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Sample records for grapes vitis vinifera

  1. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  2. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Dangl, Gerald S; Prins, Bernard H; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; Walker, M Andrew; Meredith, Carole P; Simon, Charles J

    2003-06-01

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. French cultivars appeared to be distinct and showed close affinity to the wild progenitor, ssp. sylvestris from south-western France (Pyrenees) and Tunisia, probably reflecting the origin and domestication history of many of the old wine cultivars from France. There was appreciable level of differentiation between table and wine grape cultivars, and the Muscat types were somewhat distinct within the wine grapes. Contingency chi2 analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies among groups at all loci. The observed heterozygosities for different groups ranged from 0.625 to 0.9 with an overall average of 0.771. Genetic relationships among groups suggested hierarchical differentiation within cultivated grape. The gene diversity analysis indicated narrow divergence among groups and that most variation was found within groups (approximately 85%). Partitioning of diversity suggested that the remaining variation is somewhat structured hierarchically at different levels of differentiation. The overall organization of genetic diversity suggests that the germplasm of cultivated grape represents a single complex gene pool and that its structure is determined by strong artificial selection and a vegetative mode of reproduction.

  3. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  4. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  5. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  6. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27196869

  7. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  9. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  10. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-01

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  11. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  12. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  13. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves after Exposure to Ultraviolet C Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m−2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). Conclusions UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great

  15. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages.

  16. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  17. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  18. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin. PMID:26951448

  19. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  20. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Alain; Torregrosa, Laurent; Iocco, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal co-cultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system which meets the above mentioned criteria.

  1. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. PMID:26687319

  2. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  3. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  4. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  5. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants. PMID:25416258

  6. Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine.

  7. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  8. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism.

  9. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  10. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding. PMID:25017417

  11. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  12. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  13. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  14. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  15. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  16. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  17. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  18. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  19. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  20. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  1. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  2. Immunomodulating and anti-allergic effects of Negroamaro and Koshu Vitis vinifera fermented grape marc (FGM).

    PubMed

    Marzulli, Giuseppe; Magrone, Thea; Vonghia, Luisa; Kaneko, Masahiro; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Kumazawa, Yoshio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols contained in FGM from Negroamaro (N) and Koshu (K) Vitis vinifera have been shown to exhibit several immunomodulating activities. For instance, mice affected by experimental colitis when administered with K-FGM showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process. In murine asthma, K-FGM reduced IgE production and eosinophil number in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. In vitro, both N- and K-FGM were able to induce T regulatory cells in terms of Foxp-3 molecule expression and release of interleukin-10. In another set of experiments both N- and K-FGM were able to balance rate of proliferation/apoptosis/necrosis of normal human peripheral lymphocytes, thus indicating the property of these compounds to maintain immune homeostatic mechanisms in the host. On the other hand, N- and K-FGM inhibited human basophil degranulation, thus, confirming our previous results obtained with rat basophilic leukemia cells. Finally, N- and K-FGM also decreased oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes.Taken together, these findings imply the potential clinical usefulness of FGM administration in inflammatory/allergic conditions, such as chronic asthma.

  3. Effect of two different treatments for reducing grape yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on wine composition and quality: berry thinning versus cluster thinning.

    PubMed

    Gil, M; Esteruelas, M; González, E; Kontoudakis, N; Jiménez, J; Fort, F; Canals, J M; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Zamora, F

    2013-05-22

    The influence of two treatments for reducing grape yield, cluster thinning and berry thinning, on red wine composition and quality were studied in a Vitis vinifera cv Syrah vineyard in AOC Penedès (Spain). Cluster thinning reduced grape yield per vine by around 40% whereas berry thinning only reduced it by around 20%. Cluster thinning grapes had higher soluble solids content than control grapes, and their resultant wines have greater anthocyanin and polysaccharide concentrations than the control wine. Wine obtained from berry thinning grapes had a higher total phenolic index, greater flavonol, proanthocyanidin, and polysaccharide concentrations, and lower titratable acidity than the control wine. Wines obtained from both treatments were sufficiently different from the control wine to be significantly distinguished by a trained panel in a triangular test. Even though both treatments seem to be effective at improving the quality of wine, berry thinning has the advantage because it has less impact on crop yield reduction.

  4. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar. PMID:25226431

  5. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  6. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  7. Wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) color associates with allelic variation in the domestication gene VvmybA1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the process of crop domestication and early selection, numerous changes occur in the genetic and physiological make-up of crop plants. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera) numerous changes have occurred as a result of human selection, including the emergence of hermaphroditism and greatly increased...

  8. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed Central

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  9. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  10. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  11. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  12. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-09-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu's assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower concentrations were effective compared to higher concentrations, whereas gluco-amylase enzyme did not show remarkable variations. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were significantly higher in the cellulase digested grape pomace compared to the gluco-amylase digested and the not digested grape pomace. It is notable that enzymatic digestions were efficient for extracting polyphenols from grape pomace. The underutilized grape pomace polyphenols can be further used for food safety as a natural antioxidant.

  13. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  14. Morphological and phylogenetic identification of Botrytis sinoviticola, a novel cryptic species causing gray mold disease of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y J; Zhang, J; Wang, X D; Yang, L; Jiang, D H; Li, G Q; Hsiang, T; Zhuang, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five isolates of Botrytis collected from table grapes (Vitis vinifera) with gray mold symptoms in China were identified based on morpho-cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar (20 C) and/or phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2). Isolates of different species of Botrytis were compared with fenhexamid sensitivity, Bc-hch gene-RFLP haplotyping and pathogenicity to V. vinifera. The 75 isolates comprise two species, B. cinerea (63 isolates) and an undescribed Botrytis sp. (12 isolates) described here as Botrytis sinoviticola Zhang et al. sp., nov. Both B. sinoviticola (Bs) and B. cinerea (Bc) were found to have 20 C optimum for mycelial growth and 25 C for conidial germination. Sensitivity to fenhexamid was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for Bc (EC50 = 0.04 ± 0.01 μg mL(-1)) than for Bs (EC50 = 0.08 ± 0.02 μg mL(-1)). Digestion of the PCR amplicons of the Bc-hch gene with Hha I generated two haplotypes, Group I haplotype for Bs and Group II haplotype for Bc. Bs infected table grapes (leaves, berries) only through wounds, whereas Bc infected both injured and non-injured tissues of table grapes. This study suggests that Bs is a cryptic species sympatric with Bc on table grapes in China.

  15. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  16. Distribution of resveratrol and stilbene synthase in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and the effect of UV-C on its accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ke; Yang, Hao-Ru; Wen, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Current research indicated that the resveratrol was mainly accumulated in the skin of grape berry, however, little is yet known about the distribution of resveratrol, as well as the regulation mechanism at protein level and the localization of stilbene synthase (malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.95; STS), a key enzyme of resveratrol biosynthesis, in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Resveratrol, whose constitutive level ranged from 0.2 mg kg(-1) FW to 16.5 mg kg(-1) FW, could be detected in stem, axillary bud, shoot tip, petiole, root and leaf of grape plants. Among them, stem phloems presented the most abundant of resveratrol, and the leaves presented the lowest. Interestingly, the level of STS mRNA and protein were highest in grape leaves. And the analysis of immunohistochemical showed the tissue-specific distribution of STS in different organs, presenting the similar results compared with the amount of protein. And the subcellular localization revealed that the cell wall in different tissues processed the most golden particles representing STS. Subjecting to UV-C irradiation, resveratrol and STS were both intensely stimulated in grape leaves, with the similar response pattern. Results above indicated that distribution of resveratrol and STS in grape was organ-specific and tissue-specific. And the accumulation of resveratrol induced by UV-C was regulated by transcriptional and translational level of STS.

  17. Perturbation of polyamine catabolism affects grape ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Ali, Kashif; Choi, Young H; Sousa, Lisete; Verpoorte, Rob; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Fortes, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are economically the most important fruit worldwide. However, the complexity of biological events that lead to ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood, particularly the role of polyamines' catabolism. The transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data were studied during ripening of Trincadeira grapes submitted to guazatine treatment, a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase activity. The mRNA expression profiles of one time point (EL 38) corresponding to harvest stage was compared between mock and guazatine treatments using Affymetrix GrapeGen(®) genome array. A total of 2113 probesets (1880 unigenes) were differentially expressed between these samples. Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for EL 35 (véraison berries), EL 36 (ripe berries) and EL 38 (harvest stage berries). Metabolic profiling using HPLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed increase of putrescine, proline, threonine and 1-O-ethyl-β-glucoside in guazatine treated samples. Genes involved in amino acid, carbohydrate and water transport were down-regulated in guazatine treated samples suggesting that the strong dehydrated phenotype obtained in guazatine treated samples may be due to impaired transport mechanisms. Genes involved in terpenes' metabolism were differentially expressed between guazatine and mock treated samples. Altogether, results support an important role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening namely in cell expansion and aroma development.

  18. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination.

  19. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  20. Stereoselective dissipation of epoxiconazole in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Kyoho) and soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwu; Qiu, Jing; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fengmao; Qiu, Lihong

    2012-05-01

    Stereoselective dissipation of epoxiconazole had been studied in grape and soil during plant growing under field conditions in this paper. A sensitive and rapid chiral method was developed and validated for the determination of epoxiconazole stereoisomers in grape and soil based on liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Phenomenex Lux Cellulose-1 column was used for enantioseparation with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (90/10, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). Fortified recoveries in grape and soil samples ranged from 76.0% to 91.9% and relative standard deviations were less than 11.4% with fortified levels of 0.025-1.0 mg kg(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.005 mg kg(-1) and 0.025 mg kg(-1), respectively, with linear calibration curves extending up to 5.0 mg kg(-1). The field experimental results showed that dissipations of epoxiconazole stereoisomers in grape followed first-order kinetics (R(2)>0.92) and stereoselectivity occurred in 2 h after spraying. The (-)-stereoisomer with half-life of 9.3 d degraded faster than (+)-stereoisomer with that of 13.2 d, and resulted in relative enrichment of (+)-stereoisomer. However, the stereoisomeric dissipations in soil were triphasic ("increase-decrease-steady") with lower dissipation rates, and also occurred with preferential degradation of (-)-stereoisomer under field condition. The results for stereoselective dissipations can be applied for food and environmental assessments of chiral pesticides. PMID:22414382

  1. Characterization of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berry Sunburn Symptoms by Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Rocchi, Letizia; Guffanti, Eugenio; Cola, Gabriele; Failla, Osvaldo

    2014-03-27

    Sunburn can affect grape quality both for chemical modifications and by visual impact of the browning. Optical properties of 17 white grape accessions were investigated in the visible region using a noninvasive instrument. Reflectance spectra were obtained using a Jaz System spectrometer. Browning was induced by exposing grape bunches to direct sunlight at 12:30 p.m. for 5 h. During the experiment, the global solar radiation ranged from 2.6 to 2.7 MJ m(-2) h(-1) and the air temperature from 24.3 to 29.2 °C; the exposed berries reached a temperature of 34.2 °C in comparison to the 30.4 °C of the shaded ones. Differences between the spectra of controlled and exposed berries mainly emphasized the loss in chlorophyll and the formation of brown compounds. A positive correlation between the chlorophyll concentration and berry browning was proposed. Developing rapid, noninvasive, and low-cost methods based on reflectance spectroscopy could support grapevine variety characterization with respect to sunburn susceptibility as well as study of the physiological processes involved in the symptoms' appearance.

  2. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  3. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  4. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  5. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  6. Application of statistical downscaling technique for the production of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitán Fernández, E.; García Moreno, R.; Pino Otín, M. R.; Ribalaygua Batalla, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and soil are two of the most important limiting factors for agricultural production. Nowadays climate change has been documented in many geographical locations affecting different cropping systems. The General Circulation Models (GCM) has become important tools to simulate the more relevant aspects of the climate expected for the XXI century in the frame of climatic change. These models are able to reproduce the general features of the atmospheric dynamic but their low resolution (about 200 Km) avoids a proper simulation of lower scale meteorological effects. Downscaling techniques allow overcoming this problem by adapting the model outcomes to local scale. In this context, FIC (Fundación para la Investigación del Clima) has developed a statistical downscaling technique based on a two step analogue methods. This methodology has been broadly tested on national and international environments leading to excellent results on future climate models. In a collaboration project, this statistical downscaling technique was applied to predict future scenarios for the grape growing systems in Spain. The application of such model is very important to predict expected climate for the different growing crops, mainly for grape, where the success of different varieties are highly related to climate and soil. The model allowed the implementation of agricultural conservation practices in the crop production, detecting highly sensible areas to negative impacts produced by any modification of climate in the different regions, mainly those protected with protected designation of origin, and the definition of new production areas with optimal edaphoclimatic conditions for the different varieties.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of respiratory burst oxidase homologs in grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Jun; Guo, Chunlei; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-12-12

    Plant respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh) genes appear to play crucial roles in plant development, defense reactions and hormone signaling. In this study, a total of seven rboh genes from grape were identified and characterized. Genomic structure and predicted protein sequence analysis indicated that the sequences of plant rboh genes are highly conserved. Synteny analysis demonstrated that several Vvrboh genes were found in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of the respective lineages. The expression pattern of Vvrboh genes in different tissues was assessed by qRT-PCR and two were constitutively expressed in all tissues tested. The expression profiles were similarly analyzed following exposure to various stresses and hormone treatments. It was shown that the expression levels of VvrbohA, VvrbohB and VvrbohC1 were significantly increased by salt and drought treatments. VvrbohB, VvrbohC2, and VvrbohD exhibited a dramatic up-regulation after powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr.) inoculation, while VvrbohH was down-regulated. Finally, salicylic acid treatment strongly stimulated the expression of VvrbohD and VvrbohH, while abscisic acid treatment induced the expression of VvrbohB and VvrbohH. These results demonstrate that the expression patterns of grape rboh genes exhibit diverse and complex stress-response expression signatures.

  8. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars.

  9. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  10. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  11. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Jianqiang; Shellie, Krista C; Wang, Hua; Qian, Michael C

    2012-09-15

    The effect of deficit irrigation and a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grapes was investigated over two growing seasons in semi-arid, south-western Idaho. Vines were provided with differential amounts of water based on their estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET(c)) throughout berry development, and particle film was applied to half of the vines in each irrigation main plot. Free and bound volatile compounds in grapes were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The concentrations of free C(6) compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol) decreased, and bound terpene alcohols (nerol and geraniol) and C(13)-norisoprenoids (β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-β-damascenone, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 3-oxo-α-ionol) increased in berries each year in response to severity of vine water stress. Concentrations of C(13)-norisoprenoids and bound forms of nerol and geraniol were positively correlated with their concentrations in the corresponding wines. Particle film application had minimum effect on free and bound volatile composition in the grapes, and there was no interactive effect between particle film and deficit irrigation. However, particle film application enhanced the total amount of berry anthocyanins.

  12. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  13. Comparison of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene sequences between white grapes (Vitis vinifera) and their sports with red skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Ishimaru, M; Ding, C K.; Yakushiji, H; Goto, N

    2001-02-01

    The expression of the UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene has been shown to be critical for anthocyanin biosynthesis in the grape berry. Using white cultivars and bud sports with red skin, we examined the expression of seven anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including the UFGT gene and compared the coding/promoter sequences of the UFGT gene. Northern blot analysis showed that the seven anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were expressed coordinately at higher levels in the red-skin sports than in the white-skin progenitors of the sports. It was especially notable that UFGT gene expression was detected only in the red-skin sports and Kyoho. However, there were no differences in either coding or promoter sequences between Italia (Vitis vinifera) and its red-skin sport Ruby Okuyama, or between Muscat of Alexandria (V. vinifera) and the red-skin sport Flame Muscat. From these findings, the phenotypic change from white to red in the sports is thought to be the result of a mutation in a regulatory gene controlling the expression of UFGT.

  14. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  15. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  16. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  17. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  18. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems.

  19. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol.

  20. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  1. Effects of chilling and ABA on (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-06-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10/sup 19/ becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free (/sup 3/H)GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26/sup 0/C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble (/sup 3/H) metabolites formed at 26/sup 0/C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA/sub 12/ aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ treatment at 26/sup 0/C, reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H) GA/sub 4/ but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs).

  2. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  3. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  4. Influence of the physiological stage and the content of soluble solids on the anthocyanin extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2012-06-30

    The influence and the extent of the anthocyanin extractability from grape skins at different physiological stages and different soluble solids contents within each stage were investigated. For this purpose three different physiological stages (pre-harvest, harvest and over-ripening) and three soluble solids contents (22, 24 and 26°Brix) within each stage were taken into account using Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo. This study revealed the influence of physiological stages and soluble solids contents on the amounts of anthocyanins. The most important factor was the physiological stage although the soluble solid contents effect was also relevant, especially for anthocyanins monoglucosides. The highest contents in anthocyanins were found at pre-harvest, following by harvest and finally at over-ripening. Within each physiological stage, the relative abundance of acylated derivatives was influenced by the soluble solids contents. The percentages of acylated anthocyanins tend to decrease as the soluble solids contents. Differences in the anthocyanin extractabilities were highly influenced by the physiological stages and in a lesser extent by the soluble solids contents. The lowest extraction percentages were obtained in pre-harvest samples whatever soluble solids contents. Over-ripening samples present the lowest contents of anthocyanins but these compounds are easily released from tissues to the hydroalcoholic solution providing the highest extraction percentages. Generally, non-acylated anthocyanins were better extracted than the acylated anthocyanins.

  5. Effects of cluster light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine accumulation and degradation patterns in red wine grapes ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Franc).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Intrigliolo, Diego S; Lakso, Alan N; Sacks, Gavin L

    2008-11-26

    The effects of light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) accumulation and degradation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc berries were assessed by comparison of shaded and exposed clusters within the same vine throughout a growing season. Twenty-seven vines were shoot-thinned to create regions of high and low cluster-light exposure within each vine. Samples were collected at 10 time points starting from 5 to 130 days postbloom. The experimental design allowed for intravine comparison of IBMP levels between treatments at each time. Vine-to-vine variability of IBMP and the correlation of IBMP to malic acid were also evaluated. Cluster exposure reduced accumulation of IBMP at all preveraison time points by 21-44%, but did not increase postveraison degradation. Significant vine-to-vine variability in IBMP content was observed, with the highest level of IBMP in shaded berries in the most vigorous block of vines. Although IBMP concentration by weight decreased significantly due to dilution just prior to color change (veraison), no significant IBMP degradation per berry occurred until after color change (day 70 postbloom). By contrast, malic acid degradation began prior to color change, and malic acid concentrations were not affected by cluster exposure preveraison, but were affected postveraison. A survey of 13 sites in New York state (Seneca Lake) showed that IBMP concentrations at 2 weeks preveraison were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.936, p < 0.0001) to levels at harvest, whereas classic grape maturity indices at harvest were uncorrelated with IBMP at harvest. In summary, light exposure conditions critically influence IBMP accumulation but not IBMP degradation.

  6. Effect of power ultrasound application on aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.): experimental kinetics and modeling.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, M R; Comas-Serra, F; Femenia, A; Rosselló, C; Simal, S

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of both conventional (mechanical stirring, 200rpm) and acoustic (55±5kHz, 435±5W/L) aqueous extraction of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace by-products (Vitis vinifera L.) have been experimentally evaluated and modeled at different extraction temperatures (20, 35 and 50°C). A gradual and significant increase of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was observed as the temperature increased, the highest values being obtained in the case of the extraction assisted acoustically. According to the results, the acoustic assistance of the extraction process led to aqueous extracts with phenolic and antioxidant characteristics similar to those obtained with mechanical stirring, working under lower temperature conditions and during less operating time. Specifically, the conventional extraction of total phenolics at 35 and 50°C did not differ significantly from extractions assisted with power ultrasound at 20 and 35°C, respectively; and the acoustic process required approximately 3, 4 and 8 times less time, at 20, 35 and 50°C, than the conventional extraction to obtain extracts with similar characteristics. The extraction curves obtained for total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS and FRAP methods, were properly represented by a modified Weibull model for both conventional and acoustic extractions within the temperature range 20-50°C, presenting an average percentage of explained variance⩾97.9%, and an average mean relative error⩽7.0%. A high correlation (r(2)⩾0.992) was observed between the experimental and simulated values for all the quality attributes in study.

  7. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  8. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  9. Polyphenol content in white table grape (Vitis Vinifera) berries of cultivar Italia: interactive effect of irrigation, delayed harvest and storage.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Laganà, Aldo; Samperi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol concentrations were quantified by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in white table grape. The experimental vineyard was subjected to different kinds of water supply and supply rates. Samples from the same vineyards were also analysed after 6 weeks of storage in a refrigerator and after 6 weeks of delayed harvesting. Berry skins and seeds were analysed separately. A statistical treatment of the screening kind, namely the 2(k) full factorial design, was used for the interpretation of results. Storage, delayed harvesting and the different kinds of water supply appeared to be the variables most affecting grape polyphenol content. In some cases, results showed that polyphenol content diminished by more than 50% after 6 weeks if the grapes were stored in a refrigerator, or if a sprinkler was used for irrigation.

  10. Polyphenol content in white table grape (Vitis Vinifera) berries of cultivar Italia: interactive effect of irrigation, delayed harvest and storage.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Laganà, Aldo; Samperi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol concentrations were quantified by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in white table grape. The experimental vineyard was subjected to different kinds of water supply and supply rates. Samples from the same vineyards were also analysed after 6 weeks of storage in a refrigerator and after 6 weeks of delayed harvesting. Berry skins and seeds were analysed separately. A statistical treatment of the screening kind, namely the 2(k) full factorial design, was used for the interpretation of results. Storage, delayed harvesting and the different kinds of water supply appeared to be the variables most affecting grape polyphenol content. In some cases, results showed that polyphenol content diminished by more than 50% after 6 weeks if the grapes were stored in a refrigerator, or if a sprinkler was used for irrigation. PMID:22011240

  11. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).

  12. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Materials and Methods: Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. Results: As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Conclusions: Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts. PMID:26729960

  13. Novel preparation method of template DNAs from wine for PCR to differentiate grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Haraguchi, Kazutomo; Mitani, Nobuhito; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2007-12-12

    Template DNAs were extracted from wine and purified for use as samples for PCR to differentiate grape cultivars. It has been pointed out that the authentication of grape material by PCR using wine as a material is very difficult. The problems are (1) decomposition of DNAs during fermentation; (2) contamination of DNAs from microorganisms such as yeast; (3) interference of DNA extraction by polysaccharides and polypeptides in the beverages; and (4) coexistence of PCR inhibitors, such as polyphenols. For this study was developed a novel preparation method of template DNA from wine to differentiate grape cultivars using PCR by (1) lyophilizing and pulverizing the fermented beverage to concentrate the DNAs; (2) decomposition of polysaccharides and proteins so as not to inhibit DNA extraction using heat-resistant amylase and proteinase K without DNA damage by endogenous DNase; and (3) separation of the template DNAs for PCR from PCR inhibitors, such as polyphenols, by purification using 70% EtOH extraction and isopropyl alcohol precipitation. To prevent the amplification of microorganisms' DNAs during PCR, suitable PCR primers closely related to the specific plant DNAs, such as chloroplast DNA and mitochondrial DNA, were selected. The sequences of the amplified DNAs by PCR were ascertained to be the same as those of grape materials.

  14. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins.

  15. Genome-wide identification, evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) zinc finger-homeodomain gene family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yin, Xiangjing; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-03

    Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD) genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD) in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity.

  16. Correlation of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine to 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine during maturation of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Leclerc, Sophie; Sacks, Gavin L

    2010-09-01

    Environmental factors affecting degradation of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP, "green pepper aroma") in wine grapes (V. vinifera) are widely studied, but the degradation pathway is not defined. We hypothesized that IBMP is demethylated to 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine (IBHP) during fruit maturation effectively reversing the final putative step of IBMP biosynthesis. A quantification method for IBHP was developed using solid-phase extraction coupled to one- or two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a recovery of ca. 80%. IBMP and IBHP in bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and V. vinifera (cv. 'Cabernet Franc', 'Riesling', 'Pinot noir') were then measured at different maturities. IBMP and IBHP were inversely correlated in both bell peppers (R2=0.958) and Cabernet Franc grapes (R2=0.998) over a range of maturities. In bell peppers, we observed a significant decline in IBMP (125 to 15 ng/mL) and increase in IBHP (undetectable to 42 ng/mL) during ripening. In grapes, all cultivars had comparable IBHP concentrations preveraison (64 to 88 pg/mL) but differed in IBHP concentration by 2 orders of magnitude at the final sampling point (undetectable to 235 pg/mL). Higher preveraison IBMP was correlated with higher final IBHP across the three grape cultivars, with the order Cabernet Franc>Riesling>Pinot noir for both IBMP and IBHP. Acid hydrolysis resulted in a significant increase (33%) in IBHP in Cabernet Franc, indicating that IBHP exists partially in a bound form in grapes.

  17. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  18. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  19. Berry density and size as factors related to the physicochemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Rolle, Luca; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the impact of using independently berry density and diameter as sorting methodologies on important physicochemical parameters affecting the grape quality, such as mechanical properties, phenolic composition and aromatic profile. Muscat Hamburg berries were classified according to the density by flotation in different salt solutions and to the diameter. The three most representative density (1081, 1088 and 1094 kg/m(3)) and diameter (16-17, 18-19 and 20-21 mm) classes were selected. The results showed that there were relationships of both density and diameter with the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the berries. Densimetric sorting is a more promising methodology to separate grape berries with different quality attributes, particularly skin hardness, berry cohesiveness and resilience, total hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and rose oxide, than diameter sorting. This knowledge can be of great interest for the 'fresh-cut' industry in the production of 'ready-to-eat' fruits salad. PMID:25466001

  20. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  1. Relationship between skin cell wall composition and anthocyanin extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo at different grape ripeness degree.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between cell wall composition and extractability of anthocyanins from red grape skins was assessed in Tempranillo grape samples harvested at three stages of ripening (pre-harvest, harvest and over-ripening) and three different contents of soluble solids (22, 24 and 26 °Brix) within each stage. Cell wall material was isolated and analysed in order to determine cellulose, lignin, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, protein, total polyphenols index and the degree of esterification of pectins. Results showed the influence of ripeness degree and contents of soluble solids on cell wall composition. Furthermore, principal components analysis was applied to the obtained data set in order to establish relationships between cell wall composition and extractability of anthocyanins. Total insoluble material exhibits the biggest opposition to anthocyanin extraction, while the highest amounts of cellulose, rhamnogalacturonans-II and polyphenols were positively correlated with anthocyanin extraction. Moreover, multiple linear regression was performed to assess the influence of the cell wall composition on the extraction of anthocyanin compounds. A model connecting cell wall composition and anthocyanin extractabilities was built, explaining 96.2% of the observed variability.

  2. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system. PMID:25820686

  3. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Effect on Biofilm Production of a White Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Filocamo, Angela; Bisignano, Carlo; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a white grape juice extract (WGJe) against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and the fungus Aspergillus niger. WGJe was also tested on the production of bacterial biofilms in vitro. Results. WGJe inhibited in vitro most Gram-positive bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P being the most sensitive strain (MIC values of 3.9 μg/mL). The effect was bactericidal at the concentration of 500 μg/mL. Amongst the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the only susceptible strain (MIC and MBC of 2000 μg/mL). No effect on the growth of Candida sp. and the fungus Aspergillus niger was detected (MIC values > 2000 μg/mL). WGJe inhibited the biofilms formation of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions. WGJe exerted both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity in vitro. The presented results could be used to develop novel strategies for the treatment of skin infections and against potential respiratory pathogens. PMID:26770255

  5. Pre-harvest application of polyamines enhances antioxidants and table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) quality during postharvest period.

    PubMed

    Mirdehghan, S H; Rahimi, S

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest foliar spraying of grapevines with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) (0, 1, 2mM) was evaluated for determining the fruit quality at harvest and improving postharvest characteristics of table grapes during cold storage. Fruit parameters in terms of firmness, fungal infection, weight loss, total phenol concentration, antioxidant activity, skin color, total anthocyanin concentration, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) were evaluated after 0, 25 and 55 days of storage at 1.5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Softening, fungal infection and weight loss increased during cold storage but the rate of changes significantly was delayed in Put- and Spd-treated fruits. Besides these, the application of Put and Spd maintained higher values of phenolics content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanins at the end of storage in compare to control. Furthermore, after 55 days of storage all treated fruits with Put and Spd showed lower changes in L(∗), TSS and TA and also higher value of chroma in berries. PMID:26593587

  6. Pre-harvest application of polyamines enhances antioxidants and table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) quality during postharvest period.

    PubMed

    Mirdehghan, S H; Rahimi, S

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest foliar spraying of grapevines with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) (0, 1, 2mM) was evaluated for determining the fruit quality at harvest and improving postharvest characteristics of table grapes during cold storage. Fruit parameters in terms of firmness, fungal infection, weight loss, total phenol concentration, antioxidant activity, skin color, total anthocyanin concentration, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) were evaluated after 0, 25 and 55 days of storage at 1.5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Softening, fungal infection and weight loss increased during cold storage but the rate of changes significantly was delayed in Put- and Spd-treated fruits. Besides these, the application of Put and Spd maintained higher values of phenolics content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanins at the end of storage in compare to control. Furthermore, after 55 days of storage all treated fruits with Put and Spd showed lower changes in L(∗), TSS and TA and also higher value of chroma in berries.

  7. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  8. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country’s most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu’s maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species. PMID:26488600

  9. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  10. A knowledge base for Vitis vinifera functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) is the most important fruit species in the modern world. Wine and table grapes sales contribute significantly to the economy of major wine producing countries. The most relevant goals in wine production concern quality and safety. In order to significantly improve the achievement of these objectives and to gain biological knowledge about cultivars, a genomic approach is the most reliable strategy. The recent grapevine genome sequencing offers the opportunity to study the potential roles of genes and microRNAs in fruit maturation and other physiological and pathological processes. Although several systems allowing the analysis of plant genomes have been reported, none of them has been designed specifically for the functional analysis of grapevine genomes of cultivars under environmental stress in connection with microRNA data. Description Here we introduce a novel knowledge base, called BIOWINE, designed for the functional analysis of Vitis vinifera genomes of cultivars present in Sicily. The system allows the analysis of RNA-seq experiments of two different cultivars, namely Nero d'Avola and Nerello Mascalese. Samples were taken under different climatic conditions of phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. The BIOWINE web interface is equipped with data analysis modules for grapevine genomes. In particular users may analyze the current genome assembly together with the RNA-seq data through a customized version of GBrowse. The web interface allows users to perform gene set enrichment by exploiting third-party databases. Conclusions BIOWINE is a knowledge base implementing a set of bioinformatics tools for the analysis of grapevine genomes. The system aims to increase our understanding of the grapevine varieties and species of Sicilian products focusing on adaptability to different climatic conditions, phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. PMID:26050794

  11. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  12. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms. PMID:27529978

  13. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  14. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  15. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  16. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  17. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  18. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  19. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential.

  20. Changes in the triterpenoid content of cuticular waxes during fruit ripening of eight grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown in the Upper Rhine Valley.

    PubMed

    Pensec, Flora; Pączkowski, Cezary; Grabarczyk, Marta; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bénard-Gellon, Mélanie; Bertsch, Christophe; Chong, Julie; Szakiel, Anna

    2014-08-13

    Triterpenoids present in grape cuticular waxes are of interest due to their potential role in protection against biotic stresses, their impact on the mechanical toughness of the fruit surface, and the potential industrial application of these biologically active compounds from grape pomace. The determination of the triterpenoid profile of cuticular waxes reported here supplements existing knowledge of the chemical diversity of grape, with some compounds reported in this species for the first time. Common compounds identified in eight examined cultivars grown in the Upper Rhine Valley include oleanolic acid, oleanolic and ursolic acid methyl esters, oleanolic aldehyde, α-amyrin, α-amyrenone, β-amyrin, cycloartanol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, erythrodiol, germanicol, lupeol accompanied by lupeol acetate, campesterol, cholesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, whereas 3,12-oleandione was specific for the Muscat d'Alsace cultivar. Changes in the triterpenoid content of cuticular waxes were determined at three different phenological stages: young grapes, grapes at véraison (the onset of ripening), and mature grapes. The results reveal a characteristic evolution of triterpenoid content during fruit development, with a high level of total triterpenoids in young grapes that gradually decreases with a slight increase in the level of neutral triterpenoids. This phenomenon may partially explain changes in the mechanical properties of the cuticle and possible modulations in the susceptibility to pathogens of mature grapes.

  1. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    PubMed

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-01

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield. PMID:27180819

  2. Anthocyanin yield and skin softening during maceration, as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Simone; Marengo, Fabio; Guidoni, Silvia; Rolle, Luca; Hunter, Jacobus J

    2015-05-01

    Anthocyanin and mechanical properties were evaluated on Shiraz grapes, picked from both sides of North-South and East-West vineyard row orientations at two harvest dates. Wines were made from each combination. The evaluation and evolution of crushed skin mechanical properties during maceration-fermentation, as also affected by grape ripeness, are shown for the first time. No significant differences in anthocyanin content were found in the grapes between the two vineyard row orientations. However, a significant decrease in anthocyanins and berry skin break force (also referred as skin hardness or strength) was found between the two harvest dates. During maceration, a reduction in the crushed berry skin break force of more than 15% occurred. The intact berries and macerated skins showed similarity in skin break energy values. The anthocyanin profile of the grapes and of the wines prominently displayed malvidin forms, changed mainly by the ripeness level of the grapes.

  3. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81–10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00–1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37–80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines. PMID:27732619

  4. VitisGen: accelerating grape cultivar improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisGen is a multiple institute collaborative project funded by the USDA SCRI program, with a long term goal to accelerate grape cultivar improvement by using cutting-edge molecular marker technologies, rigorous centralized facilities to characterize traits, and molecular breeding expertise. The ge...

  5. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenchang; Owens, Christopher L; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Cheng, Lailiang

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including 16 anthocyanins, 6 flavonols, 6 flavanols, 6 hydroxycinnamic acids and 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified via HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The mean contents for anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids were 0.946 (coloured cultivars), 0.147, 0.043, 0.195 and 0.016mgg(-1) FW, respectively. On average, wine grapes had higher concentrations than had table grapes for all of these compounds except hydroxycinnamic acids. Berry colours affected the total contents of anthocyanins, but not others. Positive correlations (0.151-0.535) were found among these groups of compounds. As expected, these groups of compounds were all negatively correlated with berry weight.

  6. The role of hexokinases from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) in regulating the expression of cell wall invertase and sucrose synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Li, L M; Yang, P P; Gong, C L

    2014-02-01

    In plants, hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) involved in hexose phosphorylation, plays an important role in sugar sensing and signaling. In this study, we found that at Phase I of grape berry development, lower hexose (glucose or fructose) levels were concomitant with higher HXK activities and protein levels. After the onset of ripening, we demonstrated a drastic reduction in HXK activity and protein levels accompanied by a rising hexose level. Therefore, our results revealed that HXK activity and protein levels had an inverse relationship with the endogenous glucose or fructose levels during grape berry development. A 51 kDa HXK protein band was detected throughout grape berry development. In addition, HXK located in the vacuoles, cytoplasm, nucleus, proplastid, chloroplast, and mitochondrion of the berry flesh cells. During grape berry development, HXK transcriptional level changed slightly, while cell wall invertase (CWINV) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) expression was enhanced after véraison stage. Intriguingly, when sliced grape berries were incubated in different glucose solutions, CWINV and SuSy expression was repressed by glucose, and the intensity of repression depended on glucose concentration and incubation time. After sliced, grape berries were treated with different glucose analogs, CWINV and SuSy expression analyses revealed that phosphorylation of hexoses by hexokinase was an essential component in the glucose-dependent CWINV and SuSy expression. In the meantime, mannoheptulose, a specific inhibitor of hexokinase, blocked the repression induced by glucose on CWINV and SuSy expression. It suggested that HXK played a major role in regulating CWINV and SuSy expression during grape berry development.

  7. Eriophyoid mite damage in Vitis vinifera (grapevine) in Australia: Calepitrimerus vitis and Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) as the common cause of the widespread 'Restricted Spring Growth' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Martina B; Horne, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2005-01-01

    Leaf and shoot distortions and retarded shoot growth in Vitis vinifera L. prevalent in Australian vineyards in early spring, were investigated in replicated field experiments over 3 yrs. Leaf distortion and retarded shoot growth were identified as damage due to feeding of extremely high populations of over-wintered deutogynes of Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) (grape rust mite). This damage was hitherto known in Australia as 'Restricted Spring Growth' (RSG), a syndrome comprising several growth abnormality symptoms, none with a clearly identified cause or a successful treatment. A successful treatment against C. vitis was used to selectively eliminate RSG, while C. vitis numbers were recorded using a validated trapping technique; intercepting deutogynes migrating from winter shelters in the wooden vine structure, to emerging green tissues. Severe leaf distortion was associated with > 400 C. vitis deutogynes per spur, while > 1000 per spur had the added effect of severely retarding shoot growth. A 43.0-47.2% shoot length reduction was recorded for Cabernet Sauvignon, 27.1-32.8% for Sauvignon Blanc, when 4-6 leaves were separated. Symptoms were most prominent up to 8-9 separated leaves, however 24.7-30.4% shoot length reduction was still evident at flowering, and 12.8% circa fruit set. C. vitis effect on vine fruitfulness, and yield parameters at fruit set, were also studied. Once successfully treated to prevent C. vitis damage, poor bud burst remained evident in some vineyards. Surveys of unburst buds from such vineyards revealed presence of Colomerus vitis (Pagenstecher) (grape bud mite). When Col. vitis numbers in unburst buds reached 100-500 per bud, apical meristems of primary, and commonly also secondary buds were dead, preventing bud burst. The remaining living scale tissue was distinctly scarred. Bud and associated shoot damage were documented. Retarded shoot growth and leaf distortion, previously attributed to RSG, are misdiagnosed C. vitis spring feeding

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  9. Identification of S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione and its bisulfite adduct in grape juice from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc as new potential precursors of 3SH.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Böcker, Caroline; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Moine, Virginie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-05-15

    Two main precursors (S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-glutathione) of 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH, formerly named 3-mercaptohexanol) have been identified so far in grape juice but a correlation between precursor concentrations in grape juices and 3SH concentrations in wines is not always observed. This suggests that there may be other compounds associated with the aromatic potential. In this work, S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione (Glut-3SH-Al) and its bisulfite (Glut-3SH-SO3) adduct were identified in Sauvignon blanc grape juice by liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform mass spectrometry experiments. A partial purification of the compounds was carried out by Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) on the reverse phase using 5L of grape juice. The addition of synthetized Glut-3SH-Al and Glut-3SH-SO3 in the synthetic medium induced a significant release of 3SH after fermentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Glut-3SH-Al and its bisulfite adduct are present in grape juice and could be considered as new direct 3SH precursors with molar conversion yields close to 0.4%.

  10. The First Insight into the Metabolite Profiling of Grapes from Three Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars of Two Controlled Appellation (DOC) Regions

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Martins, Viviana; Noronha, Henrique; Eiras-Dias, José; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the metabolites accumulated in the grapes of specific cultivars grown in different climates is of particular importance for viticulturists and enologists. In the present study, the metabolite profiling of grapes from the cultivars, Alvarinho, Arinto and Padeiro de Basto, of two Portuguese Controlled Denomination of Origin (DOC) regions (Vinho Verde and Lisboa) was investigated by gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and an amino acid analyzer. Primary metabolites, including sugars, organic acids and amino acids, and some secondary metabolites were identified. Tartaric and malic acids and free amino acids accumulated more in grapes from vines of the DOC region of Vinho Verde than DOC Lisboa, but a principal component analysis (PCA) plot showed that besides the DOC region, the grape cultivar also accounted for the variance in the relative abundance of metabolites. Grapes from the cultivar, Alvarinho, were particularly rich in malic acid and tartaric acids in both DOC regions, but sucrose accumulated more in the DOC region of Vinho Verde. PMID:24619195

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea. PMID:25521116

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  13. Metabolic profiling reveals coordinated switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.), a non-climacteric fleshy fruit.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Léon, Céline; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of grape berries from either field-grown vines or fruiting cuttings grown in the greenhouse. Principal component analysis readily discriminated the various stages of berry development, with similar trajectories for field-grown and greenhouse samples. This showed that each stage of fruit development had a characteristic metabolic profile and provided compelling evidence that the fruit-bearing cuttings are a useful model system to investigate regulation of central carbon metabolism in grape berry. The metabolites measured showed tight coordination within their respective pathways, clustering into sugars and sugar-phosphate metabolism, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, there was a pronounced shift in metabolism around veraison, characterized by rapidly increasing sugar levels and decreasing organic acids. In contrast, glycolytic intermediates and sugar phosphates declined before veraison but remained fairly stable post-veraison. In summary, these detailed and comprehensive metabolite analyses revealed the timing of important switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism, which could be related to transcriptional and developmental changes within the berry to achieve an integrated understanding of grape berry development. The results are discussed in a meta-analysis comparing metabolic changes in climacteric versus non-climacteric fleshy fruits.

  14. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone.

  15. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    PubMed

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment.

  16. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    PubMed

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. PMID:27451171

  17. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-11-30

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. In addition, data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst

  18. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-11-30

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. In addition, data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim ofmore » this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic

  19. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as “microbial terroir.” The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi. PMID

  20. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    PubMed

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi. PMID:26648930

  1. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    PubMed

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. PMID:23954075

  2. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    PubMed

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  3. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    PubMed

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries.

  4. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health.

  5. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  6. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  7. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Liu, Cai-Yun; Liu, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Yue-Ling; Xu, Rui-Rui

    2016-09-01

    In plants, the transcription factor families have been implicated in many important biological processes. These processes include morphogenesis, signal transduction and environmental stress responses. Proteins containing the lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), which encodes a zinc finger-like domain are only found in plants. This finding indicates that this unique gene family regulates only plant-specific biological processes. LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of plants such as Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, poplar, apple and tomato. However, relatively little is known about the LBD genes in grape (Vitis vinifera). In this study, we identified 40 LBD genes in the grape genome. A complete overview of the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, structures and expression profiles of this gene family during development in grape is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LBD genes could be divided into classes I and II, together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. We mapped the 40 LBD genes on the grape chromosomes (chr1-chr19) and found that 37 of the predicted grape LBD genes were distributed in different densities across 12 chromosomes. Grape LBDs were found to share a similar intron/exon structure and gene length within the same class. The expression profiles of grape LBD genes at different developmental stages were analysed using microarray data. Results showed that 21 grape LBD genes may be involved in grape developmental processes, including preveraison, veraison and ripening. Finally, we analysed the expression patterns of six LBD genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reation analysis. The six LBD genes showed differential expression patterns among the three representative grape tissues, and five of these genes were found to be involved in responses to mannitol, sodium chloride, heat stress and low temperature treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the LBD gene family in

  8. Effect of acoustic frequency and power density on the aqueous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.) - a response surface approach.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Knoerzer, Kai; Sabarez, Henry; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Femenia, Antoni

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of grape pomace was investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to evaluate the effect of acoustic frequency (40, 80, 120kHz), ultrasonic power density (50, 100, 150W/L) and extraction time (5, 15, 25min) on total phenolics, total flavonols and antioxidant capacity. All the process variables showed a significant effect on the aqueous UAE of grape pomace (p<0.05). The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) generated satisfactory mathematical models which accurately explain the behavior of the system; allowing to predict both the extraction yield of phenolic and flavonol compounds, and also the antioxidant capacity of the grape pomace extracts. The optimal UAE conditions for all response factors were a frequency of 40kHz, a power density of 150W/L and 25min of extraction time. Under these conditions, the aqueous UAE would achieve a maximum of 32.31mg GA/100g fw for total phenolics and 2.04mg quercetin/100g fw for total flavonols. Regarding the antioxidant capacity, the maximum predicted values were 53.47 and 43.66mg Trolox/100g fw for CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively. When comparing with organic UAE, in the present research, from 12% to 38% of total phenolic bibliographic values were obtained, but using only water as the extraction solvent, and applying lower temperatures and shorter extraction times. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies specifically addressing the optimization of both acoustic frequency and power density during aqueous-UAE of plant materials have been previously published.

  9. Production, characterization of tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF using agroindustrial wastes, and application in the clarification of grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    de Lima, Juliana Silva; Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  10. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. PMID:25506607

  11. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    PubMed

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated. PMID:26452865

  12. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    PubMed

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated.

  13. Effect of maceration time on free and bound volatiles of red wines from cv. Karaoğlan (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes grown in Arapgir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaztekin, Murat; Kocabey, Nimet; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2015-03-01

    Skin maceration is an essential winemaking technique that affects sensory properties and aroma of red wines. The aim of this study was to investigate aroma profiles of red wines made from cv. Karaoğlan, a grape variety grown in Arapgir (Malatya, Turkey) and the effect of maceration time (5, 10, and 15 d) on free and bound aroma compounds and sensory properties. Three maceration times were applied in durations of 5, 10, and 15 d. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in Karaoğlan wines, and the effect of different maceration times on aroma composition were evaluated. Results indicate that extended maceration time significantly influenced the aroma composition of wines both qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of 59 free and 22 bound aroma compounds were identified in the final wines. The maximum of free aroma content was achieved with 5 d of maceration, while 15 d of maceration gave the highest amount of glycosidically bound aroma compounds. From sensorial point of view, the wine produced with 10 d of maceration had the best panel score compared to wines with 5 and 15 d of maceration. This is the first study referring to the composition of aroma compounds of red wines made from cv. Karaoğlan. It was concluded that this cultivar resulted in a good quality wine in terms of bound and free aroma compounds. This information of vinification practices that influence the chemical properties of wine is useful for grape growers and winemakers.

  14. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding. PMID:26810452

  15. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-01

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  16. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding.

  17. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth. PMID:26762043

  18. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the berry skin of two red grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in which anthocyanin synthesis is sunlight-dependent or -independent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben-Hong; Cao, Yue-Gang; Guan, Le; Xin, Hai-Ping; Li, Ji-Hu; Li, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Global gene expression was analyzed in the berry skin of two red grape cultivars, which can ('Jingyan') or cannot ('Jingxiu') synthesize anthocyanins after sunlight exclusion from fruit set until maturity. Gene transcripts responding to sunlight exclusion in 'Jingyan' were less complex than in 'Jingxiu'; 528 genes were induced and 383 repressed in the former, whereas 2655 genes were induced and 205 suppressed in 'Jingxiu'. They were regulated either in the same or opposing manner in the two cultivars, or in only one cultivar. In addition to VvUFGT and VvMYBA1, some candidate genes (e.g. AOMT, GST, and ANP) were identified which are probably involved in the differential responses of 'Jingxiu' and 'Jingyan' to sunlight exclusion. In addition, 26 MYB, 14 bHLH and 23 WD40 genes responded differently to sunlight exclusion in the two cultivars. Interestingly, all of the 189 genes classified as being relevant to ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation were down-regulated by sunlight exclusion in 'Jingxiu', but the majority (162) remained unchanged in 'Jingyan' berry skin. It would be of interest to determine the precise role of the ubiquitin pathway following sunlight exclusion, particularly the role of COP9 signalosome, cullins, RING-Box 1, and COP1-interacting proteins. Only a few genes in the light signal system were found to be regulated by sunlight exclusion in either or both cultivars. This study provides a valuable overview of the transcriptome changes and gives insight into the genetic background that may be responsible for sunlight-dependent versus -independent anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skin.

  19. Analyzing the Expression Profile of AREB/ABF and DREB/CBF Genes under Drought and Salinity Stresses in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Zandkarimi, Hana; Ebadi, Ali; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Alizade, Houshang; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Expression patterns of four candidate AREB/ABF genes and four DREB/CBF genes were evaluated in leaf and root tissues of five grape varieties ('Qalati', 'Kaj Angoor', 'Sabz Angoor', 'Siahe Zarghan', 'Bidane Safid') with differential response to drought stress. Among the AREB/ABF genes, AREB1 and ABF2 showed up-regulation in response to drought stress in leaf and root tissues of all varieties while AREB2 and ABF1 showed down-regulation in both leaf and root tissues of the sensitive variety 'Bidane Sefid' in response to drought and salt stress. Among the DREB/CBF genes, CBF4 was the most responsive to drought stress in both leaf and root tissues. CBF2 and CBF3 showed up-regulation in all varieties in response to drought stress in leaf except in 'Bidane Sefid'. Under salinity stress, AREB2 and ABF2 showed up-regulation in response to the increasing level of salinity in the leaf tissues but in the root tissues ABF2 was up-regulated in response to increasing NaCl concentration while AREB2 was down-regulated. Therefore, it seems AREB2 has tissue-specific response to salinity stress. All CBF genes were up-regulated in response to salinity stress in the leaf and root tissues. Expression data suggested that CBF2 is more responsive to NaCl stress. Among all four promising and stress tolerant varieties 'Siah Zarghan' and 'Kaj Angoor' were more tolerant than 'Qalati' and 'Sabz Angoor' to drought and salinity.

  20. Analyzing the Expression Profile of AREB/ABF and DREB/CBF Genes under Drought and Salinity Stresses in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zandkarimi, Hana; Ebadi, Ali; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Alizade, Houshang; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Expression patterns of four candidate AREB/ABF genes and four DREB/CBF genes were evaluated in leaf and root tissues of five grape varieties (‘Qalati’, ‘Kaj Angoor’, ‘Sabz Angoor’, ‘Siahe Zarghan’, ‘Bidane Safid’) with differential response to drought stress. Among the AREB/ABF genes, AREB1 and ABF2 showed up-regulation in response to drought stress in leaf and root tissues of all varieties while AREB2 and ABF1 showed down-regulation in both leaf and root tissues of the sensitive variety ‘Bidane Sefid’ in response to drought and salt stress. Among the DREB/CBF genes, CBF4 was the most responsive to drought stress in both leaf and root tissues. CBF2 and CBF3 showed up-regulation in all varieties in response to drought stress in leaf except in ‘Bidane Sefid’. Under salinity stress, AREB2 and ABF2 showed up-regulation in response to the increasing level of salinity in the leaf tissues but in the root tissues ABF2 was up-regulated in response to increasing NaCl concentration while AREB2 was down-regulated. Therefore, it seems AREB2 has tissue-specific response to salinity stress. All CBF genes were up-regulated in response to salinity stress in the leaf and root tissues. Expression data suggested that CBF2 is more responsive to NaCl stress. Among all four promising and stress tolerant varieties ‘Siah Zarghan’ and ‘Kaj Angoor’ were more tolerant than ‘Qalati’ and ‘Sabz Angoor’ to drought and salinity. PMID:26230273

  1. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  2. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  3. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  4. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing to construct the high-density genetic map for Vitis (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis amurensis Rupr.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Shi, Guangli; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Yang, Xiaoxu; Zhu, Junchi; Li, Kun; Guo, Xiuwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 149 F1 plants from the interspecific cross between ‘Red Globe’ (Vitis vinifera L.) and ‘Shuangyou’ (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) and the parent were used to construct a molecular genetic linkage map by using the specific length amplified fragment sequencing technique. DNA sequencing generated 41.282 Gb data consisting of 206,411,693 paired-end reads. The average sequencing depths were 68.35 for ‘Red Globe,’ 63.65 for ‘Shuangyou,’ and 8.01 for each progeny. In all, 115,629 high-quality specific length amplified fragments were detected, of which 42,279 were polymorphic. The genetic map was constructed using 7,199 of these polymorphic markers. These polymorphic markers were assigned to 19 linkage groups; the total length of the map was 1929.13 cm, with an average distance of 0.28 cm between each maker. To our knowledge, the genetic maps constructed in this study contain the largest number of molecular markers. These high-density genetic maps might form the basis for the fine quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular-assisted breeding of grape. PMID:26089826

  5. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  6. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. PMID:27161583

  7. Cloning, sequencing, purification, and crystal structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Virador, Victoria M; Reyes Grajeda, Juan P; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Mendiola-Olaya, Elizabeth; Smith, Gary M; Moreno, Abel; Whitaker, John R

    2010-01-27

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622_VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C222(1). The structure was obtained at 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1 ) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and alpha, beta, and gamma) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed. PMID:20039636

  8. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  9. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase.

  10. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  11. Pathway of Photosynthetic Malate Formation in Vitis vinifera, a C3 Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Ruffner, Hans Peter; Brem, Susanne; Rast, Dora M.

    1983-01-01

    The time course of intramolecular isotope distribution in phosphoglyceric acid and serine was determined after exposure of grape leaf discs (Vitis vinifera L.) to 14CO2 (1000 microliters per liter) for variable metabolic periods, and the labeling patterns were compared with the respective isotope distribution in the C1-3 fragment of malic acid. The results clearly support the classical concept of a close precursor-product relationship between photosynthetic phosphoglycerate and malic acid. Under the assimilatory conditions used in this study, there was no indication of an immediate carbon transfer from serine to malate as has been suggested for C3 plants (Kent et al. 1974 Plant Physiol 53: 491-495) because of a coincident labeling of these compounds in Vicia faba. According to our data, previous evidence in favor of this hypothetical pathway is based largely on an unusual 14C distribution in serine, due to an extreme suppression of photorespiration, as well as on arbitrary comparisons between compounds of divergent kinetic characteristics and consequently different degrees of metabolic label randomization. PMID:16663263

  12. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  13. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products. PMID:25768038

  14. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  15. VTCdb: a gene co-expression database for the crop species Vitis vinifera (grapevine)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene expression datasets in model plants such as Arabidopsis have contributed to our understanding of gene function and how a single underlying biological process can be governed by a diverse network of genes. The accumulation of publicly available microarray data encompassing a wide range of biological and environmental conditions has enabled the development of additional capabilities including gene co-expression analysis (GCA). GCA is based on the understanding that genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit comparable expression patterns over a range of experimental conditions, developmental stages and tissues. We present an open access database for the investigation of gene co-expression networks within the cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera. Description The new gene co-expression database, VTCdb (http://vtcdb.adelaide.edu.au/Home.aspx), offers an online platform for transcriptional regulatory inference in the cultivated grapevine. Using condition-independent and condition-dependent approaches, grapevine co-expression networks were constructed using the latest publicly available microarray datasets from diverse experimental series, utilising the Affymetrix Vitis vinifera GeneChip (16 K) and the NimbleGen Grape Whole-genome microarray chip (29 K), thus making it possible to profile approximately 29,000 genes (95% of the predicted grapevine transcriptome). Applications available with the online platform include the use of gene names, probesets, modules or biological processes to query the co-expression networks, with the option to choose between Affymetrix or Nimblegen datasets and between multiple co-expression measures. Alternatively, the user can browse existing network modules using interactive network visualisation and analysis via CytoscapeWeb. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we present examples from three fundamental biological processes (berry development, photosynthesis and

  16. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  17. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  18. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  19. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves.

  20. 76 FR 3573 - Proposed Addition of New Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    .... Auxerrois is a white Vitis vinifera grape variety widely grown in the Alsace region of France. The... Italian Vitis vinifera variety, Biancolella is grown on the islands of Ischia and Capri and in the... Rotta Winery, Templeton, California, petitioned TTB to add ``Black Monukka,'' a black Vitis...

  1. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  2. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-Glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins in red grapes (Vitis genus) are important components of wine and beneficial to human health. These antioxidant compounds are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigm...

  3. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  4. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  5. Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Melakeberhan, H; Ferris, H

    1988-10-01

    Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the basis of volumes of 15-20 nematodes per plant obtained with a digitizer and computer algorithm. Egg production was measured at 50-80 DD intervals by weighing 7-10 egg masses and counting the number of eggs. Nematode growth and food (energy) consumption rates were calculated up to 1,000 DD based on biomass increase, respiratory requirements, and an assumption of 60 % assimilation efficiency. The growth rate of a single root-knot nematode, excluding egg production, was similar in both cultivars and had a logistic form. The maximum fresh weight of a mature female nematode was ca. 29-32 mug. The total biomass increase, including egg production, also had a logistic form. Maximum biomass (mature adult female and egg mass) was 211 mug on French Colombard and 127 mug on Thompson Seedless. The calculated total cost to the host for the development of a single J2 from root penetration to the end of oviposition for body growth and total biomass was 0.535 and 0.486 calories with a total energy demand of 1.176 and 0.834 calories in French Colombard and Thompson Seedless, respectively. PMID:19290253

  6. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  7. The Effect of Vitis vinifera L. Leaves Extract on Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Rym; Haouas, Najoua; Ben Kahla-Nakbi, Amel; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Mhenni, Farouk; Babba, Hamouda

    2013-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L.is a traditional Asian herb widely used for different health problems. In the present research, the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera L. leaves collected from shrub, grown in Tunisia, were prepared and evaluated for the antileishmanial activity against Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was determined and the results showed that the etahnolic extract is more active than the aqueous one (IC50= 0.108 mg/mL). Microscopic observations showed that the ethanolic extract promoted the destruction of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes and altered the overall shape of the cell. In order to explain the difference of antileishmanial activity between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, anthocyanins amount was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the ethanolic extract is richer in anthocyanins than the aqueous one which can explain the higher antileishmanial activity of the ethanolic extract. PMID:24250641

  8. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety. PMID:27462558

  9. VitisGen on the road: mapping the way to the next generation of grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NIFA VitisGen project (Award No. 2011-51181-30635) aims to optimize grape cultivar improvement through the integration of grape breeding, cutting edge genomics technology, precision phenotyping, socioeconomic research, and extension. VitisGen is a five-year project involving 25 co-PIs at 11...

  10. Survey of grapevine Vitis vinifera stem polyphenols by liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Püssa, Tõnu; Floren, Janar; Kuldkepp, Paul; Raal, Ain

    2006-10-01

    Grapes and red wine prepared from Vitis vinifera L. contain a variety of polyphenols. Some information is available about the polyphenols of the seeds and leaves of grapevine, but considerably less is known about the polyphenols of woody stems. In this paper, we describe the results of a study of polyphenolic compounds in grapevine stems. We demonstrate how a combination of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry ion-trap detection enables characterization of a phytochemical mixture of considerable complexity. As the polyphenol source, the stems of three frost-hardy grapevine varieties [Hasaine (Hasansky) sladki, Zilga, and Yubilei Novgoroda] were used. The main group of methanol-extractable polyphenols of stems consists of trans-resveratrol and its derivatives including oligomers and glucosides. As minor components of the extract, stilbenoid piceatannol as well as a number of nonstilbenoid polyphenols, mostly flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids glucosides, were determined. The total polyphenol content of the grapevine stems depends on the variety, whereby the stems of cultivar Yubilei Novgoroda with white grapes contain significantly less of both groups of polyphenols.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  12. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  13. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  14. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of the UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Concord grape (Vitis labrusca).

    PubMed

    Hall, Dawn; Yuan, Xiao Xin; Murata, Jun; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanidin substrates at the 3-O-position is crucial for the red pigmentation of grape berries and wine. The gene that encodes the enzyme involved in this reaction has been cloned from Vitis labrusca cv. Concord, heterologously expressed, and the recombinant enzyme (rVL3GT) was characterized. VL3GT has 96% amino acid sequence identity with Vitis vinifera VV3GT and groups phylogenetically with several other flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferases. In vitro substrate specificity studies and kinetic analyses of rVL3GT indicate that this enzyme preferentially glucosylates cyanidin as compared with quercetin. Crude protein extracts from several Concord grape tissues were assayed for glucosyltransferase activity with cyanidin and quercetin as acceptor substrates. A comparison of the VL3GT activities toward with these substrates showed that the 3GT enzyme activity is consistent with the expression of VL3GT in these tissues and is coincident with the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in both location and developmental stages. Enzyme activities in grape mesocarp, pre-veraison exocarp, leaf, flower bud, and flower tissues glucosylated quercetin but not cyanidin at high rates, suggesting the presence of additional enzymes which are able to glucosylate the 3-O-position of flavonols with higher specificity than anthocyanidins.

  15. Validation of an extraction method on whole pericarp of grape berry (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) to study biochemical and molecular aspects of flavan-3-ol synthesis during berry development.

    PubMed

    Verries, Clotilde; Guiraud, Jean-Luc; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Vialet, Sandrine; Terrier, Nancy; Ollé, Didier

    2008-07-23

    An extraction method on grape berry was optimized for the total flavan-3-ol content measurement with regard to the nature of the sample and the duration of its extraction. This extraction was performed for the first time on the whole pericarp. Flavan-3-ol extractions were achieved on Shiraz ripe samples of pericarp versus skin within different durations: the best results were obtained for the whole pericarp and 1 h duration. Therefore, this more convenient protocol was used to investigate the flavan-3-ol content at different stages through berry development, in parallel with the abundance of transcripts involved in their biosynthesis. Furthermore, flavan-3-ol extractions on pericarp analysis confirmed their presence in both pulp and skin. For the first time, the flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in pulp was demonstrated with both biochemical and transcriptomic analyses since the presence of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR2) and anthocyanin reductase (ANR) transcripts was revealed by real-time PCR. In addition, the percentage of epigallocatechin was different in pulp and skin.

  16. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (−)-rotundone

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (−)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (−)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (−)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (−)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (−)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (−)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. PMID:26590863

  17. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits.

  18. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison.

  19. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. We characterized genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera, and its wild relative, Vitis sy...

  20. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    PubMed

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotseridis, Yorgos; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2006-07-12

    The influence of site on grape and wine composition was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko in the Nemea appellation area in southern Greece. Three nonirrigated plots were studied during the 1997 and 1998 vintages, which were typically very hot and without summer rainfall. Vines were subjected to different water regimens as a result of the variation of soil water-holding capacity and evaporative demand. Vine water status was determined by means of predawn leaf water potential. Differences in vine water status between sites were highly correlated with the earliness of shoot growth cessation and veraison. Grape composition was monitored during fruit ripening. Water deficit accelerated sugar accumulation and malic acid breakdown in the juice. Early water deficit during the growth period was demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolics in berry skins. A similar pattern was observed for the phenolic content of wines elaborated after vinification of grapes harvested on each plot, in both seasons. Limited water availability seemed to increase glycoconjugates of the main aromatic components of grapes as a quantitative increase in levels of bound volatile compounds of the experimental wines was observed under water deficit in both years. Wines produced from grapes of stressed vineyards were also preferred in tasting trials.

  1. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  2. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  3. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  4. Enhancement of phenolics, resveratrol and antioxidant activity by nitrogen enrichment in cell suspension culture of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lee, Napaporn; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively. PMID:24962393

  5. Enhancement of phenolics, resveratrol and antioxidant activity by nitrogen enrichment in cell suspension culture of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lee, Napaporn; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  7. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  8. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  9. Evaluation of anti-Candida activity of Vitis vinifera L. seed extracts obtained from wine and table cultivars.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Santamaria, Anna Rita; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Cecchini, Francesca; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Panella, Simona; Antonacci, Donato; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs), obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥ 4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  10. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  11. Co-evolution between Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus and Vitis vinifera L. leads to decreased defence responses and increased transcription of genes related to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Cuozzo, Danila; Fasoli, Marianna; Pagliarani, Chiara; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Pezzotti, Mario; Mannini, Franco

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a widespread virus infecting Vitis spp. Although it has established a compatible viral interaction in Vitis vinifera without the development of phenotypic alterations, it can occur as distinct variants that show different symptoms in diverse Vitis species. The changes induced by GRSPaV in V. vinifera cv 'Bosco', an Italian white grape variety, were investigated by combining agronomic, physiological, and molecular approaches, in order to provide comprehensive information about the global effects of GRSPaV. In two years, this virus caused a moderate decrease in physiological efficiency, yield performance, and sugar content in berries associated with several transcriptomic alterations. Transcript profiles were analysed by a microarray technique in petiole, leaf, and berry samples collected at véraison and by real-time RT-PCR in a time course carried out at five grapevine developmental stages. Global gene expression analyses showed that transcriptomic changes were highly variable among the different organs and the different phenological phases. GRSPaV triggers some unique responses in the grapevine at véraison, never reported before for other plant-virus interactions. These responses include an increase in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation, a moderate reduction in the photosynthesis rate and some defence mechanisms, and an overlap with responses to water and salinity stresses. It is hypothesized that the long co-existence of grapevine and GRSPaV has resulted in the evolution of a form of mutual adaptation between the virus and its host. This study contributes to elucidating alternative mechanisms used by infected plants to contend with viruses. PMID:22987838

  12. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  13. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines. PMID:24518323

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. PMID:26160581

  15. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with the early berry development in the seedless grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar Sultanine.

    PubMed

    Costenaro-da-Silva, Danielle; Passaia, Gisele; Henriques, João A P; Margis, Rogério; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís F

    2010-11-01

    Sultanine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important commercial seedless table-grape varieties and the main source of seedlessness for breeding programs around the world. Despite its commercial relevance, little is known about the genetic control of seedlessness in grapes, remaining unknown the molecular identity of genes responsible for such phenotype. Actually, studies concerning berry development in seedless grapes are scarce at the molecular level. We therefore developed a representational difference analysis (RDA) modified method named Bulk Representational Analysis of Transcripts (BRAT) in the attempt to identify genes specifically associated with each of the main developmental stages of Sultanine grapevine berries. A total of 2400 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and cloned by RDA according to three specific developmental berry stages. After sequencing and in silico analysis, 1554 (64.75%) TDFs were validated according to our sequence quality cut-off. The assembly of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) yielded 504 singletons and 77 clusters, with an overall EST redundancy of approximately 67%. Amongst all stage-specific cDNAs, nine candidate genes were selected and, along with two reference genes, submitted to a deeper analysis of their temporal expression profiles by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Seven out of nine genes proved to be in agreement with the stage-specific expression that allowed their isolation by RDA. PMID:21802609

  16. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A.

  18. Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapes are grown worldwide, on about 7.9 million ha., and are used to produce wine, raisins, juice, jam, concentrate, and seed oils, as well as fresh fruit. Grapes (Vitis sp.) are members of the Vitaceae. Vitis includes two subgenera, Euvitis (38 chromosomes) and Muscadinia (40 chromosomes), with ...

  19. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants.

  20. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  1. Modulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes and anthocyanins due to virus infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Symptoms of grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) in red-fruited wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars consist of green veins and red and reddish-purple discoloration of inter-veinal areas of leaves. The reddish-purple color of symptomatic leaves may be due to the accumulation of anthocyanins and could reflect an up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. Results We examined six putative constitutively expressed genes, Ubiquitin, Actin, GAPDH, EF1-a, SAND and NAD5, for their potential as references for normalization of gene expression in reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Using the geNorm program, a combination of two genes (Actin and NAD5) was identified as the stable set of reference genes for normalization of gene expression data obtained from grapevine leaves. By using gene-specific RT-qPCR in combination with a reliable normalization factor, we compared relative expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes between leaves infected with Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and exhibiting GLRD symptoms and virus-free green leaves obtained from a red-fruited wine grape cultivar (cv. Merlot). The expression levels of these different genes ranged from two- to fifty-fold increase in virus-infected leaves. Among them, CHS3, F3'5'H, F3H1, LDOX, LAR1 and MybA1 showed greater than 10-fold increase suggesting that they were expressed at significantly higher levels in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. HPLC profiling of anthocyanins extracted from leaves indicated the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside only in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. The results also showed 24% higher levels of flavonols in virus-infected symptomatic leaves than in virus-free green leaves, with quercetin followed by myricetin being the predominant compounds. Proanthocyanidins, estimated as total tannins by protein precipitation method, were 36% higher in virus-infected symptomatic

  2. Increasing the robustness of phenological models for Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay.

    PubMed

    Caffarra, Amelia; Eccel, Emanuele

    2010-05-01

    Phenological models are important tools for planning viticultural practices in the short term and for projecting the impact of climate change on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in the long term. However, the difficulties in obtaining phenological models which provide accurate predictions on a regional scale prevent them from being exploited to their full potential. The aim of this work was to obtain a robust phenological model for V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay. During calibration of the sub-models for budburst, flowering and veraison we implemented a series of measures to prevent overfitting and to give greater physiological meaning to the models. Among these were the use of experimental information on the response of Chardonnay to forcing temperatures, restriction of parameter space into physiologically meaningful limits prior to calibration, and simplification of the previously selected sub-models. The resulting process-based model had good internal validity and a good level of accuracy in predicting phenological events from external datasets. Model performance was especially high for the prediction of flowering and veraison, and comparison with other models confirmed it as a better predictor of phenology, even in extremely warm years. The modelling study highlighted a different phenological behaviour at the only mountain station, Cembra. We hypothesised that phenotypical plasticity could lead to growth rates adapting to a lower mean temperature, a mechanism not usually accounted for by phenological models. PMID:19937456

  3. Characterization of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) are intra-vacuolar structures capable of concentrating anthocyanins and are present in over 50 of the highest anthocyanin-accumulating plant species. Presence of AVIs alters pigment intensity, total anthocyanin levels, pigment hue and causes bathochromic shifts in a spatio-temporal manner within various flowers, vegetables and fruits. A year-long study on Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures found a strong correlation between AVI prevalence and anthocyanin content, but not the number of pigmented cells, growth rate or stilbene content. Furthermore, enhancement of the prevalence of AVIs and anthocyanins was achieved by treatment of V. vinifera cell suspension cultures with sucrose, jasmonic acid and white light. A unique autofluorescence of anthocyanins was used to demonstrate microscopically that AVIs proceed from the cytosol across the tonoplast and were able to coalesce intravacuolarly, with fewer, larger AVIs predominating as cells mature. Purification and characterisation of these bodies were performed, showing that they were dense, highly organic structures, with a lipid component indicative of membrane-encasement. These purified AVIs were also shown to comprise long-chain tannins and possessed an increased affinity for binding acylated anthocyanins, though no unique protein component was detected.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  5. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  7. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards.

  8. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines. PMID:26174183

  9. Phenolic composition of the edible parts (flesh and skin) of Bordô grape (Vitis labrusca) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-12-28

    The aim of this study was the detailed characterization of the phenolic composition and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Bordô grape (Vitis labrusca) cultivated in South Brazil. The edible parts of Bordô grapes (flesh and skin) contained 1130 mg/kg of total phenolic compounds (as gallic acid), mainly located in the skins. Anthocyanin content in the skins was high, largely as 3,5-diglucosides (1359 mg/kg, as malvidin 3,5-diglucoside). Total flavonols accounted for 154 μmol/kg, mainly located in the skins and with myricetin 3-glucoside as the principal flavonol in both grape parts. Very low amounts of flavan-3-ol monomers and dimers and low amounts of polymeric proanthocyanidins, with a composition similar to that reported for V. vinifera grape varieties, were found in Bordô grape skins. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives mainly derived from caffeic acid and were found in the skins in high amounts, ten times higher than in the flesh (total amount: 483 μmol/kg). Finally, the Bordô grape cultivar can be considered a high resveratrol producer (10.91 mg/kg) and also exhibited a high value of total antioxidant capacity (37.6 ± 1.0 mmol/kg, as Trolox).

  10. Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Cabrera, Nora; Holgado, Miriam G; Vicchi, Franco R

    2016-01-01

    Some species of Colaspis Fabricius are well-known pests of several crops in Argentina. In this contribution, we describe a new species within this genus: Colaspis caligula n. sp., found in association with Vitis vinifera (Linnaeus) crops. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva, pupa and adult, as well as notes on its diagnostic characters, life cycle, and the damages produced to the plants. PMID:27615925

  11. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera.

  12. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera. PMID:23216204

  13. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  14. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas. PMID:25648596

  15. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  16. A novel emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel arabinogalactan polysaccharide (FGP) is described that is produced in large quantities from the cut stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11....

  17. Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-11-01

    Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.

  18. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. PMID:26048582

  19. Impact of flumioxazin herbicide on growth and carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, G; Magné, C; Clément, C

    2003-04-01

    The impact of flumioxazin herbicide on in vitro-grown grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) was investigated. The herbicide treatments (1, 10 or 100 micro M flumioxazin in MM medium) had a negative impact on photosynthesis, as revealed by a reduction in foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, gas exchanges and alteration in plastid structure and, consequently, resulted in a strong inhibition of plantlet growth. Surprisingly, soluble sugars and starch accumulated in all organs, suggesting a stimulation of sugar uptake from the medium. Moreover, photosynthetic activity and starch content partially recovered within 3 weeks of treatment at the weakest herbicide concentration. These results provide new insights into the physiological responses of non-target crops to flumioxazin, showing that flumioxazin is active in photosynthetic tissues of the non-target grapevine via root uptake, which is contrary to what is mentioned in the literature, and that the in vitro-grown plantlet is a good model for investigating the physiological effects of pesticides on crop species.

  20. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  1. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  2. Resistance to Water Transport in Shoots of Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Hans R.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    Apparent resistances to water transport in the liquid phase were determined from measurements of soil, root, basal shoot internode, shoot apex, and leaf water potentials and water flux in Vitis vinifera (cv White Riesling) during soil drying. Predawn water potential differences (ΔΨ) in the shoots accounted for 20% of the total ΔΨ between the soil and the shoot apex when plants were well-watered but increased to about 90% when shoot growth ceased. The ΔΨ from soil to root was essentially constant during this period. At low water potential, the ΔΨ in the shoot was persistent when transpiration was low (predawn) or completely prevented (plant bagging). The apparent hydraulic resistance between the basal shoot internode and most rapidly expanding leaf (or shoot apex) increased several-fold when water was withheld. Leaf and internode expansion both exhibited high sensitivity to increasing hydraulic resistance. Measurements of pneumatic resistance to air flow through frozen internode segments indicated progressive vapor-filling of vessels as soil drying progressed. From these observations and others in the literature, it was suggested that embolization may be a common occurrence and play an important role in the inhibition of shoot growth at moderate water deficits. PMID:16666373

  3. Inflorescence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): a high ability to distribute its own assimilates.

    PubMed

    Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Maillard, Pascale; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Gross, Patrick; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of carbon (C) into whole grapevine fruiting cuttings was investigated during flower development to determine the relative contribution of inflorescence and leaf photoassimilates in the total C balance and to investigate their partitioning towards other plant organs. A (13)C labelling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates by leaves and inflorescences in grapevine. Investigations were carried out at various stages of flower/berry development, from separated cluster to fruit set, using grapevine fruiting cuttings with four leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay). This is the first study reporting that, during its development, (i) the carbon needs of the inflorescence were met by both leaf and inflorescence photosynthesis, and (ii) the inflorescence amazingly participated significantly to the total C balance of grapevine cuttings by redistributing an important part of its own assimilates to other plant organs. With regard to flowering, 29% of C assimilated by the inflorescence remained in the inflorescence, while partitioning towards the stem reached 42% and, as a lower proportion, 15% in leaves, and 14% in roots.

  4. Transcriptional analysis of tendril and inflorescence development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Carmona, María J

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes.

  5. Differentiation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) conculta members based on molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, Peter; Szoke, Antal; Toth-Lencses, Kitti; Veres, Aniko; Deak, Tamas; Kozma, Pal; Bisztray, Gyorgy Denes; Kiss, Erzsebet

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-seven grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties within 12 putative berry colour variation groups (conculta) were genotyped with 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite (simple sequence repeats (SSR)) markers. Three additional oligonucleotide primers were applied for the detection of the Gret1 retroelement insertion in the promoter region of VvMybA1 transcription factor gene regulating the UFGT (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) activity. UFGT is the key enzyme of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. SSR results proved that the analysed cultivars can be grouped only into nine concultas, the other three putative berry colour variant groups consist of homonyms as a consequence of misnaming. In the case of Sárfehér-Sárpiros, Delaware red-Delaware white and Járdovány fekete-Járdovány fehér, it was attested that they are not bud sports, but homonyms. Some conculta members could be differentiated according to the presence or the absence of the Gret1 retroelement (Chasselas, Furmint and Lisztes), while others, Bajor, Bakator, Gohér and Traminer conculta members, remained indistinguishable either by the microsatellites or the Gret1-based method. PMID:26019484

  6. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  7. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  8. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  9. The crucial role of Φ- and K-segments in the in vitro functionality of Vitis vinifera dehydrin DHN1a.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Escribano, Ma Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, Ma Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs), group II LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins, are among the most commonly observed proteins which accumulate in plants in response to cold and any other environmental factors, causing the dehydration of cells. In previous studies, we isolated a YSK2-type VvcDHN1a gene from table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) which presented two spliced variants (the spliced, DHN1a_s and the unspliced, DHN1a_u). Their expression was induced by low temperature storage and CO2, although with different accumulation patterns. DHN1a_u codifies for a truncated YS protein lacking Ф- and K-segments, which might affect its functionality. In this work, we expressed both DHN1a_s and DHN1a_u recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We carried out a number of in vitro assays to analyze the implications that Ф- and K-segments have in the protective role of VvcDHN1 against different abiotic stresses and their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results showed that unlike DHN1a_u, DHN1a_s has a potent cryoprotective effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity, protects malate dehydrogenase against dehydration and partially inhibits B. cinerea growth. Moreover, the DHN1a promoter presented cis-regulatory elements related to cold and drought, as well as biotic stress-related elements. We also observed that both spliced variants interact weakly with DNA, suggesting that K-segments are not involved in DNA binding. Overall, this work highlights the crucial role of Ф- and K-segments in DHNs function in plant response to abiotic stress showing for the first time, the potential role of the V. vinifera DHN1a_s in the protection against freezing and dehydration as well as inhibiting B. cinerea growth. PMID:25457499

  10. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M.; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions. PMID:27252720

  11. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions. PMID:27252720

  12. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  13. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11...

  14. Performance of Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) Cultivars in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes indigenous to the Southeastern United States, and they are highly prized for their unique fruity flavors. Factors including skin color, berry size, skin thickness, flower type, productivity, etc., vary among muscadine grape cultivars, making some cultivars more desirable for f...

  15. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  16. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit.

  17. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Wang, Gang; Liang, Ying-Hai; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; Pezzotti, Mario; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2014-01-01

    The plant WRKY gene family represents an ancient and complex class of zinc-finger transcription factors (TFs) that are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as development and senescence, and in plant response to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite the growing number of studies on the genomic organisation of WRKY gene family in different species, little information is available about this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In the present study, a total number of 59 putative grapevine WRKY transcription factors (VvWRKYs) were identified based on the analysis of various genomic and proteomic grapevine databases. According to their structural and phylogentic features, the identified grapevine WRKY transcription factors were classified into three main groups. In order to shed light into their regulatory roles in growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stress in grapevine, the VvWRKYs expression profiles were examined in publicly available microarray data. Bioinformatics analysis of these data revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvWRKYs in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. To also extend our analysis to situations not covered by the arrays and to validate our results, the expression profiles of selected VvWRKYs in response to drought stress, Erysiphe necator (powdery mildew) infection, and hormone treatments (salicilic acid and ethylene), were investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in grapevine. PMID:26504535

  18. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Debez, Ahmed; Mahmoudi, Henda; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-05-01

    Morpho-physiological responses to bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency were investigated in five Vitis vinifera L. Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Blanc3, Arich Dressé, Beldi, and Balta4). One-month-old woody cuttings were cultivated for 85days on a free calcareous soil irrigated with tap water containing increasing bicarbonate levels (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16mM NaHCO(3)). After this screening, a second experiment compared root biochemical responses of two contrasting genotypes (tolerant-sensitive) dealing with bicarbonate-induced iron deprivation (20microM Fe+/-10mM HCO(3)(-)) for 75days. Using morpho-physiological criteria, grapevine tolerance to HCO(3)(-)-induced Fe shortage appeared to be genotype-dependent: Balta4 and Beldi varieties showed the highest leaf-chlorosis score (especially at the extreme HCO(3)(-) levels), in contrast to Khamri variety. Growth parameters (shoot height, total leaf area, leaf number, and biomass production) as well as juvenile leaf chlorophyll content were also differently affected depending on both genotype and bicarbonate dose. At 16mM HCO(3)(-), Khamri was the less sensitive variety, contrasting with Balta4. On the other hand, chlorophyll content correlated positively with HCl-extractible Fe content of the juvenile leaves, suggesting that the grapevine response to iron deficiency may partly depend on to the plant ability to adequately supply young leaves with this element. Root biochemical responses revealed a relatively higher root acidification capacity in Khamri (tolerant) under Fe-deficiency while no significant changes occurred in Balta4 (sensitive). In addition, Fe(III)-reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) activities were strongly stimulated by Fe-deficiency in Khamri, while remaining constant in Balta4. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis. PMID:17468003

  19. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  20. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  1. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  2. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  3. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  4. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  5. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  6. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  7. Recovery and fine structure variability of RGII sub-domains in wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot)

    PubMed Central

    Buffetto, F.; Ropartz, D.; Zhang, X. J.; Gilbert, H. J.; Guillon, F.; Ralet, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the structure of the polysaccharide. This study examines the fine structure variability of RGII in wine, focusing on the side chains A and B obtained after sequential mild acid hydrolysis. Specifically, this study aims to differentiate intrinsic structural variations in these RGII side chains from structural variations due to acid hydrolysis. Methods RGII from wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot) was sequentially hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and the hydrolysis products were separated by anion-exchange chromatography (AEC). AEC fractions or total hydrolysates were analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Key Results The optimal conditions to recover non-degraded side chain B, side chain A and RGII backbone were 0·1 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h, 0·48 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h (or 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 8 h) and 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 16 h, respectively. Side chain B was particularly prone to acid degradation. Side chain A and the RGII GalA backbone were partly degraded by 0·1 m TFA at 80 °C for 1–4 h. AEC allowed separation of side chain B, methyl-esterified side chain A and non-methyl-esterified side chain A. The structure of side chain A and the GalA backbone were highly variable. Conclusions Several modifications to the RGII structure of wine were identified. The observed dearabinosylation and deacetylation were primarily the consequence of acidic treatment, while variation in methyl-esterification, methyl-ether linkages and oxidation reflect natural diversity. The physiological significance of this variability, however, remains to be determined. PMID:24908680

  8. A modern amplelography: A genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated pheno...

  9. A modern ampelography: A genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated pheno...

  10. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  11. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism. PMID:26545592

  12. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism.

  13. A Dense Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Genetic Linkage Map of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Anchoring Pinot Noir Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Contigs

    PubMed Central

    Troggio, Michela; Malacarne, Giulia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Segala, Cinzia; Cartwright, Dustin A.; Pindo, Massimo; Stefanini, Marco; Mank, Rolf; Moroldo, Marco; Morgante, Michele; Grando, M. Stella; Velasco, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a dense genetic map for Vitis vinifera and its anchoring to a BAC-based physical map is described: it includes 994 loci mapped onto 19 linkage groups, corresponding to the basic chromosome number of Vitis. Spanning 1245 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between adjacent markers, the map was generated from the segregation of 483 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic markers, 132 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 379 AFLP markers in a mapping population of 94 F1 individuals derived from a V. vinifera cross of the cultivars Syrah and Pinot Noir. Of these markers, 623 were anchored to 367 contigs that are included in a physical map produced from the same clone of Pinot Noir and covering 352 Mbp. On the basis of contigs containing two or more genetically mapped markers, region-dependent estimations of physical and recombinational distances are presented. The markers used in this study include 118 SSRs common to an integrated map derived from five segregating populations of V. vinifera. The positions of these SSR markers in the two maps are conserved across all Vitis linkage groups. The addition of SNP-based markers introduces polymorphisms that are easy to database, are useful for evolutionary studies, and significantly increase the density of the map. The map provides the most comprehensive view of the Vitis genome reported to date and will be relevant for future studies on structural and functional genomics and genetic improvement. PMID:17603124

  14. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning.

  15. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning. PMID:18567054

  16. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  17. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  18. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses. PMID:26934101

  19. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, E; Di Lorenzo, C; Colombo, E; Colombo, F; Fumagalli, M; Frigerio, G; Restani, P; Dell'Agli, M

    2015-08-01

    Botanicals are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, with increased usage in the general population, in many different types of products, including foods and plant food supplements. Several reports support for the beneficial effects of botanicals against gastrointestinal inflammation. However, no studies regarding the anti-inflammatory activity in the gastrointestinal tract of red vine leaves have been reported so far. The present work investigates the biological activity of Vitis vinifera L. water extract (VVWE) from dried leaves in two in vitro models of gastric and intestinal inflammation. The extract was characterized by a validated HPLC-DAD method, and tested on human epithelial gastric (AGS) and intestinal (Caco-2) cells with the aim to investigate the inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion and promoter activity, before and after in vitro gastric or gastrointestinal digestion. Our results show that the water extract from red vine leaves inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and expression in human gastric epithelial cells; the effect should be maintained, although to a lesser extent, after gastric digestion. In contrast, the effect after intestinal digestion is dramatically decreased since degradation of the active components in the gut does not allow the extract to efficiently counteract TNFα or IL-1β induced IL-8 expression and the NF-κB pathway. The main molecular target of VVWE at the gastric level includes TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and occurs at concentrations easily reachable after PFS consumption based on red vine leaf water extract as the ingredient. Our findings suggest that PFS containing water extracts from Vitis vinifera L. leaves could be useful to inhibit/attenuate gastric inflammation inhibiting IL-8 secretion and expression through impairment of the NF-κB pathway.

  20. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  1. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions.

  2. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause-effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  3. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause–effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  4. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG (*)) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG(*) protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG (*) transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG (*). This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG(*) cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well.

  5. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest.

  6. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  7. Characterization of EST-derived and non-EST simple sequence repeats in an F₁ hybrid population of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Kayesh, E; Bilkish, N; Liu, G S; Chen, W; Leng, X P; Fang, J G

    2014-03-31

    Among different classes of molecular markers, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a new resource for developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) functional markers for genotyping and genetic mapping in F1 hybrid populations of Vitis vinifera L. Recently, because of the availability of an enormous amount of data for ESTs in the public domain, the emphasis has shifted from genomic SSRs to EST-SSRs, which belong to transcribed regions of the genome and may have a role in gene expression or function. The objective of this study was to assess the polymorphisms among 94 F1 hybrids from "Early Rose" and "Red Globe" using 25 EST-derived and 25 non-EST SSR markers. A total collection of 362,375 grape ESTs that were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and 2522 EST-SSR sequences were identified. From them, 205 primer pairs were randomly selected, including 176 pairs that were EST-derived and 29 non-EST SSR primer pairs, for polymerase chain reaction amplification. A total of 131 alleles were amplified using 50 pairs of primers; 78 alleles were amplified using EST-derived SSR primers and 53 were from non-EST SSR primers. At most, 6 and 5 alleles were amplified by EST-derived and non-EST SSR primers, respectively. The EST-derived SSR markers showed a maximum polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 1 and a minimum of 0.33 while non-EST SSR markers had maximum and minimum PIC values of 1 and 0.25, respectively. The average PIC value was 0.56 for EST-derived SSR markers and 0.45 for non-EST SSR markers.

  8. Free the tannins: the role of grape pathogenesis-related proteins in limiting condensed tannin extraction during winemaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape-derived condensed tannins (CT) are important to the mouthfeel of red wines, but CT concentrations in red wines produced from wild Vitis species or their hybrids are often lower than corresponding wines produced from European wine grapes (V. vinifera), potentially decreasing their utility. Thes...

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  10. An update on VitisGen: recent advances in using DNA marker technologies in U.S. grape breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NIFA VitisGen project involves a multidisciplinary team of 25 co-PIs at 11 institutions aiming to optimize grape cultivar improvement. To this end, an impressive collection of phenotypic data and high-resolution genetic maps has been developed for seventeen F1 families. Here, we will prese...

  11. A pruning method for enhancing yield of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia, Michx.) cultivars in commercial and home vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in both dooryard and commercial muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia, Michx.) production has increased dramatically in the last two decades, mostly due to improved cultivars for both fresh consumption and wine production, and to numerous studies touting their extraordinary nutraceutical prop...

  12. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  13. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  14. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  15. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  16. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  17. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region. PMID:23789998

  18. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined. PMID:24634185

  19. Effects of acute low-temperature events on development of Erysiphe necator and susceptibility of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Michelle M; Gadoury, David M; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Dry, Ian B; Magarey, Peter A; Wilcox, Wayne F; Seem, Robert C

    2010-11-01

    Growth and development of Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator) has been extensively studied under controlled conditions, primarily with a focus on development of grapevine powdery mildew within the optimal temperature range and the lethal effects of high temperatures. However, little is known of the effect of cold temperatures (above freezing but <8 degrees C) on pathogen development or host resistance. Pretreatment of susceptible Vitis vinifera leaf tissue by exposure to cold temperatures (2 to 8 degrees C for 2 to 8 h) reduced infection efficiency and colony expansion when tissues were subsequently inoculated. Furthermore, nascent colonies exposed to similar cold events exhibited hyphal mortality, reduced expansion, and increased latent periods. Historical weather data and an analysis of the radiational cooling of leaf tissues in the field indicated that early-season cold events capable of inducing the foregoing responses occur commonly and frequently across many if not most viticultural regions worldwide. These phenomena may partially explain (i) the unexpectedly slow development of powdery mildew during the first month after budbreak in some regions and (ii) the sudden increase in epidemic development once seasonal temperatures increase above the threshold for acute cold events. PMID:20649419

  20. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  1. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis. PMID:24715273

  2. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  3. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  4. Biodegradation of profenofos by Bacillus subtilis isolated from grapevines (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Varsha P; Sawant, Indu S; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rajguru, Yogita R; Wadkar, Pallavi N; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Naik, Dattatraya G; Sawant, Sanjay D

    2013-07-31

    The biodegradation of profenofos, an organophosphorus insecticide, by four Bacillus subtilis strains, namely, DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204, isolated from grapevines or grape rhizosphere was studied in liquid culture, on grape berries, and in vineyard soil. Each of the four B. subtilis strains enhanced the degradation of profenofos in all three matrices. Degradation rate constants were best obtained by first + first-order kinetics module. In nutrient broth spiked with 5 μg/mL profenofos, inoculation with B. subtilis strains DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204 reduced the half-life (DT50) of profenofos to 4.03, 3.57, 2.87, and 2.53 days, respectively, from the DT50 = 12.90 days observed in the uninoculated control. In Thompson Seedless grapes sprayed with profenofos at a field dose of 1250 mL ai/ha, the DT50 values were 1.07, 1.00, 2.13, and 2.20 days in grapes inoculated with B. subtilis strains DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204, respectively, as compared to 2.20 days in uninoculated grapes. These four B. subtilis strains also enhanced the degradation of profenofos in autoclaved soil (DT50 = 5.93, 7.47, 6.00, and 4.37 days) and in nonautoclaved soil (DT50 = 0.87, 2.00, 2.07, and 2.43 days) amended with 5 μg/g profenofos from the half-lives of 17.37 and 14.37 days in respective uninoculated soils. Growth dynamic studies indicated that all four B. subtilis strains were able to establish and proliferate on berries and soil equally well in the presence or absence of profenofos. Degradation product 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol was identified by GC-MS. Strain DR-39 was most effective in the natural environments of grape and soil. PMID:23806113

  5. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly [1]. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and

  6. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  7. Structure of Haze Forming Proteins in White Wines: Vitis vinifera Thaumatin-Like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marangon, Matteo; Van Sluyter, Steven C.; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Menz, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Grape thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) play roles in plant-pathogen interactions and can cause protein haze in white wine unless removed prior to bottling. Different isoforms of TLPs have different hazing potential and aggregation behavior. Here we present the elucidation of the molecular structures of three grape TLPs that display different hazing potential. The three TLPs have very similar structures despite belonging to two different classes (F2/4JRU is a thaumatin-like protein while I/4L5H and H2/4MBT are VVTL1), and having different unfolding temperatures (56 vs. 62°C), with protein F2/4JRU being heat unstable and forming haze, while I/4L5H does not. These differences in properties are attributable to the conformation of a single loop and the amino acid composition of its flanking regions. PMID:25463627

  8. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R.; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable ‘peppery’ aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy

  9. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  10. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  11. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  12. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  13. Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN

    PubMed Central

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream. PMID:15811990

  14. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D.; Considine, John A.; Foyer, Christine H.; Considine, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. Methods The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Key Results Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Conclusions Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. PMID:26337519

  15. Diurnal temperature range compression hastens berry development and modifies flavonoid partitioning in grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperatures during the day and night are known to influence grape berry metabolism and resulting composition. In this study, the flavonoid composition of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot berries was investigated as a function of diurnal temperature range (DTR). The DTR was compressed by c...

  16. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  17. [Impact of subculture cycles and inoculum sizes on suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Quan-Li; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-11-01

    The commercial application of plant cell cultures is often hindered by the instability of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the metabolite yield fluctuates and decline dramatically over subcultures. This study proposed that such instability is due to the fluctuations of culture variables. To validate this hypothesis, the effects of the fluctuations of two culture variables (subculture cycle and inoculum size) on the biomass, anthocyanin biosynthesig, intracellular carbon, nitrogen and phosphate during continuous 10 subculture cycles were investigated. The subculture cycle was fluctuated for 12h in a 7 day cycle (6.5, 7 and 7.5 d), and the inoculum size was fluctuated by 20% on basis of 2.00 g (1.60, 2.00 and 2.40 g). It was found that all the measured culture parameters fluctuated over the 10 subculture cycles. The fluctuation in terms of inoculum sizes had a greater effect on the stability of anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of V. vinifera. Among all the subculture conditions investigated, 7d-subculture cycle and 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to hold the relatively stable anthocyanin production. The anthocyanin yield presented a negative correlation with intracellular sucrose content or intracellular total phosphate content.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient targeted mutagenesis in Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ren, Chong; Liu, Xianju; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Yi; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    The type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) has been successfully applied to edit target genes in multiple plant species. However, it remains unknown whether this system can be used for genome editing in grape. In this study, we described genome editing and targeted gene mutation in 'Chardonnay' suspension cells and plants via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) were designed to target distinct sites of the L-idonate dehydrogenase gene (IdnDH). CEL I endonuclease assay and sequencing results revealed the expected indel mutations at the target site, and a mutation frequency of 100% was observed in the transgenic cell mass (CM) as well as corresponding regenerated plants with expression of sgRNA1/Cas9. The majority of the detected mutations in transgenic CM were 1-bp insertions, followed by 1- to 3-nucleotide deletions. Off-target activities were also evaluated by sequencing the potential off-target sites, and no obvious off-target events were detected. Our results demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient and specific tool for precise genome editing in grape. PMID:27576893

  19. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient targeted mutagenesis in Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chong; Liu, Xianju; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Yi; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    The type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) has been successfully applied to edit target genes in multiple plant species. However, it remains unknown whether this system can be used for genome editing in grape. In this study, we described genome editing and targeted gene mutation in ‘Chardonnay’ suspension cells and plants via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) were designed to target distinct sites of the L-idonate dehydrogenase gene (IdnDH). CEL I endonuclease assay and sequencing results revealed the expected indel mutations at the target site, and a mutation frequency of 100% was observed in the transgenic cell mass (CM) as well as corresponding regenerated plants with expression of sgRNA1/Cas9. The majority of the detected mutations in transgenic CM were 1-bp insertions, followed by 1- to 3-nucleotide deletions. Off-target activities were also evaluated by sequencing the potential off-target sites, and no obvious off-target events were detected. Our results demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient and specific tool for precise genome editing in grape. PMID:27576893

  20. Interactive effects of soil water deficit and air vapour pressure deficit on mesophyll conductance to CO2 in Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, A; Flexas, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; Bota, J; Tomás, M; Infante, J M; Diaz-Espejo, A

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the interactive effect of drought stress and high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on leaf gas exchange, and especially on mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), in two woody species of great agronomical importance in the Mediterranean basin: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanilla. Plants were grown in specially designed outdoor chambers with ambient and below ambient VPD, under both well-irrigated and drought conditions. g(m) was estimated by the variable J method from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and fluorescence. In both species, the response to soil water deficit was larger in g(s) than in g(m), and more important than the response to VPD. Olea europaea was apparently more sensitive to VPD, so that plants growing in more humid chambers showed higher g(s) and g(m). In V. vinifera, in contrast, soil water deficit dominated the response of g(s) and g(m). Consequently, changes in g(m)/g(s) were more related to VPD in O. europaea and to soil water deficit in V. vinifera. Most of the limitations of photosynthesis were diffusional and especially due to stomatal closure. No biochemical limitation was detected. The results showed that structural parameters played an important role in determining g(m) during the acclimation process. Although the relationship between leaf mass per unit area (M(A)) with g(m) was scattered, it imposed a limitation to the maximum g(m) achievable, with higher values of M(A) in O. europaea at lower g(m) values. M(A) decreased under water stress in O. europaea but it increased in V. vinifera. This resulted in a negative relationship between M(A) and the CO(2) draw-down between substomatal cavities and chloroplasts in O. europaea, while being positive in V. vinifera. PMID:19457982

  1. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil. PMID:27119057

  2. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  3. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape.

    PubMed

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R; Owens, Christopher L; Brown, Patrick J; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D; Buckler, Edward S

    2011-03-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity.

  4. SSR and SRAP marker-based linkage map of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Guo, Xiuwu; Li, Kun

    2014-01-01

    An F1 population was created by the cross ‘87-1’ × ‘9-22’. The female parent ‘87-1’ was an extremely early maturing cultivar with strong flavour. The male parent was an excellent breeding line producing large berries maturing late. The mapping population included 149 randomly chosen individuals. Molecular genetic map for each parent and the consensus map were constructed using simple sequence repeat and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers by software JoinMap 3.0. The ‘87-1’ map covers a total length of 1272.9 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and consists of 163 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 8.9 cM. The ‘9-22’ map covers a total length of 1267.4 cM distributed in 20 linkage groups and consists of 158 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 9.1 cM. The consensus map covers a total length of 1537.1 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and one doublet and consists of 217 molecular markers with an average distance of 7.8 cM between adjacent markers. The length of the linkage groups is 69.8 cM on average. The map covers the 19 chromosomes of the Vitis genome and can lay a solid foundation for further studies such as quantative trait loci (QTL) mapping of correlated traits and marker-assisted selection. PMID:26019507

  5. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

  6. Preliminary study on biomarkers for the fungal resistance in Vitis vinifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Atanassov, Atanas Ivanov; Hvarleva, Tzvetanka Dimitrova; Djakova, Galina Jordanova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov

    2008-05-26

    We examined the leaf chemical composition of six seedlings obtained by self-pollination of the Bulgarian wine-making variety Storgozia as well as the cultivar Bouquet, which is the susceptible parent of Storgozia. The chemical composition was investigated in the framework of a program for identification of metabolites associated with disease resistance in grape-vine. Acetone, dichloromethane and butanol extracts, as well as volatiles obtained from fresh material were analyzed by GC/MS. Based on the correlations of the GC/MS data and estimated resistance of the leaves towards the etiological agents of powdery mildew, downy mildew and botrytis as biomarkers for the fungal resistance, we proposed 16 individual metabolites--alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, squalene, alpha-amyrine, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, glycolic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxycaproic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, erythronic acid, arabinoic acid, monoethyl phosphate, undecyl laurate and isopropyl myristate. The obtained correlations were confirmed by cluster analysis. PMID:18155317

  7. Transient effect of the herbicide flazasulfuron on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Magné, Christian; Saladin, Gaëlle; Clément, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    In the Champagne vineyard, most of the areas treated in early 2000 with the newly approved herbicide flazasulfuron had vines with altered growth and yellow leaves throughout the growing season. In order to clarify the physiological perturbations caused on the non-target grapevine and their potential consequences, C nutrition of grape plants grown in vineyards treated or not with flazasulfuron in 2000 was characterized during the following season. Vines from treated areas exhibited yellow leaves and an alteration of photosynthetic activity, characterized by declines in leaf gas exchanges (by 85%) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations (by 88%), and a marked disorganization of the leaf plastids. The herbicide also caused a decrease in leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate levels (-74% and -90%, respectively). Surprisingly, some vines re-greened after bloom, then exhibiting similar carbohydrate physiology to those grown in a non-treated area. Thus, recovery of CO(2) fixation rates, plastid ultra-structure, pigment concentrations and carbohydrate levels was found in re-greening leaves. Unlike the informations available in the literature, our results showed that flazasulfuron may be phytotoxic for grapevine. However, this toxicity was overcome the following year, indicating that vines have the potential to recover from this herbicide stress after one season.

  8. Preliminary study on biomarkers for the fungal resistance in Vitis vinifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Atanassov, Atanas Ivanov; Hvarleva, Tzvetanka Dimitrova; Djakova, Galina Jordanova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov

    2008-05-26

    We examined the leaf chemical composition of six seedlings obtained by self-pollination of the Bulgarian wine-making variety Storgozia as well as the cultivar Bouquet, which is the susceptible parent of Storgozia. The chemical composition was investigated in the framework of a program for identification of metabolites associated with disease resistance in grape-vine. Acetone, dichloromethane and butanol extracts, as well as volatiles obtained from fresh material were analyzed by GC/MS. Based on the correlations of the GC/MS data and estimated resistance of the leaves towards the etiological agents of powdery mildew, downy mildew and botrytis as biomarkers for the fungal resistance, we proposed 16 individual metabolites--alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, squalene, alpha-amyrine, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, glycolic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxycaproic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, erythronic acid, arabinoic acid, monoethyl phosphate, undecyl laurate and isopropyl myristate. The obtained correlations were confirmed by cluster analysis.

  9. Determination of piceid and resveratrol in Spanish wines deriving from Monastrell (Vitis vinifera L.) grape variety.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Labanda, Juan F; Mallavia, Ricardo; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Lizama, Victoria; Saura, Domingo; Micol, Vicente

    2004-08-25

    The presence of stilbenes in wine is becoming an important issue due to their claimed relation to a low incidence in coronary diseases and their increasing implication as cancer chemopreventive and neuroprotective agents. Total resveratrol content, quantified as glucoside and aglycone forms of resveratrol, has been determined in a survey of 45 Monastrell monovarietal Spanish red wine types (around 135 wine samples), belonging to Alicante and Bullas appellations. The average between ratio glucoside/aglycone forms of resveratrol in these wines was considerably high, ranging from 82 to 91% of resveratrol in its glycosidic form. This characteristic was observed in a high percentage of the studied wines, which were made under different winemaking procedures, and from different vintages (1995-2002). In addition, wines made using macerative fermentations with double amount of solid parts ("doble pasta") reached the highest levels of total stilbene content expressed as resveratrol equivalent, i.e., 30 mg/L (average of 18.8 mg/L). It can be concluded that high resveratrol glucoside concentration and low free isomer content can be considered characteristics of the Monastrell variety, as it happens to red wines deriving from other varieties grown at warm climates. This fact, also observed for other French and Portuguese red varieties, might play an important role in food habits involving these types of wines.

  10. Microencapsulation and storage stability of polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Navarro, Patricia; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-01-01

    Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain calcium-alginate microbeads with high polyphenol content and good morphological features. In this way, the effect of pressure, frequency, voltage and the distance to the gelling bath were optimized for two nozzles of 150 and 300 μm. Long-term stability of the microbeads was studied for 6 months taking into account different storage conditions: temperatures (4 °C and room temperature), in darkness and in presence of light, and the addition of chitosan to the gelling bath. Encapsulated polyphenols were found to be much more stable compared to free polyphenols regardless the encapsulation procedure and storage conditions. Moreover, slightly lower degradation rates were obtained when chitosan was added to the gelling bath.

  11. Comparison data of common and abundant terpenes at different grape development stages in Shiraz wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Terpenoids were extracted from grape vine bunches during plant development and analysed by GC-MSD. The grapevines analysed were from a commercial harvest of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz. The terpenoids were analysed from 4 weeks post flowering (wpf) to harvest in one season. The data are presented with the structure of the compound and aroma profile and semi-quantified. The sub-class of sesquiterpenes was given special attention, and this data set describes the first analysis of these compounds during ripening of this important economic crop. Sesquiterpenes may have a hitherto described contribution to wine aroma. This data set may provide insight into biosynthetic pathways and aroma chemistry. Interpretation of our data and further discussion can be found in "Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes" (Zhang et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27547791

  12. VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Cramer, Grant R.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Mathiason, Kathy; Van Hemert, John; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet). Methodology/Principal Findings The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. Conclusions/Significance VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and

  13. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  14. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  15. Combination of hot water and rachis removal as an alternative to chemical treatment for maintaining the quality of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Crismons seedless) and are often controlled by application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, sulphite residues pose a health risk for allergic individuals and SO2 appl...

  16. Hot water treatment in combination with rachis removal and modified atmosphere packaging maintains quality of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Crismons seedless) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, sulfite residues pose a health risk for allergic individuals and SO2 a...

  17. Developing an Alternative to Sulfur Dioxide for Maintaining Quality and Reducing Decay of Table Grapes during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, SO2 is dangerous to people who are allergic to sulfites and its application has been rest...

  18. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini. PMID:22270111

  19. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  20. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp. PMID:26689772

  2. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase (VvGT5) from the grapevine Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Mizohata, Eiichi; Okuda, Takuma; Hatanaka, Seika; Nakayama, Taisuke; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakayama, Toru; Ono, Eiichiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) glycosyltransferase 5 (VvGT5) is a UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase that catalyses the 3-O-specific glucuronosylation of flavonols using UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor to produce flavonol 3-O-glucosides, which are important bioactive phytochemicals. Recombinant VvGT5 expressed in Escherichia coli cells was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A full set of X-ray diffraction data was collected to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing from a single crystal using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal was hexagonal, belonging to space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 102.70, c = 535.92 Å. The initial phases were determined by the molecular-replacement method. PMID:23295490

  4. Factors affecting distribution and mobility of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn) in a perennial grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Champagne region of France.

    PubMed

    Chopin, E I B; Marin, B; Mkoungafoko, R; Rigaux, A; Hopgood, M J; Delannoy, E; Cancès, B; Laurain, M

    2008-12-01

    Soil and Vitis vinifera L. (coarse and fine roots, leaves, berries) concentration and geochemical partitioning of Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in a contaminated calcareous Champagne plot to assess their mobility and transfer. Accumulation ratios in roots remained low (0.1-0.4 for Cu and Zn, <0.05 for Pb). Differences between elements resulted from vegetation uptake strategy and soil partitioning. Copper, significantly associated with the oxidisable fraction (27.8%), and Zn with the acid soluble fraction (33.3%), could be mobilised by rhizosphere acidification and oxidisation, unlike Pb, essentially contained in the reducible fraction (72.4%). Roots should not be considered as a whole since the more reactive fine roots showed higher accumulation ratios than coarse ones. More sensitive response of fine roots, lack of correlation between chemical extraction results and vegetation concentrations, and very limited translocation to aerial parts showed that fine root concentrations should be used when assessing bioavailability.

  5. Integration of stress produced reactive oxygen species in the stomatal regulation of micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. plantlets impaired in ABA signaling.

    PubMed

    Vilela, B Jorge; Carvalho, Luísa C; Amâncio, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been repeatedly implicated as cellular second messengers important in the modulation of almost every ontogenic phase of plant development, from seedling to cell death. In all of these processes, ROS production and detoxification are highly regulated and its levels are kept under tight control, in order to achieve the desired effect at the cellular or plant level. Micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. transferred to ex vitro growth under increased irradiance gave an additional insight into ROS signaling by integrating stress produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) into normal signaling pathways with distinctive effects critical for the survival, growth and development of these plants. Here we discuss in further detail the relevance of these results and propose a model that may explain this phenomenon.

  6. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes.

  7. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes. PMID:24321603

  8. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. PMID:26948592

  9. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes.

  10. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  11. Enhanced anthocyanins and resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension culture by indanoyl-isoleucine, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and insect saliva.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two synthetic elicitor indanoyl-isoleucine (In-Ile), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (Lin-Gln) and one biotic elicitor insect saliva (from Manduca sexta larvae) on plant cell cultures with respect to the induction of secondary metabolite production were investigated. Stimulated production of secondary metabolites, particularly anthocyanins in plant cells and phenolic acids in culture medium, was studied by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. In the treatments with In-Ile, the production of anthocyanins was enhanced 2.6-fold. In-Ile, Lin-Gln and saliva significantly elevated the accumulation of phenolic acids, particularly 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol. The used elicitors did not suppress cell growth. Secondary metabolites were differently responsive to elicitation. 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol was the predominant phenolic acid in V. vinifera cell culture, and its production was significantly stimulated by saliva, with 7.0-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. The production of 4-(3,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-phenol was significantly stimulated by In-Ile with 6.4-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. PMID:22133437

  12. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens.

  13. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  14. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  15. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  16. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  17. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  18. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  19. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Marconi, Raffaella; Nonis, Alberto; Peterlunger, Enrico; Paillard, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Testolin, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    Background Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Results Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. Conclusion We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between

  20. A host-specific biological control of grape crown gall by Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5: its regulation and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kaewnum, Supaporn; Zheng, Desen; Reid, Cheryl L; Johnson, Kameka L; Gee, Jodi C; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    Nontumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 is able to prevent crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis on grape but not on other plant species such as tobacco. Mutations in a quorum-sensing transcription factor, aviR, and in caseinolytic protease (clp) component genes clpA and clpP1 resulted in reduced or loss of biological control. All mutants were complemented; however, restoration of biological control by complemented clpA and clpP1 mutants was dependent on the copy number of vector that was used as well as timing of application of the complemented mutants to grape wounds in relation to inoculation with pathogen. Mutations in other quorum-sensing and clp genes and in a gene associated with polyketide synthesis did not affect biological control. It was determined that, although F2/5 inhibits transformation by tumorigenic A. vitis strains on grape, it does not affect growth of the pathogen in wounded grape tissue over time. PMID:23252969

  1. A host-specific biological control of grape crown gall by Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5: its regulation and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kaewnum, Supaporn; Zheng, Desen; Reid, Cheryl L; Johnson, Kameka L; Gee, Jodi C; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    Nontumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 is able to prevent crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis on grape but not on other plant species such as tobacco. Mutations in a quorum-sensing transcription factor, aviR, and in caseinolytic protease (clp) component genes clpA and clpP1 resulted in reduced or loss of biological control. All mutants were complemented; however, restoration of biological control by complemented clpA and clpP1 mutants was dependent on the copy number of vector that was used as well as timing of application of the complemented mutants to grape wounds in relation to inoculation with pathogen. Mutations in other quorum-sensing and clp genes and in a gene associated with polyketide synthesis did not affect biological control. It was determined that, although F2/5 inhibits transformation by tumorigenic A. vitis strains on grape, it does not affect growth of the pathogen in wounded grape tissue over time.

  2. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an Emulsion-Forming Arabinogalactan Gum from the Stems of Native North American Grape Species Vitis riparia Michx.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil P J; Vermillion, Karl E; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-08-19

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf, 55.2%) and d-galactopyranose (d-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of d-xylose (11.2%), d-mannose (3.5%), and glucuronic acid (GlcA, ∼2%), the latter linked via a galactosyl residue. Permethylation identified 3-linked Galp residues, some substituted at the 2-position with Galp or Manp, terminal Araf and Xylp, and an internal 3-substituted Araf. NMR (HSQC, TOCSY, HMBC, DOSY) identified βGalp and three αAraf spin systems, in an Araf-α1,3-Araf-α1,2-Araf-α1,2-Galp structural motif. Diffusion-ordered NMR showed that the FGP has a molecular weight of 1-10 MDa. Unlike gum arabic, the FGP does not contain a hydroxyproline-rich protein (HPRP). FGP forms stable gels at >15% w/v and at 1-12% solutions are viscous and are excellent emulsifiers of flavoring oils (grapefruit, clove, and lemongrass), giving stable emulsions for ≥72 h. Lower concentrations (0.1% w/v) were less viscous, yet still gave stable grapefruit oil/water emulsions. Hence, FGP is a β1,3-linked arabinogalactan with potential as a gum arabic replacement in the food and beverage industries. PMID:26234618

  3. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an Emulsion-Forming Arabinogalactan Gum from the Stems of Native North American Grape Species Vitis riparia Michx.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil P J; Vermillion, Karl E; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-08-19

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf, 55.2%) and d-galactopyranose (d-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of d-xylose (11.2%), d-mannose (3.5%), and glucuronic acid (GlcA, ∼2%), the latter linked via a galactosyl residue. Permethylation identified 3-linked Galp residues, some substituted at the 2-position with Galp or Manp, terminal Araf and Xylp, and an internal 3-substituted Araf. NMR (HSQC, TOCSY, HMBC, DOSY) identified βGalp and three αAraf spin systems, in an Araf-α1,3-Araf-α1,2-Araf-α1,2-Galp structural motif. Diffusion-ordered NMR showed that the FGP has a molecular weight of 1-10 MDa. Unlike gum arabic, the FGP does not contain a hydroxyproline-rich protein (HPRP). FGP forms stable gels at >15% w/v and at 1-12% solutions are viscous and are excellent emulsifiers of flavoring oils (grapefruit, clove, and lemongrass), giving stable emulsions for ≥72 h. Lower concentrations (0.1% w/v) were less viscous, yet still gave stable grapefruit oil/water emulsions. Hence, FGP is a β1,3-linked arabinogalactan with potential as a gum arabic replacement in the food and beverage industries.

  4. Proteomic analysis reveals differences between Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay and cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and their responses to water deficit and salinity.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Delphine; Ergül, Ali; Bohlman, Marlene C; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Woolsey, Rebekah; Quilici, David R; Joets, Johann; Schlauch, Karen; Schooley, David A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    The impact of water deficit and salt stress on two important wine grape cultivars, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon, was investigated. Plants were exposed to increasing salinity and water deficit stress over a 16 d time period. Measurements of stem water potentials, and shoot and leaf lengths indicated that Chardonnay was more tolerant to these stresses than Cabernet Sauvignon. Shoot tips were harvested every 8 d for proteomic analysis using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone extraction protocol and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, quantified, and then 191 unique proteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry. Peptide sequences were matched against both the NCBI nr and TIGR Vitis expressed sequence tag (EST) databases that had been implemented with all public Vitis sequences. Approximately 44% of the protein isoforms could be identified. Analysis of variance indicated that varietal difference was the main source of protein expression variation (40%). In stressed plants, reduction of the amount of proteins involved with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and protein destination was correlated with the inhibition of shoot elongation. Many of the proteins up-regulated in Chardonnay were of unclassified or of unknown function, whereas proteins specifically up-regulated in Cabernet Sauvignon were involved in protein metabolism.

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the UDP-glucose: Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from Vitis amurensis.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Chen, Wei-Kai; Yu, Ke-Ji; Ji, Xiang-Nan; Duan, Chang-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Generally, red Vitis vinifera grapes only contain monoglucosidic anthocyanins, whereas most non-vinifera red grapes of the Vitis genus have both monoglucosidic and bis-glucosidic anthocyanins, the latter of which are believed to be more hydrophilic and more stable. Although previous studies have established the biosynthetic mechanism for formation of monoglucosidic anthocyanins, less attention has been paid to that of bis-glucosidic anthocyanins. In the present research, the full-length cDNA of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. 'Zuoshanyi' grape (Va5GT) was cloned. After acquisition and purification of recombinant Va5GT, its enzymatic parameters were systematically analyzed in vitro. Recombinant Va5GT used malvidin-3-O-glucoside as its optimum glycosidic acceptor when UDP-glucose was used as the glycosidic donor. Va5GT-GFP was found to be located in the cytoplasm by analyzing its subcellular localization with a laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscope, and this result was coincident with its metabolic function of modifying anthocyanins in grape cells. Furthermore, the relationship between the transcriptional expression of Va5GT and the accumulation of anthocyanidin bis-glucosides during berry development suggested that Va5GT is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of bis-glucosidic anthocyanins in V. amurensis grape berries.

  6. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans. PMID:27440535

  7. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans.

  8. Intestinal health benefits of the water-soluble carbohydrate concentrate of wild grape ( Vitis thunbergii ) in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Chu, Hui-Fang; Dai, Fan-Jhen; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2012-05-16

    The dose-response relationship of the water-soluble carbohydrate concentrate (WSCC) from wild grape ( Vitis thunbergii Sieb. & Zucc.) on intestinal health was investigated in this study. WSCC contained carbohydrates up to 71.9 g/100 g, including arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharide, hemicelluloses, glucose, and fructose. The consumption of WSCC (0.5 and 1.5 g/100 g of diet) effectively (P < 0.05) shortened gastrointestinal transit time (-62.3 to -63.0%), decreased toxic cecal ammonia (-59.3 to -63.0%) and daily fecal ammonia output (-29.7 to -41.4%), decreased the activities of fecal β-glucuronidase (-78.6%), β-glucosidase (-80.5 to -87.5%), mucinase (-64.6 to -72.7%), and urease (-83.2 to -86.0%), increased fecal moisture content (116-129%), and also increased short-chain fatty acid levels in cecal contents (1.8-3.3-fold). These findings suggested that consumption of wild grape WSCC might diminish the exposure of intestinal mucosa to toxic ammonia and other detrimental compounds and, hence exert, favorable effects on improving gastrointestinal milieu.

  9. Antioxidant activity of selected stilbenoids and their bioproduction in hairy root cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.).

    PubMed

    Nopo-Olazabal, Cesar; Hubstenberger, John; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio

    2013-12-01

    Stilbenoids are polyphenolic phytoalexins with health-related properties in humans. Muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) hairy root cultures were established via Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation, and the effects of growth regulators (3-indolebutyric acid and 6-benzylaminopurine) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on stilbenoid production were studied. Twenty-one-day-old hairy root cultures were treated with 100 μM MeJA for 24 h, and then the stilbenoids were extracted from the medium and tissue with ethyl acetate and analyzed by HPLC. Resveratrol, piceid, and ε-viniferin were observed preferentially in tissue, whereas piceatannol was observed only in medium. Growth regulators did not affect the yield of stilbenoids, whereas higher levels were found upon treatment with MeJA. Stilbenoids identified in the hairy root cultures were analyzed for their radical scavenging capacity showing piceatannol and ε-viniferin as the strongest antioxidants. Muscadine grape hairy root cultures were demonstrated to be amenable systems to study stilbenoid biosynthesis and a sustainable source of these bioactive compounds.

  10. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  11. Interactions between light and growing season temperatures on, growth and development and gas exchange of Semillon (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grown in an irrigated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2012-05-01

    High-light intensities and temperatures of the warm climate regions of Australia and elsewhere have a major effect on the growth and development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The objective of this research was to assess interactions between the light and seasonal temperatures by shading some vines and comparing these with vines exposed to high-light intensities. Canopy temperatures were monitored using infrared radiometers and budbreak, phenology, growth, yield, berry ripening and gas exchange determined over three growing seasons. Results showed canopies were generally about 4 °C cooler than air and shading extended this cooling. Irradiance, irrespective of seasonal temperatures, had no effect on time of budbreak, shoot phenology, stem growth, yield and bunch fresh weights while bunch and leaf dry weights were reduced in low-light. Bunch ripening was initially delayed by low-light but thereafter the ripening process was highly temperature-dependent. Rates increased linearly with increasing temperature in both low and high-light and were optimal at about 35 °C. Maximum photosynthetic capacity was impaired by low irradiance, in accordance with shade leaf attributes, and attributable to stomatal closure. No effects of the low photosynthetic capacity apparently carried-over to sugar accumulation, consistent with the strong sink capacity of bunches.

  12. Diadenosine triphosphate is a novel factor which in combination with cyclodextrins synergistically enhances the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell suspension cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Czekała, Lukasz; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Pedreño, María Angeles; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates are considered as signal molecules that may evoke response of plant cells to stress. Other compounds whose biological effects have been recognized are cyclodextrins. They are cyclic oligosaccharides that chemically resemble the alkyl-derived pectic oligosaccharides naturally released from the cell walls during fungal attack, and they act as true elicitors, since, when added to plant cell culture, they induce the expression of genes involved in some secondary metabolism pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that some dinucleoside polyphosphates triggered the biosynthesis of enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells, cyclodextrins were shown to enhance the accumulation of trans-resveratrol, one of the basic units of the stilbenes derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we show that diadenosine triphosphate, applied alone or in combination with cyclodextrins to the grapevine suspension-cultured cells, increased the transcript level of genes encoding key phenylpropanoid-pathway enzymes as well as the trans-resveratrol production inside cells and its secretion into the extracellular medium. In the latter case, these two compounds acted synergistically. However, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside trans-piceid inside cells were stimulated much better by diadenosine triphosphate than by cyclodextrins.

  13. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    PubMed

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. PMID:26310367

  14. Ectopic expression of a Ve homolog VvVe gene from Vitis vinifera enhances defense response to Verticillium dahliae infection in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Lin, Jing; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Zhang, Baolong; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-15

    Verticillium wilt is a soil borne disease that can cause devastating losses to the production of many economically important crops. A Ve1 homologous gene responding to Verticillium dahliae infection was identified in Vitis vinifera cv. "HeiFeng" by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was designated as VvVe. The overexpression of VvVe in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly enhanced the resistance to isolate V991 of V. dahliae when compared with the wild type plants. The expressions of defense-related genes including the salicylic acid regulated gene pathogen-related 1 (PR1) but not PR2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated genes ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were significantly increased due to over expression of VvVe. And greater accumulation of active oxygen, callose and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were observed in the leaves of transgenic VvVe tobacco plants than the wild type when under infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, the hypersensitive response mimicking cell death was exclusively occurred in the transgenic VvVe tobacco plants but not in the wild type. Taken together, the VvVe gene is a Ve1 like gene which involves in the signal cascade of salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene defense pathways and enhances defense response to V. dahliae infection in the transgenic tobacco.

  15. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins. PMID:22393716

  16. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  17. Induction of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and transgenic stilbene synthase-apple plants (Malus domestica) by a culture filtrate of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Judith; Brunner, Philipp; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Products containing the epiphytic yeast Aureobasidium pullulans are commercially available and applied by fruit growers to prevent several fungal and bacterial diseases of fruit trees. The proposed beneficial mechanisms relate to limitations of space and nutrients for the pathogens in presence of the rapidly proliferating yeast cells. These explanations ignore the potential of yeasts to elicit the plant's defense. Our experiments aim at clarifying if an autoclaved and centrifuged suspension of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms. As a model system, the biosynthesis and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in callus and shoots of grapevine Vitis vinifera grown in vitro was used. Yeast application to the plant tissue stimulated stilbene biosynthesis, sometimes at the cost of flavonoids. The expression of the gene encoding stilbene synthase was enhanced and the enzyme showed higher activity while chalcone synthase activity and expression was reduced in some cases. An accumulation of stilbenes was also found in transgenic apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Holsteiner Cox) harboring the stilbene synthase-gene under control of its own promoter. These results clearly show that the application of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms of the treated plants.

  18. Characterization of a Bifunctional O- and N-Glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera in Glucosylating Phenolic Compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline in Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xue, Wei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3-methylcatechol, phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline are present in the environment and are risky to humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In this study, a putative uridine diphosphate glucose-dependent glycosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvUGT72B1) displayed high O-glucosyltransferase or N-glucosyltransferase activity toward all these xenbiotics and was able to enhance the resistance of P. pastoris to them. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, VvUGT72B1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher resistance to all the xenobiotics except for phenol and exhibited higher removal efficiencies against all xenobiotics. Glucosides of 3-methylcatechol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were exported to the surrounding media by Arabidopsis plants while transgenic Arabidopsis plants exported more glucosides than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Our findings have the potential to provide a broader spectrum remediation strategy for the phytoremoval and degradation of phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline than previous works. PMID:24244688

  19. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses.

  20. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed.

  1. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  2. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins.

  3. The R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors MYB14 and MYB15 Regulate Stilbene Biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera[W

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Janine; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Czemmel, Stefan; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Walker, Amanda R.; Rausch, Thomas; Lucchin, Margherita; Boss, Paul K.; Dry, Ian B.; Bogs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Plant stilbenes are phytoalexins that accumulate in a small number of plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been implicated in many beneficial effects on human health. In particular, resveratrol, the basic unit of all other complex stilbenes, has received widespread attention because of its cardio-protective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Although stilbene synthases (STSs), the key enzymes responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, have been isolated and characterized from several plant species, the transcriptional regulation underlying stilbene biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors (TFs) from grapevine, which regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway. These TFs, designated MYB14 and MYB15, strongly coexpress with STS genes, both in leaf tissues under biotic and abiotic stress and in the skin and seed of healthy developing berries during maturation. In transient gene reporter assays, MYB14 and MYB15 were demonstrated to specifically activate the promoters of STS genes, and the ectopic expression of MYB15 in grapevine hairy roots resulted in increased STS expression and in the accumulation of glycosylated stilbenes in planta. These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:24151295

  4. Identification of mildew resistance in wild and cultivated Central Asian grape germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated grapevines, Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa, evolved from their wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. They were domesticated in Central Asia in the absence of the powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, which is thought to have originated in North America. However, powdery mildew resistance has previously been discovered in two Central Asian cultivars and in Chinese Vitis species. Results A set of 380 unique genotypes were evaluated with data generated from 34 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The set included 306 V. vinifera cultivars, 40 accessions of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, and 34 accessions of Vitis species from northern Pakistan, Afghanistan and China. Based on the presence of four SSR alleles previously identified as linked to the powdery mildew resistance locus, Ren1, 10 new mildew resistant genotypes were identified in the test set: eight were V. vinifera cultivars and two were V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris based on flower and seed morphology. Sequence comparison of a 620 bp region that includes the Ren1-linked allele (143 bp) of the co-segregating SSR marker SC8-0071-014, revealed that the ten newly identified genotypes have sequences that are essentially identical to the previously identified mildew resistant V. vinifera cultivars: ‘Kishmish vatkana’ and ‘Karadzhandal’. Kinship analysis determined that three of the newly identified powdery mildew resistant accessions had a relationship with ‘Kishmish vatkana’ and ‘Karadzhandal’, and that six were not related to any other accession in this study set. Clustering procedures assigned accessions into three groups: 1) Chinese species; 2) a mixed group of cultivated and wild V. vinifera; and 3) table grape cultivars, including nine of the powdery mildew resistant accessions. Gene flow was detected among the groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that powdery mildew resistance is present in V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, the dioecious wild

  5. Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

  6. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste.

  7. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth.

  8. Mapping of photoperiod induced growth cessation in the wild grape vitis riparia michx. using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In grapevines, the timing of growth cessation in the fall is an important aspect of adaptation and a key objective in breeding new grape varieties suitable for continental climates. Growth cessation is a complex biological process that is initiated by environmental cues such as day length and temper...

  9. Fungicide applications affect fruit diseases and quality of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides can significantly reduce losses due to disease in the yield and quality of muscadine grapes. In three studies fungicides were applied individually or as part of a full season schedule from early bloom until harvest of three muscadine cultivars. The objective was to compare the effect of a...

  10. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  11. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes. PMID:23810954

  12. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes.

  13. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M. Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2·- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  14. Synthesis of an artificial Vitis vinifera miRNA 319e using overlapping long primers and its application for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Álvaro; Quiroz, Daniela; Sánchez, Evelyn; Miccono, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Carlos; Ramírez, Alejandra; Montes, Christian; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-09-10

    The conserved mechanism of action of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of gene expression has allowed the use of artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) as a powerful tool for candidate gene evaluation in plants. Based on the use of a Vitis vinifera miRNA molecule (i.e., vvi-miR319e), the present work presents a new methodology for designing artificial miR319e precursors (pre-amiR319e). As a proof of concept, we silenced the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This methodology includes a two-step PCR reaction in which overlapping long primers allow for the complete generation of pre-amiR319e-GFP molecules that are adequate for recombination into Gateway vectors with no further requirements. The seed region in amiRNA was directed against the 3'-end portion of the GFP gene. Three groups of transformed N. benthamiana plants were generated: GFP-, amiR319e-GFP-, and GFP plus miR319e-GFP-expressing vectors. A similar group of wild-type plants was included. Confocal microscopy evaluation of these groups revealed strong silencing of the GFP phenotype in the double GFP plus amiR319e-GFP group. The molecular characterization of silenced plants was achieved via modified 5'RACE of the GFP mRNA and revealed the occurrence of a partial, 3'-end GFP mRNA molecule that was generated in planta. In addition, large-scale small RNA sequencing confirmed the occurrence of the expected 21-nt miR319e-GFP species and other 22- and 24-nt species that exhibited sequence relationships with the expected amiRNA. These results highlight the possibility of using vvi-MIR319 as a template for the generation of single amiRNAs as a tool for gene silencing in plants. PMID:27411902

  15. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of [Formula: see text] and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on 'pure' biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  16. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism.

  17. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses. PMID:27231874

  18. Synthesis of an artificial Vitis vinifera miRNA 319e using overlapping long primers and its application for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Álvaro; Quiroz, Daniela; Sánchez, Evelyn; Miccono, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Carlos; Ramírez, Alejandra; Montes, Christian; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-09-10

    The conserved mechanism of action of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of gene expression has allowed the use of artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) as a powerful tool for candidate gene evaluation in plants. Based on the use of a Vitis vinifera miRNA molecule (i.e., vvi-miR319e), the present work presents a new methodology for designing artificial miR319e precursors (pre-amiR319e). As a proof of concept, we silenced the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This methodology includes a two-step PCR reaction in which overlapping long primers allow for the complete generation of pre-amiR319e-GFP molecules that are adequate for recombination into Gateway vectors with no further requirements. The seed region in amiRNA was directed against the 3'-end portion of the GFP gene. Three groups of transformed N. benthamiana plants were generated: GFP-, amiR319e-GFP-, and GFP plus miR319e-GFP-expressing vectors. A similar group of wild-type plants was included. Confocal microscopy evaluation of these groups revealed strong silencing of the GFP phenotype in the double GFP plus amiR319e-GFP group. The molecular characterization of silenced plants was achieved via modified 5'RACE of the GFP mRNA and revealed the occurrence of a partial, 3'-end GFP mRNA molecule that was generated in planta. In addition, large-scale small RNA sequencing confirmed the occurrence of the expected 21-nt miR319e-GFP species and other 22- and 24-nt species that exhibited sequence relationships with the expected amiRNA. These results highlight the possibility of using vvi-MIR319 as a template for the generation of single amiRNAs as a tool for gene silencing in plants.

  19. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H2O2-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Results Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H2O2 incubation assayed. Conclusions This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H2O2. Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons. PMID:21672244

  20. Ethanolic extracts and isolated compounds from small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana) with antihypertensive activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 μg/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-ε-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure.

  1. Chemical composition of volatile aroma metabolites and their glycosylated precursors that can uniquely differentiate individual grape cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ghaste, Manoj; Narduzzi, Luca; Carlin, Silvia; Vrhovsek, Urska; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-12-01

    Every grape cultivar has its own unique genetic characteristics, leading to the production of a different secondary metabolite profile. Aroma is one of the most important aspects in terms of the quality of grapes and previous studies have assigned specific aromas to particular grape cultivars. In this study we present the molecular profiling of volatile aroma metabolites and their precursors in ten selected genotypes, including six Vitis vinifera cultivars, two American species (Arizonica Texas, Vitis cinerea) and two interspecific crosses. Chemical profiling was achieved through combined use of two orthogonal techniques, GC-MS and LC-HRMS, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show that both free and glycosidically bound aroma precursors behave differently in each different grape cultivar and species. As many as 66 free aroma volatile molecules (originally existing and released after hydrolysis) were profiled through GC-MS analysis, while 15 glycosylated precursors of volatiles were identified through LC-HRMS and correlation with GC-MS data.

  2. Functional properties and stability of spray-dried pigments from Bordo grape (Vitis labrusca) winemaking pomace.

    PubMed

    Souza, Volnei Brito de; Fujita, Alice; Thomazini, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Roberto; Lucon, João Francisco; Genovese, Maria Inés; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen Sílvia

    2014-12-01

    The stability of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, the antioxidant capacity, the antimicrobial activity and the capacity to inhibit arginase from Leishmania were evaluated in spray-dried powders from Bordo grape winemaking pomace extract. The pigments were produced using maltodextrin as the carrier agent at concentrations varying from 10% to 30% and air entrance temperatures varying from 130 to 170°C. A sample of freeze-dried extract without the carrier was also evaluated. The anthocyanins in the spray-dried samples showed good stability during storage, better than the freeze-dried and liquid extracts. The samples were capable of inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes and showed high inhibitory capacity against the enzyme arginase from Leishmania. These results provide evidence that Bordo grapes from the winemaking process have the potential to be used as natural pigments with functional properties. PMID:24996348

  3. Functional properties and stability of spray-dried pigments from Bordo grape (Vitis labrusca) winemaking pomace.

    PubMed

    Souza, Volnei Brito de; Fujita, Alice; Thomazini, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Roberto; Lucon, João Francisco; Genovese, Maria Inés; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen Sílvia

    2014-12-01

    The stability of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, the antioxidant capacity, the antimicrobial activity and the capacity to inhibit arginase from Leishmania were evaluated in spray-dried powders from Bordo grape winemaking pomace extract. The pigments were produced using maltodextrin as the carrier agent at concentrations varying from 10% to 30% and air entrance temperatures varying from 130 to 170°C. A sample of freeze-dried extract without the carrier was also evaluated. The anthocyanins in the spray-dried samples showed good stability during storage, better than the freeze-dried and liquid extracts. The samples were capable of inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes and showed high inhibitory capacity against the enzyme arginase from Leishmania. These results provide evidence that Bordo grapes from the winemaking process have the potential to be used as natural pigments with functional properties.

  4. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source.

  5. Deficit irrigation promotes arbuscular colonization of fine roots by mycorrhizal fungi in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in an arid climate.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, R Paul; Tarara, Julie M; Smithyman, Russell P

    2007-10-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common practice applied in irrigated vineyards to control canopy growth and improve fruit quality, but little is known of how imposed water deficits may alter root growth and colonization by beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Thus, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization were determined throughout the growing season for 3 years in own-rooted, field-grown, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines exposed to three RDI treatments. Vines under standard RDI were irrigated at 60 to 70% of full-vine evapotranspiration (FVET) from 2 weeks after fruit set until harvest, a standard commercial practice. Early deficit vines were exposed to a more extreme deficit (30% FVET) during the period from 2 weeks after fruit set until the commencement of ripening (veraison), and thereafter reverted to standard RDI. Late deficit vines were under standard RDI until veraison, then exposed to a more extreme deficit (30% FVET) between veraison and harvest. The production of fine roots was reduced in both the early and late deficit treatments, but the reduction was more consistent in the early deficit vines because the additional deficit was imposed when roots were more rapidly growing. The frequency of arbuscules in fine roots was greater in both of the additional deficit treatments than in the standard RDI, a response that appeared chronic, as the higher frequency of arbuscules was observed throughout the season despite the additional deficits being applied at discrete times. It appears that grapevines compensated for a lower density of fine roots by stimulating arbuscular colonization. Irrigation did not affect yield or quality of grapes, but reduced whole-vine photosynthesis during the additional deficit periods. It appears that high-quality grapes can be produced in this region with less water than that applied under the current RDI practice because the root system of the vine may be more efficient due to greater arbuscular colonization by AMF

  6. Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nereide Serafim Timóteo; Athayde Aguiar, Ana Júlia Alves; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Veríssimo de Sales, Camila; de Melo E Silva, Silvanda; Sousa da Silva, Rosana; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CHI) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OV) in the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3728 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 on laboratory media and on grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) and its influence on the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days). The application of mixtures of different CHI and OV concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungi. The application of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations (CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/4 MIC; CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/2 MIC) inhibited spore germination and caused morphological changes in fungal spores and mycelia, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the assayed fungi strains in artificially infected grapes as well as the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperature. In general, the application of a coating composed of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical and physicochemical attributes, while some of their sensory attributes improved throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, R. stolonifer and A. niger in grapes. PMID:22986200

  7. A gene cluster in Agrobacterium vitis homologous to polyketide synthase operons is associated with grape necrosis and hypersensitive response induction on tobacco.

    PubMed

    Carle, Sigrid A; Hao, Guixia; Zheng, Desen; Sanni-Sanoussi, Tamira; Talarico, Michael J; Hilton, Joshua S; Burr, Thomas J

    2008-12-01

    Here, we identify a cluster of eight genes on chromosome 2 of Agrobacterium vitis that is associated with the ability of the bacterium to cause a hypersensitive response on tobacco and a necrosis of grape shoot explants. Three of these genes share a high level of structural and sequence similarity to clusters of genes in other bacteria that encode the enzymes for biosynthesis of polyketides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. No similar gene clusters were discovered in sequenced genomes of other members of Rhizobiales. PMID:19054098

  8. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses.

  9. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses. PMID:25602440

  10. Distinctive anthocyanin accumulation responses to temperature and natural UV radiation of two field-grown (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fernandes de Oliveira, Ana; Mercenaro, Luca; Del Caro, Alessandra; Pretti, Luca; Nieddu, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The responses of two red grape varieties, Bovale Grande (syn. Carignan) and Cannonau (syn. Grenache), to temperature and natural UV radiation were studied in a three-years field experiment conducted in Sardinia (Italy), under Mediterranean climate conditions. Vines were covered with plastic films with different transmittances to UV radiation and compared to uncovered controls. Light intensity and spectral composition at the fruit zone were monitored and berry skin temperature was recorded from veraison. Total skin anthocyanin content (TSA) and composition indicated positive but inconsistent effects of natural UV light. Elevated temperatures induced alterations to a greater extent, decreasing TSA and increasing the degree of derivatives acylation. In Cannonau total soluble solids increases were not followed by increasing TSA as in Bovale Grande, due to both lower phenolic potential and higher sensitivity to permanence of high temperatures. Multi linear regression analysis tested the effects of different ranges of temperature as source of variation on anthocyanin accumulation patterns. To estimate the thermal time for anthocyanin accumulation, the use of normal heat hours model had benefit from the addition of predictor variables that take into account the permanence of high (>35 °C) and low (<15 °C and <17 °C) temperatures during ripening. PMID:25633334

  11. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  12. Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.

    PubMed

    Hoenicke, K; Simat, T J; Steinhart, H; Christoph, N; Köhler, H J; Schwab, A

    1999-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites, especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are considered as potential precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP), an aroma compound which causes the "untypical aging off-flavor" (UTA) in Vitis vinifera white wines. In this study RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Trp and Trp-metabolites in 39 grapes, 22 grape musts and 16 wines, to which different viticultural conditions (ripeness, pruning, strip of leaves, soil condition) have been applied. A sensitive and selective determination was achieved after solid phase extraction using an anion exchange material. Only traces of Trp-metabolites could be determined in the examined grapes and grape musts, but their amounts increased significantly during fermentation, whereas the amount of Trp decreased. Different viticultural measures, besides the time of grape harvest, showed no significant influences on the amount of Trp and Trp-metabolites.

  13. Enzyme release of phenolics from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz; Lu, Jiang; Gu, Liwei; Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Marshall, Maurice R

    2014-08-15

    Enzyme degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides can potentially enhance the release of bioactive phenolics. The aim of this study was to evaluate various combinations of solvent and enzyme, enzyme type (cellulase, pectinase, ß-glucosidase), and hydrolysis time (1, 4, 8, 24 h) on the release of muscadine grape skin and seed phenolics, and their antioxidant activities. Results showed that pre-treated muscadine skins and seeds with enzymes decreased total phenolic yield compared with solvent (50% ethanol) alone. Enzyme release of phenolics from skins of different muscadine varieties was significantly different while release from seeds was similar. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to shorten extraction time. Most importantly, enzyme hydrolysis modified the galloylated form of polyphenols to low molecular weight phenolics, releasing phenolic acids (especially gallic acid), and enhancing antioxidant activity.

  14. Expression of terpene synthase genes associated with the formation of volatiles in different organs of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Matarese, Fabiola; Cuzzola, Angela; Scalabrelli, Giancarlo; D'Onofrio, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Plants produce a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of horticultural food products, including the taste and aroma of wine. Given that some of the most prevalent grape aroma constituents are terpenoids, we investigated the possible variations in the relative expression of terpene synthase (TPS) genes that depend on the organ. We thus analysed mature leaves, young leaves, stems, young stems, roots, rachis, tendrils, peduncles, bud flowers, flowers and berries of cv Moscato bianco in terms of their VOC content and the expression of 23 TPS genes. In terms of the volatile characterization of the organs by SPME/GC-MS analysis, flower buds and open flowers appeared to be clearly distinct from all the other organs analysed in terms of their high VOC concentration. Qualitatively detected VOCs clearly separated all the vegetative organs from flowers and berries, then the roots and rachis from other vegetative organs and flowers from berries, which confirms the specialization in volatile production among different organs. Our real-time RT-PCR results revealed that the majority of TPS genes analysed exhibited detectable transcripts in all the organs investigated, while only some were found to be expressed specifically in one or just a few organs. In most cases, we found that the known products of the in vitro assay of VvTPS enzymes corresponded well to the terpenes found in the organs in which the encoding gene was expressed, as in the case of (E)-β-caryophyllene synthases, α-terpineol synthase and α-farnesene synthase. In addition, we found groups of homologous TPS genes, such as (E)-β-caryophyllene and β-ocimene synthases, expressed distinctively in the various tissues. This thus confirmed the subfunctionalization events and a specialization on the basis of the organs in which they are mostly expressed.

  15. Expression of terpene synthase genes associated with the formation of volatiles in different organs of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Matarese, Fabiola; Cuzzola, Angela; Scalabrelli, Giancarlo; D'Onofrio, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Plants produce a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of horticultural food products, including the taste and aroma of wine. Given that some of the most prevalent grape aroma constituents are terpenoids, we investigated the possible variations in the relative expression of terpene synthase (TPS) genes that depend on the organ. We thus analysed mature leaves, young leaves, stems, young stems, roots, rachis, tendrils, peduncles, bud flowers, flowers and berries of cv Moscato bianco in terms of their VOC content and the expression of 23 TPS genes. In terms of the volatile characterization of the organs by SPME/GC-MS analysis, flower buds and open flowers appeared to be clearly distinct from all the other organs analysed in terms of their high VOC concentration. Qualitatively detected VOCs clearly separated all the vegetative organs from flowers and berries, then the roots and rachis from other vegetative organs and flowers from berries, which confirms the specialization in volatile production among different organs. Our real-time RT-PCR results revealed that the majority of TPS genes analysed exhibited detectable transcripts in all the organs investigated, while only some were found to be expressed specifically in one or just a few organs. In most cases, we found that the known products of the in vitro assay of VvTPS enzymes corresponded well to the terpenes found in the organs in which the encoding gene was expressed, as in the case of (E)-β-caryophyllene synthases, α-terpineol synthase and α-farnesene synthase. In addition, we found groups of homologous TPS genes, such as (E)-β-caryophyllene and β-ocimene synthases, expressed distinctively in the various tissues. This thus confirmed the subfunctionalization events and a specialization on the basis of the organs in which they are mostly expressed. PMID:25014656

  16. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development.

  17. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development. PMID:26470305

  18. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J.; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C.; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  19. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  20. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  1. Effect of chronic treatment with conventional and organic purple grape juices (Vitis labrusca) on rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Marcia Gilceane; Medeiros, Niara; Lacerda, Denise dos Santos; de Almeida, Daniela Campos; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Cláudia

    2013-11-01

    Serra Gaucha is described as the most important wine region of Brazil. Regarding cultivars widespread in the Serra Gaucha, about 90 % of the area is occupied by vines of Vitis labrusca that is the most important specie used in grape juice production. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of chronic intake of purple grape juice (organic and conventional) from Bordo variety (V. labrusca) on oxidative stress in different brain regions of rats supplemented with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. A total of 40 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received a standard diet and water, group 2 HFD and water, group 3 HFD and conventional grape juice (CGJ), and group 4 HFD and organic grape juice (OGJ). All groups had free access to food and drink and after 3 months of treatment the rats were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum isolated and homogenized on ice for oxidative stress analysis. We observed that the consumption of calories in HFD and control groups, were higher than the groups supplemented with HFD and grape juices and that HFD diet group gain more weight than the other animals. Our results also demonstrated that HDF enhanced lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein damage (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, reduced the non-enzymatic antioxidants defenses (sulfhydryl) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, reduced catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in all brain tissues and enhanced nitric oxide production in all cerebral tissues. CGJ and OGJ were able to ameliorate these oxidative alterations, being OGJ more effective in this protection. Therefore, grape juices could be useful in the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative damage.

  2. Fine-scale genetic structure of grape phylloxera from the roots and leaves of Vitis.

    PubMed

    Corrie, A M; Hoffmann, A A

    2004-02-01

    Patterns of variation at microsatellite loci suggest that root populations of the pest grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) are largely parthenogenetic in Australian vineyards. To investigate reproduction in leaf galling phylloxera and the association between these individuals and phylloxera on roots, we examined in detail genetic variation in phylloxera from a vineyard block. Some genotypes found on leaf galls within this block were not present on roots, whereas others spanned both zones. There was no evidence that genotypes on roots were the product of sexual reproduction in leaf galls. mtDNA variation was not associated with the location of the phylloxera clones. The spatial distribution of genotypes within a root population was further investigated by intensively sampling phylloxera from another vineyard block. Join-count spatial autocorrelation statistics were used to explore fine-scale spatial structure. Clones were nonrandomly distributed within the block and there was evidence that the distribution of clones followed rows. These findings suggest firstly that there is limited dispersal of root and leaf feeding phylloxera, and secondly that factors, other than vine host, are likely to be important and contribute to clonal structure within populations.

  3. An Sfp-type PPTase and associated polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases in Agrobacterium vitis are essential for induction of tobacco hypersensitive response and grape necrosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    An Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding gene F-avi5813 in Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 was found to be required for the induction of a tobacco hypersensitive response (HR) and grape necrosis. Sfp-type PPTases are post-translation modification enzymes that activate acyl-carry protein (ACP) domains in polyketide synthases (PKS) and peptidyl-carrier protein (PCP) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS). Mutagenesis of PKS and NRPS genes in A. vitis led to the identification of a PKS gene (F-avi4330) and NRPS gene (F-avi3342) that are both required for HR and necrosis. The gene immediately downstream of F-avi4330 (F-avi4329) encoding a predicted aminotransferase was also found to be required for HR and necrosis. Regulation of F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 by quorum-sensing genes avhR, aviR, and avsR and by a lysR-type regulator, lhnR, was investigated. It was determined that F-avi4330 expression is positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and lhnR and negatively regulated by avsR. F-avi3342 was found to be positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and avsR and negatively regulated by lhnR. Our results suggest that a putative hybrid peptide-polyketide metabolite synthesized by F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 is associated with induction of tobacco HR and grape necrosis. This is the first report that demonstrates that NRPS and PKS play essential roles in conferring the unique ability of A. vitis to elicit a non-host-specific HR and host-specific necrosis.

  4. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice.

  5. Cloning and characterization of Vitis vinifera UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, a homologue of the enzyme encoded by the maize Bronze-1 locus that may primarily serve to glucosylate anthocyanidins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ford, C M; Boss, P K; Hoj, P B

    1998-04-10

    We report here the cloning and optimized expression at 16 degrees C and the characterization of a Vitis vinifera UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for a late step in grapevine anthocyanin biosynthesis. The properties of this and other UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferases, homologues of the product encoded by the maize Bronze-1 locus, are a matter of conjecture. The availability of a purified recombinant enzyme allowed for the unambiguous determination of the characteristics of a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase. Kinetic analyses showed that kcat for glucosylation of cyanidin, an anthocyanidin substrate, is 48 times higher than for glucosylation of the flavonol quercetin, whereas Km values are similar for both substrates. Activity toward other classes of substrates is absent. Cu2+ ions strongly inhibit the action of this and other glucosyltransferases; however, we suggest that this phenomenon in large part is due to Cu2+-mediated substrate degradation rather than inhibition of the enzyme. Additional lines of complementary biochemical data also indicated that in the case of V. vinifera, the principal, if not only, role of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferases is to glucosylate anthocyanidins in red fruit during ripening. Other glucosyltransferases with a much higher relative activity toward quercetin are suggested to glucosylate flavonols in a distinct spatial and temporal pattern. It should be considered whether gene products homologous to Bronze-1 in some cases more accurately should be referred to as UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferases.

  6. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    PubMed

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  7. The coding region of the UFGT gene is a source of diagnostic SNP markers that allow single-locus DNA genotyping for the assessment of cultivar identity and ancestry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera L. is one of society’s most important agricultural crops with a broad genetic variability. The difficulty in recognizing grapevine genotypes based on ampelographic traits and secondary metabolites prompted the development of molecular markers suitable for achieving variety genetic identification. Findings Here, we propose a comparison between a multi-locus barcoding approach based on six chloroplast markers and a single-copy nuclear gene sequencing method using five coding regions combined with a character-based system with the aim of reconstructing cultivar-specific haplotypes and genotypes to be exploited for the molecular characterization of 157 V. vinifera accessions. The analysis of the chloroplast target regions proved the inadequacy of the DNA barcoding approach at the subspecies level, and hence further DNA genotyping analyses were targeted on the sequences of five nuclear single-copy genes amplified across all of the accessions. The sequencing of the coding region of the UFGT nuclear gene (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase, the key enzyme for the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins) enabled the discovery of discriminant SNPs (1/34 bp) and the reconstruction of 130 V. vinifera distinct genotypes. Most of the genotypes proved to be cultivar-specific, and only few genotypes were shared by more, although strictly related, cultivars. Conclusion On the whole, this technique was successful for inferring SNP-based genotypes of grapevine accessions suitable for assessing the genetic identity and ancestry of international cultivars and also useful for corroborating some hypotheses regarding the origin of local varieties, suggesting several issues of misidentification (synonymy/homonymy). PMID:24298902

  8. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

  9. Low-dose irradiation can be used as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh table grapes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gina C; Rakovski, Cyril; Caporaso, Fred; Prakash, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera var. Sugraone and Vitis labrusca var. Crimson Seedless) were treated with 400, 600, and 800 Gy and the effects on physicochemical factors were measured alongside sensory testing during 3 wk of storage. Significant changes in texture and color with irradiation and age were measured but little visual difference was seen between control and irradiated grapes. However, age had a greater effect on firmness than irradiation for Sugraone grapes. Irradiation did not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affect the SSC/TA ratio, which increased during storage. The trained panel detected significant changes in the berry texture and rachis color but rated sweetness and flavor significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) for irradiated Sugraone as compared to the control. Consumers liked both the untreated and 800 Gy treated Sugraone grapes, but liked the untreated grapes more for texture (P ≤ 0.05). However, there was no difference in liking between irradiated (600 Gy or 800 Gy) and control samples of Crimson Seedless for any attribute. The results show that there are varietal differences in response to irradiation but the overall maintenance in quality of irradiated grapes during 3 wk of storage indicates that irradiation can serve as a viable phytosanitary treatment. PMID:24460773

  10. 76 FR 66625 - Approval of Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... given names which will lead the public into believing they are Vitis vinifera varieties. This commenter does, however, express approval of the listing of Vitis vinifera variety names such as Auxerrois or Gr..., are popular in areas of the country where the climate makes the cultivation of Vitis...

  11. Within-Vineyard, Within-Vine, and Within-Bunch Variability of the Rotundone Concentration in Berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Barlow, Snow; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2015-05-01

    This study characterizes the environmental factors driving rotundone concentrations in grape berries by quantifying rotundone variability and correlating it with viticultural parameters. Dissection of the vineyard into distinct zones (on the basis of vigor, electrical soil conductivity, and slope), vine into orientations to sun (shaded/unshaded), and grape bunches into sectors (upper and lower and front and back) shows the influence of vine vigor, sunlight, and temperature. Occurrence of the highest rotundone concentration was observed in shaded bunch sectors and vines and from higher vigor vines in the southern-facing areas of the vineyard. The highest concentration of rotundone is consistently found at the top and in shaded sectors of bunches, and this correlates to lower grape surface temperatures. Modeling showed that berry temperature exceeding 25 °C negatively affects the rotundone concentration in Shiraz. Both natural and artificial shading modulated the grape surface and air temperature at the bunch zone and increased the rotundone concentration, without affecting other grape berry quality parameters. Thus, temperature and possibly sunlight interception are the main determinants of rotundone in grape berries. Vineyard topography, vine vigor, vine row, and grape bunch orientation influence the level of berry shading and can, therefore, adjust bunch surface and zone temperatures and influence the berry rotundone concentration. PMID:25891266

  12. Within-Vineyard, Within-Vine, and Within-Bunch Variability of the Rotundone Concentration in Berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Barlow, Snow; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2015-05-01

    This study characterizes the environmental factors driving rotundone concentrations in grape berries by quantifying rotundone variability and correlating it with viticultural parameters. Dissection of the vineyard into distinct zones (on the basis of vigor, electrical soil conductivity, and slope), vine into orientations to sun (shaded/unshaded), and grape bunches into sectors (upper and lower and front and back) shows the influence of vine vigor, sunlight, and temperature. Occurrence of the highest rotundone concentration was observed in shaded bunch sectors and vines and from higher vigor vines in the southern-facing areas of the vineyard. The highest concentration of rotundone is consistently found at the top and in shaded sectors of bunches, and this correlates to lower grape surface temperatures. Modeling showed that berry temperature exceeding 25 °C negatively affects the rotundone concentration in Shiraz. Both natural and artificial shading modulated the grape surface and air temperature at the bunch zone and increased the rotundone concentration, without affecting other grape berry quality parameters. Thus, temperature and possibly sunlight interception are the main determinants of rotundone in grape berries. Vineyard topography, vine vigor, vine row, and grape bunch orientation influence the level of berry shading and can, therefore, adjust bunch surface and zone temperatures and influence the berry rotundone concentration.

  13. Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species on grapes from Chilean vineyards and Aspergillus threshold levels on grapes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gonzalo A; Torres, René; Vega, Mario; Latorre, Bernardo A

    2009-07-31

    This study reports the incidence of ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus on Chilean grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wineries, and production of OTA levels in wines with grapes having different levels of contamination with OTA-producing Aspergillus carbonarius was studied. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. niveus, A. paradoxus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, and A. westerdijkiae were identified on apparently healthy clusters of red and white grape cultivars. However, A. carbonarius and A. niger were the most frequently identified species, more abundant on red than white grape cultivars. Aspergillus spp. populations increased between veraison and harvest, but the isolation frequencies were relatively low over the entire growing season. At the winery, A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. westerdijkiae were occasionally found in the air, exclusively during winemaking. OTA-producing strains were only found among isolates of A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. wenti, and A. westerdijkiae, producing 2 to 17 microg/L of OTA in liquid medium; however, A. westerdijkiae produced the highest OTA concentration in vitro. Red wines elaborated with 0.5% of grapes infected with an OTA-producing strain of A. carbonarius (Aspuc-SB36) exceeded the 2 microg/L of OTA tolerance established for wines by the European Community. Therefore, a threshold below 0.5% infected berries is proposed for red wines. ELISA tests proved to be useful for detecting OTA in broth culture as in wine samples.

  14. Targets of red grapes: oxidative damage of DNA and leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Anter, Jaouad; de Abreu-Abreu, Noriluz; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is a widespread crop all over the world. The biophenols present in grapes have a remarkable influence on wine quality and also confer potential health-protecting properties to this fruit. The aim of the present work was to assess the beneficial properties of skin, seeds and pulp of red table grapes (RTG) (Vitis vinifera, Palieri Cadiz variety). Two potential beneficial activities of red table grapes (RTG) were analyzed: (i) The maintenance of genomic stability studying their genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects, and (ii) the in vitro cytotoxic effect against tumor cells of RTG components. The genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic effect was measured applying the somatic mutation and recombination test on wing imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. The cytotoxic effect was monitored using the HL60 human leukemia model to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of the different parts of RTG. The three major parts (skin, seeds and pulp) are not genotoxic. When antigenotoxicity assays were performed using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidative genotoxin, skin, seed and pulp exerted a desmutagenic effect, with seeds and skin showing the most potent effect. The cytotoxicity tests using HL60 cells indicated that only skin and pulp fractions are able to inhibit the tumor growth, with skin having the lowest IC50 (1.8 mg/mL versus 8 mg/mL of pulp). These results suggest that RTG are potent anti-mutagens that protect DNA from oxidative damage as well as being cytotoxic toward the HL60 tumor cell line. PMID:21366047

  15. Cloning and Expression of a Hexose Transporter Gene Expressed during the Ripening of Grape Berry1

    PubMed Central

    Fillion, Laurent; Ageorges, Agnès; Picaud, Sarah; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Lemoine, Rémi; Romieu, Charles; Delrot, Serge

    1999-01-01

    The ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is characterized by massive sugar import into the berries. The events triggering this process and the pathways of assimilate transport are still poorly known. A genomic clone Vvht1 (Vitis vinifera hexose transporter1) and the corresponding cDNA encoding a hexose transporter whose expression is induced during berry ripening have been isolated. Vvht1 is expressed mainly in the berries, with a first peak of expression at anthesis, and a second peak about 5 weeks after véraison (a viniculture term for the inception of ripening). Vvht is strictly conserved between two grape cultivars (Pinot Noir and Ugni-Blanc). The organization of the Vvht1 genomic sequence is homologous to that of the Arabidopsis hexose transporter, but differs strongly from that of the Chlorella kessleri hexose transporter genes. The Vvht1 promoter sequence contains several potential regulating cis elements, including ethylene-, abscisic acid-, and sugar-responsive boxes. Comparison of the Vvht1 promoter with the promoter of grape alcohol dehydrogenase, which is expressed at the same time during ripening, also allowed the identification of a 15-bp consensus sequence, which suggests a possible co-regulation of the expression of these genes. The expression of Vvht1 during ripening indicates that sucrose is at least partially cleaved before uptake into the flesh cells. PMID:10444092

  16. New grape stems-based liqueur: Physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana; Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Pinto, Joana; Cunha, Maria; Rosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A number of traditional liqueurs are obtained by maceration of red fruits in aqueous ethanol liquor, namely sloe berries or sour cherry. On the other hand, the exploration of residual plant material derived from the winery industry (grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems), which has been regarded as an interesting source of colored and uncolored (poly)phenols, could lead to an industrial alternative to the traditional distilled spirits produced, with valuable physicochemical and phytochemical properties. In the present work, vinification residues (grape stems) were used to produce a new beverage. The evaluation of the physic-chemical characteristics and phytochemical composition as well as the evolution of the determined parameters during maceration (90 and 180 days) allowed a number of interesting bioactive compounds to be identified. This new beverage is a liqueur with a high retention of phenolic compounds (ortho-diphenols, flavanols, flavonols, and anthocyanins), with interesting physic-chemical characteristics, that revealed significant antioxidant activity. PMID:26213054

  17. Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases: functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries.

    PubMed

    Lücker, Joost; Bowen, Pat; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-10-01

    Valencene is a volatile sesquiterpene emitted from flowers of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. A full-length cDNA from the cultivar Gewürztraminer was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode valencene synthase (VvVal). The two major products formed by recombinant VvVal enzyme activity with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as substrate are (+)-valencene and (-)-7-epi-alpha-selinene. Grapevine valencene synthase is closely related to a second sesquiterpene synthase from this species, (-)-germacrene D synthase (VvGerD). VvVal and VvGerD cDNA probes revealed strong signals in Northern hybridizations with RNA isolated from grapevine flower buds. Transcript levels were lower in open pre-anthesis flowers, flowers after anthesis, or at early onset of fruit development. Similar results were obtained using a third probe, (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase, a monoterpenol synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase and monoterpene synthase transcripts were not detected in the mesocarp and exocarp during early stages of fruit development, but transcripts hybridizing with VvVal appeared during late ripening of the berries. Sesquiterpene synthase transcripts were also detected in young seeds. PMID:15464152

  18. Congruent Deep Relationships in the Grape Family (Vitaceae) Based on Sequences of Chloroplast Genomes and Mitochondrial Genes via Genome Skimming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Wen, Jun; Zimmer, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Vitaceae is well-known for having one of the most economically important fruits, i.e., the grape (Vitis vinifera). The deep phylogeny of the grape family was not resolved until a recent phylogenomic analysis of 417 nuclear genes from transcriptome data. However, it has been reported extensively that topologies based on nuclear and organellar genes may be incongruent due to differences in their evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a backbone phylogeny of the grape family using plastomes and mitochondrial genes. In this study, next-generation sequencing data sets of 27 species were obtained using genome skimming with total DNAs from silica-gel preserved tissue samples on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument. Plastomes were assembled using the combination of de novo and reference genome (of V. vinifera) methods. Sixteen mitochondrial genes were also obtained via genome skimming using the reference genome of V. vinifera. Extensive phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The topology based on either plastome data or mitochondrial genes is congruent with the one using hundreds of nuclear genes, indicating that the grape family did not exhibit significant reticulation at the deep level. The results showcase the power of genome skimming in capturing extensive phylogenetic data: especially from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs. PMID:26656830

  19. Congruent Deep Relationships in the Grape Family (Vitaceae) Based on Sequences of Chloroplast Genomes and Mitochondrial Genes via Genome Skimming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Wen, Jun; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Vitaceae is well-known for having one of the most economically important fruits, i.e., the grape (Vitis vinifera). The deep phylogeny of the grape family was not resolved until a recent phylogenomic analysis of 417 nuclear genes from transcriptome data. However, it has been reported extensively that topologies based on nuclear and organellar genes may be incongruent due to differences in their evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a backbone phylogeny of the grape family using plastomes and mitochondrial genes. In this study,next-generation sequencing data sets of 27 species were obtained using genome skimming with total DNAs from silica-gel preserved tissue samples on an Illumina NextSeq 500 instrument [corrected]. Plastomes were assembled using the combination of de novo and reference genome (of V. vinifera) methods. Sixteen mitochondrial genes were also obtained via genome skimming using the reference genome of V. vinifera. Extensive phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The topology based on either plastome data or mitochondrial genes is congruent with the one using hundreds of nuclear genes, indicating that the grape family did not exhibit significant reticulation at the deep level. The results showcase the power of genome skimming in capturing extensive phylogenetic data: especially from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs. PMID:26656830

  20. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+) haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+) haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+) became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+) has an additive effect with Rpv3(+) to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+) plants.

  1. Historical Introgression of the Downy Mildew Resistance Gene Rpv12 from the Asian Species Vitis amurensis into Grapevine Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance–a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola–was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old ‘Zarja severa’ and ‘Michurinets’. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12+ has an additive effect with Rpv3+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3+ plants. PMID:23593440

  2. Limited fungicide applications affect foliar and fruit disease severity and phytochemical content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry rot diseases cause significant reductions in yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but these losses may be reduced significantly by fungicide applications. Four studies were conducted to explore the relationship between yield, disease control, berry quality, and phytochemical content followin...

  3. Storage retention of stilbene, ellagic acid, favonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of ellagic acid and other other nutraceutical compounds in muscadine grapes add value and enhance the marketability of this southern U.S. specialty crop. Due to its nutraceutical profile, muscadines may potentially become the next “super fruit”. The objective of this study was to dete...

  4. Fruit quality, nutraceutical and antimicrobial properties of 58 muscadine grape varieties (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grown in United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Zhao, Lu; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2017-01-15

    Fifty-eight muscadine grape varieties were evaluated for their fruit quality, nutraceutical, and antimicrobial properties during two growing seasons (2012 vs. 2013). Fruit quality was significantly different among muscadine grape varieties, with weight ranged from 2.93 to 22.32g, pH from 3.01 to 3.84, titratable acidity from 0.27% to 0.83%, and °Brix from 10.92 to 23.91. Total phenols for different muscadine juices varied from 0.26 to 1.28mgGA/mL, skins from 10.13 to 30.02mgGA/g DM, and seeds from 22.47 to 72.01mgGA/g DM. Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of grape juices varied from 0.97 to 6.78mmolTrolox/mL, skins from 83.59 to 221.20μmolTrolox/g DM, and seeds from 178.22 to 619.73μmolTrolox/g DM. Study demonstratedgrape seed polyphenols (MIC 54.8-60.1μg/ml) showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than skin polyphenols (MIC 70.7-80.2μg/ml). This information could be a valuable asset in the research and extension of muscadine grapes. PMID:27542461

  5. Fruit quality, nutraceutical and antimicrobial properties of 58 muscadine grape varieties (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grown in United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Zhao, Lu; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2017-01-15

    Fifty-eight muscadine grape varieties were evaluated for their fruit quality, nutraceutical, and antimicrobial properties during two growing seasons (2012 vs. 2013). Fruit quality was significantly different among muscadine grape varieties, with weight ranged from 2.93 to 22.32g, pH from 3.01 to 3.84, titratable acidity from 0.27% to 0.83%, and °Brix from 10.92 to 23.91. Total phenols for different muscadine juices varied from 0.26 to 1.28mgGA/mL, skins from 10.13 to 30.02mgGA/g DM, and seeds from 22.47 to 72.01mgGA/g DM. Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of grape juices varied from 0.97 to 6.78mmolTrolox/mL, skins from 83.59 to 221.20μmolTrolox/g DM, and seeds from 178.22 to 619.73μmolTrolox/g DM. Study demonstratedgrape seed polyphenols (MIC 54.8-60.1μg/ml) showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than skin polyphenols (MIC 70.7-80.2μg/ml). This information could be a valuable asset in the research and extension of muscadine grapes.

  6. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants. PMID:26575143

  7. luxR homolog avhR in Agrobacterium vitis affects the development of a grape-specific necrosis and a tobacco hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Zhang, Hongsheng; Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The luxR homolog aviR in Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 was recently shown to be associated with induction of a hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco and necrosis on grape plants, indicating that the responses are regulated by quorum sensing. We now report a second luxR homolog, avhR, whose disruption (mutant M1320) results in HR-negative and reduced grape necrosis phenotypes. The deduced AvhR protein has characteristic autoinducer binding and DNA binding domains and is unique among reported functional LuxR homologs in having substitutions at highly conserved Asp70, Trp57, and Trp85 residues, which are predicted to play important roles in autoinducer binding in TraR. M1320 was fully complemented with cloned avhR. The same array of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) from F2/5, M1320, and complemented M1320 were observed; however, the signal strength from extracts of 6-day-old M1320 cultures was stronger than that of F2/5. Cultures of F2/5 amended with AHL extracts from overnight and 6-day cultures of F2/5 and M1320 were not affected in ability to cause HR or necrosis. A region of about 14 kb flanking avhR was sequenced and compared with homologous regions of A. tumefaciens C58 and Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 genomes. Gene order and homology are conserved between the species. A site-directed mutation in a putative gene that resides downstream of avhR and that has homology to genes belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporter family did not affect HR or necrosis phenotypes. It was determined that avhR and aviR are expressed independently and that neither regulates the expression of a clpA homolog in F2/5. PMID:15601702

  8. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants.

  9. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  10. Phenolic content of grapevine leaves (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) and its neuroprotective effect against peroxide damage.

    PubMed

    Dani, C; Oliboni, L S; Agostini, F; Funchal, C; Serafini, L; Henriques, J A; Salvador, M

    2010-02-01

    In some countries, leaves of Vitis vinifera grapes have been used for food and for treating many medical disorders. However, there are no studies on the leaves of Vitis labrusca, the main species used for wine and juice production in South America. In this work, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of organic and conventional grape leaves extracts prepared from V. labrusca (var. Bordo) in brain tissues (in vitro model) have been evaluated. Both organic and conventional grape leaves extracts have similar total phenolic content, however, different patterns were observed for the main phenolic compounds of both kinds of leaves. The organic leaves extract showed about 10 times more resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts were able to reduce the lipid and protein damages induced by hydrogen peroxide in the brain of rats. This effect was accompanied by the reversion of the hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Negative correlations between lipid and protein damages and the levels of polyphenols were found, suggesting that these compounds contribute directly to the protective effect observed.

  11. Microcollinearity in an ethylene receptor coding gene region of the Coffea canephora genome is extensively conserved with Vitis vinifera and other distant dicotyledonous sequenced genomes

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Romain; de la Mare, Marion; Viader, Véronique; Hamon, Perla; Coriton, Olivier; Bustamante-Porras, José; Poncet, Valérie; Campa, Claudine; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Background Coffea canephora, also called Robusta, belongs to the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm family. This diploid species (2x = 2n = 22) has a fairly small genome size of ≈ 690 Mb and despite its extreme economic importance, particularly for developing countries, knowledge on the genome composition, structure and evolution remain very limited. Here, we report the 160 kb of the first C. canephora Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone ever sequenced and its fine analysis. Results This clone contains the CcEIN4 gene, encoding an ethylene receptor, and twenty other predicted genes showing a high gene density of one gene per 7.8 kb. Most of them display perfect matches with C. canephora expressed sequence tags or show transcriptional activities through PCR amplifications on cDNA libraries. Twenty-three transposable elements, mainly Class II transposon derivatives, were identified at this locus. Most of these Class II elements are Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITE) known to be closely associated with plant genes. This BAC composition gives a pattern similar to those found in gene rich regions of Solanum lycopersicum and Medicago truncatula genomes indicating that the CcEIN4 regions may belong to a gene rich region in the C. canephora genome. Comparative sequence analysis indicated an extensive conservation between C. canephora and most of the reference dicotyledonous genomes studied in this work, such as tomato (S. lycopersicum), grapevine (V. vinifera), barrel medic M. truncatula, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The higher degree of microcollinearity was found between C. canephora and V. vinifera, which belong respectively to the Asterids and Rosids, two clades that diverged more than 114 million years ago. Conclusion This study provides a first glimpse of C. canephora genome composition and evolution. Our data revealed a remarkable conservation of the microcollinearity between C. canephora and V

  12. Volatile Compounds from Grape Skin, Juice and Wine from Five Interspecific Hybrid Grape Cultivars Grown in Québec (Canada) for Wine Production.

    PubMed

    Slegers, Amélie; Angers, Paul; Ouellet, Étienne; Truchon, Tamara; Pedneault, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and North American Vitis species, interspecific hybrid grape varieties are becoming economically significant in northern areas, where they are now extensively grown for wine production. However, the varietal differences between interspecific hybrids are not well defined, nor are the relationships between hybrid grape and wine composition, which causes significant drawbacks in the development of viticulture and winemaking of northern wines. In an effort to increase our understanding of interspecific hybrids, we have characterized the free volatile compounds profiles of berries (juice and skin) and wines of five red hybrid varieties (Frontenac, Marquette, Maréchal Foch, Sabrevois and St. Croix) grown in Québec (Canada), using GC-MS(TOF)-SPME. In grapes and wines, significantly higher levels of C6 and other fatty acid degradation products (FADP) were found in Frontenac, Maréchal Foch and Marquette. Terpenes were primarily located in the skin, with Marquette showing the highest level for these compounds. Both the level of terpenes and the level of FADP in grape were strongly correlated with their respective levels in wine, as demonstrated by the redundancy analyses. Nonanal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, β-damascenone, ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate showed the highest OAVs in the wines of the studied varieties. PMID:26083035

  13. Effect of Thymol and Linalool Fumigation on Postharvest Diseases of Table Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  14. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  15. Effects of introducing threatened falcons into vineyards on abundance of passeriformes and bird damage to grapes.

    PubMed

    Kross, Sara M; Tylianakis, Jason M; Nelson, Ximena J

    2012-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes are becoming an important focus of animal conservation, although initiatives to conserve predators to date have rarely provided economic benefits to agricultural producers. We examined whether introduction to vineyards of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae), a species listed as threatened by the New Zealand Department of Conservation, affected the abundance of 4 species of Passeriformes that are considered vineyard pests or affected the amount of economic loss due to grape (Vitis vinifera) damage. Three of the species were introduced and remove whole grapes from bunches (Blackbird [Turdus merula], Song Thrush [Turdus philomelos], and Starling [Sturnus vulgaris]), whereas the one native species (Silvereye [Zosterops lateralis]) pecks holes in grapes. The introduction of falcons to vineyards was associated with a significant decrease in the abundance of introduced passerines and with a 95% reduction in the number of grapes removed relative to vineyards without falcons. Falcon presence was not associated with a change in the number of Silvereyes, but there was a 55% reduction in the number of grapes pecked in vineyards with falcons. Our results indicate that, relative to damage in vineyards without falcons, the presence of a falcon could potentially result in savings of US$234/ha for the Sauvignon Blanc variety of grapes and $326/ha for Pinot Noir variety of grapes.

  16. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.

  17. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  18. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  19. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  20. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  1. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  2. Vitis Phylogenomics: Hybridization Intensities from a SNP Array Outperform Genotype Calls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison J.; Matasci, Naim; Schwaninger, Heidi; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward S.; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Understanding relationships among species is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through next generation sequencing and related technologies enable phylogeny reconstruction by providing unprecedented numbers of characters for analysis. One approach to SNP-based phylogeny reconstruction is to identify SNPs in a subset of individuals, and then to compile SNPs on an array that can be used to genotype additional samples at hundreds or thousands of sites simultaneously. Although powerful and efficient, this method is subject to ascertainment bias because applying variation discovered in a representative subset to a larger sample favors identification of SNPs with high minor allele frequencies and introduces bias against rare alleles. Here, we demonstrate that the use of hybridization intensity data, rather than genotype calls, reduces the effects of ascertainment bias. Whereas traditional SNP calls assess known variants based on diversity housed in the discovery panel, hybridization intensity data survey variation in the broader sample pool, regardless of whether those variants are present in the initial SNP discovery process. We apply SNP genotype and hybridization intensity data derived from the Vitis9kSNP array developed for grape to show the effects of ascertainment bias and to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among Vitis species. We demonstrate that phylogenies constructed using hybridization intensities suffer less from the distorting effects of ascertainment bias, and are thus more accurate than phylogenies based on genotype calls. Moreover, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus Vitis using hybridization data, show that North American subgenus Vitis species are monophyletic, and resolve several previously poorly known relationships among North American species. This study builds on earlier work that applied the Vitis9kSNP array to evolutionary questions within Vitis vinifera and has general

  3. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress. PMID:25462972

  4. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought.

    PubMed

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-11-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration.

  5. Determination of abscisic acid and its glucosyl ester in embryogenic callus cultures of Vitis vinifera in relation to the maturation of somatic embryos using a new liquid chromatography-ELISA analysis method.

    PubMed

    Prado, María Jesús; Largo, Asier; Domínguez, Cristina; González, María Victoria; Rey, Manuel; Centeno, María Luz

    2014-06-15

    The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), its conjugate ABA-GE, and IAA were determined in embryogenic calli of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Mencía) cultured in DM1 differentiation medium, to relate them to the maturation process of somatic embryos. To achieve this goal, we developed an analytical method that included two steps of solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation by HPLC, ABA-GE hydrolysis, and sensitive ELISA quantification. Because the ABA immunoassay was based on new polyclonal antibodies raised against a C4'-ABA conjugate, the assay was characterized (detection limit, midrange, measure range, and cross-reaction) and validated by a comparison of the ABA data obtained with this ELISA procedure and with a physicochemical method (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Radioactive-labeled internal standards were initially added to callus extracts to correct the losses of plant hormones, and thus assure the accuracy of the measurements. The endogenous concentration of ABA in the embryogenic callus cultured in DM1 medium was doubled at the fifth week of culture, concurring with the maturation process of somatic embryos, as indicated by the accumulation of carbohydrates observed through histological analysis. The ABA-GE content was higher than ABA, decreasing at 21 days of culture in DM1 medium but increasing thereafter. The data suggest the involvement of the synthesis and conjugation of ABA in the final stages of development in grapevine somatic embryos from embryogenic callus. IAA levels were low, suggesting that auxin plays no significant role during the maturation of somatic embryos. In addition, the lower ABA levels in calli cultured in DM differentiation medium with PGRs, a medium presenting high precocious germination and deficiencies in somatic embryo development indicate that an increase in ABA content during the development of somatic embryos in grapevine is necessary for their correct maturation.

  6. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress.

  7. Determination of abscisic acid and its glucosyl ester in embryogenic callus cultures of Vitis vinifera in relation to the maturation of somatic embryos using a new liquid chromatography-ELISA analysis method.

    PubMed

    Prado, María Jesús; Largo, Asier; Domínguez, Cristina; González, María Victoria; Rey, Manuel; Centeno, María Luz

    2014-06-15

    The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), its conjugate ABA-GE, and IAA were determined in embryogenic calli of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Mencía) cultured in DM1 differentiation medium, to relate them to the maturation process of somatic embryos. To achieve this goal, we developed an analytical method that included two steps of solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation by HPLC, ABA-GE hydrolysis, and sensitive ELISA quantification. Because the ABA immunoassay was based on new polyclonal antibodies raised against a C4'-ABA conjugate, the assay was characterized (detection limit, midrange, measure range, and cross-reaction) and validated by a comparison of the ABA data obtained with this ELISA procedure and with a physicochemical method (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Radioactive-labeled internal standards were initially added to callus extracts to correct the losses of plant hormones, and thus assure the accuracy of the measurements. The endogenous concentration of ABA in the embryogenic callus cultured in DM1 medium was doubled at the fifth week of culture, concurring with the maturation process of somatic embryos, as indicated by the accumulation of carbohydrates observed through histological analysis. The ABA-GE content was higher than ABA, decreasing at 21 days of culture in DM1 medium but increasing thereafter. The data suggest the involvement of the synthesis and conjugation of ABA in the final stages of development in grapevine somatic embryos from embryogenic callus. IAA levels were low, suggesting that auxin plays no significant role during the maturation of somatic embryos. In addition, the lower ABA levels in calli cultured in DM differentiation medium with PGRs, a medium presenting high precocious germination and deficiencies in somatic embryo development indicate that an increase in ABA content during the development of somatic embryos in grapevine is necessary for their correct maturation. PMID:24877677

  8. The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi amplified from grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera L.) in Oregon vineyards is seasonally stable and influenced by soil and vine age.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, R Paul; Mihara, Keiko L

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in 10 Oregon vineyards was assessed by examining spores in soil and amplifying mycorrhizal DNA from roots. Seventeen spore morphotypes were found in soil, including seven species in the Acaulosporaceae. Eighteen phylotypes were amplified from grape roots with AM1 and NS31 primers, and clones were dominated by Glomus spp. (> 99%). A few clones (< 1%) representing a single phylotype within Gigasporaceae, and a single clone within Archaeosporaceae were amplified from roots with AM1-NS31 primers. A separate experiment employing known proportions of grape roots colonized by Glomus intraradices or by Gigaspora rosea showed that fungi within Gigasporaceae might be underrepresented in clone abundance when Glomus spp. co-occur in roots. No clones representing fungi within the Acaulosporaceae were amplified from vineyards, although specific fungi within Acaulosporaceae were shown to colonize Pinot noir roots in sterilized soil and were amplified from these roots. Four Glomus phylotypes, including G. intraradices, were found in roots from all 10 vineyards, and these fungi accounted for 81% of clones. AMF phylotypes amplified from roots did not change during the growing season, although six phylotypes varied with soil type. The presence of three phylotypes was affected by vineyard age, and phylotype richness appeared to decline as vineyard age increased beyond 20 y. PCA analysis supported the hypothesis that the AMF community is different in red-hill soils than in valley soils and indicated certain phylotypes might be associated with lower soil and vine nutrient status. However, the changes in the AMF community in grape roots across vineyards were subtle because most root samples were dominated by the same three or four phylotypes. A separate analysis using primers to amplify AMF from the Archeasporaceae/Paraglomeraceae showed most root samples also were colonized by at least one Paraglomus or Archaeospora phylotype.

  9. [Eff