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Sample records for grapevine vitis vinifera

  1. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Alain; Torregrosa, Laurent; Iocco, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal co-cultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system which meets the above mentioned criteria.

  2. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  3. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants. PMID:25416258

  4. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. PMID:27161583

  5. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation.

  6. Inflorescence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): a high ability to distribute its own assimilates.

    PubMed

    Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Maillard, Pascale; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Gross, Patrick; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of carbon (C) into whole grapevine fruiting cuttings was investigated during flower development to determine the relative contribution of inflorescence and leaf photoassimilates in the total C balance and to investigate their partitioning towards other plant organs. A (13)C labelling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates by leaves and inflorescences in grapevine. Investigations were carried out at various stages of flower/berry development, from separated cluster to fruit set, using grapevine fruiting cuttings with four leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay). This is the first study reporting that, during its development, (i) the carbon needs of the inflorescence were met by both leaf and inflorescence photosynthesis, and (ii) the inflorescence amazingly participated significantly to the total C balance of grapevine cuttings by redistributing an important part of its own assimilates to other plant organs. With regard to flowering, 29% of C assimilated by the inflorescence remained in the inflorescence, while partitioning towards the stem reached 42% and, as a lower proportion, 15% in leaves, and 14% in roots.

  7. VTCdb: a gene co-expression database for the crop species Vitis vinifera (grapevine)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene expression datasets in model plants such as Arabidopsis have contributed to our understanding of gene function and how a single underlying biological process can be governed by a diverse network of genes. The accumulation of publicly available microarray data encompassing a wide range of biological and environmental conditions has enabled the development of additional capabilities including gene co-expression analysis (GCA). GCA is based on the understanding that genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit comparable expression patterns over a range of experimental conditions, developmental stages and tissues. We present an open access database for the investigation of gene co-expression networks within the cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera. Description The new gene co-expression database, VTCdb (http://vtcdb.adelaide.edu.au/Home.aspx), offers an online platform for transcriptional regulatory inference in the cultivated grapevine. Using condition-independent and condition-dependent approaches, grapevine co-expression networks were constructed using the latest publicly available microarray datasets from diverse experimental series, utilising the Affymetrix Vitis vinifera GeneChip (16 K) and the NimbleGen Grape Whole-genome microarray chip (29 K), thus making it possible to profile approximately 29,000 genes (95% of the predicted grapevine transcriptome). Applications available with the online platform include the use of gene names, probesets, modules or biological processes to query the co-expression networks, with the option to choose between Affymetrix or Nimblegen datasets and between multiple co-expression measures. Alternatively, the user can browse existing network modules using interactive network visualisation and analysis via CytoscapeWeb. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we present examples from three fundamental biological processes (berry development, photosynthesis and

  8. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Wang, Gang; Liang, Ying-Hai; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; Pezzotti, Mario; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2014-01-01

    The plant WRKY gene family represents an ancient and complex class of zinc-finger transcription factors (TFs) that are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as development and senescence, and in plant response to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite the growing number of studies on the genomic organisation of WRKY gene family in different species, little information is available about this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In the present study, a total number of 59 putative grapevine WRKY transcription factors (VvWRKYs) were identified based on the analysis of various genomic and proteomic grapevine databases. According to their structural and phylogentic features, the identified grapevine WRKY transcription factors were classified into three main groups. In order to shed light into their regulatory roles in growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stress in grapevine, the VvWRKYs expression profiles were examined in publicly available microarray data. Bioinformatics analysis of these data revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvWRKYs in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. To also extend our analysis to situations not covered by the arrays and to validate our results, the expression profiles of selected VvWRKYs in response to drought stress, Erysiphe necator (powdery mildew) infection, and hormone treatments (salicilic acid and ethylene), were investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in grapevine. PMID:26504535

  9. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  10. Transcriptional analysis of tendril and inflorescence development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Carmona, María J

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes.

  11. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Debez, Ahmed; Mahmoudi, Henda; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-05-01

    Morpho-physiological responses to bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency were investigated in five Vitis vinifera L. Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Blanc3, Arich Dressé, Beldi, and Balta4). One-month-old woody cuttings were cultivated for 85days on a free calcareous soil irrigated with tap water containing increasing bicarbonate levels (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16mM NaHCO(3)). After this screening, a second experiment compared root biochemical responses of two contrasting genotypes (tolerant-sensitive) dealing with bicarbonate-induced iron deprivation (20microM Fe+/-10mM HCO(3)(-)) for 75days. Using morpho-physiological criteria, grapevine tolerance to HCO(3)(-)-induced Fe shortage appeared to be genotype-dependent: Balta4 and Beldi varieties showed the highest leaf-chlorosis score (especially at the extreme HCO(3)(-) levels), in contrast to Khamri variety. Growth parameters (shoot height, total leaf area, leaf number, and biomass production) as well as juvenile leaf chlorophyll content were also differently affected depending on both genotype and bicarbonate dose. At 16mM HCO(3)(-), Khamri was the less sensitive variety, contrasting with Balta4. On the other hand, chlorophyll content correlated positively with HCl-extractible Fe content of the juvenile leaves, suggesting that the grapevine response to iron deficiency may partly depend on to the plant ability to adequately supply young leaves with this element. Root biochemical responses revealed a relatively higher root acidification capacity in Khamri (tolerant) under Fe-deficiency while no significant changes occurred in Balta4 (sensitive). In addition, Fe(III)-reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) activities were strongly stimulated by Fe-deficiency in Khamri, while remaining constant in Balta4. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis. PMID:17468003

  12. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  13. Differentiation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) conculta members based on molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, Peter; Szoke, Antal; Toth-Lencses, Kitti; Veres, Aniko; Deak, Tamas; Kozma, Pal; Bisztray, Gyorgy Denes; Kiss, Erzsebet

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-seven grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties within 12 putative berry colour variation groups (conculta) were genotyped with 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite (simple sequence repeats (SSR)) markers. Three additional oligonucleotide primers were applied for the detection of the Gret1 retroelement insertion in the promoter region of VvMybA1 transcription factor gene regulating the UFGT (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) activity. UFGT is the key enzyme of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. SSR results proved that the analysed cultivars can be grouped only into nine concultas, the other three putative berry colour variant groups consist of homonyms as a consequence of misnaming. In the case of Sárfehér-Sárpiros, Delaware red-Delaware white and Járdovány fekete-Járdovány fehér, it was attested that they are not bud sports, but homonyms. Some conculta members could be differentiated according to the presence or the absence of the Gret1 retroelement (Chasselas, Furmint and Lisztes), while others, Bajor, Bakator, Gohér and Traminer conculta members, remained indistinguishable either by the microsatellites or the Gret1-based method. PMID:26019484

  14. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines. PMID:26174183

  15. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  16. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  17. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  18. Survey of grapevine Vitis vinifera stem polyphenols by liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Püssa, Tõnu; Floren, Janar; Kuldkepp, Paul; Raal, Ain

    2006-10-01

    Grapes and red wine prepared from Vitis vinifera L. contain a variety of polyphenols. Some information is available about the polyphenols of the seeds and leaves of grapevine, but considerably less is known about the polyphenols of woody stems. In this paper, we describe the results of a study of polyphenolic compounds in grapevine stems. We demonstrate how a combination of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry ion-trap detection enables characterization of a phytochemical mixture of considerable complexity. As the polyphenol source, the stems of three frost-hardy grapevine varieties [Hasaine (Hasansky) sladki, Zilga, and Yubilei Novgoroda] were used. The main group of methanol-extractable polyphenols of stems consists of trans-resveratrol and its derivatives including oligomers and glucosides. As minor components of the extract, stilbenoid piceatannol as well as a number of nonstilbenoid polyphenols, mostly flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids glucosides, were determined. The total polyphenol content of the grapevine stems depends on the variety, whereby the stems of cultivar Yubilei Novgoroda with white grapes contain significantly less of both groups of polyphenols.

  19. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  20. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  1. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil. PMID:27119057

  2. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants.

  3. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  4. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  5. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  6. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  7. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  8. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves.

  9. Modulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes and anthocyanins due to virus infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Symptoms of grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) in red-fruited wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars consist of green veins and red and reddish-purple discoloration of inter-veinal areas of leaves. The reddish-purple color of symptomatic leaves may be due to the accumulation of anthocyanins and could reflect an up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. Results We examined six putative constitutively expressed genes, Ubiquitin, Actin, GAPDH, EF1-a, SAND and NAD5, for their potential as references for normalization of gene expression in reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Using the geNorm program, a combination of two genes (Actin and NAD5) was identified as the stable set of reference genes for normalization of gene expression data obtained from grapevine leaves. By using gene-specific RT-qPCR in combination with a reliable normalization factor, we compared relative expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes between leaves infected with Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and exhibiting GLRD symptoms and virus-free green leaves obtained from a red-fruited wine grape cultivar (cv. Merlot). The expression levels of these different genes ranged from two- to fifty-fold increase in virus-infected leaves. Among them, CHS3, F3'5'H, F3H1, LDOX, LAR1 and MybA1 showed greater than 10-fold increase suggesting that they were expressed at significantly higher levels in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. HPLC profiling of anthocyanins extracted from leaves indicated the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside only in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. The results also showed 24% higher levels of flavonols in virus-infected symptomatic leaves than in virus-free green leaves, with quercetin followed by myricetin being the predominant compounds. Proanthocyanidins, estimated as total tannins by protein precipitation method, were 36% higher in virus-infected symptomatic

  10. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D.; Considine, John A.; Foyer, Christine H.; Considine, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. Methods The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Key Results Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Conclusions Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. PMID:26337519

  11. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase.

  12. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  13. Eriophyoid mite damage in Vitis vinifera (grapevine) in Australia: Calepitrimerus vitis and Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) as the common cause of the widespread 'Restricted Spring Growth' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Martina B; Horne, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2005-01-01

    Leaf and shoot distortions and retarded shoot growth in Vitis vinifera L. prevalent in Australian vineyards in early spring, were investigated in replicated field experiments over 3 yrs. Leaf distortion and retarded shoot growth were identified as damage due to feeding of extremely high populations of over-wintered deutogynes of Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) (grape rust mite). This damage was hitherto known in Australia as 'Restricted Spring Growth' (RSG), a syndrome comprising several growth abnormality symptoms, none with a clearly identified cause or a successful treatment. A successful treatment against C. vitis was used to selectively eliminate RSG, while C. vitis numbers were recorded using a validated trapping technique; intercepting deutogynes migrating from winter shelters in the wooden vine structure, to emerging green tissues. Severe leaf distortion was associated with > 400 C. vitis deutogynes per spur, while > 1000 per spur had the added effect of severely retarding shoot growth. A 43.0-47.2% shoot length reduction was recorded for Cabernet Sauvignon, 27.1-32.8% for Sauvignon Blanc, when 4-6 leaves were separated. Symptoms were most prominent up to 8-9 separated leaves, however 24.7-30.4% shoot length reduction was still evident at flowering, and 12.8% circa fruit set. C. vitis effect on vine fruitfulness, and yield parameters at fruit set, were also studied. Once successfully treated to prevent C. vitis damage, poor bud burst remained evident in some vineyards. Surveys of unburst buds from such vineyards revealed presence of Colomerus vitis (Pagenstecher) (grape bud mite). When Col. vitis numbers in unburst buds reached 100-500 per bud, apical meristems of primary, and commonly also secondary buds were dead, preventing bud burst. The remaining living scale tissue was distinctly scarred. Bud and associated shoot damage were documented. Retarded shoot growth and leaf distortion, previously attributed to RSG, are misdiagnosed C. vitis spring feeding

  14. Co-evolution between Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus and Vitis vinifera L. leads to decreased defence responses and increased transcription of genes related to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Cuozzo, Danila; Fasoli, Marianna; Pagliarani, Chiara; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Pezzotti, Mario; Mannini, Franco

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a widespread virus infecting Vitis spp. Although it has established a compatible viral interaction in Vitis vinifera without the development of phenotypic alterations, it can occur as distinct variants that show different symptoms in diverse Vitis species. The changes induced by GRSPaV in V. vinifera cv 'Bosco', an Italian white grape variety, were investigated by combining agronomic, physiological, and molecular approaches, in order to provide comprehensive information about the global effects of GRSPaV. In two years, this virus caused a moderate decrease in physiological efficiency, yield performance, and sugar content in berries associated with several transcriptomic alterations. Transcript profiles were analysed by a microarray technique in petiole, leaf, and berry samples collected at véraison and by real-time RT-PCR in a time course carried out at five grapevine developmental stages. Global gene expression analyses showed that transcriptomic changes were highly variable among the different organs and the different phenological phases. GRSPaV triggers some unique responses in the grapevine at véraison, never reported before for other plant-virus interactions. These responses include an increase in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation, a moderate reduction in the photosynthesis rate and some defence mechanisms, and an overlap with responses to water and salinity stresses. It is hypothesized that the long co-existence of grapevine and GRSPaV has resulted in the evolution of a form of mutual adaptation between the virus and its host. This study contributes to elucidating alternative mechanisms used by infected plants to contend with viruses. PMID:22987838

  15. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  16. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  17. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens.

  18. Xylem vessel relays contribute to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Connectivity within xylem networks plays an important role in the movement of water and nutrients through plants, but also facilitates the spread of pathogens and embolisms that increase hydraulic resistance. This study describes a unique anatomical feature found in grapevine xylem that forms radial...

  19. Restructuring of endophytic bacterial communities in grapevine yellows-diseased and recovered Vitis vinifera L. plants.

    PubMed

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response. PMID:21622794

  20. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  1. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  2. Relative quantification of phosphoproteomic changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves in response to abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rattanakan, Supakan; George, Iniga; Haynes, Paul A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods. Each identified common proteins, but also additional proteins not found with the other method. Overall, several thousand proteins were identified and several hundred were quantified. In addition, hundreds of phosphoproteins were identified. Tens of proteins were found to be affected in the leaf after the roots had been exposed to ABA for 2 h, more than half of them were phosphorylated proteins. Many phosphosites were confirmed and several new ones were identified. ABA increased the abundance of some proteins, but the majority of the proteins had their protein abundance decreased. Many of these proteins were involved in growth and plant organ development, including proteins involved in protein synthesis, photosynthesis, sugar and amino-acid metabolism. This study provides new insights into how ABA regulates plant responses and acclimation to water deficits. PMID:27366326

  3. Biodegradation of profenofos by Bacillus subtilis isolated from grapevines (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Varsha P; Sawant, Indu S; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rajguru, Yogita R; Wadkar, Pallavi N; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Naik, Dattatraya G; Sawant, Sanjay D

    2013-07-31

    The biodegradation of profenofos, an organophosphorus insecticide, by four Bacillus subtilis strains, namely, DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204, isolated from grapevines or grape rhizosphere was studied in liquid culture, on grape berries, and in vineyard soil. Each of the four B. subtilis strains enhanced the degradation of profenofos in all three matrices. Degradation rate constants were best obtained by first + first-order kinetics module. In nutrient broth spiked with 5 μg/mL profenofos, inoculation with B. subtilis strains DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204 reduced the half-life (DT50) of profenofos to 4.03, 3.57, 2.87, and 2.53 days, respectively, from the DT50 = 12.90 days observed in the uninoculated control. In Thompson Seedless grapes sprayed with profenofos at a field dose of 1250 mL ai/ha, the DT50 values were 1.07, 1.00, 2.13, and 2.20 days in grapes inoculated with B. subtilis strains DR-39, CS-126, TL-171, and TS-204, respectively, as compared to 2.20 days in uninoculated grapes. These four B. subtilis strains also enhanced the degradation of profenofos in autoclaved soil (DT50 = 5.93, 7.47, 6.00, and 4.37 days) and in nonautoclaved soil (DT50 = 0.87, 2.00, 2.07, and 2.43 days) amended with 5 μg/g profenofos from the half-lives of 17.37 and 14.37 days in respective uninoculated soils. Growth dynamic studies indicated that all four B. subtilis strains were able to establish and proliferate on berries and soil equally well in the presence or absence of profenofos. Degradation product 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol was identified by GC-MS. Strain DR-39 was most effective in the natural environments of grape and soil. PMID:23806113

  4. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase (VvGT5) from the grapevine Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Mizohata, Eiichi; Okuda, Takuma; Hatanaka, Seika; Nakayama, Taisuke; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakayama, Toru; Ono, Eiichiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) glycosyltransferase 5 (VvGT5) is a UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase that catalyses the 3-O-specific glucuronosylation of flavonols using UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor to produce flavonol 3-O-glucosides, which are important bioactive phytochemicals. Recombinant VvGT5 expressed in Escherichia coli cells was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A full set of X-ray diffraction data was collected to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing from a single crystal using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal was hexagonal, belonging to space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 102.70, c = 535.92 Å. The initial phases were determined by the molecular-replacement method. PMID:23295490

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. PMID:26160581

  7. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with the early berry development in the seedless grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar Sultanine.

    PubMed

    Costenaro-da-Silva, Danielle; Passaia, Gisele; Henriques, João A P; Margis, Rogério; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís F

    2010-11-01

    Sultanine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important commercial seedless table-grape varieties and the main source of seedlessness for breeding programs around the world. Despite its commercial relevance, little is known about the genetic control of seedlessness in grapes, remaining unknown the molecular identity of genes responsible for such phenotype. Actually, studies concerning berry development in seedless grapes are scarce at the molecular level. We therefore developed a representational difference analysis (RDA) modified method named Bulk Representational Analysis of Transcripts (BRAT) in the attempt to identify genes specifically associated with each of the main developmental stages of Sultanine grapevine berries. A total of 2400 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and cloned by RDA according to three specific developmental berry stages. After sequencing and in silico analysis, 1554 (64.75%) TDFs were validated according to our sequence quality cut-off. The assembly of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) yielded 504 singletons and 77 clusters, with an overall EST redundancy of approximately 67%. Amongst all stage-specific cDNAs, nine candidate genes were selected and, along with two reference genes, submitted to a deeper analysis of their temporal expression profiles by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Seven out of nine genes proved to be in agreement with the stage-specific expression that allowed their isolation by RDA. PMID:21802609

  8. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A.

  10. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M. Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2·- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  11. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of [Formula: see text] and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on 'pure' biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  12. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  13. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly [1]. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and

  14. Induction of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and transgenic stilbene synthase-apple plants (Malus domestica) by a culture filtrate of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Judith; Brunner, Philipp; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Products containing the epiphytic yeast Aureobasidium pullulans are commercially available and applied by fruit growers to prevent several fungal and bacterial diseases of fruit trees. The proposed beneficial mechanisms relate to limitations of space and nutrients for the pathogens in presence of the rapidly proliferating yeast cells. These explanations ignore the potential of yeasts to elicit the plant's defense. Our experiments aim at clarifying if an autoclaved and centrifuged suspension of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms. As a model system, the biosynthesis and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in callus and shoots of grapevine Vitis vinifera grown in vitro was used. Yeast application to the plant tissue stimulated stilbene biosynthesis, sometimes at the cost of flavonoids. The expression of the gene encoding stilbene synthase was enhanced and the enzyme showed higher activity while chalcone synthase activity and expression was reduced in some cases. An accumulation of stilbenes was also found in transgenic apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Holsteiner Cox) harboring the stilbene synthase-gene under control of its own promoter. These results clearly show that the application of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms of the treated plants.

  15. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  16. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (−)-rotundone

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (−)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (−)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (−)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (−)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (−)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (−)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. PMID:26590863

  17. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  18. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  19. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism.

  20. A Dense Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Genetic Linkage Map of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Anchoring Pinot Noir Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Contigs

    PubMed Central

    Troggio, Michela; Malacarne, Giulia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Segala, Cinzia; Cartwright, Dustin A.; Pindo, Massimo; Stefanini, Marco; Mank, Rolf; Moroldo, Marco; Morgante, Michele; Grando, M. Stella; Velasco, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a dense genetic map for Vitis vinifera and its anchoring to a BAC-based physical map is described: it includes 994 loci mapped onto 19 linkage groups, corresponding to the basic chromosome number of Vitis. Spanning 1245 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between adjacent markers, the map was generated from the segregation of 483 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic markers, 132 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 379 AFLP markers in a mapping population of 94 F1 individuals derived from a V. vinifera cross of the cultivars Syrah and Pinot Noir. Of these markers, 623 were anchored to 367 contigs that are included in a physical map produced from the same clone of Pinot Noir and covering 352 Mbp. On the basis of contigs containing two or more genetically mapped markers, region-dependent estimations of physical and recombinational distances are presented. The markers used in this study include 118 SSRs common to an integrated map derived from five segregating populations of V. vinifera. The positions of these SSR markers in the two maps are conserved across all Vitis linkage groups. The addition of SNP-based markers introduces polymorphisms that are easy to database, are useful for evolutionary studies, and significantly increase the density of the map. The map provides the most comprehensive view of the Vitis genome reported to date and will be relevant for future studies on structural and functional genomics and genetic improvement. PMID:17603124

  1. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. "Modra frankinja" with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma.

    PubMed

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp-grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. "Modra frankinja" under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  2. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses. PMID:26934101

  3. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses.

  4. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses. PMID:25602440

  5. Deficit irrigation promotes arbuscular colonization of fine roots by mycorrhizal fungi in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in an arid climate.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, R Paul; Tarara, Julie M; Smithyman, Russell P

    2007-10-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common practice applied in irrigated vineyards to control canopy growth and improve fruit quality, but little is known of how imposed water deficits may alter root growth and colonization by beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Thus, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization were determined throughout the growing season for 3 years in own-rooted, field-grown, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines exposed to three RDI treatments. Vines under standard RDI were irrigated at 60 to 70% of full-vine evapotranspiration (FVET) from 2 weeks after fruit set until harvest, a standard commercial practice. Early deficit vines were exposed to a more extreme deficit (30% FVET) during the period from 2 weeks after fruit set until the commencement of ripening (veraison), and thereafter reverted to standard RDI. Late deficit vines were under standard RDI until veraison, then exposed to a more extreme deficit (30% FVET) between veraison and harvest. The production of fine roots was reduced in both the early and late deficit treatments, but the reduction was more consistent in the early deficit vines because the additional deficit was imposed when roots were more rapidly growing. The frequency of arbuscules in fine roots was greater in both of the additional deficit treatments than in the standard RDI, a response that appeared chronic, as the higher frequency of arbuscules was observed throughout the season despite the additional deficits being applied at discrete times. It appears that grapevines compensated for a lower density of fine roots by stimulating arbuscular colonization. Irrigation did not affect yield or quality of grapes, but reduced whole-vine photosynthesis during the additional deficit periods. It appears that high-quality grapes can be produced in this region with less water than that applied under the current RDI practice because the root system of the vine may be more efficient due to greater arbuscular colonization by AMF

  6. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J.; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C.; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  7. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  8. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  9. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  10. A knowledge base for Vitis vinifera functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) is the most important fruit species in the modern world. Wine and table grapes sales contribute significantly to the economy of major wine producing countries. The most relevant goals in wine production concern quality and safety. In order to significantly improve the achievement of these objectives and to gain biological knowledge about cultivars, a genomic approach is the most reliable strategy. The recent grapevine genome sequencing offers the opportunity to study the potential roles of genes and microRNAs in fruit maturation and other physiological and pathological processes. Although several systems allowing the analysis of plant genomes have been reported, none of them has been designed specifically for the functional analysis of grapevine genomes of cultivars under environmental stress in connection with microRNA data. Description Here we introduce a novel knowledge base, called BIOWINE, designed for the functional analysis of Vitis vinifera genomes of cultivars present in Sicily. The system allows the analysis of RNA-seq experiments of two different cultivars, namely Nero d'Avola and Nerello Mascalese. Samples were taken under different climatic conditions of phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. The BIOWINE web interface is equipped with data analysis modules for grapevine genomes. In particular users may analyze the current genome assembly together with the RNA-seq data through a customized version of GBrowse. The web interface allows users to perform gene set enrichment by exploiting third-party databases. Conclusions BIOWINE is a knowledge base implementing a set of bioinformatics tools for the analysis of grapevine genomes. The system aims to increase our understanding of the grapevine varieties and species of Sicilian products focusing on adaptability to different climatic conditions, phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. PMID:26050794

  11. Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases: functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries.

    PubMed

    Lücker, Joost; Bowen, Pat; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-10-01

    Valencene is a volatile sesquiterpene emitted from flowers of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. A full-length cDNA from the cultivar Gewürztraminer was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode valencene synthase (VvVal). The two major products formed by recombinant VvVal enzyme activity with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as substrate are (+)-valencene and (-)-7-epi-alpha-selinene. Grapevine valencene synthase is closely related to a second sesquiterpene synthase from this species, (-)-germacrene D synthase (VvGerD). VvVal and VvGerD cDNA probes revealed strong signals in Northern hybridizations with RNA isolated from grapevine flower buds. Transcript levels were lower in open pre-anthesis flowers, flowers after anthesis, or at early onset of fruit development. Similar results were obtained using a third probe, (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase, a monoterpenol synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase and monoterpene synthase transcripts were not detected in the mesocarp and exocarp during early stages of fruit development, but transcripts hybridizing with VvVal appeared during late ripening of the berries. Sesquiterpene synthase transcripts were also detected in young seeds. PMID:15464152

  12. The coding region of the UFGT gene is a source of diagnostic SNP markers that allow single-locus DNA genotyping for the assessment of cultivar identity and ancestry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera L. is one of society’s most important agricultural crops with a broad genetic variability. The difficulty in recognizing grapevine genotypes based on ampelographic traits and secondary metabolites prompted the development of molecular markers suitable for achieving variety genetic identification. Findings Here, we propose a comparison between a multi-locus barcoding approach based on six chloroplast markers and a single-copy nuclear gene sequencing method using five coding regions combined with a character-based system with the aim of reconstructing cultivar-specific haplotypes and genotypes to be exploited for the molecular characterization of 157 V. vinifera accessions. The analysis of the chloroplast target regions proved the inadequacy of the DNA barcoding approach at the subspecies level, and hence further DNA genotyping analyses were targeted on the sequences of five nuclear single-copy genes amplified across all of the accessions. The sequencing of the coding region of the UFGT nuclear gene (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase, the key enzyme for the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins) enabled the discovery of discriminant SNPs (1/34 bp) and the reconstruction of 130 V. vinifera distinct genotypes. Most of the genotypes proved to be cultivar-specific, and only few genotypes were shared by more, although strictly related, cultivars. Conclusion On the whole, this technique was successful for inferring SNP-based genotypes of grapevine accessions suitable for assessing the genetic identity and ancestry of international cultivars and also useful for corroborating some hypotheses regarding the origin of local varieties, suggesting several issues of misidentification (synonymy/homonymy). PMID:24298902

  13. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  14. Factors affecting distribution and mobility of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn) in a perennial grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Champagne region of France.

    PubMed

    Chopin, E I B; Marin, B; Mkoungafoko, R; Rigaux, A; Hopgood, M J; Delannoy, E; Cancès, B; Laurain, M

    2008-12-01

    Soil and Vitis vinifera L. (coarse and fine roots, leaves, berries) concentration and geochemical partitioning of Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in a contaminated calcareous Champagne plot to assess their mobility and transfer. Accumulation ratios in roots remained low (0.1-0.4 for Cu and Zn, <0.05 for Pb). Differences between elements resulted from vegetation uptake strategy and soil partitioning. Copper, significantly associated with the oxidisable fraction (27.8%), and Zn with the acid soluble fraction (33.3%), could be mobilised by rhizosphere acidification and oxidisation, unlike Pb, essentially contained in the reducible fraction (72.4%). Roots should not be considered as a whole since the more reactive fine roots showed higher accumulation ratios than coarse ones. More sensitive response of fine roots, lack of correlation between chemical extraction results and vegetation concentrations, and very limited translocation to aerial parts showed that fine root concentrations should be used when assessing bioavailability.

  15. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  16. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress. PMID:25462972

  17. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress.

  18. VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Cramer, Grant R.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Mathiason, Kathy; Van Hemert, John; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet). Methodology/Principal Findings The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. Conclusions/Significance VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and

  19. Wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) color associates with allelic variation in the domestication gene VvmybA1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the process of crop domestication and early selection, numerous changes occur in the genetic and physiological make-up of crop plants. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera) numerous changes have occurred as a result of human selection, including the emergence of hermaphroditism and greatly increased...

  20. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  1. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought.

    PubMed

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-11-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration.

  2. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent.

  3. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent. PMID:27664698

  4. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Marconi, Raffaella; Nonis, Alberto; Peterlunger, Enrico; Paillard, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Testolin, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    Background Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Results Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. Conclusion We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between

  5. Genome sequence of Novosphingobium sp. strain Rr 2-17, a nopaline crown gall-associated bacterium isolated from Vitis vinifera L. grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Chew, Teong Han; Hudson, André O; Savka, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Novosphingobium sp. strain Rr 2-17 is an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing bacterium isolated from the crown gall tumor of a grapevine. To our knowledge, this is the first draft genome announcement of a plant-associated strain from the genus Novosphingobium. PMID:22933764

  6. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Modra frankinja” with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp–grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. “Modra frankinja” under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  7. Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under domestication: new morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Tabard, Elidie; Bouby, Laurent; Ivorra, Sarah; Pastor, Thierry; Figueiral, Isabel; Picq, Sandrine; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Jung, Cécile; Fabre, Laurent; Tardy, Christophe; Compan, Michel; Bacilieri, Roberto; Lacombe, Thierry; This, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of the abundance of archaeological, bio-archaeological, historical and genetic data, the origins, historical biogeography, identity of ancient grapevine cultivars and mechanisms of domestication are still largely unknown. Here, analysis of variation in seed morphology aims to provide accurate criteria for the discrimination between wild grapes and modern cultivars and to understand changes in functional traits in relation to the domestication process. This approach is also used to quantify the phenotypic diversity in the wild and cultivated compartments and to provide a starting point for comparing well-preserved archaeological material, in order to elucidate the history of grapevine varieties. Methods Geometrical analysis (elliptic Fourier transform method) was applied to grapevine seed outlines from modern wild individuals, cultivars and well-preserved archaeological material from southern France, dating back to the first to second centuries. Key Results and Conclusions Significant relationships between seed shape and taxonomic status, geographical origin (country or region) of accessions and parentage of varieties are highlighted, as previously noted based on genetic approaches. The combination of the analysis of modern reference material and well-preserved archaeological seeds provides original data about the history of ancient cultivated forms, some of them morphologically close to the current ‘Clairette’ and ‘Mondeuse blanche’ cultivars. Archaeobiological records seem to confirm the complexity of human contact, exchanges and migrations which spread grapevine cultivation in Europe and in Mediterranean areas, and argue in favour of the existence of local domestication in the Languedoc (southern France) region during Antiquity. PMID:20034966

  8. A Three-dimensional Statistical Reconstruction Model of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Simulating Canopy Structure Variability within and between Cultivar/Training System Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Lecoeur, Jérémie; Lebon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In grapevine, canopy-structure-related variations in light interception and distribution affect productivity, yield and the quality of the harvested product. A simple statistical model for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) canopy structures for various cultivar–training system (C × T) pairs has been implemented with special attention paid to balance the time required for model parameterization and accuracy of the representations from organ to stand scales. Such an approach particularly aims at overcoming the weak integration of interplant variability using the usual direct 3D measurement methods. Model This model is original in combining a turbid-medium-like envelope enclosing the volume occupied by vine shoots with the use of discrete geometric polygons representing leaves randomly located within this volume to represent plant structure. Reconstruction rules were adapted to capture the main determinants of grapevine shoot architecture and their variability. Using a simplified set of parameters, it was possible to describe (1) the 3D path of the main shoot, (2) the volume occupied by the foliage around this path and (3) the orientation of individual leaf surfaces. Model parameterization (estimation of the probability distribution for each parameter) was carried out for eight contrasting C × T pairs. Key Results and Conclusions The parameter values obtained in each situation were consistent with our knowledge of grapevine architecture. Quantitative assessments for the generated virtual scenes were carried out at the canopy and plant scales. Light interception efficiency and local variations of light transmittance within and between experimental plots were correctly simulated for all canopies studied. The approach predicted these key ecophysiological variables significantly more accurately than the classical complete digitization method with a limited number of plants. In addition, this model accurately reproduced the characteristics of a

  9. Flowering as the Most Highly Sensitive Period of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria Dieback Agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences. PMID:24886812

  10. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms. PMID:27529978

  11. Naturalised Vitis rootstocks in Europe and consequences to native wild grapevine.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures. PMID:17565374

  12. Naturalised Vitis Rootstocks in Europe and Consequences to Native Wild Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures. PMID:17565374

  13. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    PubMed

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  14. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process. PMID:26267356

  15. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation. PMID:26025530

  16. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pascual; Dodd, Ian C; Martinez-Cutillas, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year(-1)); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year(-1)); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year(-1)). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling. PMID:22451721

  17. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process.

  18. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation.

  19. Proteomic analysis indicates massive changes in metabolism prior to the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were exposed to a progressive, increasing water defict over 16 days. Shoot elongation and photosynthesis were measured for physiological responses to water deficit. The effect of water deficit over time on the abundance of individual proteins in growing shoot tips (including four immature leaves) was analyzed using nanoflow liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Results Water deficit progressively decreased shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis after Day 4; 2277 proteins were identified by shotgun proteomics with an average CV of 9% for the protein abundance of all proteins. There were 472 out of 942 (50%) proteins found in all samples that were significantly affected by water deficit. The 472 proteins were clustered into four groups: increased and decreased abundance of early- and late-responding protein profiles. Vines sensed the water deficit early, appearing to acclimate to stress, because the abundance of many proteins changed before decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Predominant functional categories of the early-responding proteins included photosynthesis, glycolysis, translation, antioxidant defense and growth-related categories (steroid metabolism and water transport), whereas additional proteins for late-responding proteins were largely involved with transport, photorespiration, antioxidants, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions Proteomic responses to water deficit were dynamic with early, significant changes in abundance of proteins involved in translation, energy, antioxidant defense and steroid metabolism. The abundance of these proteins changed prior to any detectable decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Many of these early-responding proteins are known to be regulated by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation. The proteomics analysis indicates massive and

  20. Nondestructive diagnostic test for nitrogen nutrition of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) based on dualex leaf-clip measurements in the field.

    PubMed

    Cerovic, Zoran G; Ghozlen, Naïma Ben; Milhade, Charlotte; Obert, Mickaël; Debuisson, Sébastien; Le Moigne, Marine

    2015-04-15

    Crop nitrogen status is a major issue for crop yield and quality. It is usually assessed by destructive leaf or petiole tissue analysis. A quantitative nondestructive optical estimation of N sufficiency would be a great leap forward toward precision crop management. We therefore calibrated three optical indices against leaf nitrogen content: chlorophyll (Chl), epidermal flavonols, and the nitrogen balance index (NBI), which is the ratio of the former two indices. NBI was the best estimator of leaf N content measured by the Dumas or Kjeldahl method with a root-mean-square error smaller than 2 mg of N g(-1) dry weight, followed by Chl (3 mg g(-1)) and flavonols (4 mg g(-1)). This allowed us to propose the threshold values for the Dualex optical indices that characterize nitrogen supply to grapevines: the first is the threshold below which N supply to the vine can be considered deficient, and the second is the threshold above which N supply is excessive. For a putative optimal N content of 30 mg g(-1) < x < 40 mg g(-1), these thresholds are 30 μg cm(-2) < x < 40 μg cm(-2) for Chl and 11 < x < 18 for NBI at flowering. At bunch closure, for N thresholds of 22 < x < 32, Chl is 29 < x < 37 and NBI is 8 < x < 11, in respective units. These values should be verified and refined in the future for various growth regions and cultivars using the specified protocol. The sample size should be 36-60 leaves from a fixed node position, preferably node no. 5 from the tip of the shoot. An alternative to the use of the NBI would be to discard leaves that are not light exposed by checking their flavonol content and to deduce the N sufficiency directly from the Chl values.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp. PMID:26689772

  2. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp.

  3. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus.

  4. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus. PMID:27344161

  5. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  6. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  7. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  8. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  10. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  11. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  12. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  13. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  14. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  15. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  16. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system. PMID:25820686

  17. Increasing the robustness of phenological models for Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay.

    PubMed

    Caffarra, Amelia; Eccel, Emanuele

    2010-05-01

    Phenological models are important tools for planning viticultural practices in the short term and for projecting the impact of climate change on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in the long term. However, the difficulties in obtaining phenological models which provide accurate predictions on a regional scale prevent them from being exploited to their full potential. The aim of this work was to obtain a robust phenological model for V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay. During calibration of the sub-models for budburst, flowering and veraison we implemented a series of measures to prevent overfitting and to give greater physiological meaning to the models. Among these were the use of experimental information on the response of Chardonnay to forcing temperatures, restriction of parameter space into physiologically meaningful limits prior to calibration, and simplification of the previously selected sub-models. The resulting process-based model had good internal validity and a good level of accuracy in predicting phenological events from external datasets. Model performance was especially high for the prediction of flowering and veraison, and comparison with other models confirmed it as a better predictor of phenology, even in extremely warm years. The modelling study highlighted a different phenological behaviour at the only mountain station, Cembra. We hypothesised that phenotypical plasticity could lead to growth rates adapting to a lower mean temperature, a mechanism not usually accounted for by phenological models. PMID:19937456

  18. Impact of flumioxazin herbicide on growth and carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, G; Magné, C; Clément, C

    2003-04-01

    The impact of flumioxazin herbicide on in vitro-grown grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) was investigated. The herbicide treatments (1, 10 or 100 micro M flumioxazin in MM medium) had a negative impact on photosynthesis, as revealed by a reduction in foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, gas exchanges and alteration in plastid structure and, consequently, resulted in a strong inhibition of plantlet growth. Surprisingly, soluble sugars and starch accumulated in all organs, suggesting a stimulation of sugar uptake from the medium. Moreover, photosynthetic activity and starch content partially recovered within 3 weeks of treatment at the weakest herbicide concentration. These results provide new insights into the physiological responses of non-target crops to flumioxazin, showing that flumioxazin is active in photosynthetic tissues of the non-target grapevine via root uptake, which is contrary to what is mentioned in the literature, and that the in vitro-grown plantlet is a good model for investigating the physiological effects of pesticides on crop species.

  19. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  20. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause-effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  1. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause–effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  2. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  3. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  4. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Dangl, Gerald S; Prins, Bernard H; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; Walker, M Andrew; Meredith, Carole P; Simon, Charles J

    2003-06-01

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. French cultivars appeared to be distinct and showed close affinity to the wild progenitor, ssp. sylvestris from south-western France (Pyrenees) and Tunisia, probably reflecting the origin and domestication history of many of the old wine cultivars from France. There was appreciable level of differentiation between table and wine grape cultivars, and the Muscat types were somewhat distinct within the wine grapes. Contingency chi2 analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies among groups at all loci. The observed heterozygosities for different groups ranged from 0.625 to 0.9 with an overall average of 0.771. Genetic relationships among groups suggested hierarchical differentiation within cultivated grape. The gene diversity analysis indicated narrow divergence among groups and that most variation was found within groups (approximately 85%). Partitioning of diversity suggested that the remaining variation is somewhat structured hierarchically at different levels of differentiation. The overall organization of genetic diversity suggests that the germplasm of cultivated grape represents a single complex gene pool and that its structure is determined by strong artificial selection and a vegetative mode of reproduction.

  5. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  6. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  7. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  8. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  9. Investigation into the formation of guaiacol conjugates in berries and leaves of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. Cv. cabernet sauvignon using stable isotope tracers combined with HPLC-MS and MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Yoji; Baldock, Gayle A; Pardon, Kevin H; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J

    2010-02-24

    Fermentation of grapes that had been exposed to bushfire smoke can potentially yield unpalatable, smoke-affected wine. Guaiacol and its glucoconjugate were previously found in smoke-affected grapes at an elevated concentration. To find and identify further guaiacol conjugates in smoke-affected grapes, a stable isotope feeding experiment combined with extensive HPLC-MS and MS/MS investigations was carried out. Leaves and berries of a potted grapevine were placed in contact with an aqueous mixture of d(0)- and d(3)-guaiacol for 1-2 days and collected 5 weeks later. Screening for potential guaiacol conjugates in the leaves and berries was facilitated by monitoring the unique mass spectrometric signature of an isotopic doublet separated by 3 Da. Seven different conjugates were detected in leaves and berries and were tentatively identified as mono- and diglycosides of guaiacol. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the guaiacol conjugates were translocated between leaves and berries to a very limited extent and were also present as low-level natural compounds of untreated leaves and berries. The same guaiacol conjugates were also found at a considerably elevated concentration in leaves and berries obtained from grapevines exposed to bushfire smoke.

  10. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+) haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+) haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+) became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+) has an additive effect with Rpv3(+) to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+) plants.

  11. Historical Introgression of the Downy Mildew Resistance Gene Rpv12 from the Asian Species Vitis amurensis into Grapevine Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance–a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola–was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old ‘Zarja severa’ and ‘Michurinets’. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12+ has an additive effect with Rpv3+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3+ plants. PMID:23593440

  12. Haplotype diversity of VvTFL1A gene and association with cluster traits in grapevine (V. vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction between TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and LEAFY (LFY) seem to determine the inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis. In a parallel way, overexpression of VvTFL1A, a grapevine TFL1 homolog, causes delayed flowering and production of a ramose cluster in the reiterated reproductive meristem (RRM) somatic variant of cultivar Carignan. To analyze the possible contribution of this gene to cluster phenotypic variation in a diversity panel of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera) its nucleotide diversity was characterized and association analyses among detected sequence polymorphisms and phenology and cluster traits was carried out. Results A total of 3.6 kb of the VvTFL1A gene, including its promoter, was sequenced in a core collection of 140 individuals designed to maximize phenotypic variation at agronomical relevant traits. Nucleotide variation for VvTFL1A within this collection was higher in the promoter and intron sequences than in the exon regions; where few polymorphisms were located in agreement with a high conservation of coding sequence. Characterization of the VvTFL1A haplotype network identified three major haplogroups, consistent with the geographic origins and the use of the cultivars that could correspond to three major ancestral alleles or evolutionary branches, based on the existence of mutations in linkage disequilibrium. Genetic association studies with cluster traits revealed the presence of major INDEL polymorphisms, explaining 16%, 13% and 25% of flowering time, cluster width and berry weight, respectively, and also structuring the three haplogroups. Conclusions At least three major VvTFL1A haplogroups are present in cultivated grapevines, which are defined by the presence of three main polymorphism LD blocks and associated to characteristic phenotypic values for flowering time, cluster width and berry size. Phenotypic differences between haplogroups are consistent with differences observed between Eastern and

  13. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  14. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  15. Interactive effects of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and water stress on the physiology of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malvasia de Banyalbufar and Giro-Ros.

    PubMed

    El Aou-Ouad, Hanan; Montero, Rafael; Medrano, Hipólito; Bota, Josefina

    2016-06-01

    Among several biotic and abiotic stress combinations, interaction between drought and pathogen is one of the most studied combinations in some crops but still not in grapevine. In the present work, we focused on the interaction effects of biotic (GLRaV-3) and abiotic (drought) stresses on grapevine photosynthetic metabolism on two cultivars (cvs. 'Malvasia de Banyalbufar and Giro-Ros'). Non-infected and GLRaV-3 infected potted plants were compared under water stress conditions (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. Under WW condition, the results showed that photosynthesis (AN) in both cultivars was decreased by the presence of GLRaV-3. The stomatal conductance (gs) was the main factor for decreasing AN in Malvasia, meanwhile reductions in Giro-Ros were closely related to decreases in gm. The observed differences in gm between both cultivars might result from variation in their leaf anatomical, Giro-Ros having higher values of gm and leaf porosity (in all treatments). Moderate water deficit resulted in a closure of stomata and a decrease in gm accompanied by a decrease in AN in both cultivars. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax) were also reduced under water stress. Moreover, the combined stress resulted in a reduction of most physiological parameters compared to healthy irrigated plants. However, no considerable differences were found between non-infected and virus infected (GLRaV-3) plants under water stress. Most of the results could be explained by the difference of virus concentration between cultivars and treatments. PMID:27153513

  16. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  17. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region. PMID:23789998

  18. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  19. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  20. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  1. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  2. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit.

  3. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined. PMID:24634185

  4. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  5. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27196869

  6. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors MYB14 and MYB15 Regulate Stilbene Biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera[W

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Janine; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Czemmel, Stefan; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Walker, Amanda R.; Rausch, Thomas; Lucchin, Margherita; Boss, Paul K.; Dry, Ian B.; Bogs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Plant stilbenes are phytoalexins that accumulate in a small number of plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been implicated in many beneficial effects on human health. In particular, resveratrol, the basic unit of all other complex stilbenes, has received widespread attention because of its cardio-protective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Although stilbene synthases (STSs), the key enzymes responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, have been isolated and characterized from several plant species, the transcriptional regulation underlying stilbene biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors (TFs) from grapevine, which regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway. These TFs, designated MYB14 and MYB15, strongly coexpress with STS genes, both in leaf tissues under biotic and abiotic stress and in the skin and seed of healthy developing berries during maturation. In transient gene reporter assays, MYB14 and MYB15 were demonstrated to specifically activate the promoters of STS genes, and the ectopic expression of MYB15 in grapevine hairy roots resulted in increased STS expression and in the accumulation of glycosylated stilbenes in planta. These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:24151295

  8. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  9. The Effect of Vitis vinifera L. Leaves Extract on Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Rym; Haouas, Najoua; Ben Kahla-Nakbi, Amel; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Mhenni, Farouk; Babba, Hamouda

    2013-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L.is a traditional Asian herb widely used for different health problems. In the present research, the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera L. leaves collected from shrub, grown in Tunisia, were prepared and evaluated for the antileishmanial activity against Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was determined and the results showed that the etahnolic extract is more active than the aqueous one (IC50= 0.108 mg/mL). Microscopic observations showed that the ethanolic extract promoted the destruction of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes and altered the overall shape of the cell. In order to explain the difference of antileishmanial activity between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, anthocyanins amount was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the ethanolic extract is richer in anthocyanins than the aqueous one which can explain the higher antileishmanial activity of the ethanolic extract. PMID:24250641

  10. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety. PMID:27462558

  11. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  12. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  13. Effects of acute low-temperature events on development of Erysiphe necator and susceptibility of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Michelle M; Gadoury, David M; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Dry, Ian B; Magarey, Peter A; Wilcox, Wayne F; Seem, Robert C

    2010-11-01

    Growth and development of Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator) has been extensively studied under controlled conditions, primarily with a focus on development of grapevine powdery mildew within the optimal temperature range and the lethal effects of high temperatures. However, little is known of the effect of cold temperatures (above freezing but <8 degrees C) on pathogen development or host resistance. Pretreatment of susceptible Vitis vinifera leaf tissue by exposure to cold temperatures (2 to 8 degrees C for 2 to 8 h) reduced infection efficiency and colony expansion when tissues were subsequently inoculated. Furthermore, nascent colonies exposed to similar cold events exhibited hyphal mortality, reduced expansion, and increased latent periods. Historical weather data and an analysis of the radiational cooling of leaf tissues in the field indicated that early-season cold events capable of inducing the foregoing responses occur commonly and frequently across many if not most viticultural regions worldwide. These phenomena may partially explain (i) the unexpectedly slow development of powdery mildew during the first month after budbreak in some regions and (ii) the sudden increase in epidemic development once seasonal temperatures increase above the threshold for acute cold events. PMID:20649419

  14. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  15. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  16. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    PubMed

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  17. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  18. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  19. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  20. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini. PMID:22270111

  1. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenchang; Owens, Christopher L; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Cheng, Lailiang

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including 16 anthocyanins, 6 flavonols, 6 flavanols, 6 hydroxycinnamic acids and 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified via HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The mean contents for anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids were 0.946 (coloured cultivars), 0.147, 0.043, 0.195 and 0.016mgg(-1) FW, respectively. On average, wine grapes had higher concentrations than had table grapes for all of these compounds except hydroxycinnamic acids. Berry colours affected the total contents of anthocyanins, but not others. Positive correlations (0.151-0.535) were found among these groups of compounds. As expected, these groups of compounds were all negatively correlated with berry weight.

  2. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  3. Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN

    PubMed Central

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream. PMID:15811990

  4. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison.

  5. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses.

  6. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  7. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    PubMed

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  8. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  9. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing to construct the high-density genetic map for Vitis (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis amurensis Rupr.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Shi, Guangli; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Yang, Xiaoxu; Zhu, Junchi; Li, Kun; Guo, Xiuwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 149 F1 plants from the interspecific cross between ‘Red Globe’ (Vitis vinifera L.) and ‘Shuangyou’ (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) and the parent were used to construct a molecular genetic linkage map by using the specific length amplified fragment sequencing technique. DNA sequencing generated 41.282 Gb data consisting of 206,411,693 paired-end reads. The average sequencing depths were 68.35 for ‘Red Globe,’ 63.65 for ‘Shuangyou,’ and 8.01 for each progeny. In all, 115,629 high-quality specific length amplified fragments were detected, of which 42,279 were polymorphic. The genetic map was constructed using 7,199 of these polymorphic markers. These polymorphic markers were assigned to 19 linkage groups; the total length of the map was 1929.13 cm, with an average distance of 0.28 cm between each maker. To our knowledge, the genetic maps constructed in this study contain the largest number of molecular markers. These high-density genetic maps might form the basis for the fine quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular-assisted breeding of grape. PMID:26089826

  10. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  11. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-01

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  12. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  13. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  14. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding. PMID:25017417

  15. Characterization of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) are intra-vacuolar structures capable of concentrating anthocyanins and are present in over 50 of the highest anthocyanin-accumulating plant species. Presence of AVIs alters pigment intensity, total anthocyanin levels, pigment hue and causes bathochromic shifts in a spatio-temporal manner within various flowers, vegetables and fruits. A year-long study on Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures found a strong correlation between AVI prevalence and anthocyanin content, but not the number of pigmented cells, growth rate or stilbene content. Furthermore, enhancement of the prevalence of AVIs and anthocyanins was achieved by treatment of V. vinifera cell suspension cultures with sucrose, jasmonic acid and white light. A unique autofluorescence of anthocyanins was used to demonstrate microscopically that AVIs proceed from the cytosol across the tonoplast and were able to coalesce intravacuolarly, with fewer, larger AVIs predominating as cells mature. Purification and characterisation of these bodies were performed, showing that they were dense, highly organic structures, with a lipid component indicative of membrane-encasement. These purified AVIs were also shown to comprise long-chain tannins and possessed an increased affinity for binding acylated anthocyanins, though no unique protein component was detected.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  17. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  18. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards.

  20. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  1. Strategies for RUN1 deployment using RUN2 and REN2 to manage grapevine powdery mildew informed by studies of race-specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TIR-NB-LRR gene, Resistance to Uncinula necator 1 (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic Vitis vinifera cultivars. However, powdery mildew cleistothecia ha...

  2. Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Cabrera, Nora; Holgado, Miriam G; Vicchi, Franco R

    2016-01-01

    Some species of Colaspis Fabricius are well-known pests of several crops in Argentina. In this contribution, we describe a new species within this genus: Colaspis caligula n. sp., found in association with Vitis vinifera (Linnaeus) crops. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva, pupa and adult, as well as notes on its diagnostic characters, life cycle, and the damages produced to the plants. PMID:27615925

  3. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  4. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  5. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth. PMID:26762043

  6. Biological control of crown gall on grapevine and root colonization by nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years. PMID:23708779

  7. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  8. Interactions between light and growing season temperatures on, growth and development and gas exchange of Semillon (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grown in an irrigated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2012-05-01

    High-light intensities and temperatures of the warm climate regions of Australia and elsewhere have a major effect on the growth and development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The objective of this research was to assess interactions between the light and seasonal temperatures by shading some vines and comparing these with vines exposed to high-light intensities. Canopy temperatures were monitored using infrared radiometers and budbreak, phenology, growth, yield, berry ripening and gas exchange determined over three growing seasons. Results showed canopies were generally about 4 °C cooler than air and shading extended this cooling. Irradiance, irrespective of seasonal temperatures, had no effect on time of budbreak, shoot phenology, stem growth, yield and bunch fresh weights while bunch and leaf dry weights were reduced in low-light. Bunch ripening was initially delayed by low-light but thereafter the ripening process was highly temperature-dependent. Rates increased linearly with increasing temperature in both low and high-light and were optimal at about 35 °C. Maximum photosynthetic capacity was impaired by low irradiance, in accordance with shade leaf attributes, and attributable to stomatal closure. No effects of the low photosynthetic capacity apparently carried-over to sugar accumulation, consistent with the strong sink capacity of bunches.

  9. Diadenosine triphosphate is a novel factor which in combination with cyclodextrins synergistically enhances the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell suspension cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Czekała, Lukasz; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Pedreño, María Angeles; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates are considered as signal molecules that may evoke response of plant cells to stress. Other compounds whose biological effects have been recognized are cyclodextrins. They are cyclic oligosaccharides that chemically resemble the alkyl-derived pectic oligosaccharides naturally released from the cell walls during fungal attack, and they act as true elicitors, since, when added to plant cell culture, they induce the expression of genes involved in some secondary metabolism pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that some dinucleoside polyphosphates triggered the biosynthesis of enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells, cyclodextrins were shown to enhance the accumulation of trans-resveratrol, one of the basic units of the stilbenes derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we show that diadenosine triphosphate, applied alone or in combination with cyclodextrins to the grapevine suspension-cultured cells, increased the transcript level of genes encoding key phenylpropanoid-pathway enzymes as well as the trans-resveratrol production inside cells and its secretion into the extracellular medium. In the latter case, these two compounds acted synergistically. However, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside trans-piceid inside cells were stimulated much better by diadenosine triphosphate than by cyclodextrins.

  10. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  11. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves after Exposure to Ultraviolet C Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m−2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). Conclusions UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great

  13. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses. PMID:27231874

  14. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H2O2-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Results Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H2O2 incubation assayed. Conclusions This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H2O2. Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons. PMID:21672244

  15. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  16. Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-11-01

    Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.

  17. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin. PMID:26951448

  18. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. PMID:26048582

  19. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  20. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. PMID:26687319

  1. Resistance to Water Transport in Shoots of Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Hans R.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    Apparent resistances to water transport in the liquid phase were determined from measurements of soil, root, basal shoot internode, shoot apex, and leaf water potentials and water flux in Vitis vinifera (cv White Riesling) during soil drying. Predawn water potential differences (ΔΨ) in the shoots accounted for 20% of the total ΔΨ between the soil and the shoot apex when plants were well-watered but increased to about 90% when shoot growth ceased. The ΔΨ from soil to root was essentially constant during this period. At low water potential, the ΔΨ in the shoot was persistent when transpiration was low (predawn) or completely prevented (plant bagging). The apparent hydraulic resistance between the basal shoot internode and most rapidly expanding leaf (or shoot apex) increased several-fold when water was withheld. Leaf and internode expansion both exhibited high sensitivity to increasing hydraulic resistance. Measurements of pneumatic resistance to air flow through frozen internode segments indicated progressive vapor-filling of vessels as soil drying progressed. From these observations and others in the literature, it was suggested that embolization may be a common occurrence and play an important role in the inhibition of shoot growth at moderate water deficits. PMID:16666373

  2. Pathway of Photosynthetic Malate Formation in Vitis vinifera, a C3 Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Ruffner, Hans Peter; Brem, Susanne; Rast, Dora M.

    1983-01-01

    The time course of intramolecular isotope distribution in phosphoglyceric acid and serine was determined after exposure of grape leaf discs (Vitis vinifera L.) to 14CO2 (1000 microliters per liter) for variable metabolic periods, and the labeling patterns were compared with the respective isotope distribution in the C1-3 fragment of malic acid. The results clearly support the classical concept of a close precursor-product relationship between photosynthetic phosphoglycerate and malic acid. Under the assimilatory conditions used in this study, there was no indication of an immediate carbon transfer from serine to malate as has been suggested for C3 plants (Kent et al. 1974 Plant Physiol 53: 491-495) because of a coincident labeling of these compounds in Vicia faba. According to our data, previous evidence in favor of this hypothetical pathway is based largely on an unusual 14C distribution in serine, due to an extreme suppression of photorespiration, as well as on arbitrary comparisons between compounds of divergent kinetic characteristics and consequently different degrees of metabolic label randomization. PMID:16663263

  3. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  4. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  5. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  6. Immunomodulating and anti-allergic effects of Negroamaro and Koshu Vitis vinifera fermented grape marc (FGM).

    PubMed

    Marzulli, Giuseppe; Magrone, Thea; Vonghia, Luisa; Kaneko, Masahiro; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Kumazawa, Yoshio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols contained in FGM from Negroamaro (N) and Koshu (K) Vitis vinifera have been shown to exhibit several immunomodulating activities. For instance, mice affected by experimental colitis when administered with K-FGM showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process. In murine asthma, K-FGM reduced IgE production and eosinophil number in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. In vitro, both N- and K-FGM were able to induce T regulatory cells in terms of Foxp-3 molecule expression and release of interleukin-10. In another set of experiments both N- and K-FGM were able to balance rate of proliferation/apoptosis/necrosis of normal human peripheral lymphocytes, thus indicating the property of these compounds to maintain immune homeostatic mechanisms in the host. On the other hand, N- and K-FGM inhibited human basophil degranulation, thus, confirming our previous results obtained with rat basophilic leukemia cells. Finally, N- and K-FGM also decreased oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes.Taken together, these findings imply the potential clinical usefulness of FGM administration in inflammatory/allergic conditions, such as chronic asthma.

  7. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages.

  8. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  9. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  10. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  11. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  12. Phenolic content of grapevine leaves (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) and its neuroprotective effect against peroxide damage.

    PubMed

    Dani, C; Oliboni, L S; Agostini, F; Funchal, C; Serafini, L; Henriques, J A; Salvador, M

    2010-02-01

    In some countries, leaves of Vitis vinifera grapes have been used for food and for treating many medical disorders. However, there are no studies on the leaves of Vitis labrusca, the main species used for wine and juice production in South America. In this work, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of organic and conventional grape leaves extracts prepared from V. labrusca (var. Bordo) in brain tissues (in vitro model) have been evaluated. Both organic and conventional grape leaves extracts have similar total phenolic content, however, different patterns were observed for the main phenolic compounds of both kinds of leaves. The organic leaves extract showed about 10 times more resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts were able to reduce the lipid and protein damages induced by hydrogen peroxide in the brain of rats. This effect was accompanied by the reversion of the hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Negative correlations between lipid and protein damages and the levels of polyphenols were found, suggesting that these compounds contribute directly to the protective effect observed.

  13. Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Melakeberhan, H; Ferris, H

    1988-10-01

    Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the basis of volumes of 15-20 nematodes per plant obtained with a digitizer and computer algorithm. Egg production was measured at 50-80 DD intervals by weighing 7-10 egg masses and counting the number of eggs. Nematode growth and food (energy) consumption rates were calculated up to 1,000 DD based on biomass increase, respiratory requirements, and an assumption of 60 % assimilation efficiency. The growth rate of a single root-knot nematode, excluding egg production, was similar in both cultivars and had a logistic form. The maximum fresh weight of a mature female nematode was ca. 29-32 mug. The total biomass increase, including egg production, also had a logistic form. Maximum biomass (mature adult female and egg mass) was 211 mug on French Colombard and 127 mug on Thompson Seedless. The calculated total cost to the host for the development of a single J2 from root penetration to the end of oviposition for body growth and total biomass was 0.535 and 0.486 calories with a total energy demand of 1.176 and 0.834 calories in French Colombard and Thompson Seedless, respectively. PMID:19290253

  14. Cloning, sequencing, purification, and crystal structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Virador, Victoria M; Reyes Grajeda, Juan P; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Mendiola-Olaya, Elizabeth; Smith, Gary M; Moreno, Abel; Whitaker, John R

    2010-01-27

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622_VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C222(1). The structure was obtained at 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1 ) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and alpha, beta, and gamma) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed. PMID:20039636

  15. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  16. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Liu, Cai-Yun; Liu, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Yue-Ling; Xu, Rui-Rui

    2016-09-01

    In plants, the transcription factor families have been implicated in many important biological processes. These processes include morphogenesis, signal transduction and environmental stress responses. Proteins containing the lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), which encodes a zinc finger-like domain are only found in plants. This finding indicates that this unique gene family regulates only plant-specific biological processes. LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of plants such as Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, poplar, apple and tomato. However, relatively little is known about the LBD genes in grape (Vitis vinifera). In this study, we identified 40 LBD genes in the grape genome. A complete overview of the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, structures and expression profiles of this gene family during development in grape is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LBD genes could be divided into classes I and II, together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. We mapped the 40 LBD genes on the grape chromosomes (chr1-chr19) and found that 37 of the predicted grape LBD genes were distributed in different densities across 12 chromosomes. Grape LBDs were found to share a similar intron/exon structure and gene length within the same class. The expression profiles of grape LBD genes at different developmental stages were analysed using microarray data. Results showed that 21 grape LBD genes may be involved in grape developmental processes, including preveraison, veraison and ripening. Finally, we analysed the expression patterns of six LBD genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reation analysis. The six LBD genes showed differential expression patterns among the three representative grape tissues, and five of these genes were found to be involved in responses to mannitol, sodium chloride, heat stress and low temperature treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the LBD gene family in

  17. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  18. VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION IN GRAPEVINES HAS BEEN OVERESTIMATED BY THE CENTRIFUGE TECHNIQUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines are considered among the most vulnerable woody plant species to water stress-induced cavitation with embolism forming at slight tensions. However, we found that native embolism in stems of field grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay never exceeded 30% despite xylem water potentials ('x) rea...

  19. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  20. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  1. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Grapevine Fabavirus, a Novel Putative Member of the Genus Fabavirus.

    PubMed

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Alabi, Olufemi J; Westrick, Nathaniel M; Golino, Deborah; Rowhani, Adib

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus-like sequence from grapevine was identified by Illumina sequencing. The genomic organization was most similar to that of members of the genus Fabavirus Polyproteins RNA-1 and RNA-2 of the virus tentatively named grapevine fabavirus (GFabV) shared 34 to 23% sequence identities with Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), respectively. GFabV was successfully graft transmitted to Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc. PMID:27445385

  2. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Grapevine Fabavirus, a Novel Putative Member of the Genus Fabavirus

    PubMed Central

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Westrick, Nathaniel M.; Golino, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus-like sequence from grapevine was identified by Illumina sequencing. The genomic organization was most similar to that of members of the genus Fabavirus. Polyproteins RNA-1 and RNA-2 of the virus tentatively named grapevine fabavirus (GFabV) shared 34 to 23% sequence identities with Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), respectively. GFabV was successfully graft transmitted to Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc. PMID:27445385

  3. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  4. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  5. Cloning and characterization of Vitis vinifera UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, a homologue of the enzyme encoded by the maize Bronze-1 locus that may primarily serve to glucosylate anthocyanidins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ford, C M; Boss, P K; Hoj, P B

    1998-04-10

    We report here the cloning and optimized expression at 16 degrees C and the characterization of a Vitis vinifera UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for a late step in grapevine anthocyanin biosynthesis. The properties of this and other UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferases, homologues of the product encoded by the maize Bronze-1 locus, are a matter of conjecture. The availability of a purified recombinant enzyme allowed for the unambiguous determination of the characteristics of a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase. Kinetic analyses showed that kcat for glucosylation of cyanidin, an anthocyanidin substrate, is 48 times higher than for glucosylation of the flavonol quercetin, whereas Km values are similar for both substrates. Activity toward other classes of substrates is absent. Cu2+ ions strongly inhibit the action of this and other glucosyltransferases; however, we suggest that this phenomenon in large part is due to Cu2+-mediated substrate degradation rather than inhibition of the enzyme. Additional lines of complementary biochemical data also indicated that in the case of V. vinifera, the principal, if not only, role of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferases is to glucosylate anthocyanidins in red fruit during ripening. Other glucosyltransferases with a much higher relative activity toward quercetin are suggested to glucosylate flavonols in a distinct spatial and temporal pattern. It should be considered whether gene products homologous to Bronze-1 in some cases more accurately should be referred to as UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferases.

  6. Recovery and fine structure variability of RGII sub-domains in wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot)

    PubMed Central

    Buffetto, F.; Ropartz, D.; Zhang, X. J.; Gilbert, H. J.; Guillon, F.; Ralet, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the structure of the polysaccharide. This study examines the fine structure variability of RGII in wine, focusing on the side chains A and B obtained after sequential mild acid hydrolysis. Specifically, this study aims to differentiate intrinsic structural variations in these RGII side chains from structural variations due to acid hydrolysis. Methods RGII from wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot) was sequentially hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and the hydrolysis products were separated by anion-exchange chromatography (AEC). AEC fractions or total hydrolysates were analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Key Results The optimal conditions to recover non-degraded side chain B, side chain A and RGII backbone were 0·1 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h, 0·48 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h (or 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 8 h) and 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 16 h, respectively. Side chain B was particularly prone to acid degradation. Side chain A and the RGII GalA backbone were partly degraded by 0·1 m TFA at 80 °C for 1–4 h. AEC allowed separation of side chain B, methyl-esterified side chain A and non-methyl-esterified side chain A. The structure of side chain A and the GalA backbone were highly variable. Conclusions Several modifications to the RGII structure of wine were identified. The observed dearabinosylation and deacetylation were primarily the consequence of acidic treatment, while variation in methyl-esterification, methyl-ether linkages and oxidation reflect natural diversity. The physiological significance of this variability, however, remains to be determined. PMID:24908680

  7. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  8. Moderate water stress from regulated deficit irrigation decreases transpiration similarly to net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) canopies, whole-canopy transpiration (TrV) and canopy conductance to water vapor (gc) were calculated from whole-vine gas exchange near key stages of fruit development. The vines were ma...

  9. Comparison of investigation methods of heat injury in grapevine (Vitis) and assessment to heat tolerance in different cultivars and species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of global climate change, heat stress is becoming an increasingly important constraint on grapevine growth and berry quality. There is a need to breed new grape cultivars with heat tolerance and to design effective physiological defenses against heat stress. The investigation of heat injury to plants or tissues under high temperature is an important step in achieving these goals. At present, evaluation methods for heat injury include the gas exchange parameters of photosynthesis, membrane thermostability, chlorophyll content etc.; however, these methods have obvious disadvantages, such as insensitivity, inconvenience and delayed information. An effective and convenient method for investigating the heat injury of grapevine must be developed. Results In this study, an investigation protocol for a critical temperature (47°C) and heat treatment time (40 min) was developed in detached grape leaves. Based on the results, we found that the OJIP test was superior to measuring electrolyte leakage or photosynthetic O2 evolution for investigating the heat injury of three cultivars of grapevine. Heat tolerance of 47 grape species and cultivars was evaluated through investigating heat injury using the OJIP test. Moreover, the electron transport chain (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center) of PSII in photosynthesis was further investigated. Conclusions The OJIP test was a rapid, sensitive and convenient method for investigating heat injury in grapevine. An analysis of PSII function using this method indicated that the acceptor side was less sensitive to heat than was the donor side or the reaction center in grape leaves. Among the 47 taxa evaluated (cultivars, hybrids, and wild species), heat tolerance varied largely in each genotype group: most wild species and hybrids between V. labrusca and V. vinifera had relatively strong heat tolerance, but most cultivars from V. vinifera had relatively weak heat tolerance. PMID:24898786

  10. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-Glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins in red grapes (Vitis genus) are important components of wine and beneficial to human health. These antioxidant compounds are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigm...

  11. Development of a magnetic capture hybridization real-time PCR assay for detection of tumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kameka L; Zheng, Desen; Kaewnum, Supaporn; Reid, Cheryl Lynn; Burr, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Agrobacterium vitis, the causal agent of grape crown gall, can have severe economic effects on grape production. The bacterium survives systemically in vines and, therefore, is disseminated in propagation material. We developed an assay for use in indexing programs that is efficient and sensitive for detecting A. vitis in grape tissue. Initially, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for diverse tumorigenic strains of A. vitis were developed using the virD2 gene sequence. To overcome the effects of PCR inhibitors present in plant tissue, DNA extraction methods that included magnetic capture hybridization (MCH), immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and extraction with the Mo Bio Powerfood kit were compared. The assays incorporating MCH or IMS followed by real-time PCR were 10,000-fold more sensitive than direct real-time PCR when tested using boiled bacterial cell suspensions, with detection thresholds of 10(1) CFU/ml compared with 10(5) CFU/ml. DNA extraction with the Powerfood DNA extraction kit was 10-fold more sensitive than direct real-time PCR, with a detection threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml. All three assays were able to detect A. vitis in healthy-appearing grapevine cuttings taken from infected vines. PMID:23324046

  12. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning.

  13. Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine.

  14. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning. PMID:18567054

  15. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  16. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism.

  17. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, E; Di Lorenzo, C; Colombo, E; Colombo, F; Fumagalli, M; Frigerio, G; Restani, P; Dell'Agli, M

    2015-08-01

    Botanicals are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, with increased usage in the general population, in many different types of products, including foods and plant food supplements. Several reports support for the beneficial effects of botanicals against gastrointestinal inflammation. However, no studies regarding the anti-inflammatory activity in the gastrointestinal tract of red vine leaves have been reported so far. The present work investigates the biological activity of Vitis vinifera L. water extract (VVWE) from dried leaves in two in vitro models of gastric and intestinal inflammation. The extract was characterized by a validated HPLC-DAD method, and tested on human epithelial gastric (AGS) and intestinal (Caco-2) cells with the aim to investigate the inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion and promoter activity, before and after in vitro gastric or gastrointestinal digestion. Our results show that the water extract from red vine leaves inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and expression in human gastric epithelial cells; the effect should be maintained, although to a lesser extent, after gastric digestion. In contrast, the effect after intestinal digestion is dramatically decreased since degradation of the active components in the gut does not allow the extract to efficiently counteract TNFα or IL-1β induced IL-8 expression and the NF-κB pathway. The main molecular target of VVWE at the gastric level includes TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and occurs at concentrations easily reachable after PFS consumption based on red vine leaf water extract as the ingredient. Our findings suggest that PFS containing water extracts from Vitis vinifera L. leaves could be useful to inhibit/attenuate gastric inflammation inhibiting IL-8 secretion and expression through impairment of the NF-κB pathway.

  18. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  19. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions.

  20. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products. PMID:25768038

  1. Effects of flumioxazin herbicide on carbon nutrition of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) on nontarget grapevines, its effects were assessed on fruiting cuttings and field-grown plants. The stress caused by the herbicide differed according to the grapevine model. In cuttings, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment levels as well as hexose contents decreased, whereas sucrose and starch accumulated, suggesting an inhibition of photosynthesis and an increase of carbohydrate reserves as a response to the fmx-induced stress. Paradoxically, in the field-grown grapevine leaves, fmx caused a stimulation of photosynthesis, an accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and monosaccharides, in parallel with a mobilization of sucrose and starch. These results suggest that fmx reaches grapevine leaves via root uptake and has prolonged effects. In cuttings, fmx generated a toxic effect related to its target, whereas in field-grown plants, fmx had rather positive physiological effects and acts as a signal further stimulating photosynthesis and related parameters.

  2. Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method for Apoplastic Protein Extraction in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe; Jeandet, Philippe; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The apoplastic fluid moving in the extracellular space external to the plasma membrane provides a means of delivering molecules and facilitates intercellular communications. However, the apoplastic fluid extraction from in planta systems remains challenging and this is particularly true for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a worldwide-cultivated fruit plant. Here, we describe an optimized vacuum-infiltration-centrifugation method to extract soluble proteins from apoplastic fluid of grapevine leaves. This optimized method allows recovering of the grapevine apoplastic soluble proteins suitable for mono- and bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis for further proteomic analysis in order to elucidate their physiological functions. PMID:27665564

  3. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  4. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  5. Foliar applied abscisic acid increases 'Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera) bud freezing tolerance during Autumn cold acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic loss due to cold weather events is a major constraint to winegrape-related industries where extreme and/or fluctuating winter temperatures induce injury and required remedial retraining and replanting increases production costs and lowers yield and fruit quality. The purpose of this study ...

  6. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  7. Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Grapevines, Vitis vinifera, in Oregon Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, J. N.; Forge, T. A.; Ivors, K. L.; Ingham, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of vineyards in western Oregon was conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the association of plant-parasitic nematodes with vine health. Seventy vineyards in four regions of western Oregon (16 to 21 vineyards per region) were sampled. The regions were the northern, middle, and southern Willamette Valley, and southern Oregon. Vineyards were selected and partitioned into blocks by variety, age of planting, crop history, and soil characteristics. Mesocriconema xenoplax, Xiphinema americanum, Pratylenchus spp., and Paratylenchus spp. were recovered from more than 85% of the vineyards; only 10% of vineyards had detectable populations of Meloidogyne hapla. Mesocriconema xenoplax and X. americanum were found in 20% and 8% of vineyard blocks, respectively, at population densities reported to cause moderate yield loss in California. Mesocriconema xenoplax was found at greatest population densities in vineyards older than 10 years and on former Prunus orchard sites in the northern Willamette Valley. Populations of Mesocriconema xenoplax and X. americanum were associated with both healthy and stunted vines. The long-term impact of M. xenoplax, X. americanum, and other nematodes on Oregon vineyard production has not yet been determined. PMID:19270927

  8. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  9. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  10. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  11. Determination of abscisic acid and its glucosyl ester in embryogenic callus cultures of Vitis vinifera in relation to the maturation of somatic embryos using a new liquid chromatography-ELISA analysis method.

    PubMed

    Prado, María Jesús; Largo, Asier; Domínguez, Cristina; González, María Victoria; Rey, Manuel; Centeno, María Luz

    2014-06-15

    The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), its conjugate ABA-GE, and IAA were determined in embryogenic calli of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Mencía) cultured in DM1 differentiation medium, to relate them to the maturation process of somatic embryos. To achieve this goal, we developed an analytical method that included two steps of solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation by HPLC, ABA-GE hydrolysis, and sensitive ELISA quantification. Because the ABA immunoassay was based on new polyclonal antibodies raised against a C4'-ABA conjugate, the assay was characterized (detection limit, midrange, measure range, and cross-reaction) and validated by a comparison of the ABA data obtained with this ELISA procedure and with a physicochemical method (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Radioactive-labeled internal standards were initially added to callus extracts to correct the losses of plant hormones, and thus assure the accuracy of the measurements. The endogenous concentration of ABA in the embryogenic callus cultured in DM1 medium was doubled at the fifth week of culture, concurring with the maturation process of somatic embryos, as indicated by the accumulation of carbohydrates observed through histological analysis. The ABA-GE content was higher than ABA, decreasing at 21 days of culture in DM1 medium but increasing thereafter. The data suggest the involvement of the synthesis and conjugation of ABA in the final stages of development in grapevine somatic embryos from embryogenic callus. IAA levels were low, suggesting that auxin plays no significant role during the maturation of somatic embryos. In addition, the lower ABA levels in calli cultured in DM differentiation medium with PGRs, a medium presenting high precocious germination and deficiencies in somatic embryo development indicate that an increase in ABA content during the development of somatic embryos in grapevine is necessary for their correct maturation.

  12. Determination of abscisic acid and its glucosyl ester in embryogenic callus cultures of Vitis vinifera in relation to the maturation of somatic embryos using a new liquid chromatography-ELISA analysis method.

    PubMed

    Prado, María Jesús; Largo, Asier; Domínguez, Cristina; González, María Victoria; Rey, Manuel; Centeno, María Luz

    2014-06-15

    The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), its conjugate ABA-GE, and IAA were determined in embryogenic calli of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Mencía) cultured in DM1 differentiation medium, to relate them to the maturation process of somatic embryos. To achieve this goal, we developed an analytical method that included two steps of solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation by HPLC, ABA-GE hydrolysis, and sensitive ELISA quantification. Because the ABA immunoassay was based on new polyclonal antibodies raised against a C4'-ABA conjugate, the assay was characterized (detection limit, midrange, measure range, and cross-reaction) and validated by a comparison of the ABA data obtained with this ELISA procedure and with a physicochemical method (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Radioactive-labeled internal standards were initially added to callus extracts to correct the losses of plant hormones, and thus assure the accuracy of the measurements. The endogenous concentration of ABA in the embryogenic callus cultured in DM1 medium was doubled at the fifth week of culture, concurring with the maturation process of somatic embryos, as indicated by the accumulation of carbohydrates observed through histological analysis. The ABA-GE content was higher than ABA, decreasing at 21 days of culture in DM1 medium but increasing thereafter. The data suggest the involvement of the synthesis and conjugation of ABA in the final stages of development in grapevine somatic embryos from embryogenic callus. IAA levels were low, suggesting that auxin plays no significant role during the maturation of somatic embryos. In addition, the lower ABA levels in calli cultured in DM differentiation medium with PGRs, a medium presenting high precocious germination and deficiencies in somatic embryo development indicate that an increase in ABA content during the development of somatic embryos in grapevine is necessary for their correct maturation. PMID:24877677

  13. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  14. Unraveling the etiology of North American grapevine yellows (NAGY): multilocus genotyping and structural analysis of secY proteins distinguish NAGYIII phytoplasma strains from strains causing X-disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American grapevine yellows (NAGY) disease has sometimes been ascribed to infection of Vitis vinifera L. by X-disease phytoplasma, but the accuracy of this attribution has remained open to question. In the present study of NAGY etiology, the disease was discovered in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Oh...

  15. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and combined on vine growth of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J; Goheen, A C

    1976-10-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.

  16. Enhancement of phenolics, resveratrol and antioxidant activity by nitrogen enrichment in cell suspension culture of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lee, Napaporn; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively. PMID:24962393

  17. Enhancement of phenolics, resveratrol and antioxidant activity by nitrogen enrichment in cell suspension culture of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lee, Napaporn; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  19. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  20. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis. PMID:24715273

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  2. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  3. Evaluation of anti-Candida activity of Vitis vinifera L. seed extracts obtained from wine and table cultivars.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Santamaria, Anna Rita; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Cecchini, Francesca; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Panella, Simona; Antonacci, Donato; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs), obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥ 4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  4. Linkage of cold acclimation and disease resistance through plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Vitis amurensis grapevine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Yali; Yin, Ling; Qu, Junjie; Lu, Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Low temperatures cause severe damage to none cold hardy grapevines. A preliminary survey with Solexa sequencing technology was used to analyze gene expression profiles of cold hardy Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshan-1' after cold acclimation at 4 °C for 48 h. A total of 16,750 and 18,068 putative genes were annotated for 4 °C-treated and control library, respectively. Among them, 393 genes were upregulated for at least 20-fold, while 69 genes were downregulated for at least 20-fold under the 4 °C treatment for 48 h. A subset of 101 genes from this survey was investigated further using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genes associated with signaling events in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), including generation of calcium signals (CNGC, CMLs), jasmonic acid signal (JAZ1), oxidative burst (Rboh), and phosphorylation (FLS2, BAK, MEKK1, MKKs) cascades, were upregulated after cold acclimation. Disease resistance genes (RPM1, RPS5, RIN4, PBS1) in the process of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were also upregulated in the current condition. Defense-related genes (WRKYs, PR1, MIN7) involved in both PTI and ETI processes were abundantly expressed after cold acclimation. Our results indicated that plant-pathogen interaction pathways were linked to the cold acclimation in V. amurensis grapevine. Other biotic- and abiotic-related genes, such as defense (protein phosphatase 2C, U-box domain proteins, NCED1, stilbene synthase), transcription (DREBs, MYBs, ERFs, ZFPs), signal transduction (kinase, calcium, and auxin signaling), transport (ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, auxin:hydrogen symporter), and various metabolism, were also abundantly expressed in the cold acclimation of V. Amurensis 'Zuoshan-1' grapevine. This study revealed a series of critical genes and pathways to delineate important biological processes affected by low temperature in 'Zuoshan-1'.

  5. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under distinct agricultural practices in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, A D; Gumiere, T; Andrade, P A M; Lima-Perim, J E; Durrer, A; Baigori, M; Vazquez, F; Andreote, F D

    2015-02-01

    Plants interact with a myriad of microbial cells in the rhizosphere, an environment that is considered to be important for plant development. However, the differential structuring of rhizosphere microbial communities due to plant cultivation under differential agricultural practices remains to be described for most plant species. Here we describe the rhizosphere microbiome of grapevine cultivated under conventional and organic practices, using a combination of cultivation-independent approaches. The quantification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, by quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealed similar amounts of these genes in the rhizosphere in both vineyards. PCR-DGGE was used to detect differences in the structure of bacterial communities, including both the complete whole communities and specific fractions, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and those harboring the nitrogen-fixing related gene nifH. When analyzed by a multivariate approach (redundancy analysis), the shifts observed in the bacterial communities were poorly explained by variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere. These approaches were complemented by high-throughput sequencing (67,830 sequences) based on the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, identifying the major bacterial groups present in the rhizosphere of grapevines: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Cloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, which occur in distinct proportions in the rhizosphere from each vineyard. The differences might be related to the selection of plant metabolism upon distinct reservoirs of microbial cells found in each vineyard. The results fill a gap in the knowledge of the rhizosphere of grapevines and also show distinctions in these bacterial communities due to agricultural practices. PMID:25527391

  6. Transient effect of the herbicide flazasulfuron on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Magné, Christian; Saladin, Gaëlle; Clément, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    In the Champagne vineyard, most of the areas treated in early 2000 with the newly approved herbicide flazasulfuron had vines with altered growth and yellow leaves throughout the growing season. In order to clarify the physiological perturbations caused on the non-target grapevine and their potential consequences, C nutrition of grape plants grown in vineyards treated or not with flazasulfuron in 2000 was characterized during the following season. Vines from treated areas exhibited yellow leaves and an alteration of photosynthetic activity, characterized by declines in leaf gas exchanges (by 85%) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations (by 88%), and a marked disorganization of the leaf plastids. The herbicide also caused a decrease in leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate levels (-74% and -90%, respectively). Surprisingly, some vines re-greened after bloom, then exhibiting similar carbohydrate physiology to those grown in a non-treated area. Thus, recovery of CO(2) fixation rates, plastid ultra-structure, pigment concentrations and carbohydrate levels was found in re-greening leaves. Unlike the informations available in the literature, our results showed that flazasulfuron may be phytotoxic for grapevine. However, this toxicity was overcome the following year, indicating that vines have the potential to recover from this herbicide stress after one season.

  7. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  8. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  9. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  10. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R.; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable ‘peppery’ aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy

  11. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  12. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. PMID:24285825

  13. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  14. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  15. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits.

  16. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  17. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  18. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  19. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  20. [Impact of subculture cycles and inoculum sizes on suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Quan-Li; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-11-01

    The commercial application of plant cell cultures is often hindered by the instability of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the metabolite yield fluctuates and decline dramatically over subcultures. This study proposed that such instability is due to the fluctuations of culture variables. To validate this hypothesis, the effects of the fluctuations of two culture variables (subculture cycle and inoculum size) on the biomass, anthocyanin biosynthesig, intracellular carbon, nitrogen and phosphate during continuous 10 subculture cycles were investigated. The subculture cycle was fluctuated for 12h in a 7 day cycle (6.5, 7 and 7.5 d), and the inoculum size was fluctuated by 20% on basis of 2.00 g (1.60, 2.00 and 2.40 g). It was found that all the measured culture parameters fluctuated over the 10 subculture cycles. The fluctuation in terms of inoculum sizes had a greater effect on the stability of anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of V. vinifera. Among all the subculture conditions investigated, 7d-subculture cycle and 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to hold the relatively stable anthocyanin production. The anthocyanin yield presented a negative correlation with intracellular sucrose content or intracellular total phosphate content.

  1. Interactive effects of soil water deficit and air vapour pressure deficit on mesophyll conductance to CO2 in Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, A; Flexas, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; Bota, J; Tomás, M; Infante, J M; Diaz-Espejo, A

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the interactive effect of drought stress and high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on leaf gas exchange, and especially on mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), in two woody species of great agronomical importance in the Mediterranean basin: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanilla. Plants were grown in specially designed outdoor chambers with ambient and below ambient VPD, under both well-irrigated and drought conditions. g(m) was estimated by the variable J method from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and fluorescence. In both species, the response to soil water deficit was larger in g(s) than in g(m), and more important than the response to VPD. Olea europaea was apparently more sensitive to VPD, so that plants growing in more humid chambers showed higher g(s) and g(m). In V. vinifera, in contrast, soil water deficit dominated the response of g(s) and g(m). Consequently, changes in g(m)/g(s) were more related to VPD in O. europaea and to soil water deficit in V. vinifera. Most of the limitations of photosynthesis were diffusional and especially due to stomatal closure. No biochemical limitation was detected. The results showed that structural parameters played an important role in determining g(m) during the acclimation process. Although the relationship between leaf mass per unit area (M(A)) with g(m) was scattered, it imposed a limitation to the maximum g(m) achievable, with higher values of M(A) in O. europaea at lower g(m) values. M(A) decreased under water stress in O. europaea but it increased in V. vinifera. This resulted in a negative relationship between M(A) and the CO(2) draw-down between substomatal cavities and chloroplasts in O. europaea, while being positive in V. vinifera. PMID:19457982

  2. Preliminary study on biomarkers for the fungal resistance in Vitis vinifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Atanassov, Atanas Ivanov; Hvarleva, Tzvetanka Dimitrova; Djakova, Galina Jordanova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov

    2008-05-26

    We examined the leaf chemical composition of six seedlings obtained by self-pollination of the Bulgarian wine-making variety Storgozia as well as the cultivar Bouquet, which is the susceptible parent of Storgozia. The chemical composition was investigated in the framework of a program for identification of metabolites associated with disease resistance in grape-vine. Acetone, dichloromethane and butanol extracts, as well as volatiles obtained from fresh material were analyzed by GC/MS. Based on the correlations of the GC/MS data and estimated resistance of the leaves towards the etiological agents of powdery mildew, downy mildew and botrytis as biomarkers for the fungal resistance, we proposed 16 individual metabolites--alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, squalene, alpha-amyrine, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, glycolic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxycaproic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, erythronic acid, arabinoic acid, monoethyl phosphate, undecyl laurate and isopropyl myristate. The obtained correlations were confirmed by cluster analysis. PMID:18155317

  3. Cohorts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Vitis vinifera, a typical Mediterranean fruit crop.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Magurno, Franco; Walker, Christopher; Lumini, Erica; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2010-08-01

    In field conditions, grapevine roots normally are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, little is published, from either morphological or molecular studies, on the species composition of these symbionts in production vineyards. The AMF biodiversity of two Piedmont vineyards (at Neive and Lessona), characterized by different soil features, was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. Several morphotypes were identified from the two vineyard soils. Community composition of AMF, both in soil and root samples, was then analysed with molecular approach to amplify a portion (550 bp) of AM fungal SSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses show a different distribution of sequences from the two sites in the main glomeromycotan groups. In the Neive site, the Glomeraceae group A is the only one well represented whereas more groups were found at Lessona. Among the more representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs), only one related to the Glomus irregulare phylotype was shared between the two vineyard soils. The data obtained in this work together with similar results in literature on this important fruit crop reinforce the concept that the general AMF assemblage structure and composition in vineyards might be influenced more by soil type than by host plant features (age, vegetative stages) or management practices.

  4. Preliminary study on biomarkers for the fungal resistance in Vitis vinifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Atanassov, Atanas Ivanov; Hvarleva, Tzvetanka Dimitrova; Djakova, Galina Jordanova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov

    2008-05-26

    We examined the leaf chemical composition of six seedlings obtained by self-pollination of the Bulgarian wine-making variety Storgozia as well as the cultivar Bouquet, which is the susceptible parent of Storgozia. The chemical composition was investigated in the framework of a program for identification of metabolites associated with disease resistance in grape-vine. Acetone, dichloromethane and butanol extracts, as well as volatiles obtained from fresh material were analyzed by GC/MS. Based on the correlations of the GC/MS data and estimated resistance of the leaves towards the etiological agents of powdery mildew, downy mildew and botrytis as biomarkers for the fungal resistance, we proposed 16 individual metabolites--alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, squalene, alpha-amyrine, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, glycolic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxycaproic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, erythronic acid, arabinoic acid, monoethyl phosphate, undecyl laurate and isopropyl myristate. The obtained correlations were confirmed by cluster analysis.

  5. Characterization of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berry Sunburn Symptoms by Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Rocchi, Letizia; Guffanti, Eugenio; Cola, Gabriele; Failla, Osvaldo

    2014-03-27

    Sunburn can affect grape quality both for chemical modifications and by visual impact of the browning. Optical properties of 17 white grape accessions were investigated in the visible region using a noninvasive instrument. Reflectance spectra were obtained using a Jaz System spectrometer. Browning was induced by exposing grape bunches to direct sunlight at 12:30 p.m. for 5 h. During the experiment, the global solar radiation ranged from 2.6 to 2.7 MJ m(-2) h(-1) and the air temperature from 24.3 to 29.2 °C; the exposed berries reached a temperature of 34.2 °C in comparison to the 30.4 °C of the shaded ones. Differences between the spectra of controlled and exposed berries mainly emphasized the loss in chlorophyll and the formation of brown compounds. A positive correlation between the chlorophyll concentration and berry browning was proposed. Developing rapid, noninvasive, and low-cost methods based on reflectance spectroscopy could support grapevine variety characterization with respect to sunburn susceptibility as well as study of the physiological processes involved in the symptoms' appearance.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries

    PubMed Central

    Giribaldi, Marzia; Gény, Laurence; Delrot, Serge; Schubert, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The control of ripening of the non-climacteric grapevine fruit is still a matter of debate, but several lines of evidence point to an important role for the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The effects of ABA treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon berries before and at véraison were studied using a 2-DE proteomic approach. Proteins from whole deseeded berries (before véraison) and berry flesh and skin (at véraison) treated with 0.76 mM ABA and collected 24 h after treatment were separated and analysed. A total of 60 protein spots showed significant variations between treated and control berries, and 40 proteins, mainly related to general metabolism and cell defence, were identified by LC MS/MS. Our results show that ABA acts mainly through the regulation of mostly the same proteins which are involved in the ripening process, and that several of these changes share common elements with the ABA-induced responses in vegetative tissues. PMID:20388747

  7. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars.

  8. Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois noir in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the "Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum" group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name "Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae." Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii." Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As "Ca. Sulcia" is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between "Ca. Sulcia" and "Ca. Purcelliella," "Ca. Vidania," or both. PMID:21183640

  9. SSR and SRAP marker-based linkage map of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Guo, Xiuwu; Li, Kun

    2014-01-01

    An F1 population was created by the cross ‘87-1’ × ‘9-22’. The female parent ‘87-1’ was an extremely early maturing cultivar with strong flavour. The male parent was an excellent breeding line producing large berries maturing late. The mapping population included 149 randomly chosen individuals. Molecular genetic map for each parent and the consensus map were constructed using simple sequence repeat and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers by software JoinMap 3.0. The ‘87-1’ map covers a total length of 1272.9 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and consists of 163 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 8.9 cM. The ‘9-22’ map covers a total length of 1267.4 cM distributed in 20 linkage groups and consists of 158 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 9.1 cM. The consensus map covers a total length of 1537.1 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and one doublet and consists of 217 molecular markers with an average distance of 7.8 cM between adjacent markers. The length of the linkage groups is 69.8 cM on average. The map covers the 19 chromosomes of the Vitis genome and can lay a solid foundation for further studies such as quantative trait loci (QTL) mapping of correlated traits and marker-assisted selection. PMID:26019507

  10. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

  11. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  12. Functions of EDS1-like and PAD4 genes in grapevine defenses against powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Dai, Ru; Pike, Sharon M; Qiu, Wenping; Gassmann, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The molecular interactions between grapevine and the obligate biotrophic fungus Erysiphe necator are not understood in depth. One reason for this is the recalcitrance of grapevine to genetic modifications. Using defense-related Arabidopsis mutants that are susceptible to pathogens, we were able to analyze key components in grapevine defense responses. We have examined the functions of defense genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, including ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), EDS1-LIKE 2 (EDL2), EDL5 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) of two grapevine species, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which is susceptible to E. necator, and V. aestivalis cv. Norton, which is resistant. Both VaEDS1 and VvEDS1 were previously found to functionally complement the Arabidopsis eds1-1 mutant. Here we show that the promoters of both VaEDS1 and VvEDS1 were induced by SA, indicating that the heightened defense of Norton is related to its high SA level. Other than Va/VvEDS1, only VaEDL2 complemented Arabidopsis eds1-1, whereas Va/VvPAD4 did not complement Arabidopsis pad4-1. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation results indicated that Vitis EDS1 and EDL2 proteins interact with Vitis PAD4 and AtPAD4, suggesting that Vitis EDS1/EDL2 forms a complex with PAD4 to confer resistance, as is known from Arabidopsis. However, Vitis EDL5 and PAD4 did not interact with Arabidopsis EDS1 or PAD4, correlating with their inability to function in Arabidopsis. Together, our study suggests a more complicated EDS1/PAD4 module in grapevine and provides insight into molecular mechanisms that determine disease resistance levels in Vitis species native to the North American continent.

  13. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar. PMID:25226431

  14. Integration of stress produced reactive oxygen species in the stomatal regulation of micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. plantlets impaired in ABA signaling.

    PubMed

    Vilela, B Jorge; Carvalho, Luísa C; Amâncio, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been repeatedly implicated as cellular second messengers important in the modulation of almost every ontogenic phase of plant development, from seedling to cell death. In all of these processes, ROS production and detoxification are highly regulated and its levels are kept under tight control, in order to achieve the desired effect at the cellular or plant level. Micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. transferred to ex vitro growth under increased irradiance gave an additional insight into ROS signaling by integrating stress produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) into normal signaling pathways with distinctive effects critical for the survival, growth and development of these plants. Here we discuss in further detail the relevance of these results and propose a model that may explain this phenomenon.

  15. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  16. Effect of two different treatments for reducing grape yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on wine composition and quality: berry thinning versus cluster thinning.

    PubMed

    Gil, M; Esteruelas, M; González, E; Kontoudakis, N; Jiménez, J; Fort, F; Canals, J M; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Zamora, F

    2013-05-22

    The influence of two treatments for reducing grape yield, cluster thinning and berry thinning, on red wine composition and quality were studied in a Vitis vinifera cv Syrah vineyard in AOC Penedès (Spain). Cluster thinning reduced grape yield per vine by around 40% whereas berry thinning only reduced it by around 20%. Cluster thinning grapes had higher soluble solids content than control grapes, and their resultant wines have greater anthocyanin and polysaccharide concentrations than the control wine. Wine obtained from berry thinning grapes had a higher total phenolic index, greater flavonol, proanthocyanidin, and polysaccharide concentrations, and lower titratable acidity than the control wine. Wines obtained from both treatments were sufficiently different from the control wine to be significantly distinguished by a trained panel in a triangular test. Even though both treatments seem to be effective at improving the quality of wine, berry thinning has the advantage because it has less impact on crop yield reduction.

  17. Morphological and phylogenetic identification of Botrytis sinoviticola, a novel cryptic species causing gray mold disease of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y J; Zhang, J; Wang, X D; Yang, L; Jiang, D H; Li, G Q; Hsiang, T; Zhuang, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five isolates of Botrytis collected from table grapes (Vitis vinifera) with gray mold symptoms in China were identified based on morpho-cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar (20 C) and/or phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2). Isolates of different species of Botrytis were compared with fenhexamid sensitivity, Bc-hch gene-RFLP haplotyping and pathogenicity to V. vinifera. The 75 isolates comprise two species, B. cinerea (63 isolates) and an undescribed Botrytis sp. (12 isolates) described here as Botrytis sinoviticola Zhang et al. sp., nov. Both B. sinoviticola (Bs) and B. cinerea (Bc) were found to have 20 C optimum for mycelial growth and 25 C for conidial germination. Sensitivity to fenhexamid was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for Bc (EC50 = 0.04 ± 0.01 μg mL(-1)) than for Bs (EC50 = 0.08 ± 0.02 μg mL(-1)). Digestion of the PCR amplicons of the Bc-hch gene with Hha I generated two haplotypes, Group I haplotype for Bs and Group II haplotype for Bc. Bs infected table grapes (leaves, berries) only through wounds, whereas Bc infected both injured and non-injured tissues of table grapes. This study suggests that Bs is a cryptic species sympatric with Bc on table grapes in China.

  18. Enhanced anthocyanins and resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension culture by indanoyl-isoleucine, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and insect saliva.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two synthetic elicitor indanoyl-isoleucine (In-Ile), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (Lin-Gln) and one biotic elicitor insect saliva (from Manduca sexta larvae) on plant cell cultures with respect to the induction of secondary metabolite production were investigated. Stimulated production of secondary metabolites, particularly anthocyanins in plant cells and phenolic acids in culture medium, was studied by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. In the treatments with In-Ile, the production of anthocyanins was enhanced 2.6-fold. In-Ile, Lin-Gln and saliva significantly elevated the accumulation of phenolic acids, particularly 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol. The used elicitors did not suppress cell growth. Secondary metabolites were differently responsive to elicitation. 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol was the predominant phenolic acid in V. vinifera cell culture, and its production was significantly stimulated by saliva, with 7.0-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. The production of 4-(3,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-phenol was significantly stimulated by In-Ile with 6.4-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. PMID:22133437

  19. Comparison of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene sequences between white grapes (Vitis vinifera) and their sports with red skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Ishimaru, M; Ding, C K.; Yakushiji, H; Goto, N

    2001-02-01

    The expression of the UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene has been shown to be critical for anthocyanin biosynthesis in the grape berry. Using white cultivars and bud sports with red skin, we examined the expression of seven anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including the UFGT gene and compared the coding/promoter sequences of the UFGT gene. Northern blot analysis showed that the seven anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were expressed coordinately at higher levels in the red-skin sports than in the white-skin progenitors of the sports. It was especially notable that UFGT gene expression was detected only in the red-skin sports and Kyoho. However, there were no differences in either coding or promoter sequences between Italia (Vitis vinifera) and its red-skin sport Ruby Okuyama, or between Muscat of Alexandria (V. vinifera) and the red-skin sport Flame Muscat. From these findings, the phenotypic change from white to red in the sports is thought to be the result of a mutation in a regulatory gene controlling the expression of UFGT.

  20. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  1. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera.

  2. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera. PMID:23216204

  3. Reduction in pathogen populations at grapevine wound sites is associated with the mechanism underlying the biological control of crown gall by rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2014-09-17

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium (=Agrobacterium) vitis, ARK-1, limited the development of grapevine crown gall. A co-inoculation with ARK-1 and the tumorigenic strain VAT07-1 at a 1:1 cell ratio resulted in a higher population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in shoots without tumors, but a significantly lower population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in grapevine shoots with tumors. ARK-1 began to significantly suppress the VAT07-1 population 2 d after the inoculation. This result indicated that ARK-1 reduced the pathogen population at the wound site through biological control. Although ARK-1 produced a zone of inhibition against other tumorigenic Rhizobium spp. in in vitro assays, antibiosis depended on the culture medium. ARK-1 did not inhibit the growth of tumorigenic R. radiobacter strain AtC1 in the antibiosis assay, but suppressed the AtC1-induced formation of tumors on grapevine shoots, suggesting that antibiosis by ARK-1 may not be the main mechanism responsible for biological control. PMID:25077443

  4. Reduction in Pathogen Populations at Grapevine Wound Sites is Associated with the Mechanism Underlying the Biological Control of Crown Gall by Rhizobium vitis Strain ARK-1

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium (=Agrobacterium) vitis, ARK-1, limited the development of grapevine crown gall. A co-inoculation with ARK-1 and the tumorigenic strain VAT07-1 at a 1:1 cell ratio resulted in a higher population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in shoots without tumors, but a significantly lower population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in grapevine shoots with tumors. ARK-1 began to significantly suppress the VAT07-1 population 2 d after the inoculation. This result indicated that ARK-1 reduced the pathogen population at the wound site through biological control. Although ARK-1 produced a zone of inhibition against other tumorigenic Rhizobium spp. in in vitro assays, antibiosis depended on the culture medium. ARK-1 did not inhibit the growth of tumorigenic R. radiobacter strain AtC1 in the antibiosis assay, but suppressed the AtC1-induced formation of tumors on grapevine shoots, suggesting that antibiosis by ARK-1 may not be the main mechanism responsible for biological control. PMID:25077443

  5. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  6. Unravelling the Diversity of Grapevine Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; C. Gomes, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  7. A functional EDS1 ortholog is differentially regulated in powdery mildew resistant and susceptible grapevines and complements an Arabidopsis eds1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Shu, Xiaomei; Ali, Mohammad Babar; Howard, Susanne; Li, Nan; Winterhagen, Patrick; Qiu, Wenping; Gassmann, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is the most economically important deciduous fruit crop, but cultivated grapevine varieties lack adequate innate immunity to a range of devastating diseases. To identify genetic resources for grapevine innate immunity and understand pathogen defense pathways in a woody perennial plant, we focus in this study on orthologs of the central Arabidopsis thaliana defense regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). The family of EDS1-like genes is expanded in grapevine, and members of this family were previously found to be constitutively upregulated in the resistant variety 'Norton' of the North American grapevine species Vitis aestivalis, while they were induced by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of grapevine powdery mildew (PM), in the susceptible V. vinifera variety 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Here, we determine the responsiveness of individual EDS1-like genes in grapevine to PM and salicylic acid, and find that EDS1-like paralogs are differentially regulated in 'Cabernet Sauvignon', while two are constitutively upregulated in 'Norton'. Sequencing of VvEDS1 and VaEDS1 cDNA and genomic clones revealed high conservation in the protein-encoding sequence and some divergence of the promoter sequence in the two grapevine varieties. Complementation of the Arabidopsis eds1-1 mutant showed that the EDS1-like gene with highest predicted amino acid sequence similarity to AtEDS1 from either grapevine varieties is a functional ortholog of AtEDS1. Together, our analyses show that differential susceptibility to PM is correlated with differences in EDS1 expression, not differences in EDS1 function, between resistant 'Norton' and susceptible 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  8. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals a New Genospecies of Methylobacterium sp. GXS13, Isolated from Vitis vinifera L. Xylem Sap

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wan Xin; Gan, Han Ming; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of a new genospecies of Methylobacterium sp., named GXS13 and isolated from grapevine xylem sap, is reported and demonstrates potential for methylotrophy, cytokinin synthesis, and cell wall modification. In addition, biosynthetic gene clusters were identified for cupriachelin, carotenoid, and acyl-homoserine lactone using the antiSMASH server. PMID:26847900

  9. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  10. The crucial role of Φ- and K-segments in the in vitro functionality of Vitis vinifera dehydrin DHN1a.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Escribano, Ma Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, Ma Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs), group II LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins, are among the most commonly observed proteins which accumulate in plants in response to cold and any other environmental factors, causing the dehydration of cells. In previous studies, we isolated a YSK2-type VvcDHN1a gene from table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) which presented two spliced variants (the spliced, DHN1a_s and the unspliced, DHN1a_u). Their expression was induced by low temperature storage and CO2, although with different accumulation patterns. DHN1a_u codifies for a truncated YS protein lacking Ф- and K-segments, which might affect its functionality. In this work, we expressed both DHN1a_s and DHN1a_u recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We carried out a number of in vitro assays to analyze the implications that Ф- and K-segments have in the protective role of VvcDHN1 against different abiotic stresses and their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results showed that unlike DHN1a_u, DHN1a_s has a potent cryoprotective effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity, protects malate dehydrogenase against dehydration and partially inhibits B. cinerea growth. Moreover, the DHN1a promoter presented cis-regulatory elements related to cold and drought, as well as biotic stress-related elements. We also observed that both spliced variants interact weakly with DNA, suggesting that K-segments are not involved in DNA binding. Overall, this work highlights the crucial role of Ф- and K-segments in DHNs function in plant response to abiotic stress showing for the first time, the potential role of the V. vinifera DHN1a_s in the protection against freezing and dehydration as well as inhibiting B. cinerea growth. PMID:25457499

  11. A comprehensive survey of the grapevine VQ gene family and its transcriptional correlation with WRKY proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Yan; Corso, Massimiliano; Cavallini, Erika; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins are a class of transcription factors (TFs) involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that some WRKY TFs interact with a class of proteins designed as VQ proteins because of their typical conserved motif (FxxxVQxLTG). So far, no information is available about the genomic organization and the function of VQ motif-containing protein in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L). In the current study, we analyzed the 12X V1 prediction of the nearly homozygous PN40024 genotype identifying up to 18 predicted VQ genes (VvVQ). VvVQs phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses indicated that the intron-exon structures and motif distribution are highly divergent between different members of the grapevine VQ family. Moreover, the analysis of the V. vinifera cv. Corvina expression atlas revealed a tissue- and stage-specific expression of several members of the family which also showed a significant correlation with WRKY TFs. Grapevine VQ genes also exhibited altered expression in response to drought, powdery mildew infection, salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ETH) treatments. The present study represents the first characterization of VQ genes in a grapevine genotype and it is a pivotal foundation for further studies aimed at functionally characterizing this mostly unknown grapevine multigenic family. PMID:26124765

  12. Virus-Derived Gene Expression and RNA Interference Vector for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Miller, Marilyn; Carrington, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of the agricultural and wine-making qualities of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is hampered by adherence to traditional varieties, the recalcitrance of this plant to genetic modifications, and public resistance to genetically modified organism (GMO) technologies. To address these challenges, we developed an RNA virus-based vector for the introduction of desired traits into grapevine without heritable modifications to the genome. This vector expresses recombinant proteins in the phloem tissue that is involved in sugar transport throughout the plant, from leaves to roots to berries. Furthermore, the vector provides a powerful RNA interference (RNAi) capability of regulating the expression of endogenous genes via virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) technology. Additional advantages of this vector include superb genetic capacity and stability, as well as the swiftness of technology implementation. The most significant applications of the viral vector include functional genomics of the grapevine and disease control via RNAi-enabled vaccination against pathogens or invertebrate pests. PMID:22438553

  13. A critical review on extraction techniques and gas chromatography based determination of grapevine derived sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Petronilho, Sílvia; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2014-10-10

    Vitis vinifera L. (common grapevine) is considered one of the major world fruit crops based on the extent of cultivated land and on its economic value. Grapevine is composed by several different chemical compounds, including sesquiterpenic ones. Sesquiterpenic compounds play a significant role in varietal aromas, contributing to fruity and flowery odours, and are also well known for their potential health benefits. The advantages and drawbacks of different extraction and gas chromatographic techniques used for the determination of sesquiterpenic compounds are critically presented. Also, the future trends of sample preparation and gas chromatographic tools are discussed. This review provides the state-of-the-art and the technical know-how for the researchers who want to start studying sesquiterpenic compounds on complex matrices such as grapevine products.

  14. Virus-derived gene expression and RNA interference vector for grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Elizabeth G; Peremyslov, Valera V; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I; Kasschau, Kristin D; Miller, Marilyn; Carrington, James C; Dolja, Valerian V

    2012-06-01

    The improvement of the agricultural and wine-making qualities of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is hampered by adherence to traditional varieties, the recalcitrance of this plant to genetic modifications, and public resistance to genetically modified organism (GMO) technologies. To address these challenges, we developed an RNA virus-based vector for the introduction of desired traits into grapevine without heritable modifications to the genome. This vector expresses recombinant proteins in the phloem tissue that is involved in sugar transport throughout the plant, from leaves to roots to berries. Furthermore, the vector provides a powerful RNA interference (RNAi) capability of regulating the expression of endogenous genes via virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) technology. Additional advantages of this vector include superb genetic capacity and stability, as well as the swiftness of technology implementation. The most significant applications of the viral vector include functional genomics of the grapevine and disease control via RNAi-enabled vaccination against pathogens or invertebrate pests.

  15. Microcollinearity in an ethylene receptor coding gene region of the Coffea canephora genome is extensively conserved with Vitis vinifera and other distant dicotyledonous sequenced genomes

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Romain; de la Mare, Marion; Viader, Véronique; Hamon, Perla; Coriton, Olivier; Bustamante-Porras, José; Poncet, Valérie; Campa, Claudine; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Background Coffea canephora, also called Robusta, belongs to the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm family. This diploid species (2x = 2n = 22) has a fairly small genome size of ≈ 690 Mb and despite its extreme economic importance, particularly for developing countries, knowledge on the genome composition, structure and evolution remain very limited. Here, we report the 160 kb of the first C. canephora Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone ever sequenced and its fine analysis. Results This clone contains the CcEIN4 gene, encoding an ethylene receptor, and twenty other predicted genes showing a high gene density of one gene per 7.8 kb. Most of them display perfect matches with C. canephora expressed sequence tags or show transcriptional activities through PCR amplifications on cDNA libraries. Twenty-three transposable elements, mainly Class II transposon derivatives, were identified at this locus. Most of these Class II elements are Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITE) known to be closely associated with plant genes. This BAC composition gives a pattern similar to those found in gene rich regions of Solanum lycopersicum and Medicago truncatula genomes indicating that the CcEIN4 regions may belong to a gene rich region in the C. canephora genome. Comparative sequence analysis indicated an extensive conservation between C. canephora and most of the reference dicotyledonous genomes studied in this work, such as tomato (S. lycopersicum), grapevine (V. vinifera), barrel medic M. truncatula, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The higher degree of microcollinearity was found between C. canephora and V. vinifera, which belong respectively to the Asterids and Rosids, two clades that diverged more than 114 million years ago. Conclusion This study provides a first glimpse of C. canephora genome composition and evolution. Our data revealed a remarkable conservation of the microcollinearity between C. canephora and V

  16. A Novel Bacteroidetes Symbiont Is Localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the Insect Vector of Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Marzorati, Massimo; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Palermo, Simona; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Balloi, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Clementi, Emanuela; Corona, Silvia; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease that afflicts several wine production areas in Europe, from Portugal to Serbia. FD is caused by a bacterium, “Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis,” which is spread throughout the vineyards by a leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus (Cicadellidae). After collection of S. titanus specimens from FD-contaminated vineyards in three different areas in the Piedmont region of Italy, we performed a survey to characterize the bacterial microflora associated with this insect. Using length heterogeneity PCR with universal primers for bacteria we identified a major peak associated with almost all of the individuals examined (both males and females). Characterization by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a major band that, after sequencing, showed a 97 to 99% identity with Bacteroidetes symbionts of the “Candidatus Cardinium hertigii” group. In addition, electron microscopy of tissues of S. titanus fed for 3 months on phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed bacterial cells with the typical morphology of “Ca. Cardinium hertigii.” This endosymbiont, tentatively designated ST1-C, was found in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic ovarian cells, in the follicle cells, and in the fat body and salivary glands. In addition, cell morphologies resembling those of “Ca. Phytoplasma vitis” were detected in the midgut, and specific PCR assays indicated the presence of the phytoplasma in the gut, fat body and salivary glands. These results indicate that ST1-C and “Ca. Phytoplasma vitis” have a complex life cycle in the body of S. titanus and are colocalized in different organs and tissues. PMID:16461701

  17. Response of grapevines to fluoride under field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, F.

    1983-07-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) were fumigated in open-top chambers with hydrogen fluoride for 64 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.17 or 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/. Other grapevines grown under ambient conditions in the vineyard or maintained in control chambers were exposed to 0.13 or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, respectively. Leaves of grapevines exposed to 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ accumulated up to 85, 55, 20, or 11 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was observed on plants exposed to 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, but no injury symptoms were observed at 0.17 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ or in control plants. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions had significantly greater mean bunch weight, peduncle weight, number of grapes per bunch, and leaf protein levels than the fumigated treatments. However, these differences may be associated with a chamber effect rather than with an effect of fluoride on grapevines. No significant differences were found between treatments for grape potential alcohol content, fruit acids, number of bunches or grapes per vine, fresh weight of grapes, or leaf chlorophyll content, despite foliar fluoride concentrations in the highest fluoride fumigation level reaching 85 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/. No evidence was found of significant fluoride accumulation in berries or canes. 26 references, 4 tables.

  18. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  19. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  20. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  1. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  2. Influence of the physiological stage and the content of soluble solids on the anthocyanin extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2012-06-30

    The influence and the extent of the anthocyanin extractability from grape skins at different physiological stages and different soluble solids contents within each stage were investigated. For this purpose three different physiological stages (pre-harvest, harvest and over-ripening) and three soluble solids contents (22, 24 and 26°Brix) within each stage were taken into account using Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo. This study revealed the influence of physiological stages and soluble solids contents on the amounts of anthocyanins. The most important factor was the physiological stage although the soluble solid contents effect was also relevant, especially for anthocyanins monoglucosides. The highest contents in anthocyanins were found at pre-harvest, following by harvest and finally at over-ripening. Within each physiological stage, the relative abundance of acylated derivatives was influenced by the soluble solids contents. The percentages of acylated anthocyanins tend to decrease as the soluble solids contents. Differences in the anthocyanin extractabilities were highly influenced by the physiological stages and in a lesser extent by the soluble solids contents. The lowest extraction percentages were obtained in pre-harvest samples whatever soluble solids contents. Over-ripening samples present the lowest contents of anthocyanins but these compounds are easily released from tissues to the hydroalcoholic solution providing the highest extraction percentages. Generally, non-acylated anthocyanins were better extracted than the acylated anthocyanins.

  3. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas. PMID:25648596

  4. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  5. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines. PMID:24518323

  6. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  7. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    PubMed

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. PMID:26310367

  8. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  9. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  10. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    PubMed

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotseridis, Yorgos; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2006-07-12

    The influence of site on grape and wine composition was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko in the Nemea appellation area in southern Greece. Three nonirrigated plots were studied during the 1997 and 1998 vintages, which were typically very hot and without summer rainfall. Vines were subjected to different water regimens as a result of the variation of soil water-holding capacity and evaporative demand. Vine water status was determined by means of predawn leaf water potential. Differences in vine water status between sites were highly correlated with the earliness of shoot growth cessation and veraison. Grape composition was monitored during fruit ripening. Water deficit accelerated sugar accumulation and malic acid breakdown in the juice. Early water deficit during the growth period was demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolics in berry skins. A similar pattern was observed for the phenolic content of wines elaborated after vinification of grapes harvested on each plot, in both seasons. Limited water availability seemed to increase glycoconjugates of the main aromatic components of grapes as a quantitative increase in levels of bound volatile compounds of the experimental wines was observed under water deficit in both years. Wines produced from grapes of stressed vineyards were also preferred in tasting trials.

  11. Ectopic expression of a Ve homolog VvVe gene from Vitis vinifera enhances defense response to Verticillium dahliae infection in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Lin, Jing; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Zhang, Baolong; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-15

    Verticillium wilt is a soil borne disease that can cause devastating losses to the production of many economically important crops. A Ve1 homologous gene responding to Verticillium dahliae infection was identified in Vitis vinifera cv. "HeiFeng" by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was designated as VvVe. The overexpression of VvVe in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly enhanced the resistance to isolate V991 of V. dahliae when compared with the wild type plants. The expressions of defense-related genes including the salicylic acid regulated gene pathogen-related 1 (PR1) but not PR2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated genes ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were significantly increased due to over expression of VvVe. And greater accumulation of active oxygen, callose and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were observed in the leaves of transgenic VvVe tobacco plants than the wild type when under infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, the hypersensitive response mimicking cell death was exclusively occurred in the transgenic VvVe tobacco plants but not in the wild type. Taken together, the VvVe gene is a Ve1 like gene which involves in the signal cascade of salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene defense pathways and enhances defense response to V. dahliae infection in the transgenic tobacco.

  12. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins. PMID:22393716

  13. Characterization of a Bifunctional O- and N-Glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera in Glucosylating Phenolic Compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline in Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xue, Wei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3-methylcatechol, phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline are present in the environment and are risky to humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In this study, a putative uridine diphosphate glucose-dependent glycosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvUGT72B1) displayed high O-glucosyltransferase or N-glucosyltransferase activity toward all these xenbiotics and was able to enhance the resistance of P. pastoris to them. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, VvUGT72B1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher resistance to all the xenobiotics except for phenol and exhibited higher removal efficiencies against all xenobiotics. Glucosides of 3-methylcatechol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were exported to the surrounding media by Arabidopsis plants while transgenic Arabidopsis plants exported more glucosides than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Our findings have the potential to provide a broader spectrum remediation strategy for the phytoremoval and degradation of phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline than previous works. PMID:24244688

  14. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines.

  15. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  16. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems.

  17. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol.

  18. Distribution of resveratrol and stilbene synthase in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and the effect of UV-C on its accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ke; Yang, Hao-Ru; Wen, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Current research indicated that the resveratrol was mainly accumulated in the skin of grape berry, however, little is yet known about the distribution of resveratrol, as well as the regulation mechanism at protein level and the localization of stilbene synthase (malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.95; STS), a key enzyme of resveratrol biosynthesis, in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Resveratrol, whose constitutive level ranged from 0.2 mg kg(-1) FW to 16.5 mg kg(-1) FW, could be detected in stem, axillary bud, shoot tip, petiole, root and leaf of grape plants. Among them, stem phloems presented the most abundant of resveratrol, and the leaves presented the lowest. Interestingly, the level of STS mRNA and protein were highest in grape leaves. And the analysis of immunohistochemical showed the tissue-specific distribution of STS in different organs, presenting the similar results compared with the amount of protein. And the subcellular localization revealed that the cell wall in different tissues processed the most golden particles representing STS. Subjecting to UV-C irradiation, resveratrol and STS were both intensely stimulated in grape leaves, with the similar response pattern. Results above indicated that distribution of resveratrol and STS in grape was organ-specific and tissue-specific. And the accumulation of resveratrol induced by UV-C was regulated by transcriptional and translational level of STS.

  19. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  20. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins.

  1. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Rolshausen, Philippe E

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management.

  2. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management. PMID:24971084

  3. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuntong; Xu, Weirong; Duan, Dong; Wang, Yuejin; Nick, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. PMID:27702992

  4. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  5. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  6. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M.; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  7. Editing of the grapevine mitochondrial cytochrome b mRNA and molecular modeling of the protein.

    PubMed

    Islas-Osuna, María A; Silva-Moreno, Begonia; Caceres-Carrizosa, Nidia; García-Robles, Jesús M; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria M

    2006-05-01

    Cytochrome b (COB), the central catalytic subunit of ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase, is a component of the transmembrane electron transfer chain that generates proton motive force. Some plant COB mRNAs are processed by RNA editing, which changes the gene coding sequence. This report presents the sequences of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) mitochondrial gene for apocytochrome b (cob), the edited mRNA and the deduced protein. Grapevine COB is 393 amino acids long and is 98% identical to homologs in rapeseed, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oenothera sp. Twenty-one C-U editing sites were identified in the grapevine cob mRNA, resulting in 20 amino acid changes. These changes increase the overall hydrophobicity of the protein and result in a more conserved protein. Molecular modeling of grapevine COB shows that residues changed by RNA editing fit the secondary structure characteristic of an integral membrane protein. This is the first complete mitochondrial gene reported for grapevine. Novel RNA editing sites were identified in grapevine cob, which have not been previously reported for other plants.

  8. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines.

  9. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  10. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG (*)) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG(*) protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG (*) transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG (*). This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG(*) cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well.

  11. Effects of cluster light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine accumulation and degradation patterns in red wine grapes ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Franc).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Intrigliolo, Diego S; Lakso, Alan N; Sacks, Gavin L

    2008-11-26

    The effects of light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) accumulation and degradation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc berries were assessed by comparison of shaded and exposed clusters within the same vine throughout a growing season. Twenty-seven vines were shoot-thinned to create regions of high and low cluster-light exposure within each vine. Samples were collected at 10 time points starting from 5 to 130 days postbloom. The experimental design allowed for intravine comparison of IBMP levels between treatments at each time. Vine-to-vine variability of IBMP and the correlation of IBMP to malic acid were also evaluated. Cluster exposure reduced accumulation of IBMP at all preveraison time points by 21-44%, but did not increase postveraison degradation. Significant vine-to-vine variability in IBMP content was observed, with the highest level of IBMP in shaded berries in the most vigorous block of vines. Although IBMP concentration by weight decreased significantly due to dilution just prior to color change (veraison), no significant IBMP degradation per berry occurred until after color change (day 70 postbloom). By contrast, malic acid degradation began prior to color change, and malic acid concentrations were not affected by cluster exposure preveraison, but were affected postveraison. A survey of 13 sites in New York state (Seneca Lake) showed that IBMP concentrations at 2 weeks preveraison were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.936, p < 0.0001) to levels at harvest, whereas classic grape maturity indices at harvest were uncorrelated with IBMP at harvest. In summary, light exposure conditions critically influence IBMP accumulation but not IBMP degradation.

  12. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest.

  13. Synthesis of an artificial Vitis vinifera miRNA 319e using overlapping long primers and its application for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Álvaro; Quiroz, Daniela; Sánchez, Evelyn; Miccono, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Carlos; Ramírez, Alejandra; Montes, Christian; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-09-10

    The conserved mechanism of action of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of gene expression has allowed the use of artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) as a powerful tool for candidate gene evaluation in plants. Based on the use of a Vitis vinifera miRNA molecule (i.e., vvi-miR319e), the present work presents a new methodology for designing artificial miR319e precursors (pre-amiR319e). As a proof of concept, we silenced the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This methodology includes a two-step PCR reaction in which overlapping long primers allow for the complete generation of pre-amiR319e-GFP molecules that are adequate for recombination into Gateway vectors with no further requirements. The seed region in amiRNA was directed against the 3'-end portion of the GFP gene. Three groups of transformed N. benthamiana plants were generated: GFP-, amiR319e-GFP-, and GFP plus miR319e-GFP-expressing vectors. A similar group of wild-type plants was included. Confocal microscopy evaluation of these groups revealed strong silencing of the GFP phenotype in the double GFP plus amiR319e-GFP group. The molecular characterization of silenced plants was achieved via modified 5'RACE of the GFP mRNA and revealed the occurrence of a partial, 3'-end GFP mRNA molecule that was generated in planta. In addition, large-scale small RNA sequencing confirmed the occurrence of the expected 21-nt miR319e-GFP species and other 22- and 24-nt species that exhibited sequence relationships with the expected amiRNA. These results highlight the possibility of using vvi-MIR319 as a template for the generation of single amiRNAs as a tool for gene silencing in plants. PMID:27411902

  14. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  15. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed Central

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  16. Characterization of EST-derived and non-EST simple sequence repeats in an F₁ hybrid population of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Kayesh, E; Bilkish, N; Liu, G S; Chen, W; Leng, X P; Fang, J G

    2014-03-31

    Among different classes of molecular markers, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a new resource for developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) functional markers for genotyping and genetic mapping in F1 hybrid populations of Vitis vinifera L. Recently, because of the availability of an enormous amount of data for ESTs in the public domain, the emphasis has shifted from genomic SSRs to EST-SSRs, which belong to transcribed regions of the genome and may have a role in gene expression or function. The objective of this study was to assess the polymorphisms among 94 F1 hybrids from "Early Rose" and "Red Globe" using 25 EST-derived and 25 non-EST SSR markers. A total collection of 362,375 grape ESTs that were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and 2522 EST-SSR sequences were identified. From them, 205 primer pairs were randomly selected, including 176 pairs that were EST-derived and 29 non-EST SSR primer pairs, for polymerase chain reaction amplification. A total of 131 alleles were amplified using 50 pairs of primers; 78 alleles were amplified using EST-derived SSR primers and 53 were from non-EST SSR primers. At most, 6 and 5 alleles were amplified by EST-derived and non-EST SSR primers, respectively. The EST-derived SSR markers showed a maximum polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 1 and a minimum of 0.33 while non-EST SSR markers had maximum and minimum PIC values of 1 and 0.25, respectively. The average PIC value was 0.56 for EST-derived SSR markers and 0.45 for non-EST SSR markers.

  17. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  18. Synthesis of an artificial Vitis vinifera miRNA 319e using overlapping long primers and its application for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Álvaro; Quiroz, Daniela; Sánchez, Evelyn; Miccono, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Carlos; Ramírez, Alejandra; Montes, Christian; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-09-10

    The conserved mechanism of action of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of gene expression has allowed the use of artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) as a powerful tool for candidate gene evaluation in plants. Based on the use of a Vitis vinifera miRNA molecule (i.e., vvi-miR319e), the present work presents a new methodology for designing artificial miR319e precursors (pre-amiR319e). As a proof of concept, we silenced the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This methodology includes a two-step PCR reaction in which overlapping long primers allow for the complete generation of pre-amiR319e-GFP molecules that are adequate for recombination into Gateway vectors with no further requirements. The seed region in amiRNA was directed against the 3'-end portion of the GFP gene. Three groups of transformed N. benthamiana plants were generated: GFP-, amiR319e-GFP-, and GFP plus miR319e-GFP-expressing vectors. A similar group of wild-type plants was included. Confocal microscopy evaluation of these groups revealed strong silencing of the GFP phenotype in the double GFP plus amiR319e-GFP group. The molecular characterization of silenced plants was achieved via modified 5'RACE of the GFP mRNA and revealed the occurrence of a partial, 3'-end GFP mRNA molecule that was generated in planta. In addition, large-scale small RNA sequencing confirmed the occurrence of the expected 21-nt miR319e-GFP species and other 22- and 24-nt species that exhibited sequence relationships with the expected amiRNA. These results highlight the possibility of using vvi-MIR319 as a template for the generation of single amiRNAs as a tool for gene silencing in plants.

  19. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  20. Effects of chilling and ABA on (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-06-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10/sup 19/ becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free (/sup 3/H)GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26/sup 0/C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble (/sup 3/H) metabolites formed at 26/sup 0/C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA/sub 12/ aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ treatment at 26/sup 0/C, reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H) GA/sub 4/ but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs).

  1. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  2. Effect of power ultrasound application on aqueous extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.): experimental kinetics and modeling.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, M R; Comas-Serra, F; Femenia, A; Rosselló, C; Simal, S

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of both conventional (mechanical stirring, 200rpm) and acoustic (55±5kHz, 435±5W/L) aqueous extraction of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace by-products (Vitis vinifera L.) have been experimentally evaluated and modeled at different extraction temperatures (20, 35 and 50°C). A gradual and significant increase of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was observed as the temperature increased, the highest values being obtained in the case of the extraction assisted acoustically. According to the results, the acoustic assistance of the extraction process led to aqueous extracts with phenolic and antioxidant characteristics similar to those obtained with mechanical stirring, working under lower temperature conditions and during less operating time. Specifically, the conventional extraction of total phenolics at 35 and 50°C did not differ significantly from extractions assisted with power ultrasound at 20 and 35°C, respectively; and the acoustic process required approximately 3, 4 and 8 times less time, at 20, 35 and 50°C, than the conventional extraction to obtain extracts with similar characteristics. The extraction curves obtained for total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS and FRAP methods, were properly represented by a modified Weibull model for both conventional and acoustic extractions within the temperature range 20-50°C, presenting an average percentage of explained variance⩾97.9%, and an average mean relative error⩽7.0%. A high correlation (r(2)⩾0.992) was observed between the experimental and simulated values for all the quality attributes in study.

  3. Transmission competency of single-female Xiphinema index lines for Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Van-Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Lemaire, Olivier; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is vectored specifically from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Limited information is available on the vector competency of X. index populations from diverse geographical origins. We determined the transmissibility of two GFLV strains showing 4.6% amino acid divergence within their coat protein (e.g., strains F13 and GHu) by seven clonal lines of X. index developed from seven distinct populations from the Mediterranean basin (Cyprus, southern France, Israel, Italy, and Spain), northern France, and California. X. index lines derived from single adult females were produced on fig (Ficus carica) plants to obtain genetically homogenous aviruliferous clones. A comparative reproductive rate analysis on Vitis rupestris du Lot and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon showed significant differences among clones, with the single-female Cyprus line showing the highest rate (30-fold the initial population) and the Spain and California lines showing the lowest rate (10-fold increase), regardless of the grapevine genotype. However, there was no differential vector competency among the seven X. index lines for GFLV strains F13 and GHu. The implications of our findings for the dynamic of GFLV transmission in vineyards and screening of Vitis spp. for resistance to GFLV are discussed.

  4. Pre-harvest application of polyamines enhances antioxidants and table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) quality during postharvest period.

    PubMed

    Mirdehghan, S H; Rahimi, S

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest foliar spraying of grapevines with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) (0, 1, 2mM) was evaluated for determining the fruit quality at harvest and improving postharvest characteristics of table grapes during cold storage. Fruit parameters in terms of firmness, fungal infection, weight loss, total phenol concentration, antioxidant activity, skin color, total anthocyanin concentration, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) were evaluated after 0, 25 and 55 days of storage at 1.5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Softening, fungal infection and weight loss increased during cold storage but the rate of changes significantly was delayed in Put- and Spd-treated fruits. Besides these, the application of Put and Spd maintained higher values of phenolics content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanins at the end of storage in compare to control. Furthermore, after 55 days of storage all treated fruits with Put and Spd showed lower changes in L(∗), TSS and TA and also higher value of chroma in berries. PMID:26593587

  5. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  6. Pre-harvest application of polyamines enhances antioxidants and table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) quality during postharvest period.

    PubMed

    Mirdehghan, S H; Rahimi, S

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest foliar spraying of grapevines with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) (0, 1, 2mM) was evaluated for determining the fruit quality at harvest and improving postharvest characteristics of table grapes during cold storage. Fruit parameters in terms of firmness, fungal infection, weight loss, total phenol concentration, antioxidant activity, skin color, total anthocyanin concentration, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) were evaluated after 0, 25 and 55 days of storage at 1.5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Softening, fungal infection and weight loss increased during cold storage but the rate of changes significantly was delayed in Put- and Spd-treated fruits. Besides these, the application of Put and Spd maintained higher values of phenolics content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanins at the end of storage in compare to control. Furthermore, after 55 days of storage all treated fruits with Put and Spd showed lower changes in L(∗), TSS and TA and also higher value of chroma in berries.

  7. Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuczmog, Anett; Galambos, Anikó; Horváth, Szabina; Mátai, Anikó; Kozma, Pál; Szegedi, Ernő; Putnoky, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to many virulent Agrobacterium strains but certain wild Vitis species, including Vitis amurensis have resistant genotypes. Studies of the molecular background of such natural resistance are of special importance, not only for practical benefits in agricultural practice but also for understanding the role of plant genes in the transformation process. Earlier, crown gall resistance from V. amurensis was introgressed into V. vinifera through interspecific breeding and it was shown to be inherited as a single and dominant Mendelian trait. To develop this research further, towards understanding underlying molecular mechanisms, a mapping population was established, and resistance-coupled molecular DNA markers were identified by three different approaches. First, RAPD makers linked to the resistance locus (Rcg1) were identified, and on the basis of their DNA sequences, we developed resistance-coupled SCAR markers. However, localization of these markers in the grapevine genome sequence failed due to their similarity to many repetitive regions. Next, using SSR markers of the grapevine reference linkage map, location of the resistance locus was established on linkage group 15 (LG15). Finally, this position was supported further by developing new chromosome-specific markers and by the construction of the genetic map of the region including nine loci in 29.1 cM. Our results show that the closest marker is located 3.3 cM from the Rcg1 locus that may correspond to 576 kb. PMID:22801874

  8. Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kuczmog, Anett; Galambos, Anikó; Horváth, Szabina; Mátai, Anikó; Kozma, Pál; Szegedi, Ernő; Putnoky, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to many virulent Agrobacterium strains but certain wild Vitis species, including Vitis amurensis have resistant genotypes. Studies of the molecular background of such natural resistance are of special importance, not only for practical benefits in agricultural practice but also for understanding the role of plant genes in the transformation process. Earlier, crown gall resistance from V. amurensis was introgressed into V. vinifera through interspecific breeding and it was shown to be inherited as a single and dominant Mendelian trait. To develop this research further, towards understanding underlying molecular mechanisms, a mapping population was established, and resistance-coupled molecular DNA markers were identified by three different approaches. First, RAPD makers linked to the resistance locus (Rcg1) were identified, and on the basis of their DNA sequences, we developed resistance-coupled SCAR markers. However, localization of these markers in the grapevine genome sequence failed due to their similarity to many repetitive regions. Next, using SSR markers of the grapevine reference linkage map, location of the resistance locus was established on linkage group 15 (LG15). Finally, this position was supported further by developing new chromosome-specific markers and by the construction of the genetic map of the region including nine loci in 29.1 cM. Our results show that the closest marker is located 3.3 cM from the Rcg1 locus that may correspond to 576 kb.

  9. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source.

  10. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743

  11. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of organic and conventional grapevine Vitis labrusca cv. Isabella leaves in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Cristiano; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Costa, Bárbara Segalotto; Anghinoni, Joanna Carra; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Arias, Ximena; Césio, Maria Verónica; Heinzen, Horácio; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays. In addition, phenolic content and ascorbic acid levels of both extracts were determined. Data showed that both organic and conventional grapevine leaves extracts possessed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. The extract of organic leaves significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in V79 cells, and displayed greater ability for DPPH(●) scavenging and higher SOD and CAT activities than extract from conventional leaves. Further, the extract from organic leaves contained higher phenolic and ascorbic acid concentrations. In summary, extracts from organic and conventional grape leaves induced important in vitro biological effects. PMID:27587288

  12. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of organic and conventional grapevine Vitis labrusca cv. Isabella leaves in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Cristiano; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Costa, Bárbara Segalotto; Anghinoni, Joanna Carra; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Arias, Ximena; Césio, Maria Verónica; Heinzen, Horácio; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays. In addition, phenolic content and ascorbic acid levels of both extracts were determined. Data showed that both organic and conventional grapevine leaves extracts possessed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. The extract of organic leaves significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in V79 cells, and displayed greater ability for DPPH(●) scavenging and higher SOD and CAT activities than extract from conventional leaves. Further, the extract from organic leaves contained higher phenolic and ascorbic acid concentrations. In summary, extracts from organic and conventional grape leaves induced important in vitro biological effects.

  13. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T.; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M.; Fortes, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  14. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M; Fortes, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  15. A Leafhopper-Transmissible DNA Virus with Novel Evolutionary Lineage in the Family Geminiviridae Implicated in Grapevine Redleaf Disease by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2013-01-01

    A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s) associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD). High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV), and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh) from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms. PMID:23755117

  16. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  17. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  18. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir.

  19. Overexpression of antimicrobial lytic peptides protects grapevine from Pierce's disease under greenhouse but not field conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Hopkins, Donald L; Gray, Dennis J

    2015-10-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa prevents cultivation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and susceptible hybrids in the southeastern United States and poses a major threat to the grape industry of California and Texas. Genetic resistance is the only proven control of X. fastidiosa. Genetic engineering offers an alternative to heretofore ineffective conventional breeding in order to transfer only PD resistance traits into elite cultivars. A synthetic gene encoding lytic peptide LIMA-A was introduced into V. vinifera and a Vitis hybrid to assess in planta inhibition of X. fastidiosa. Over 1050 independent transgenic plant lines were evaluated in the greenhouse, among which nine lines were selected and tested under naturally-inoculated field conditions. These selected plant lines in the greenhouse remain disease-free for 10 years, to date, even with multiple manual pathogen inoculations. However, all these lines in the field, including a grafted transgenic rootstock, succumbed to PD within 7 years. We conclude that in planta production of antimicrobial lytic peptides does not provide durable PD resistance to grapevine under field conditions. PMID:25894660

  20. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development.

  1. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development. PMID:26470305

  2. Floral Meristem Identity Genes Are Expressed during Tendril Development in Grapevine1

    PubMed Central

    Calonje, Myriam; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Carmona, María José

    2004-01-01

    To study the early steps of flower initiation and development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), we have isolated two MADS-box genes, VFUL-L and VAP1, the putative FUL-like and AP1 grapevine orthologs, and analyzed their expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development. Both genes are expressed in lateral meristems that, in grapevine, can give rise to either inflorescences or tendrils. They are also coexpressed in inflorescence and flower meristems. During flower development, VFUL-L transcripts are restricted to the central part of young flower meristems and, later, to the prospective carpel-forming region, which is consistent with a role of this gene in floral transition and carpel and fruit development. Expression pattern of VAP1 suggests that it may play a role in flowering transition and flower development. However, its lack of expression in sepal primordia, does not support its role as an A-function gene in grapevine. Neither VFUL-L nor VAP1 expression was detected in vegetative organs such as leaves or roots. In contrast, they are expressed throughout tendril development. Transcription of both genes in tendrils of very young plants that have not undergone flowering transition indicates that this expression is independent of the flowering process. These unique expression patterns of genes typically involved in reproductive development have implications on our understanding of flower induction and initiation in grapevine, on the origin of grapevine tendrils and on the functional roles of AP1-and FUL-like genes in plant development. These results also provide molecular support to the hypothesis that Vitis tendrils are modified reproductive organs adapted to climb. PMID:15247405

  3. The plasticity of the grapevine berry transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phenotypic plasticity refers to the range of phenotypes a single genotype can express as a function of its environment. These phenotypic variations are attributable to the effect of the environment on the expression and function of genes influencing plastic traits. We investigated phenotypic plasticity in grapevine by comparing the berry transcriptome in a single clone of the vegetatively-propagated common grapevine species Vitis vinifera cultivar Corvina through 3 consecutive growth years cultivated in 11 different vineyards in the Verona area of Italy. Results Most of the berry transcriptome clustered by year of growth rather than common environmental conditions or viticulture practices, and transcripts related to secondary metabolism showed high sensitivity towards different climates, as confirmed also by metabolomic data obtained from the same samples. When analyzed in 11 vineyards during 1 growth year, the environmentally-sensitive berry transcriptome comprised 5% of protein-coding genes and 18% of the transcripts modulated during berry development. Plastic genes were particularly enriched in ontology categories such as transcription factors, translation, transport, and secondary metabolism. Specific plastic transcripts were associated with groups of vineyards sharing common viticulture practices or environmental conditions, and plastic transcriptome reprogramming was more intense in the year characterized by extreme weather conditions. We also identified a set of genes that lacked plasticity, showing either constitutive expression or similar modulation in all berries. Conclusions Our data reveal candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic plasticity of grapevine and provide the first step towards the characterization of grapevine transcriptome plasticity under different agricultural systems. PMID:23759170

  4. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant-pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed.

  5. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant-pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed. PMID:27066032

  6. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant–pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed. PMID:27066032

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Expansin Gene Superfamily Reveals Grapevine-Specific Structural and Functional Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Fasoli, Marianna; Venturini, Luca; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Expansins are proteins that loosen plant cell walls in a pH-dependent manner, probably by increasing the relative movement among polymers thus causing irreversible expansion. The expansin superfamily (EXP) comprises four distinct families: expansin A (EXPA), expansin B (EXPB), expansin-like A (EXLA) and expansin-like B (EXLB). There is experimental evidence that EXPA and EXPB proteins are required for cell expansion and developmental processes involving cell wall modification, whereas the exact functions of EXLA and EXLB remain unclear. The complete grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome sequence has allowed the characterization of many gene families, but an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of expansin gene expression has not been attempted thus far. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 29 EXP superfamily genes in the grapevine genome, representing all four EXP families. Members of the same EXP family shared the same exon–intron structure, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed a closer relationship between EXP genes from woody species, i.e. grapevine and poplar (Populus trichocarpa), compared to those from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We also identified grapevine-specific duplication events involving the EXLB family. Global gene expression analysis confirmed a strong correlation among EXP genes expressed in mature and green/vegetative samples, respectively, as reported for other gene families in the recently-published grapevine gene expression atlas. We also observed the specific co-expression of EXLB genes in woody organs, and the involvement of certain grapevine EXP genes in berry development and post-harvest withering. Conclusion Our comprehensive analysis of the grapevine EXP superfamily confirmed and extended current knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of this gene family, and also identified properties that are currently unique to grapevine expansin genes. Our data provide a model for the functional

  8. VaCPK20, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene of wild grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., mediates cold and drought stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, Alexandra S; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Khristenko, Valeriya S; Aleynova, Olga A

    2015-08-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold and heat, are major environmental factors that limit crop productivity. Vitis amurensis Rupr. is a wild grapevine species displaying a high level of abiotic and biotic stress resistance. Protein kinases, including Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), are known to mediate plant acclimation to various environmental changes. However, the functions of most grape CDPKs have not been clarified. A recent CDPK gene expression analysis revealed that 10 CDPK genes of V. amurensis were up-regulated under different abiotic stress treatments. The expression of the VaCPK20 gene was significantly up-regulated under low and high temperature stress in V. amurensis. In the current study, the effects of overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene in callus cell lines of V. amurensis and transgenic plants of A. thaliana on their responses to abiotic stresses were investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher tolerance to freezing and drought stresses, and transgenic grape cell cultures overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher resistance to cold stress in comparison with the controls transformed by the "empty" vector. Heat and salt stress resistance of the transgenic V. amurensis calli and A. thaliana was comparable to that of the wild type and vector controls. Overexpression of the VaCPK20 gene increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as COR47, NHX1, KIN1, or ABF3, in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants under non-stress conditions, after freezing, and under drought stress. The results imply that VaCPK20 may act as a regulatory factor involved in cold and drought stress response pathways. PMID:26264965

  9. MybA1 gene diversity across the Vitis genus.

    PubMed

    Péros, Jean-Pierre; Launay, Amandine; Berger, Gilles; Lacombe, Thierry; This, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    The MybA1 gene in the genus Vitis encodes a transcription factor, belonging to the R2R3 Myb family, that controls the last steps in the anthocyanins biosynthesis pathway. Polymorphism within MybA1 has been associated with color variation in berries of V. vinifera and other Vitis species. In this work, we analyzed the sequence variation in MybA1 both in the subg. Muscadinia and in an extended set of Asian, American and European genotypes of subg. Vitis. Our aims were to infer the evolution of this gene during the speciation process and to identify polymorphisms that could potentially generate changes in gene regulation. The results show that MybA1 experienced many insertions and deletions in non-coding regions but also in the third exon sequence. Owing to the larger set of Vitis species compared here, new indels were identified and the origin of previously described indels was reconsidered. A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in non-coding regions but also in the sequence coding for the R2R3 domain and the C terminal part of the protein. Some of these changes led to amino acid substitutions and therefore could have modified MybA1 protein activity. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all polymorphisms did not provide a consensus tree depicting the geographical partitioning of the species but allowed highlighting several species relationships within subgenus Vitis. Finally, the evolutionary events described could be useful to gain more insight into the role of MybA1 for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine.

  10. A 48 SNP set for grapevine cultivar identification

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapid and consistent genotyping is an important requirement for cultivar identification in many crop species. Among them grapevine cultivars have been the subject of multiple studies given the large number of synonyms and homonyms generated during many centuries of vegetative multiplication and exchange. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been preferred until now because of their high level of polymorphism, their codominant nature and their high profile repeatability. However, the rapid application of partial or complete genome sequencing approaches is identifying thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that can be very useful for such purposes. Although SNP markers are bi-allelic, and therefore not as polymorphic as microsatellites, the high number of loci that can be multiplexed and the possibilities of automation as well as their highly repeatable results under any analytical procedure make them the future markers of choice for any type of genetic identification. Results We analyzed over 300 SNP in the genome of grapevine using a re-sequencing strategy in a selection of 11 genotypes. Among the identified polymorphisms, we selected 48 SNP spread across all grapevine chromosomes with allele frequencies balanced enough as to provide sufficient information content for genetic identification in grapevine allowing for good genotyping success rate. Marker stability was tested in repeated analyses of a selected group of cultivars obtained worldwide to demonstrate their usefulness in genetic identification. Conclusions We have selected a set of 48 stable SNP markers with a high discrimination power and a uniform genome distribution (2-3 markers/chromosome), which is proposed as a standard set for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotyping. Any previous problems derived from microsatellite allele confusion between labs or the need to run reference cultivars to identify allele sizes disappear using this type of marker. Furthermore, because SNP

  11. Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dong; Halter, David; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Tisch, Christine; Tröster, Viktoria; Kortekamp, Andreas; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Stilbenes, as important secondary metabolites of grapevine, represent central phytoalexins and therefore constitute an important element of basal immunity. In this study, potential genetic variation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated grapevine, was sought with respect to their output of stilbenes and potential use for resistance breeding. Considerable variation in stilbene inducibility was identified in V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Genotypic differences in abundance and profiles of stilbenes that are induced in response to a UV-C pulse are shown. Two clusters of stilbene ‘chemovars’ emerged: one cluster showed quick and strong accumulation of stilbenes, almost exclusively in the form of non-glycosylated resveratrol and viniferin, while the second cluster accumulated fewer stilbenes and relatively high proportions of piceatannol and the glycosylated piceid. For all 86 genotypes, a time dependence of the stilbene pattern was observed: piceid, resveratrol, and piceatannol accumulated earlier, whereas the viniferins were found later. It was further observed that the genotypic differences in stilbene accumulation were preceded by differential accumulation of the transcripts for chalcone synthase (CHS) and stilbene-related genes: phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL), stilbene synthase (StSy), and resveratrol synthase (RS). A screen of the population with respect to susceptibility to downy mildew of grapevine (Plasmopara viticola) revealed considerable variability. The subpopulation of genotypes with high stilbene inducibility was significantly less susceptible as compared with low-stilbene genotypes, and for representative genotypes it could be shown that the inducibility of stilbene synthase by UV correlated with the inducibility by the pathogen. PMID:25873669

  12. A Stress-Inducible Resveratrol O-Methyltransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Pterostilbene in Grapevine1

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Laure; Poutaraud, Anne; Claudel, Patricia; Mestre, Pere; Prado, Emilce; Santos-Rosa, Maria; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Karst, Francis; Merdinoglu, Didier; Hugueney, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Stilbenes are considered the most important phytoalexin group in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and they are known to contribute to the protection against various pathogens. The main stilbenes in grapevine are resveratrol and its derivatives and, among these, pterostilbene has recently attracted much attention due both to its antifungal and pharmacological properties. Indeed, pterostilbene is 5 to 10 times more fungitoxic than resveratrol in vitro and recent studies have shown that pterostilbene exhibits anticancer, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic properties. A candidate gene approach was used to identify a grapevine resveratrol O-methyltransferase (ROMT) cDNA and the activity of the corresponding protein was characterized after expression in Escherichia coli. Transient coexpression of ROMT and grapevine stilbene synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) using the agroinfiltration technique resulted in the accumulation of pterostilbene in tobacco tissues. Taken together, these results showed that ROMT was able to catalyze the biosynthesis of pterostilbene from resveratrol both in vitro and in planta. ROMT gene expression in grapevine leaves was induced by different stresses, including downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) infection, ultraviolet light, and AlCl3 treatment. PMID:18799660

  13. The Phytoalexin Resveratrol Regulates the Initiation of Hypersensitive Cell Death in Vitis Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Heene, Ernst; Qiao, Fei; Nick, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR), while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy) transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5) transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death. PMID:22053190

  14. Toxicity of extracellular proteins from Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum involved in grapevine Botryosphaeria dieback.

    PubMed

    Bénard-Gellon, M; Farine, S; Goddard, M L; Schmitt, M; Stempien, E; Pensec, F; Laloue, H; Mazet-Kieffer, F; Fontaine, F; Larignon, P; Chong, J; Tarnus, C; Bertsch, C

    2015-03-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback, esca and Eutypa dieback are three economic major grapevine trunk diseases that cause severe yield reduction in vineyards worldwide. The frequency of disease symptoms has increased considerably over the past decade, and no efficient treatment is currently available to control these diseases. The different fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases mainly induce necrotic wood and characteristic foliar symptoms. In this context, fungi virulence factors and host invasion are not well understood. We hypothesise that extracellular proteins produced by Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum, two causal agents associated with Botryosphaeria dieback, are virulence factors responsible for the pathogenicity. In our previous work, we demonstrated that the total extracellular compounds produced by N. parvum induced more necrosis on Chardonnay calli and triggered a different defence gene expression pattern than those produced by D. seriata. Furthermore, this aggressiveness was not clearly correlated with the production of mellein, a characteristic phytotoxin of Botryosphaeriaceae, in our in vitro calli model. To characterise other potential virulence factors and to understand the mechanisms of host invasion by the fungus, we evaluated the profile, quantity and the impact of extracellular proteins produced by these fungi on Vitis vinifera calli necrosis and defence gene expression. Our results reveal that, under the same conditions, N. parvum produces more extracellular proteins and in higher concentrations than D. seriata. With Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay cells, we showed that equivalent concentrations of proteins secreted by N. parvum were more aggressive than those of D. seriata in producing necrosis and that they clearly induced more grapevine defence genes. PMID:25323623

  15. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters.

  16. Large-scale proteomic analysis of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid reveals mainly stress-related proteins and cell wall modifying enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extracellular space or apoplast forms a path through the whole plant and acts as an interface with the environment. The apoplast is composed of plant cell wall and space within which apoplastic fluid provides a means of delivering molecules and facilitates intercellular communications. However, the apoplastic fluid extraction from in planta systems remains challenging and this is particularly true for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a worldwide-cultivated fruit plant. Large-scale proteomic analysis reveals the protein content of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid and the free interactive proteome map considerably facilitates the study of the grapevine proteome. Results To obtain a snapshot of the grapevine apoplastic fluid proteome, a vacuum-infiltration-centrifugation method was optimized to collect the apoplastic fluid from non-challenged grapevine leaves. Soluble apoplastic protein patterns were then compared to whole leaf soluble protein profiles by 2D-PAGE analyses. Subsequent MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry of tryptically digested protein spots was used to identify proteins. This large-scale proteomic analysis established a well-defined proteomic map of whole leaf and leaf apoplastic soluble proteins, with 223 and 177 analyzed spots, respectively. All data arising from proteomic, MS and MS/MS analyses were deposited in the public database world-2DPAGE. Prediction tools revealed a high proportion of (i) classical secreted proteins but also of non-classical secreted proteins namely Leaderless Secreted Proteins (LSPs) in the apoplastic protein content and (ii) proteins potentially involved in stress reactions and/or in cell wall metabolism. Conclusions This approach provides free online interactive reference maps annotating a large number of soluble proteins of the whole leaf and the apoplastic fluid of grapevine leaf. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed proteome study of grapevine apoplastic fluid providing a comprehensive overview of

  17. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-10-14

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures.

  18. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures. PMID:26473851

  19. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  20. Proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew

    PubMed Central

    Perazzolli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome. PMID:23105132

  1. Subfunctionalization of cation/proton antiporter 1 genes in grapevine in response to salt stress in different organs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuanchun; Wang, Jiaoyang; Zhong, Yan; Geng, Fang; Cramer, Grant R; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2015-01-01

    Cation/proton antiporter 1 (CPA1) proteins function as regulators of monovalent ions, pH homeostasis, and other developmental processes in plants. Better understanding of the expression and regulation of CPA1 in plant responses to salinity would help the development of scientific practices in crops worldwide. In this report, we characterized all seven CPA1 family genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in response to short-term osmotic and NaCl stresses. We found that two of the seven genes have subfunctionalized to be differentially expressed in response to NaCl stress in the early stage in different organs, whereas the other five members seem to play little or no role in this response. Specifically, VIT_19s0090g01480 may control Na+ compartmentalization in grapevine roots; and VIT_05s0020g01960 may influence Na+ transfer in stems. Based on the dynamics of ion concentrations, electrolyte leakage rates, and CPA1 gene expression in root, stem, and leaf tissues under osmotic and NaCl stresses, we suggest how grapevine responds physiologically and molecularly to the osmotic and ion toxicity of NaCl stress in the short term. This work lays a foundation for future research on the CPA1 gene family regarding its evolutionary history and biological functions for modulating salt responses in grapevine. PMID:26504576

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the European Grapevine moth (EGVM) Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Piper, Melissa Claire; van Helden, Maarten; Court, Leon N; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-09-01

    The Lobesia botrana larvae feed on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), thereby reducing crop yield and increasing crop susceptibility to fungal and bacterial attacks. We determined the circular mitochondrial genome of L. botrana as 15 229 bp (GenBank KP677508) and contained 13 protein coding genes (PCG's), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and two ribosomal RNAs. All tRNAs have the "clover-shaped" 2-D structures, while the tRNA-Ile which has the TψC-stem but lacked the TψC-loop. Knowledge of L. botrana mitochondrial genome represents a valuable molecular resource for developing effective DNA identification tools for biosecurity purposes and will contribute to better understanding of its evolutionary and population genetics. PMID:26394129

  3. Co-transformation of grapevine somatic embryos to produce transgenic plants free of marker genes.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Manjul; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    A cotransformation system using somatic embryos was developed to produce grapevines free of selectable marker genes. This was achieved by transforming Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" somatic embryos with a mixture of two Agrobacterium strains. The first strain contained a binary plasmid with an egfp gene of interest between the T-DNA borders. The second strain harbored the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene for positive selection and the cytosine deaminase (codA) gene for negative selection, linked together by a bidirectional dual promoter complex. Our technique included a short positive selection phase of cotransformed somatic embryos on liquid medium containing 100 mg/L kanamycin before subjecting cultures to prolonged negative selection on medium containing 250 mg/L 5-fluorocytosine. PMID:22351010

  4. Correlation of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine to 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine during maturation of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Leclerc, Sophie; Sacks, Gavin L

    2010-09-01

    Environmental factors affecting degradation of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP, "green pepper aroma") in wine grapes (V. vinifera) are widely studied, but the degradation pathway is not defined. We hypothesized that IBMP is demethylated to 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine (IBHP) during fruit maturation effectively reversing the final putative step of IBMP biosynthesis. A quantification method for IBHP was developed using solid-phase extraction coupled to one- or two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a recovery of ca. 80%. IBMP and IBHP in bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and V. vinifera (cv. 'Cabernet Franc', 'Riesling', 'Pinot noir') were then measured at different maturities. IBMP and IBHP were inversely correlated in both bell peppers (R2=0.958) and Cabernet Franc grapes (R2=0.998) over a range of maturities. In bell peppers, we observed a significant decline in IBMP (125 to 15 ng/mL) and increase in IBHP (undetectable to 42 ng/mL) during ripening. In grapes, all cultivars had comparable IBHP concentrations preveraison (64 to 88 pg/mL) but differed in IBHP concentration by 2 orders of magnitude at the final sampling point (undetectable to 235 pg/mL). Higher preveraison IBMP was correlated with higher final IBHP across the three grape cultivars, with the order Cabernet Franc>Riesling>Pinot noir for both IBMP and IBHP. Acid hydrolysis resulted in a significant increase (33%) in IBHP in Cabernet Franc, indicating that IBHP exists partially in a bound form in grapes.

  5. The powdery mildew resistance gene REN1 co-segregates with an NBS-LRR gene cluster in two Central Asian grapevines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Grape powdery mildew is caused by the North American native pathogen Erysiphe necator. Eurasian Vitis vinifera varieties were all believed to be susceptible. REN1 is the first resistance gene naturally found in cultivated plants of Vitis vinifera. Results REN1 is present in 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara', two grapevines documented in Central Asia since the 1920's. These cultivars have a second-degree relationship (half sibs, grandparent-grandchild, or avuncular), and share by descent the chromosome on which the resistance allele REN1 is located. The REN1 interval was restricted to 1.4 cM using 38 SSR markers distributed across the locus and the segregation of the resistance phenotype in two progenies of collectively 461 offspring, derived from either resistant parent. The boundary markers delimit a 1.4-Mbp sequence in the PN40024 reference genome, which contains 27 genes with known functions, 2 full-length coiled-coil NBS-LRR genes, and 9 NBS-LRR pseudogenes. In the REN1 locus of PN40024, NBS genes have proliferated through a mixture of segmental duplications, tandem gene duplications, and intragenic recombination between paralogues, indicating that the REN1 locus has been inherently prone to producing genetic variation. Three SSR markers co-segregate with REN1, the outer ones confining the 908-kb array of NBS-LRR genes. Kinship and clustering analyses based on genetic distances with susceptible cultivars representative of Central Asian Vitis vinifera indicated that 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara' fit well into local germplasm. 'Kishmish vatkana' also has a parent-offspring relationship with the seedless table grape 'Sultanina'. In addition, the distant genetic relatedness to rootstocks, some of which are derived from North American species resistant to powdery mildew and have been used worldwide to guard against phylloxera since the late 1800's, argues against REN1 being infused into Vitis vinifera from a recent interspecific

  6. The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi amplified from grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera L.) in Oregon vineyards is seasonally stable and influenced by soil and vine age.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, R Paul; Mihara, Keiko L

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in 10 Oregon vineyards was assessed by examining spores in soil and amplifying mycorrhizal DNA from roots. Seventeen spore morphotypes were found in soil, including seven species in the Acaulosporaceae. Eighteen phylotypes were amplified from grape roots with AM1 and NS31 primers, and clones were dominated by Glomus spp. (> 99%). A few clones (< 1%) representing a single phylotype within Gigasporaceae, and a single clone within Archaeosporaceae were amplified from roots with AM1-NS31 primers. A separate experiment employing known proportions of grape roots colonized by Glomus intraradices or by Gigaspora rosea showed that fungi within Gigasporaceae might be underrepresented in clone abundance when Glomus spp. co-occur in roots. No clones representing fungi within the Acaulosporaceae were amplified from vineyards, although specific fungi within Acaulosporaceae were shown to colonize Pinot noir roots in sterilized soil and were amplified from these roots. Four Glomus phylotypes, including G. intraradices, were found in roots from all 10 vineyards, and these fungi accounted for 81% of clones. AMF phylotypes amplified from roots did not change during the growing season, although six phylotypes varied with soil type. The presence of three phylotypes was affected by vineyard age, and phylotype richness appeared to decline as vineyard age increased beyond 20 y. PCA analysis supported the hypothesis that the AMF community is different in red-hill soils than in valley soils and indicated certain phylotypes might be associated with lower soil and vine nutrient status. However, the changes in the AMF community in grape roots across vineyards were subtle because most root samples were dominated by the same three or four phylotypes. A separate analysis using primers to amplify AMF from the Archeasporaceae/Paraglomeraceae showed most root samples also were colonized by at least one Paraglomus or Archaeospora phylotype.

  7. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions. PMID:27228593

  8. Ecophysiological Modeling of Grapevine Water Stress in Burgundy Terroirs by a Machine-Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Luca; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Bois, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, successful modeling of the relationships between plant-soil-meteorology is crucial for a sustainable agricultural production, especially for perennial crops. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay) located in eight experimental plots (Burgundy, France) along a hillslope were monitored weekly for 3 years for leaf water potentials, both at predawn (Ψpd) and at midday (Ψstem). The water stress experienced by grapevine was modeled as a function of meteorological data (minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall) and soil characteristics (soil texture, gravel content, slope) by a gradient boosting machine. Model performance was assessed by comparison with carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C) of grape sugars at harvest and by the use of a test-set. The developed models reached outstanding prediction performance (RMSE < 0.08 MPa for Ψstem and < 0.06 MPa for Ψpd), comparable to measurement accuracy. Model predictions at a daily time step improved correlation with δ(13)C data, respect to the observed trend at a weekly time scale. The role of each predictor in these models was described in order to understand how temperature, rainfall, soil texture, gravel content and slope affect the grapevine water status in the studied context. This work proposes a straight-forward strategy to simulate plant water stress in field condition, at a local scale; to investigate ecological relationships in the vineyard and adapt cultural practices to future conditions. PMID:27375651

  9. Ecophysiological Modeling of Grapevine Water Stress in Burgundy Terroirs by a Machine-Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Luca; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Bois, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, successful modeling of the relationships between plant-soil-meteorology is crucial for a sustainable agricultural production, especially for perennial crops. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay) located in eight experimental plots (Burgundy, France) along a hillslope were monitored weekly for 3 years for leaf water potentials, both at predawn (Ψpd) and at midday (Ψstem). The water stress experienced by grapevine was modeled as a function of meteorological data (minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall) and soil characteristics (soil texture, gravel content, slope) by a gradient boosting machine. Model performance was assessed by comparison with carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C) of grape sugars at harvest and by the use of a test-set. The developed models reached outstanding prediction performance (RMSE < 0.08 MPa for Ψstem and < 0.06 MPa for Ψpd), comparable to measurement accuracy. Model predictions at a daily time step improved correlation with δ(13)C data, respect to the observed trend at a weekly time scale. The role of each predictor in these models was described in order to understand how temperature, rainfall, soil texture, gravel content and slope affect the grapevine water status in the studied context. This work proposes a straight-forward strategy to simulate plant water stress in field condition, at a local scale; to investigate ecological relationships in the vineyard and adapt cultural practices to future conditions.

  10. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  11. Sesquiterpene volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are markers of elicitation by sulfated laminarine in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Winkler, Jana B; Gourrat, Karine; Trouvelot, Sophie; Adrian, Marielle; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Jamois, Frank; Daire, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Inducing resistance in plants by the application of elicitors of defense reactions is an attractive plant protection strategy, particularly for grapevine (Vitis vinifera), which is susceptible to severe fungal diseases. Although induced resistance (IR) can be successful under controlled conditions, in most cases, IR is not sufficiently effective for practical disease control under outdoor conditions. Progress in the application of IR requires a better understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms and the ability to monitor defense markers to identify factors, such as physiological and environmental factors, that can impact IR in the vineyard. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are well-known plant defense compounds that have received little or no attention to date in the case of grape-pathogen interactions. This prompted us to investigate whether an elicitor, the sulfated laminarin (PS3), actually induces the production of VOCs in grapevine. An online analysis (proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry) of VOC emissions in dynamic cuvettes and passive sampling in gas-tight bags with solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS under greenhouse conditions showed that PS3 elicited the emission of VOCs. Some of them, such as (E,E)-α-farnesene, may be good candidates as biomarkers of elicitor-IR, whereas methyl salicylate appears to be a biomarker of downy mildew infection. A negative correlation between VOC emission and disease severity suggests a positive role of VOCs in grape defense against diseases. PMID:26042139

  12. Ecophysiological Modeling of Grapevine Water Stress in Burgundy Terroirs by a Machine-Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brillante, Luca; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Bois, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, successful modeling of the relationships between plant-soil-meteorology is crucial for a sustainable agricultural production, especially for perennial crops. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay) located in eight experimental plots (Burgundy, France) along a hillslope were monitored weekly for 3 years for leaf water potentials, both at predawn (Ψpd) and at midday (Ψstem). The water stress experienced by grapevine was modeled as a function of meteorological data (minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall) and soil characteristics (soil texture, gravel content, slope) by a gradient boosting machine. Model performance was assessed by comparison with carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C) of grape sugars at harvest and by the use of a test-set. The developed models reached outstanding prediction performance (RMSE < 0.08 MPa for Ψstem and < 0.06 MPa for Ψpd), comparable to measurement accuracy. Model predictions at a daily time step improved correlation with δ13C data, respect to the observed trend at a weekly time scale. The role of each predictor in these models was described in order to understand how temperature, rainfall, soil texture, gravel content and slope affect the grapevine water status in the studied context. This work proposes a straight-forward strategy to simulate plant water stress in field condition, at a local scale; to investigate ecological relationships in the vineyard and adapt cultural practices to future conditions. PMID:27375651

  13. Radicinin from Cochliobolus sp. inhibits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas J; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Roper, M Caroline; Reader, Jordan M; Steinhaus, Matthew J; Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Vosburg, David A; Maloney, Katherine N

    2015-08-01

    The fastidious phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, poses a substantial threat to many economically important crops, causing devastating diseases including Pierce's Disease of grapevine. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) planted in an area under Pierce's Disease pressure often display differences in disease severity and symptom expression, with apparently healthy vines growing alongside the dying ones, despite the fact that all the vines are genetic clones of one another. Under the hypothesis that endophytic microbes might be responsible for this non-genetic resistance to X. fastidiosa, endophytic fungi were isolated from vineyard cvs. 'Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grown under high Pierce's Disease pressure. A Cochliobolus sp. isolated from a Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine inhibited the growth of X. fastidiosa in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of an organic extract of Cochliobolus sp. yielded the natural product radicinin as the major active compound. Radicinin also inhibited proteases isolated from the culture supernatant of X. fastidiosa. In order to assess structure-activity relationships, three semi-synthetic derivatives of radicinin were prepared and tested for activity against X. fastidiosa in vitro. Assay results of these derivatives are consistent with enzyme inactivation by conjugate addition to carbon-10 of radicinin, as proposed previously. PMID:25892412

  14. Sesquiterpene volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are markers of elicitation by sulfated laminarine in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Chalal, Malik; Winkler, Jana B.; Gourrat, Karine; Trouvelot, Sophie; Adrian, Marielle; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Jamois, Frank; Daire, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Inducing resistance in plants by the application of elicitors of defense reactions is an attractive plant protection strategy, particularly for grapevine (Vitis vinifera), which is susceptible to severe fungal diseases. Although induced resistance (IR) can be successful under controlled conditions, in most cases, IR is not sufficiently effective for practical disease control under outdoor conditions. Progress in the application of IR requires a better understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms and the ability to monitor defense markers to identify factors, such as physiological and environmental factors, that can impact IR in the vineyard. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are well-known plant defense compounds that have received little or no attention to date in the case of grape-pathogen interactions. This prompted us to investigate whether an elicitor, the sulfated laminarin (PS3), actually induces the production of VOCs in grapevine. An online analysis (proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry) of VOC emissions in dynamic cuvettes and passive sampling in gas-tight bags with solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS under greenhouse conditions showed that PS3 elicited the emission of VOCs. Some of them, such as (E,E)-α-farnesene, may be good candidates as biomarkers of elicitor-IR, whereas methyl salicylate appears to be a biomarker of downy mildew infection. A negative correlation between VOC emission and disease severity suggests a positive role of VOCs in grape defense against diseases. PMID:26042139

  15. Gene expression profiling in susceptible interaction of grapevine with its fungal pathogen Eutypa lata: Extending MapMan ontology for grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Ana; Camps, Céline; Lohse, Marc; Kappel, Christian; Pilati, Stefania; Hren, Matjaž; Stitt, Mark; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Moser, Claudio; Usadel, Björn; Delrot, Serge; Gruden, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Background Whole genome transcriptomics analysis is a very powerful approach because it gives an overview of the activity of genes in certain cells or tissue types. However, biological interpretation of such results can be rather tedious. MapMan is a software tool that displays large datasets (e.g. gene expression data) onto diagrams of metabolic pathways or other processes and thus enables easier interpretation of results. The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome sequence has recently become available bringing a new dimension into associated research. Two microarray platforms were designed based on the TIGR Gene Index database and used in several physiological studies. Results To enable easy and effective visualization of those and further experiments, annotation of Vitis vinifera Gene Index (VvGI version 5) to MapMan ontology was set up. Due to specificities of grape physiology, we have created new pictorial representations focusing on three selected pathways: carotenoid pathway, terpenoid pathway and phenylpropanoid pathway, the products of these pathways being important for wine aroma, flavour and colour, as well as plant defence against pathogens. This new tool was validated on Affymetrix microarrays data obtained during berry ripening and it allowed the discovery of new aspects in process regulation. We here also present results on transcriptional profiling of grape plantlets after exposal to the fungal pathogen Eutypa lata using Operon microarrays including visualization of results with MapMan. The data show that the genes induced in infected plants, encode pathogenesis related proteins and enzymes of the flavonoid metabolism, which are well known as being responsive to fungal infection. Conclusion The extension of MapMan ontology to grapevine together with the newly constructed pictorial representations for carotenoid, terpenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism provide an alternative approach to the analysis of grapevine gene expression experiments performed

  16. Proteomic analysis reveals differences between Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay and cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and their responses to water deficit and salinity.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Delphine; Ergül, Ali; Bohlman, Marlene C; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Woolsey, Rebekah; Quilici, David R; Joets, Johann; Schlauch, Karen; Schooley, David A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    The impact of water deficit and salt stress on two important wine grape cultivars, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon, was investigated. Plants were exposed to increasing salinity and water deficit stress over a 16 d time period. Measurements of stem water potentials, and shoot and leaf lengths indicated that Chardonnay was more tolerant to these stresses than Cabernet Sauvignon. Shoot tips were harvested every 8 d for proteomic analysis using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone extraction protocol and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, quantified, and then 191 unique proteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry. Peptide sequences were matched against both the NCBI nr and TIGR Vitis expressed sequence tag (EST) databases that had been implemented with all public Vitis sequences. Approximately 44% of the protein isoforms could be identified. Analysis of variance indicated that varietal difference was the main source of protein expression variation (40%). In stressed plants, reduction of the amount of proteins involved with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and protein destination was correlated with the inhibition of shoot elongation. Many of the proteins up-regulated in Chardonnay were of unclassified or of unknown function, whereas proteins specifically up-regulated in Cabernet Sauvignon were involved in protein metabolism.

  17. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  18. Differing Alterations of Two Esca Associated Fungi, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Transcriptomic Level, to Co-Cultured Vitis vinifera L. calli

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jochen; Compant, Stéphane; Pierron, Romain J. G.; Gorfer, Markus; Jacques, Alban; Thines, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (P.al, Teleomorph: Togninia minima) and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (P.ch) are believed to be causal agents of wood symptoms associated with the Esca associated young vine decline. The occurrence of these diseases is dramatically increasing in vineyards all over the world whereas efficient therapeutic strategies are lacking. Both fungi occupy the same ecological niche within the grapevine trunk. We found them predominantly within the xylem vessels and surrounding cell walls which raises the question whether the transcriptional response towards plant cell secreted metabolites is comparable. In order to address this question we co-inoculated grapevine callus culture cells with the respective fungi and analyzed their transcriptomes by RNA sequencing. This experimental setup appears suitable since we aimed to investigate the effects caused by the plant thereby excluding all effects caused by other microorganisms omnipresent in planta and nutrient depletion. Bioinformatics analysis of the sequencing data revealed that 837 homologous genes were found to have comparable expression pattern whereas none of which was found to be differentially expressed in both strains upon exposure to the plant cells. Despite the fact that both fungi induced the transcription of oxido- reductases, likely to cope with reactive oxygen species produced by plant cells, the transcriptomics response of both fungi compared to each other is rather different in other domains. Within the transcriptome of P.ch beside increased transcript levels for oxido- reductases, plant cell wall degrading enzymes and detoxifying enzymes were found. On the other hand in P.al the transcription of some oxido- reductases was increased whereas others appeared to be repressed. In this fungus the confrontation to plant cells results in higher transcript levels of heat shock and chaperon-like proteins as well as genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism. PMID

  19. Structure and expression profiling of a novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, CDPK3a, in leaves, stems, grapes, and cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Shumakova, O A; Karetin, Y A; Manyakhin, A Y

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : VaCDPK3a is actively expressed in leaves, stems, inflorescences, and berries of Vitis amurensis and may act as a positive growth regulator, but is not involved in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are known to play important roles in plant development and defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. It has previously been shown that CDPK3a is the predominant CDPK transcript in cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., which is known to possess high resistance against environmental stresses and to produce resveratrol, a polyphenol with valuable pharmacological effects. In this study, we aimed to define the full cDNA sequence of VaCDPK3a and analyze its organ-specific expression, responses to plant hormones, temperature stress and exogenous NaCl, and the effects of VaCDPK3a overexpression on biomass accumulation and resveratrol content in V. amurensis calli. VaCDPK3a was actively expressed in all analyzed V. amurensis organs and tissues and was not transcriptionally regulated by salt and temperature stresses. The highest VaCDPK3a expression was detected in young leaves and the lowest in stems. A reduction in the VaCDPK3a expression correlated with a lower rate of biomass accumulation and higher resveratrol content in calli of V. amurensis under different growth conditions. Overexpression of the VaCDPK3a gene in the V. amurensis calli significantly increased cell growth for a short period of time but did not have an effect on resveratrol production. Further subculturing of the transformed calli resulted in cell death and a decrease in expression of the endogenous VaCDPK3a. The data suggest that while VaCDPK3a acts as a positive regulator of V. amurensis cell growth, it is not involved in the signaling pathway regulating resveratrol biosynthesis and resistance to salt and temperature stresses.

  20. Structure and expression profiling of a novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, CDPK3a, in leaves, stems, grapes, and cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Shumakova, O A; Karetin, Y A; Manyakhin, A Y

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : VaCDPK3a is actively expressed in leaves, stems, inflorescences, and berries of Vitis amurensis and may act as a positive growth regulator, but is not involved in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are known to play important roles in plant development and defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. It has previously been shown that CDPK3a is the predominant CDPK transcript in cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., which is known to possess high resistance against environmental stresses and to produce resveratrol, a polyphenol with valuable pharmacological effects. In this study, we aimed to define the full cDNA sequence of VaCDPK3a and analyze its organ-specific expression, responses to plant hormones, temperature stress and exogenous NaCl, and the effects of VaCDPK3a overexpression on biomass accumulation and resveratrol content in V. amurensis calli. VaCDPK3a was actively expressed in all analyzed V. amurensis organs and tissues and was not transcriptionally regulated by salt and temperature stresses. The highest VaCDPK3a expression was detected in young leaves and the lowest in stems. A reduction in the VaCDPK3a expression correlated with a lower rate of biomass accumulation and higher resveratrol content in calli of V. amurensis under different growth conditions. Overexpression of the VaCDPK3a gene in the V. amurensis calli significantly increased cell growth for a short period of time but did not have an effect on resveratrol production. Further subculturing of the transformed calli resulted in cell death and a decrease in expression of the endogenous VaCDPK3a. The data suggest that while VaCDPK3a acts as a positive regulator of V. amurensis cell growth, it is not involved in the signaling pathway regulating resveratrol biosynthesis and resistance to salt and temperature stresses. PMID:23233131

  1. A High Quality Draft Consensus Sequence of the Genome of a Heterozygous Grapevine Variety

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Dustin A.; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pruss, Dmitry; Pindo, Massimo; FitzGerald, Lisa M.; Vezzulli, Silvia; Reid, Julia; Malacarne, Giulia; Iliev, Diana; Coppola, Giuseppina; Wardell, Bryan; Micheletti, Diego; Macalma, Teresita; Facci, Marco; Mitchell, Jeff T.; Perazzolli, Michele; Eldredge, Glenn; Gatto, Pamela; Oyzerski, Rozan; Moretto, Marco; Gutin, Natalia; Stefanini, Marco; Chen, Yang; Segala, Cinzia; Davenport, Christine; Demattè, Lorenzo; Mraz, Amy; Battilana, Juri; Stormo, Keith; Costa, Fabrizio; Tao, Quanzhou; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Harkins, Tim; Lackey, Angie; Perbost, Clotilde; Taillon, Bruce; Stella, Alessandra; Solovyev, Victor; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Sterck, Lieven; Vandepoele, Klaas; Grando, Stella M.; Toppo, Stefano; Moser, Claudio; Lanchbury, Jerry; Bogden, Robert; Skolnick, Mark; Sgaramella, Vittorio; Bhatnagar, Satish K.; Fontana, Paolo; Gutin, Alexander; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. Principal Findings We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before). Conclusions Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape. PMID:18094749

  2. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding. PMID:26810452

  3. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding.

  4. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  5. Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (cv. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomès, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. PMID:25617319

  6. Two key polymorphisms in a newly discovered allele of the Vitis vinifera TPS24 gene are responsible for the production of the rotundone precursor α-guaiene

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Damian Paul; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Sweetman, Crystal; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Ford, Christopher; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone was initially identified as a grape-derived compound responsible for the peppery aroma of Shiraz wine varieties. It has subsequently been found in black and white pepper and several other spices. Because of its potent aroma, the molecular basis for rotundone formation is of particular relevance to grape and wine scientists and industry. We have identified and functionally characterized in planta a sesquiterpene synthase, VvGuaS, from developing grape berries, and have demonstrated that it produces the precursor of rotundone, α-guaiene, as its main product. The VvGuaS enzyme is a novel allele of the sesquiterpene synthase gene, VvTPS24, which has previously been reported to encode VvPNSeInt, an enzyme that produces a variety of selinene-type sesquiterpenes. This newly discovered VvTPS24 allele encodes an enzyme 99.5% identical to VvPNSeInt, with the differences comprising just 6 out of the 561 amino acid residues. Molecular modelling of the enzymes revealed that two of these residues, T414 and V530, are located in the active site of VvGuaS within 4 Å of the binding-site of the substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. Mutation of these two residues of VvGuaS into the corresponding polymorphisms in VvPNSeInt results in a complete functional conversion of one enzyme into the other, while mutation of each residue individually produces an intermediate change in the product profile. We have therefore demonstrated that VvGuaS, an enzyme responsible for production of the rotundone precursor, α-guaiene, is encoded by a novel allele of the previously characterized grapevine gene VvTPS24 and that two specific polymorphisms are responsible for functional differences between VvTPS24 alleles. PMID:26590310

  7. Grapevine powdery mildew resistance and susceptibility loci identified on a high-resolution SNP map.

    PubMed

    Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Harriman, James; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Brooks, Siraprapa; Hyma, Katie; Reisch, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Improved efficacy and durability of powdery mildew resistance can be enhanced via knowledge of the genetics of resistance and susceptibility coupled with the development of high-resolution maps to facilitate the stacking of multiple resistance genes and other desirable traits. We studied the inheritance of powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance and susceptibility of wild Vitis rupestris B38 and cultivated V. vinifera 'Chardonnay', finding evidence for quantitative variation. Molecular markers were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing, resulting in 16,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on alignment to the V. vinifera 'PN40024' reference genome sequence. With an average density of 36 SNPs/Mbp and uniform coverage of the genome, this 17K set was used to identify 11 SNPs on chromosome 7 associated with a resistance locus from V. rupestris B38 and ten SNPs on chromosome 9 associated with a locus for susceptibility from 'Chardonnay' using single marker association and linkage disequilibrium analysis. Linkage maps for V. rupestris B38 (1,146 SNPs) and 'Chardonnay' (1,215 SNPs) were constructed and used to corroborate the 'Chardonnay' locus named Sen1 (Susceptibility to Erysiphe necator 1), providing the first insight into the genetics of susceptibility to powdery mildew from V. vinifera. The identification of markers associated with a susceptibility locus in a V. vinifera background can be used for negative selection among breeding progenies. This work improves our understanding of the nature of powdery mildew resistance in V. rupestris B38 and 'Chardonnay', while applying next-generation sequencing tools to advance grapevine genomics and breeding.

  8. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher M; Wallingford, Anna K; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  9. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher M.; Wallingford, Anna K.; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  10. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo–plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% ‘Del-HS’ and ‘TS’ SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of ‘Del-HS’ were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 ‘TS’ plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  11. Comparision of Uptake Models for Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba) in Vine (Vitis vinifera L.) in Castilla-La Mancha (spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Bravo, Sandra; Higueras, Pablo; Moreno, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Castilla-La Mancha is the biggest vine-growing region in the world (about 500,000 ha) and one of the most important in terms of production of wine. The soils diversity should induce differences in the uptake of mineral elements by the vineyard. Of over the regional vine extension, 101 plots were selected and analyzed soil samples from each of them, following the description by FAO procedures. Samples of leaves were also taken from each soil plot. We analyzed the contents of mineral elements in both soil and leaf, using the FRX technique. This paper is focused on the elements strontium and barium because they are the trace elements having a higher concentration in the soils of the region, with values in soil range from 22.3 mg•kg-1-3602.7 mg•kg-1 in strontium and from 65.4 mg•kg-1 to 469.3 mg•kg-1 in barium. The contents of both elements in leaves have ranged from 23.3 mg•kg-1 y 1084.5 mg•kg-1 for strontium, and between 3.86 mg•kg-1 and 235.0 mg•kg-1 for barium. The aim of this work is state the behaviour in the soil-plant system for both elements. For this study, different statistical adjustment models have been tested (linear, multiplicative, exponential and logarithmic). The results show that the values of "R" for strontium are higher than barium in all models. Samples have also been studied by soil order (classified according to the FAO criteria). In this case, significant correlation from strontium have been found in all soil orders, except in calcisols. Significant correlations for barium appear only in entisols and luvisols. In conclusion it can be seen how these two elements differ in their behaviour in the soil-plant system. In general, the concentration of strontium in the soil is better correlated with leaf content than barium in the same soil. We can suggest a greater facility for the absorption of strontium by the grapevine. In calcisols, bearing in mind the interference of calcium, this uptake does not present such a high correlation

  12. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime A; Ramírez-Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of easily recoverable extracellular resveratrol when elicited with methylated cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate. We devised this system as an interesting starting point of a metabolic engineering-based strategy to produce resveratrol derivatives using resveratrol-converting enzymes. Constitutive expression of either Vitis vinifera resveratrol O-methyltransferase (VvROMT) or human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) led to pterostilbene or piceatannol, respectively, after the engineered cell cultures were treated with the aforementioned elicitors. Functionality of both gene products was first assessed in planta by Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltration assays, in which tobacco cells transiently expressed stilbene synthase and VvROMT or HsCYP1B1. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with VvROMT produced pterostilbene, which was detected in both intra- and extracellular compartments, at a level of micrograms per litre. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with HsCYP1B1 produced about 20 mg/L culture of piceatannol, displaying a sevenfold increase in relation to wild-type cultures, and reaching an extracellular distribution of up to 45% of total production. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of this novel system for the bioproduction of natural and more bioactive resveratrol derivatives and suggest new ways for the improvement of production yields.

  13. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime A; Ramírez-Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of easily recoverable extracellular resveratrol when elicited with methylated cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate. We devised this system as an interesting starting point of a metabolic engineering-based strategy to produce resveratrol derivatives using resveratrol-converting enzymes. Constitutive expression of either Vitis vinifera resveratrol O-methyltransferase (VvROMT) or human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) led to pterostilbene or piceatannol, respectively, after the engineered cell cultures were treated with the aforementioned elicitors. Functionality of both gene products was first assessed in planta by Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltration assays, in which tobacco cells transiently expressed stilbene synthase and VvROMT or HsCYP1B1. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with VvROMT produced pterostilbene, which was detected in both intra- and extracellular compartments, at a level of micrograms per litre. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with HsCYP1B1 produced about 20 mg/L culture of piceatannol, displaying a sevenfold increase in relation to wild-type cultures, and reaching an extracellular distribution of up to 45% of total production. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of this novel system for the bioproduction of natural and more bioactive resveratrol derivatives and suggest new ways for the improvement of production yields. PMID:26947765

  14. Influences of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, plant genotypes, and tissue types on the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated induction of transgenic hairy roots was previously demonstrated in Vitis vinifera L. and a few other Vitis species. In this study, 13 Vitis species, including V. aestivalis, V. afghanistan, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. flexuosa, V. labrusca, V. nesbittiana, V. pal...

  15. Host plant suitability and feeding preferences of the grapevine pest Abagrotis orbis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Mostafa, A M; Lowery, D T; Jensen, L B M; Deglow, E K

    2011-12-01

    Thirteen plant species were tested for their suitability as hosts for Abagrotis orbis (Grote), a climbing cutworm pest of grapevines in British Columbia. Choice tests were also conducted to investigate larval feeding preferences for the Brassicaceae species joi choi, Brassica rapa variety. Chinensis L., spring draba; Draba verna L.; and shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik; compared with postdormant buds of grape, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae), and leaves of nine other plant species from several families. Results showed that tah tsai, Brassica rapa L. variety rosularis (M. Tsen & S. H. Lee) Hanelt (Brassicaceae), is a superior host for A. orbis based on shorter time to adult eclosion, heavier pupae, and higher rates of survival. Later-instar larvae died when fed draba, whereas those reared on shepherd's purse did not survive beyond the third instar. White clover, Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae), and grape leaves were unsuitable hosts throughout development. Fifth-instar A. orbis preferred plants of the Brassicaceae family, dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), and strawberry, Fragaria sp. L. (Rosaceae), compared with postdormant grape buds. The results of this study suggest that the winter annual mustards draba and shepherd's purse that often grow abundantly in vine rows might help reduce climbing cutworm damage to the buds of grapevines.

  16. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  17. The cytoskeleton enhances gene expression in the response to the Harpin elicitor in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Fei; Chang, Xiao-Li; Nick, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic reorganization during plant defence. This response is generally interpreted as part of the cellular repolarization establishing physical barriers against the invading pathogen. To gain insight into the functional significance of cytoskeletal responses for defence, two Vitis cell cultures that differ in their microtubular dynamics were used, and the cytoskeletal response to the elicitor Harpin in parallel to alkalinization of the medium as a fast response, and the activation of defence-related genes were followed. In one cell line derived from the grapevine cultivar ‘Pinot Noir’, microtubules contained mostly tyrosinylated α-tubulin, indicating high microtubular turnover, whereas in another cell line derived from the wild grapevine V. rupestris, the α-tubulin was strongly detyrosinated, indicating low microtubular turnover. The cortical microtubules were disrupted and actin filaments were bundled in both cell lines, but the responses were elevated in V. rupestris as compared with V. vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’. The cytoskeletal responsiveness correlated with elicitor-induced alkalinization and the expression of defence genes. Using resveratrol synthase and stilbene synthase as examples, it could be shown that pharmacological manipulation of microtubules could induce gene expression in the absence of elicitor. These findings are discussed with respect to a role for microtubules as positive regulators of defence-induced gene expression. PMID:20675535

  18. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D’Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  19. The grapevine tonoplast aquaporin TIP2;1 is a pressure gated water channel.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Luís; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça

    2014-07-18

    In plants, the vacuole is a multifunctional organelle with an important role in the maintenance of the intracellular space. Tonoplast membranes are highly permeable to water due to their content in aquaporins TIPs (Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins) that allow the rapid water influx creating an internal turgor pressure responsible for cell expansion, elongation and shape. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the grapevine Vitis vinifera TIP2;1 would operate as a possible volume regulator gated by membrane surface tension. For that, the wild type VvTIP2;1 and a non-functional mutated form were heterologous expressed in yeast. Using an experimental strategy in which cells are incubated in external media that induce an increase in internal hydrostatic pressure and consequently membrane surface tension, we were able to compare the osmotic permeability (Pf) and the activation energy for water transport (Ea) of yeast strains expressing the functional and a non-functional TIP2;1. We found Pf and Ea dependence on internal turgor pressure only for the strain harboring the functional aquaporin indicating that TIP2;1 activity is regulated by membrane tension changing from an open to a closed state in an internal pressure dependent manner. This turgor dependent gating of TIP2;1 might be a mechanism to regulate vacuolar size and shape in plants withstanding hostile drought conditions such as grapevine.

  20. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.

  1. Effect of methyl jasmonate in combination with carbohydrates on gene expression of PR proteins, stilbene and anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Assia; Telef, Nadège; Saigne, Cassandrine; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Barrieu, François; Hamdi, Saïd; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2008-04-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is subject to a number of diseases which affect yield and wine quality. After veraison, berries become strongly susceptible to pathogens due to different physiological changes including the accumulation of glucose and fructose, on the one hand, and to the decrease of anti-microbial compounds called stilbenes, on the other. To obtain berry protection, pesticides are excessively used leading to important cost to the grower and to undesirable environmental impact of the residues, especially in grape, soil and water. As a consequence, alternative strategies have to be developed. Exogenously applied biotic elicitors induce defense responses. We studied the effects of methyl jasmonate in combination with sucrose on defense-related gene expression, stilbene and anthocyanin production in grapevine cell suspensions. The methyl jasmonate/sucrose treatment was effective in stimulating phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone synthase, stilbene synthase, UDP-glucose: flavonoid-O-glucosyltransferase, proteinase inhibitor and chitinase gene expression, and triggered accumulation of both piceids and anthocyanins in cells, and trans-resveratrol and piceids in the extracellular medium. Methyl jasmonate treatment might be an efficient natural strategy to protect grapevine berries in vineyard.

  2. Grapevine petioles are more sensitive to drought induced embolism than stems: evidence from in vivo MRI and microcomputed tomography observations of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Uri; Albuquerque, Caetano; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cochard, Herve; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Brodersen, Craig R; McElrone, Andrew; Windt, Carel W

    2016-09-01

    The 'hydraulic vulnerability segmentation' hypothesis predicts that expendable distal organs are more susceptible to water stress-induced embolism than the main stem of the plant. In the current work, we present the first in vivo visualization of this phenomenon. In two separate experiments, using magnetic resonance imaging or synchrotron-based microcomputed tomography, grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were dehydrated while simultaneously scanning the main stems and petioles for the occurrence of emboli at different xylem pressures (Ψx ). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that 50% of the conductive xylem area of the petioles was embolized at a Ψx of -1.54 MPa, whereas the stems did not reach similar losses until -1.9 MPa. Microcomputed tomography confirmed these findings, showing that approximately half the vessels in the petioles were embolized at a Ψx of -1.6 MPa, whereas only few were embolized in the stems. Petioles were shown to be more resistant to water stress-induced embolism than previously measured with invasive hydraulic methods. The results provide the first direct evidence for the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis and highlight its importance in grapevine responses to severe water stress. Additionally, these data suggest that air entry through the petiole into the stem is unlikely in grapevines during drought. PMID:26648337

  3. Grapevine petioles are more sensitive to drought induced embolism than stems: evidence from in vivo MRI and microcomputed tomography observations of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Uri; Albuquerque, Caetano; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cochard, Herve; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Brodersen, Craig R; McElrone, Andrew; Windt, Carel W

    2016-09-01

    The 'hydraulic vulnerability segmentation' hypothesis predicts that expendable distal organs are more susceptible to water stress-induced embolism than the main stem of the plant. In the current work, we present the first in vivo visualization of this phenomenon. In two separate experiments, using magnetic resonance imaging or synchrotron-based microcomputed tomography, grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were dehydrated while simultaneously scanning the main stems and petioles for the occurrence of emboli at different xylem pressures (Ψx ). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that 50% of the conductive xylem area of the petioles was embolized at a Ψx of -1.54 MPa, whereas the stems did not reach similar losses until -1.9 MPa. Microcomputed tomography confirmed these findings, showing that approximately half the vessels in the petioles were embolized at a Ψx of -1.6 MPa, whereas only few were embolized in the stems. Petioles were shown to be more resistant to water stress-induced embolism than previously measured with invasive hydraulic methods. The results provide the first direct evidence for the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis and highlight its importance in grapevine responses to severe water stress. Additionally, these data suggest that air entry through the petiole into the stem is unlikely in grapevines during drought.

  4. Comparison of CBF1, CBF2, CBF3 and CBF4 expression in some grapevine cultivars and species under cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Maryam; Ebadi, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Zarei, Abdolkarim

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine, an important horticultural crop in the world, is moderately tolerant to cold conditions and is subjected to the cold injuries at different regions. So studies on different aspects of tolerance mechanism to unexpected cold of late spring as well as winter freezing seems necessary about this vine. For this reason, study on genes responsible for acquiring cold tolerance is very important. Transcription factors are among regulatory proteins that are responsible for cold acclimation. In this research work, expression levels of CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, and CBF4 transcription factors were studied on two cvs of Vitis vinifera (“Khalili-Danedar” and “Shahroodi”) as well as one Vitis riparia at different times after treating at 4 °C. Results showed that two vinifera cultivars, “Khalili-Danedar” and “Shahroodi”, had similar trend for each transcription factor. Gene expression increased at the beginning of cold stress and then decreased. Expression of these TF started some minutes (CBF1) after cold treatment and continued for several hours (CBF2), even till the tenth day (CBF4). All together V. riparia which is endemic to the cold regions behaved stronger and showed higher expression for all studied transcription factors. Among two V. vinifera cultivars, “Khalili-Danedar” showed significantly higher expression compared with “Shahroodi”. The comparison of expression levels of these four transcription factors revealed that the least and the greatest expressions were recorded for CBF1 and CBF3 respectively, and two CBF2 and CBF4 had approximately the same expression levels. PMID:26973374

  5. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Johanna; Frisch, Matthias; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred; Kauer, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons. A field trial (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) was set up at Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany. The integrated treatment was managed according to the code of good practice. Organic and biodynamic plots were managed according to Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 and Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and according to ECOVIN- and Demeter-Standards, respectively. The growth and yield of the grapevines differed strongly among the different management systems, whereas fruit quality was not affected by the management system. The organic and the biodynamic treatments showed significantly lower growth and yield in comparison to the integrated treatment. The physiological performance was significantly lower in the organic and the biodynamic systems, which may account for differences in growth and cluster weight and might therefore induce lower yields of the respective treatments. Soil management and fertilization strategy could be responsible factors for these changes. Yields of the organic and the biodynamic treatments partially decreased due to higher disease incidence of downy mildew. The organic and the biodynamic plant protection strategies that exclude the use of synthetic fungicides are likely to induce higher disease incidence and might partially account for differences in the nutrient status of vines under organic and biodynamic management. Use of the biodynamic preparations had little influence on vine growth and yield. Due to the investigation of important parameters that induce changes especially in growth and yield of grapevines under

  6. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management.

    PubMed

    Döring, Johanna; Frisch, Matthias; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred; Kauer, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons. A field trial (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) was set up at Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany. The integrated treatment was managed according to the code of good practice. Organic and biodynamic plots were managed according to Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 and Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and according to ECOVIN- and Demeter-Standards, respectively. The growth and yield of the grapevines differed strongly among the different management systems, whereas fruit quality was not affected by the management system. The organic and the biodynamic treatments showed significantly lower growth and yield in comparison to the integrated treatment. The physiological performance was significantly lower in the organic and the biodynamic systems, which may account for differences in growth and cluster weight and might therefore induce lower yields of the respective treatments. Soil management and fertilization strategy could be responsible factors for these changes. Yields of the organic and the biodynamic treatments partially decreased due to higher disease incidence of downy mildew. The organic and the biodynamic plant protection strategies that exclude the use of synthetic fungicides are likely to induce higher disease incidence and might partially account for differences in the nutrient status of vines under organic and biodynamic management. Use of the biodynamic preparations had little influence on vine growth and yield. Due to the investigation of important parameters that induce changes especially in growth and yield of grapevines under

  7. How will climate change influence grapevine cv. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?

    PubMed

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín

    2015-05-01

    While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions.

  8. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management.

    PubMed

    Döring, Johanna; Frisch, Matthias; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred; Kauer, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons. A field trial (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) was set up at Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany. The integrated treatment was managed according to the code of good practice. Organic and biodynamic plots were managed according to Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 and Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and according to ECOVIN- and Demeter-Standards, respectively. The growth and yield of the grapevines differed strongly among the different management systems, whereas fruit quality was not affected by the management system. The organic and the biodynamic treatments showed significantly lower growth and yield in comparison to the integrated treatment. The physiological performance was significantly lower in the organic and the biodynamic systems, which may account for differences in growth and cluster weight and might therefore induce lower yields of the respective treatments. Soil management and fertilization strategy could be responsible factors for these changes. Yields of the organic and the biodynamic treatments partially decreased due to higher disease incidence of downy mildew. The organic and the biodynamic plant protection strategies that exclude the use of synthetic fungicides are likely to induce higher disease incidence and might partially account for differences in the nutrient status of vines under organic and biodynamic management. Use of the biodynamic preparations had little influence on vine growth and yield. Due to the investigation of important parameters that induce changes especially in growth and yield of grapevines under

  9. How will climate change influence grapevine cv. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?

    PubMed

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín

    2015-05-01

    While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions. PMID:25786733

  10. Inspection of the Grapevine BURP Superfamily Highlights an Expansion of RD22 Genes with Distinctive Expression Features in Berry Development and ABA-Mediated Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Santo, Silvia Dal; Cañón, Paola; de la Guardia, Amparo Rodríguez-Hoces; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  11. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Sarah Jane; Clemente Moreno, Maria José; Hevin, Cyril; Nyamba Mendome, Larissa Zita; Delrot, Serge; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Grafting is particularly important to the cultivation of perennial crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) because rootstocks can provide resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases as well as improve tolerance to some abiotic stresses. Successful grafting is a complex biochemical and structural process beginning with the adhesion of the two grafted partners, followed by callus formation and the establishment of a functional vascular system. At the molecular level, the sequence of events underlying graft union formation remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the transcriptome of grapevine rootstock and graft interface tissues sampled 3 d and