of protogyne Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae) were determined at 12, 15, 17, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 °C to better understand seasonal activity, population growth, and ultimately more effectively manage pest mites in wine grapes. Net reproductive rate (R(o)) was greater than zero at all temperatures with the maximum R(o) (9.72) at 25 °C. The lowest estimated R(o) (0.001) occurred at 34 °C. There was a gradual decrease in mean generation time (T) as temperatures increased from 17 to 31 °C. The shortest and longest generation time was recorded at 31 °C (T = 5.5 d) and 17 °C (T = 17.5 d). Rates of natural increase were lowest at 17°C (0.035) and increased with increasing temperatures, respectively. The peak rate of natural increase value (0.141) was at 25 °C. Estimations for minimum and maximum developmental thresholds were 10.51 and 39.19 °C, respectively, while the optimum developmental temperature was 26.9 °C. The thermal constant for egg to adult development was estimated at 87.7DD. The highest fecundity was observed at 25 °C. These parameters indicated that mites begin feeding at the onset of shoot growth when tissue is most susceptible in spring. Historical weather data showed that vines are in this susceptible growth stage for longer periods in the cool Willamette Valley compared with warmer Umpqua and Applegate/Rogue Valley regions. Estimation of degree-days indicated when deutogyne mites move to overwintering refuge sites. Degree-day accumulations indicated up to 14 generations per growing season.

  11. VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Cramer, Grant R.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Mathiason, Kathy; Van Hemert, John; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet). Methodology/Principal Findings The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. Conclusions/Significance VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and

  12. A new strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol by overexpressing stilbene synthase gene in elicited Vitis vinifera cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mingyu; Pedreño, M A; Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Lydia; Burgos, Lorenzo; Almagro, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    In this work, transgenic lines of suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell containing the plasmid pMOG800-sts have been obtained. The cell growth of these transgenic cell lines decreased slightly as compared to non-transgenic suspension cultured cells, while cell viability was not affected. In addition, the elicitation with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate enhanced the production of trans-resveratrol, observing the highest levels of this compound in sts-expressing transgenic Vitis suspension cultured cells with the sts expression cassette in the forwards orientation. Moreover, the forwards 2 (F2) transgenic cell line produced the greater levels of trans-resveratrol in comparison with the non-transgenic cell line. In fact, when suspension cultured cells were treated with both elicitors, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol outside the cells in the F2 transgenic suspension cultured cells increased twice (1458 mg.L(-1)) as compared to non-transgenic cell lines (724 mg.L(-1)). In both cases, the levels of trans-resveratrol detected in the treatment with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate were greater than the sum of the individual treatments, and therefore we observed a synergistic effect in the presence of both elicitors. Moreover, the expression profile of sts gene in transgenic V. vinifera cell lines was similar to the expression profile detected for the endogenous sts gene in non-transgenic V. vinifera cell lines, being the expression levels greater in the treatment with methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, which was related to the high levels of trans-resveratrol found in the presence of both elicitors.

  13. Induction of trans-resveratrol and extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins in elicited suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell.

    PubMed

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Almagro, Lorena; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén; Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, Maria Angeles

    2013-02-15

    Suspension-cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell were used to investigate the effects of methyljasmonate, ethylene and salicylic acid separately or in combination with cyclodextrins on both trans-resveratrol production and the induction of defense responses. The results showed that the addition of methyljasmonate or ethylene to suspension-cultured cells jointly treated with cyclodextrins and salicylic acid provoked a decrease of trans-resveratrol levels suggesting that salicylic acid has a negative and antagonistic effect with methyljasmonate or ethylene on trans-resveratrol production. Likewise, the exogenous application of these compounds induced the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. Analysis of the extracellular proteome showed the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to an specific β-1,3-glucanase, class III peroxidases and a β-1,4-mannanase, which suggests that these signal molecules could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in V. vinifera cv Monastrell. Apart from these inducible proteins, other proteins were found in both the control and elicited cell cultures of V. vinifera. These included class IV chitinase, polygalacturonase inhibitor protein and reticuline oxidase-like protein, suggesting that their expression is constitutive being involved in the modification of the cell wall architecture during cell culture growth and in the prevention of pathogen attack.

  14. Transformation of Eutypa dieback and esca disease pathogen toxins by antagonistic fungal strains reveals a second detoxification pathway not present in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Christen, Danilo; Tharin, Manuel; Perrin-Cherioux, Sandrine; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Tabacchi, Raphaël; Défago, Geneviève

    2005-09-07

    Eutypine, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 3-phenyllactic acid are some of the phytotoxins produced by the pathogens causing Eutypa dieback and esca disease, two trunk diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Known biocontrol agents such as Fusarium lateritium and Trichoderma sp. were screened for their ability to consume these toxins. Transformation time courses were performed, and an high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was developed to analyze toxin metabolism and to identify and quantify the converted products. The results show that the aldehyde function of eutypine was reduced to eutypinol, as by V. vinifera cv. Merlot, the cultivar tolerant to Eutypa dieback. We revealed a supplementary detoxification pathway, not known in Merlot, where the aldehyde function was oxidized to eutypinic acid. Moreover, some strains tested could further metabolize the transformation products. Every strain tested could transform 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to the corresponding alcohol and acid, and these intermediates disappeared totally at the end of the time courses. When biological assays on cells of V. vinifera cv. Chasselas were carried out, the transformation products exhibited a lower toxicity than the toxins. The possibility of selecting new biocontrol agents against trunk diseases of grapevine based on microbial detoxification is discussed.

  15. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues.

  16. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes.

  17. A strategy to investigate the intravarietal genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. for clones and biotypes identification and to correlate molecular profiles with morphological traits or geographic origins.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Stefano; Calò, Antonio; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2012-09-01

    Grapevine is the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop in the world. Molecular markers have been used on Vitis vinifera to distinguish among both varieties and clones. Microsatellites are used to fingerprint varieties and several other techniques, reported in many papers, are used to analyze the differences among clones, but it is not available in the literature as a well defined strategy to screen a large number of Vitis cultivars. In fact, it is often necessary to use different techniques to investigate the genetic variability in different grapevine varieties and a proposed technique is used to study a cultivar, which is often not suitable for either the study of another cultivar or compare the genetic relationship among various cultivars. We describe here a strategy used for the analysis of several grapevine cultivars to describe a universal method to obtain DNA polymorphisms of Vitis vinifera genotypes from the same cultivar by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), microsatellites AFLP (M-AFLP), and ISSR molecular markers. The strategy here adopted permitted both to identify different biotypes (i.e., Primitivo), accessions (i.e., Garnacha tinta), and clones (i.e., Callet, Manto Negro, Moll) among the variability of same variety and to correlate the genetic differences to their geographical origins (i.e., Garnacha tinta; Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce) or morphological traits (i.e., Malvasia of Candia). Here is also described the application of the protocol that allows to highlight the genetic variability accumulated during centuries of cultivations and selections of the same variety in different environments by vine growers.

  18. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-03

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes.

  19. Pruning-induced tylose development in stems of current-year shoots of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A

    2006-11-01

    Tyloses form in xylem vessels in response to various environmental stimuli, but little is known of the kinetics or regulation of their development. Preliminary investigations indicated that wounds seal quickly with tyloses after pruning of grapevine shoots. In this study, tylose development was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively at different depths and times from pruning cuts along current-year shoots of grapevines at basal, middle, and apical stem regions. Tyloses developed simultaneously within a single vessel but much separated in time among vessels. Pruning caused prodigious tylosis in vessels of grape stems, extending to approximately 1 cm deep and to 7 d after wounding, but about half of the vessels did not become completely occluded. The fraction of vessels forming tyloses was greatest in basal (85%) and least in apical (50%) regions. The depth of maximum density of tyloses was 4 mm from the cut in the basal region and 2 mm from the cut in the middle and apical regions. Tylose development was faster in the basal and middle than in the apical region. The pattern of tylose development is discussed in the context of wound repair and pathogen movement in grapevines.

  20. The peripheral xylem of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries. 2. Anatomy and development.

    PubMed

    Chatelet, David S; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A; Shackel, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the substantial reductions in xylemic water flow occurring at veraison are due to physical disruption (breaking) of the xylem as a result of renewed berry growth. In a companion paper, evidence was presented that the vast majority of xylem tracheary elements remained intact despite the growth of the berry, and it was proposed that existing tracheary elements stretch to accommodate growth and that additional elements may also differentiate after veraison. Measurements of the intergyre distance of tracheary elements in macerated tissue were used to test for stretching, and the numbers of tracheary elements per vascular bundle and of branch points of the peripheral xylem network were analysed to test for continued differentiation from 18 to 120 d after anthesis in Chardonnay berries. The distance between the epidermis and the vasculature increased substantially from pre- to post-veraison, potentially increasing the amount of skin available for analysis of compounds important for winemaking. Tracheary elements continued to differentiate within the existing vascular bundles throughout berry development. Additional vascular bundles also appeared until after veraison, thereby increasing the complexity of the peripheral vascular network. The results also confirmed that tracheary elements stretched by approximately 20%, but this was not as much as that predicted based on the growth of the vascular diameter (40%). These results complete a comprehensive evaluation of grape berry peripheral xylem during its development and show that tracheary development continues further into berry maturation than previously thought.

  1. Does night-time transpiration contribute to anisohydric behaviour in a Vitis vinifera cultivar?

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Greer, Dennis H; Hutton, Ron J; Landsberg, Joe J

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that vines of the Semillon wine grape variety show anisohydric behaviour was tested, i.e. that tissue hydration is unstable under fluctuating environmental conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rates from leaves were measured during the day and at night. Leaf water potential (Psi(l)) in Semillon was negatively correlated to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) both predawn and during the day. Furthermore, Psi(l) fell to significantly lower values than in any of the nine other varieties examined. Night-time values of stomatal conductance (g(n)) and transpiration (E(n)) in Semillon were up to four times higher than in other varieties; plants enclosed in plastic bags overnight to reduce E(n) resulted in better plant-soil equilibration so that predawn Psi(l) in Semillon was the same as in Grenache. These data indicate that the hypothesis is supported, and that night-time transpiration contributes significantly to the low Psi(l) values in Semillon during warm, dry nights. The other contributing factor is daytime stomatal conductance (g(day)), which in Semillon leaves was higher than in other varieties, although the decline in g(day) with increasing VPD was greater in Semillon than in Shiraz or Grenache. The high values of g(day) were associated with high rates of transpiration (E(day)) by Semillon through a day when VPD reached 4.5 kPa. When compared to other varieties, Semillon was not unusual in terms of root length density, stomatal density, xylem sap abscisic acid, or leaf electrolyte leakage. Night-time and daytime water loss and insufficient stomatal regulation therefore account for the tendency to anisohydric behaviour shown by Semillon.

  2. Transposable elements are a major cause of somatic polymorphism in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Grégory; Le Cunff, Loïc; Dereeper, Alexis; Legrand, Delphine; Sabot, François; Bouchez, Olivier; Audeguin, Laurent; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; This, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Through multiple vegetative propagation cycles, clones accumulate mutations in somatic cells that are at the origin of clonal phenotypic diversity in grape. Clonal diversity provided clones such as Cabernet-Sauvignon N°470, Chardonnay N° 548 and Pinot noir N° 777 which all produce wines of superior quality. The economic impact of clonal selection is therefore very high: since approx. 95% of the grapevines produced in French nurseries originate from the French clonal selection. In this study we provide the first broad description of polymorphism in different clones of a single grapevine cultivar, Pinot noir, in the context of vegetative propagation. Genome sequencing was performed using 454 GS-FLX methodology without a priori, in order to identify and quantify for the first time molecular polymorphisms responsible for clonal variability in grapevine. New generation sequencing (NGS) was used to compare a large portion of the genome of three Pinot noir clones selected for their phenotypic differences. Reads obtained with NGS and the sequence of Pinot noir ENTAV-INRA® 115 sequenced by Velasco et al., were aligned on the PN40024 reference sequence. We then searched for molecular polymorphism between clones. Three types of polymorphism (SNPs, Indels, mobile elements) were found but insertion polymorphism generated by mobile elements of many families displayed the highest mutational event with respect to clonal variation. Mobile elements inducing insertion polymorphism in the genome of Pinot noir were identified and classified and a list is presented in this study as potential markers for the study of clonal variation. Among these, the dynamic of four mobile elements with a high polymorphism level were analyzed and insertion polymorphism was confirmed in all the Pinot clones registered in France.

  3. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  4. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  5. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  6. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  7. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini.

  8. Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including β-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, α-ionone and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation

  9. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  10. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Su