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Sample records for grapevine vitis vinifera

  1. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Alain; Torregrosa, Laurent; Iocco, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal co-cultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system which meets the above mentioned criteria.

  2. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  3. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir) genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Results Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE) activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. Conclusions In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and repress TE removal mechanisms

  4. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Goertzen, Leslie R

    2011-03-08

    Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir) genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE) activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and repress TE removal mechanisms such as recombination. The intron

  5. Bioactive stilbenes from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots extracts.

    PubMed

    Chaher, Nassima; Arraki, Kamel; Dillinseger, Elsa; Temsamani, Hamza; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Izard, Jean-Claude; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2014-03-30

    Viticultural residues from commercial viticultural activities represent a potentially important source of bioactive stilbenes such as resveratrol. The main aim of the present study was therefore to isolate, identify and perform biological assays against amyloid-β peptide aggregation of original stilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots. A new resveratrol oligomer, (Z)-cis-miyabenol C (3), was isolated from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots together with two newly reported oligostilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots, vitisinol C (1) and (E)-cis-miyabenol C (2), and six known compounds: piceatannol, resveratrol, (E)-ε-viniferin (trans-ε-viniferin), ω-viniferin, vitisinol C and (E)-miyabenol C. The structures of these resveratrol derivatives were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. All the newly reported compounds were tested for their anti-aggregative activity against amyloid-β fibril formation. Vitisinol C was found to exert a significant activity against amyloid-β aggregation. Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots are potentially interesting as a source of new bioactive stilbenes, such as vitisinol C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Transport and accumulation of flavonoids in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Braidot, Enrico; Zancani, Marco; Petrussa, Elisa; Peresson, Carlo; Bertolini, Alberto; Patui, Sonia; Macrì, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants that represent a huge portion of the soluble phenolics present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). These compounds play different physiological roles and are often involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stress. Even if the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways have been largely characterized, the mechanisms of their transport and accumulation in cell wall and vacuole are still not completely understood. This review analyses the known mechanisms of flavonoid uptake and accumulation in grapevine, with reference to the transport models and membrane carrier proteins described in other plant species. The effect of different environmental factors on flavonoid biosynthesis and transporters is also discussed. PMID:19513253

  7. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  8. VitisCyc: a metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Sushma; Raja, Rajani; Waddell, Elijah N.; Elser, Justin; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to (i) search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, (ii) compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and (iii) upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera “Pinot Noir” cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related pathways and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant's immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu. PMID:25538713

  9. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute; Deeken, Rosalia

    2016-09-15

    Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All other Agrobacterium

  10. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. IMPORTANCE The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All

  11. Linkage disequilibrium in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.

    PubMed

    Barnaud, A; Laucou, V; This, P; Lacombe, T; Doligez, A

    2010-05-01

    Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide high resolution for whole-genome mapping of genes underlying phenotypic variation. This field has received considerable attention over the last decade. We present here the first characterization of LD in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris. To assess the pattern and extent of LD, we used a sample of 85 plants from southern France and 36 microsatellite markers distributed over 5 linkage groups. LD was evaluated with independence tests and multiallelic r(2), using both unphased genotypic data and reconstructed haplotypic data. LD decayed rapidly, with r(2) values decreasing to 0.1 within 2.7 cM for genotypic data and within 1.4 cM for haplotypic data. Compared to the results of a previous study on cultivated grapevine subsp. sativa, where significant LD was found up to 16.8 cM, LD in subsp. silvestris was no longer significant past 1.4 cM. LD was therefore 12 times further extended in cultivated than wild grapevine, even though LD in wild grapevine seemed to extend slightly further than in wild relatives of other crops. Domestication bottlenecks and vegetative propagation are the primary factors responsible for this difference between cultivated and wild grapevine. The rapid decay of LD observed in this study seems promising for future association mapping studies of functional variation in wild V. vinifera grapevine.

  12. Copper homeostasis in grapevine: functional characterization of the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Bassil, Elias; Hanana, Mohsen; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-07-01

    The Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 is capable of self-interaction and mediates intracellular copper transport. An understanding of copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is particularly relevant to viticulture in which copper-based fungicides are intensively used. In the present study, the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 (VvCTr1), belonging to the Ctr family of copper transporters, was cloned and functionally characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that VvCTr1 monomers are small peptides composed of 148 amino acids with 3 transmembrane domains and several amino acid residues typical of Ctr transporters. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that Ctr monomers are self-interacting and subcellular localization studies revealed that VvCTr1 is mobilized via the trans-Golgi network, through the pre-vacuolar compartment and located to the vacuolar membrane. The heterologous expression of VvCTr1 in a yeast strain lacking all Ctr transporters fully rescued the phenotype, while a deficient complementation was observed in a strain lacking only plasma membrane-bound Ctrs. Given the common subcellular localization of VvCTr1 and AtCOPT5 and the highest amino acid sequence similarity in comparison to the remaining AtCOPT proteins, Arabidopsis copt5 plants were stably transformed with VvCTr1. The impairment in root growth observed in copt5 seedlings in copper-deficient conditions was fully rescued by VvCTr1, further supporting its involvement in intracellular copper transport. Expression studies in V. vinifera showed that VvCTr1 is mostly expressed in the root system, but transcripts were also present in leaves and stems. The functional characterization of VvCTr-mediated copper transport provides the first step towards understanding the physiological and molecular responses of grapevines to copper-based fungicides.

  13. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Overexpression of a thaumatin-like protein gene from Vitis amurensis improves downy mildew resistance in Vitis vinifera grapevine.

    PubMed

    He, Rongrong; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Yali; Agüero, Cecilia B; Li, Xinlong; Liu, Shaoli; Wang, Chaoxia; Walker, M Andrew; Lu, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Downy mildew is a highly destructive disease in grapevine production. A gene encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin-like protein was isolated from the downy mildew-resistant grapevine "Zuoshan-1," a clonal selection from wild Vitis amurensis Rupr. The predicted thaumatin-like protein (VaTLP) has 225 amino acids and it is acidic, with a calculated isoelectric point of 4.8. The full length of the VaTLP gene was transformed into somatic embryogenic calli of V. vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed that the VaTLP gene was expressed at a high level in the transgenic grapevines. Improved resistance of the transgenic lines against downy mildew was evaluated using leaf disks and whole plants inoculated with Plasmopara viticola, the pathogen causing grapevine downy mildew disease. Bioassay of the pathogen showed that both hyphae growth and asexual reproduction were inhibited significantly among the transgenic plants. Histological analysis also confirmed this disease resistance by demonstrating the inhibition and malformation of hyphae development in leaf tissue of the transgenic plants. These results indicated that the accumulation of VaTLP could enhance resistance to P. viticola in transgenic 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines.

  15. Inflorescence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): a high ability to distribute its own assimilates.

    PubMed

    Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Maillard, Pascale; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Gross, Patrick; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of carbon (C) into whole grapevine fruiting cuttings was investigated during flower development to determine the relative contribution of inflorescence and leaf photoassimilates in the total C balance and to investigate their partitioning towards other plant organs. A (13)C labelling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates by leaves and inflorescences in grapevine. Investigations were carried out at various stages of flower/berry development, from separated cluster to fruit set, using grapevine fruiting cuttings with four leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay). This is the first study reporting that, during its development, (i) the carbon needs of the inflorescence were met by both leaf and inflorescence photosynthesis, and (ii) the inflorescence amazingly participated significantly to the total C balance of grapevine cuttings by redistributing an important part of its own assimilates to other plant organs. With regard to flowering, 29% of C assimilated by the inflorescence remained in the inflorescence, while partitioning towards the stem reached 42% and, as a lower proportion, 15% in leaves, and 14% in roots.

  16. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10 degrees C (GDD(10)), and Riou's model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5 degrees C.

  17. Changes in the proteome of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) during long-term drought stress.

    PubMed

    Król, Angelika; Weidner, Stanisław

    2017-04-01

    The essence of exploring and understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses lies in the determination of patterns of the expression of proteins, identification of stress proteins and their association with the specific functions in metabolic pathways. To date, little information has been provided about the proteomic response of grapevine to the persistent influence of adverse environmental conditions. This article describes changes in the profile of protein accumulation in leaves of common grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seedlings in response to prolonged drought. Isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2 DE), and the proteins whose level of accumulation changed significantly due to the applied stress factors were identified with tandem mass spectrometry MALDI TOF/TOF type. Analysis of the proteome of grapevine leaves led to the detection of many proteins whose synthesis changed in response to the applied stressor. Drought caused the most numerous changes in the accumulation of proteins associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, mostly connected with the pathways of glycolysis and photosystem II protein components. The biological function of the identified proteins is discussed with reference to the stress of drought. Some of the identified proteins, especially the ones whose accumulation increased during drought stress, may be responsible for the adaptation of grapevine to drought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  19. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  1. Transcriptional Analysis of Tendril and Inflorescence Development in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Carmona, María J.

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes. PMID:24637773

  2. Transcriptional analysis of tendril and inflorescence development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Carmona, María J

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes.

  3. Investigations on the leaf surface ultrastructure in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bensalem-Fnayou, A; Jellouli, N; Bouamama, B; Mliki, A; Ghorbel, A

    2009-01-01

    Several Scanning microscopy techniques were used to investigate the leaf surface ultrastructure in the local "Razegui" grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.). Conventional scanning electron microscopy performed on glutaraldehyde-fixed samples allowed observation of well-preserved epidermal cells with an overlaying waxy layer. At a high magnification, the waxy layer exhibited crystalline projections in the form of horizontal and vertical platelets. Also, to avoid eventual ultrastructural alterations inherent in the use of solvents during sample preparation, fresh leaf blade samples were directly observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. A classical image of convex living epidermal cells was observed. At 2400x magnification, epicuticular waxes exhibited a granular structure. However, high-magnification images were not obtained with this device. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) performed on fresh leaf blade samples allowed observation of a textured surface and heterogeneous profiles attributed to epicuticular wax deposits. AFM topography images confirmed further, the presence of irregular crystalloid wax projections as multishaped platelets on the adaxial surface of grapevine leaf.

  4. Sequence Polymorphisms and Structural Variations among Four Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivars Representing Sardinian Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Mercenaro, Luca; Nieddu, Giovanni; Porceddu, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Camiolo, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity among grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars that underlies differences in agronomic performance and wine quality reflects the accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small indels as well as larger genomic variations. A combination of high throughput sequencing and mapping against the grapevine reference genome allows the creation of comprehensive sequence variation maps. We used next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to generate an inventory of SNPs and small indels in four widely cultivated Sardinian grape cultivars (Bovale sardo, Cannonau, Carignano and Vermentino). More than 3,200,000 SNPs were identified with high statistical confidence. Some of the SNPs caused the appearance of premature stop codons and thus identified putative pseudogenes. The analysis of SNP distribution along chromosomes led to the identification of large genomic regions with uninterrupted series of homozygous SNPs. We used a digital comparative genomic hybridization approach to identify 6526 genomic regions with significant differences in copy number among the four cultivars compared to the reference sequence, including 81 regions shared between all four cultivars and 4953 specific to single cultivars (representing 1.2 and 75.9% of total copy number variation, respectively). Reads mapping at a distance that was not compatible with the insert size were used to identify a dataset of putative large deletions with cultivar Cannonau revealing the highest number. The analysis of genes mapping to these regions provided a list of candidates that may explain some of the phenotypic differences among the Bovale sardo, Cannonau, Carignano and Vermentino cultivars. PMID:28775732

  5. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Debez, Ahmed; Mahmoudi, Henda; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-05-01

    Morpho-physiological responses to bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency were investigated in five Vitis vinifera L. Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Blanc3, Arich Dressé, Beldi, and Balta4). One-month-old woody cuttings were cultivated for 85days on a free calcareous soil irrigated with tap water containing increasing bicarbonate levels (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16mM NaHCO(3)). After this screening, a second experiment compared root biochemical responses of two contrasting genotypes (tolerant-sensitive) dealing with bicarbonate-induced iron deprivation (20microM Fe+/-10mM HCO(3)(-)) for 75days. Using morpho-physiological criteria, grapevine tolerance to HCO(3)(-)-induced Fe shortage appeared to be genotype-dependent: Balta4 and Beldi varieties showed the highest leaf-chlorosis score (especially at the extreme HCO(3)(-) levels), in contrast to Khamri variety. Growth parameters (shoot height, total leaf area, leaf number, and biomass production) as well as juvenile leaf chlorophyll content were also differently affected depending on both genotype and bicarbonate dose. At 16mM HCO(3)(-), Khamri was the less sensitive variety, contrasting with Balta4. On the other hand, chlorophyll content correlated positively with HCl-extractible Fe content of the juvenile leaves, suggesting that the grapevine response to iron deficiency may partly depend on to the plant ability to adequately supply young leaves with this element. Root biochemical responses revealed a relatively higher root acidification capacity in Khamri (tolerant) under Fe-deficiency while no significant changes occurred in Balta4 (sensitive). In addition, Fe(III)-reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) activities were strongly stimulated by Fe-deficiency in Khamri, while remaining constant in Balta4. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis.

  6. Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is a natural component of sunlight, which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. The nature of the response to UV-B is dependent on fluence rate, dose, duration and wavelength of the UV-B treatment. Some reports have analyzed the changes in gene expression caused by UV-B light on several plant species using microarray technology. However, there is no information on the transcriptome response triggered by UV-B in grapevine. In this paper we investigate the gene expression responses of leaves from in vitro cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants subjected to the same dose of biologically effective UV-B radiation (4.75 kJ m-2 d-1) administered at two different fluence rates (16 h at ≅ 8.25 μW cm-2, 4 h at ≅ 33 μW cm-2) using a new custom made GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip®. Results The number of genes modulated by high fluence rate UV-B doubled the number of genes modulated by low fluence UV-B. Their functional analyses revealed several functional categories commonly regulated by both UV-B treatments as well as categories more specifically modulated depending on UV-B fluence rate. General protective responses, namely the induction of pathways regulating synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds such as the Phenylpropanoid pathway, the induction of different antioxidant defense systems and the activation of pathways commonly associated with pathogen defense and abiotic stress responses seem to play critical roles in grapevine responses against UV-B radiation. Furthermore, high fluence rate UV-B seemed to specifically modulate additional pathways and processes in order to protect grapevine plantlets against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, stop the cell cycle progression, and control protein degradation. On the other hand, low fluence rate UV-B regulated the expression of specific responses in the metabolism of auxin and abscisic acid as well as in the modification of cell walls that could be involved

  7. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  8. Influence of intra-shoot trophic competition on shoot development in two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Louarn, Gaëtan; Christophe, Angélique; Lebon, Eric; Lecoeur, Jérémie

    2008-09-01

    The effect of trophic competition between vegetative sources and reproductive sinks on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) shoot development was analyzed. Two international cultivars (Grenache N and Syrah) grown in pots, which were well watered, were studied. A large range of trophic competition levels was obtained by modifying the cluster loads per plant. An analytical breakdown of the branching system was used to analyze the effects of trophic competition. Phytomer production on the primary axis and the probability and timing of axillary budburst were not affected by trophic competition. However, the duration of development and leaf production rate for secondary axes were both significantly affected. The impact of trophic competition differed within the P0-P1-P2 architectural module, locally within the shoot and between cultivars. Trophic competition reduced the organogenesis of secondary axes most strongly close to clusters, on P1-P2 phytomers and in Grenache N. Based on these results, a modeling approach simulating sink strength variation and the local effects of sink proximity would be more relevant than a model considering only development as a function of thermal time or the global distribution of available biomass.

  9. In vivo visualization of the final stages of xylem vessel refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stems.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Craig R; Knipfer, Thorsten; McElrone, Andrew J

    2017-09-20

    Embolism removal is critical for restoring hydraulic pathways in some plants, as residual gas bubbles should expand when vessels are reconnected to the transpiration stream. Much of our understanding of embolism removal remains theoretical as a consequence of the lack of in vivo images of the process at high magnification. Here, we used in vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) to visualize the final stages of xylem refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) paired with scanning electron microscopy. Before refilling, vessel walls were covered with a surface film, but vessel perforation plate openings and intervessel pits were filled with air. Bubbles were removed from intervessel pits first, followed by bubbles within perforation plates, which hold the last volumes of air which eventually dissolve. Perforation plates were dimorphic, with more steeply angled scalariform plates in narrow diameter vessels, compared with the simple perforation plates in older secondary xylem, which may favor rapid refilling and compartmentalization of embolisms that occur in small vessels, while promoting high hydraulic conductivity in large vessels. Our study provides direct visual evidence of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the final stages of embolism removal. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2013-01-01

    The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40(°)C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate of ripening by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly threefold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimize the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  11. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats), due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol), is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS) with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars. PMID:21062440

  12. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines, Vitis vinifera, in Washington and Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveys were conducted in eastern Washington and Idaho to determine the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wine grape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards. The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington and Idaho wine grape vineyards were Meloidogyne hapla, Paratylenchus ...

  13. Branch Development Controls Leaf Area Dynamics in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Growing in Drying Soil

    PubMed Central

    LEBON, ERIC; PELLEGRINO, ANNE; LOUARN, GAËTAN; LECOEUR, JEREMIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Soil water deficit is a major abiotic stress with severe consequences for the development, productivity and quality of crops. However, it is considered a positive factor in grapevine management (Vitis vinifera), as it has been shown to increase grape quality. The effects of soil water deficit on organogenesis, morphogenesis and gas exchange in the shoot were investigated. • Methods Shoot organogenesis was analysed by distinguishing between the various steps in the development of the main axis and branches. Several experiments were carried out in pots, placed in a greenhouse or outside, in southern France. Soil water deficits of various intensities were imposed during vegetative development of the shoots of two cultivars (‘Syrah’ and ‘Grenache N’). • Key Results All developmental processes were inhibited by soil water deficit, in an intensity-dependent manner, and sensitivity to water stress was process-dependent. Quantitative relationships with soil water were established for all processes. No difference was observed between the two cultivars for any criterion. The number of leaves on branches was particularly sensitive to soil water deficit, which rapidly and strongly reduced the rate of leaf appearance on developing branches. This response was not related to carbon availability, photosynthetic activity or the soluble sugar content of young expanding leaves. The potential number of branches was not a limiting factor for shoot development. • Conclusions The particularly high sensitivity to soil water deficit of leaf appearance on branches indicates that this process is a major determinant of the adaptation of plant leaf area to soil water deficit. The origin of this particular developmental response to soil water deficit is unclear, but it seems to be related to constitutive characteristics of branches rather than to competition for assimilates between axes differing in sink strength. PMID:16679414

  14. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  15. Cooking impact in color, pigments and volatile composition of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca).

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriano; Pereira, José Alberto; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2017-04-15

    Grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca) under culinary treatment (blanching and boiling at 60, 75 and 90min) were studied for their color, pigments and volatile fraction changes. Blanching and boiling caused a decrease in luminosity and a loss of green coloration in both varieties, while a yellow-brownish color arose. Significant correlations were established between the loss of green color (monochromatic variable a(∗)) and the total chlorophylls content. The main volatiles in fresh leaves [(Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate] were drastically reduced by blanching and suppressed by boiling. Other compounds like pentanal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2 one arose from blanching and boiling. A boiling time of 60min is adequate for the culinary process of grapevine leaves, since the product is considered edible and the pigments and volatile changes are not as drastic as observed at 75 and 90min of boiling.

  16. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  17. Bioarchaeological insights into the process of domestication of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman times in Southern France.

    PubMed

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE-500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip's body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation.

  18. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  19. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  20. Genome-wide analysis and expression profile of the bZIP transcription factor gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene family is one of the largest and most diverse families in plants. Current studies have shown that the bZIP proteins regulate numerous growth and developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant bZIP family members remains very limited. Results We identified 55 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome, and divided them into 10 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship with those in Arabidopsis. The chromosome distribution and the collinearity analyses suggest that expansion of the grapevine bZIP (VvbZIP) transcription factor family was greatly contributed by the segment/chromosomal duplications, which may be associated with the grapevine genome fusion events. Nine intron/exon structural patterns within the bZIP domain and the additional conserved motifs were identified among all VvbZIP proteins, and showed a high group-specificity. The predicted specificities on DNA-binding domains indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues exist across each major group in the tree of land plant life. The expression patterns of VvbZIP genes across the grapevine gene expression atlas, based on microarray technology, suggest that VvbZIP genes are involved in grapevine organ development, especially seed development. Expression analysis based on qRT-PCR indicated that VvbZIP genes are extensively involved in drought- and heat-responses, with possibly different mechanisms. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, chromosome organization, gene structures, evolutionary and expression analyses of grapevine bZIP genes provide an overall insight of this gene family and their potential involvement in growth, development and stress responses. This will facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and

  1. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  2. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts.

  3. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  4. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. "Flame seedless" stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed.

  5. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil.

  6. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-García, R; Ruiz-García, L; Bolling, L; Ocete, R; López, M A; Arnold, C; Ergul, A; Söylemezoğlu, G; Uzun, H I; Cabello, F; Ibáñez, J; Aradhya, M K; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I; Balint, S; Cenis, J L; Costantini, L; Goris-Lavets, S; Grando, M S; Klein, B Y; McGovern, P E; Merdinoglu, D; Pejic, I; Pelsy, F; Primikirios, N; Risovannaya, V; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A; Snoussi, H; Sotiri, P; Tamhankar, S; This, P; Troshin, L; Malpica, J M; Lefort, F; Martinez-Zapater, J M

    2006-10-01

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations.

  7. Changes of defense proteins in the extracellular proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures in response to elicitors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Esteso, M J; Sellés-Marchart, S; Vera-Urbina, J C; Pedreño, M A; Bru-Martinez, R

    2009-12-01

    In plant cells, elicitors induce defense responses that resemble those triggered by pathogen attack, such as the synthesis of phytoalexins and pathogen-related proteins which accumulate in the extracellular space. In the search for the particular proteins involved in defense responses, we investigated the changes in the extracellular proteome of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell suspension in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Twenty-five of the 39 spots differentially expressed in 2-D gels were identified and found to be encoded by 10 different genes: three secretory peroxidases, chitinase-III, beta-1,3-glucanase, thaumatin-like, SGNH plant lipase-like, NtPR27-like, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and subtilisin-like protease. Most of them belong to the pathogenesis-related type proteins. A new class III secretory basic peroxidase and chitinase III were strongly induced in cultures treated with MBCD alone or combined with MeJA, while cultures treated with MeJA alone displayed a general repression of most of the extracellular proteins. Some of the proteins induced in grapevine cell cultures by MBCD are induced in other species by activators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a form of plant immunity. Collectively, the results suggest that treatment with MBCD resembles the effect of SAR induction agents in cell cultures.

  8. Glucosylation of Smoke-Derived Volatiles in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is Catalyzed by a Promiscuous Resveratrol/Guaiacol Glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Härtl, Katja; Huang, Fong-Chin; Giri, Ashok P; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Frotscher, Johanna; Shao, Yang; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-07-19

    Vinification of grapes (Vitis vinifera) exposed to forest fire smoke can yield unpalatable wine due to the presence of taint compounds from smoke and the release of smoke derived volatiles from their respective glycosides during the fermentation process or in-mouth during consumption. To identify glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the formation of glycosidically bound smoke-derived volatiles we performed gene expression analysis of candidate GTs in different grapevine tissues. Second, substrates derived from bushfire smoke or naturally occurring in grapes were screened with the candidate recombinant GTs. A resveratrol GT (UGT72B27) gene, highly expressed in grapevine leaves and berries was identified to be responsible for the production of the phenolic glucosides. UGT72B27 converted the stilbene trans-resveratrol mainly to the 3-O-glucoside. Kinetic analyses yielded specificity constants (kcat/KM) of 114, 17, 9, 8, and 2 mM(-1) s(-1) for guaiacol, trans-resveratrol, syringol, methylsyringol, and methylguaiacol, respectively. This knowledge will help to design strategies for managing the risk of producing smoke-affected wines.

  9. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva; Pidra, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase).

  10. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  11. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  12. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  13. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves.

  14. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding.

  15. How the Depletion in Mineral Major Elements Affects Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Primary Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Goulao, Luís F; Fernandes, João C; Amâncio, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The noteworthy fine remodeling that plant cell walls (CWs) undergo to adapt to developmental, physiological and environmental cues and the observation that its composition and dynamics differ between species represents an opportunity to couple crop species agronomic studies with research on CW modifications. Vitis vinifera is one of the most important crops from an economic point-of-view due to the high value of the fruit, predominantly for winemaking. The availability of some information related to this species' CWs allows researching its responses to imposed conditions that affect the plant's development. Mineral deficiency, in particular nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur, strongly affects plant metabolism, reducing both growth and crop yield. Despite the importance of mineral nutrition in development, its influence on CW synthesis and modifications is still insufficiently documented. Addressing this knowledge gap, V. vinifera experimental models were used to study CW responses to imposed mineral depletion in unorganized (callus) and organized (shoots) tissues. The discussion of the obtained results is the main focus of this review. Callus and shoots submitted to mineral restriction are impaired in specific CW components, predominantly cellulose. Reorganization on structure and deposition of several other polymers, in particular the degree and pattern of pectin methyl-esterification and the amount of xyloglucan (XyG), arabinan and extensin, is also observed. In view of recently proposed CW models that consider biomechanical hotspots and direct linkages between pectins and XyG/cellulose, the outcome of these modifications in explaining maintenance of CW integrity through compensatory stiffening can be debated. Nutrient stresses do not affect evenly all tissues with undifferentiated callus tissues showing more pronounced responses, followed by shoot mature internodes, and then newly formed internodes. The impact of nitrogen depletion leads to more

  16. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling.

  17. The peripheral xylem of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). 1. Structural integrity in post-veraison berries.

    PubMed

    Chatelet, David S; Rost, Thomas L; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    During the development of many fleshy fruits, water flow becomes progressively more phloemic and less xylemic. In grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the current hypothesis to explain this change is that the tracheary elements of the peripheral xylem break as a result of berry growth, rendering the xylem structurally discontinuous and hence non-functional. Recent work, however, has shown via apoplastic dye movement through the xylem of post-veraison berries that the xylem should remain structurally intact throughout berry development. To corroborate this, peripheral xylem structure in developing Chardonnay berries was investigated via maceration and plastic sectioning. Macerations revealed that, contrary to current belief, the xylem was comprised mostly of vessels with few tracheids. In cross-section, the tracheary elements of the vascular bundles formed almost parallel radial files, with later formed elements toward the epidermis and earlier formed elements toward the centre of the berry. Most tracheary elements remained intact throughout berry maturation, consistent with recent reports of vascular dye movement in post-veraison berries.

  18. Performance of a New Model for Predicting End of Flowering Date (bbch 69) of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilucci, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The end of flowering date (BBCH 69) is an important phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.), in fact up to this date the growth is focused on the plant and gradually passes on the berries through fruit set. The aim of this study is to perform a model to predict the date of the end of flowering (BBCH69) for some grapevine varieties. This research carried out using three cultivars of grapevine (Maceratino, Montepulciano, Sangiovese) in three different locations (Macerata, Morrovalle and Potenza Picena), places of an equal number of wine farms for the time interval between 2006 and 2013. In order to have reliable temperatures for each location, the data of 6 weather stations near these farms have been interpolated using cokriging methods with elevation as independent variable. The procedure to predict the end of flowering date starts with an investigation of cardinal temperatures typical of each grapevine cultivar. In fact the analysis is characterized by four temperature thresholds (cardinals): minimum activity temperature (TCmin = below this temperature there is no growth for the plant), lower optimal temperature (TLopt = above this temperature there is maximum growth), upper optimal temperature (TUopt = below this temperature there is maximum growth) and maximum activity temperature (TC max = above this temperature there is no growth). Thus this model take into consideration maximum, mean and minimum daily temperatures of each location, relating them with the four above mentioned cultivar temperature thresholds. In this way it has been obtained some possible cases (32) corresponding to as many equations, depending on the position of temperatures compared with the thresholds, in order to calculate the amount of growing degree units (GDU) for each day. Several iterative tests (about 1000 for each cultivar) have been performed, changing the values of temperature thresholds and GDU in order to find the best possible combination which minimizes error

  19. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  20. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  2. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas).

    PubMed

    Zufferey, V; Cochard, H; Ameglio, T; Spring, J-L; Viret, O

    2011-07-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (g(s)), petiole hydraulic conductance (K(petiole)), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψ(x)) of -0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψ(x) of -1.5 MPa. K(petiole) described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's K(petiole) levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70-90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a 'hydraulic fuse', thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in K(petiole) and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%.

  3. Berry morphology and composition in irrigated and non-irrigated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sofo, Adriano; Nuzzo, Vitale; Tataranni, Giuseppe; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Scopa, Antonio

    2012-07-15

    The present study was carried out in a 5-year-old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Aglianico) located in Southern Italy. Half of the plants (IRR) were fully irrigated, whereas the other half were not irrigated (NIRR). In both of the treatments, plant water status, gas exchange, photosynthetic efficiency and productive performance were determined. The arid conditions resulted in significant decreases in stem water potential in NIRR (minimum values of -1.34 and -1.52 MPa in IRR and NIRR, respectively). The values of yield per plant, cluster weight and total berry weight were significantly higher in IRR. Grape berries were separated into four weight classes, and morphometric and microscopic analyses were carried out to measure and calculate berry skin characteristics. Irrigation determined a marked shift toward heavier (+23% in the class ≥ 1.25 g) and bigger (336.35 mm³ vs 299.15 mm³) berries, and induced significant changes in other morphometric berry parameters. No differences among berry weight classes and irrigation treatments were observed for berry skin thickness. In all of the berry weight classes, total anthocyanins extracted from berry skins were significantly higher in NIRR than in IRR (12301.53 and 9585.52 mg kg⁻¹ fresh berry skin, respectively), and appeared to be positively related to berry weight, whereas total flavonols were not significantly different between the two treatments. Qualitative changes in the levels of single anthocyanin and flavonol compounds were detected between IRR and NIRR. In addition, iron, copper and zinc, whose high concentration can negatively affect wine quality, were significantly higher in the IRR treatment. The results highlighted that the absence of irrigation did not determine decreases in grape quality. Such data can be of primary importance in environments where water availability is by far the most important limiting factor for plant growth.

  4. Co-evolution between Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus and Vitis vinifera L. leads to decreased defence responses and increased transcription of genes related to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Cuozzo, Danila; Fasoli, Marianna; Pagliarani, Chiara; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Pezzotti, Mario; Mannini, Franco

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a widespread virus infecting Vitis spp. Although it has established a compatible viral interaction in Vitis vinifera without the development of phenotypic alterations, it can occur as distinct variants that show different symptoms in diverse Vitis species. The changes induced by GRSPaV in V. vinifera cv 'Bosco', an Italian white grape variety, were investigated by combining agronomic, physiological, and molecular approaches, in order to provide comprehensive information about the global effects of GRSPaV. In two years, this virus caused a moderate decrease in physiological efficiency, yield performance, and sugar content in berries associated with several transcriptomic alterations. Transcript profiles were analysed by a microarray technique in petiole, leaf, and berry samples collected at véraison and by real-time RT-PCR in a time course carried out at five grapevine developmental stages. Global gene expression analyses showed that transcriptomic changes were highly variable among the different organs and the different phenological phases. GRSPaV triggers some unique responses in the grapevine at véraison, never reported before for other plant-virus interactions. These responses include an increase in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation, a moderate reduction in the photosynthesis rate and some defence mechanisms, and an overlap with responses to water and salinity stresses. It is hypothesized that the long co-existence of grapevine and GRSPaV has resulted in the evolution of a form of mutual adaptation between the virus and its host. This study contributes to elucidating alternative mechanisms used by infected plants to contend with viruses.

  5. Epigenetic repressor-like genes are differentially regulated during grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development.

    PubMed

    Almada, Rubén; Cabrera, Nuri; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González Villanueva, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Grapevine sexual reproduction involves a seasonal separation between inflorescence primordia (flowering induction) and flower development. We hypothesized that a repression mechanism implicating epigenetic changes could play a role in the seasonal separation of these two developmental processes in grapevine. Therefore, the expression of five grapevine genes with homology to the Arabidopsis epigenetic repressor genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), CURLY LEAF (CLF), MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1) and SWINGER (SWN) was analyzed during the development of buds and vegetative and reproductive organs. During bud development, the putative grapevine epigenetic repressor genes VvCLF, VvEMF2, VvMSI1, VvSWN and VvFIE are mainly expressed in latent buds at the flowering induction period, but also detected during bud burst and inflorescence/flower development. The overlapping expression patterns of grapevine PcG-like genes in buds suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms could be operating during grapevine bud development for controlling processes such as seasonal flowering, dormancy and bud burst. Furthermore, the expression of grapevine PcG-like genes was also detected in fruits and vegetative organs, suggesting that epigenetic changes could be at the basis of the regulation of various proliferation-differentiation cell transitions that occur during grapevine development.

  6. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  7. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Battilana, Juri; Lamaj, Flutura; Fanizza, Girolamo; Grando, Maria Stella

    2008-01-01

    Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera) were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers) and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant grapevine features. They

  8. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Revisiting Vitis vinifera Subtilase Gene Family: A Possible Role in Grapevine Resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Joana; Costa, Gonçalo J.; Maia, Marisa; Paulo, Octávio S.; Malhó, Rui; Sousa Silva, Marta; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defense mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing. All the subtilases identified present the characteristic S8 peptidase domain and the majority of them also have a pro-domain I9 inhibitor, a protease-associated (PA) domain, and a signal peptide for targeting to the secretory pathway. Phylogenetic studies revealed six subtilase groups denominated VvSBT1 to VvSBT6. As several evidences have highlighted the participation of plant subtilases in response to biotic stimulus, we have investigated subtilase participation in grapevine resistance to Plasmopara viticola, the causative agent of downy mildew. Fourteen grapevine subtilases presenting either high homology to P69C from tomato, SBT3.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana or located near the Resistance to P. viticola (RPV) locus were selected. Expression studies were conducted in the grapevine-P. viticola pathosystem with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Our results may indicate that some of grapevine subtilisins are potentially participating in the defense response against this biotrophic oomycete. PMID:27933087

  10. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  11. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Pérez-Dïaz, Ricardo; Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Tapia, Jaime; Casaretto, José A; González, Sebastián; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2012-07-23

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for reproductive development.

  12. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator).

    PubMed

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. 'Crimson Seedless.' We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases.

  13. Investigations on the leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Bouamama, Badra; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Mliki, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    Leaf anatomical and ultrastructural responses of "Razegui" and "Muscat Italia" grapevine cultivars to high temperatures were studied under controlled conditions (T > 36°C), based on photonic and electron microscopy. Histological studies performed on leaves from heat-stressed and control grapevines revealed thicker leaf blades under high temperature conditions. Environmental scanning electron microscopy of leaf surfaces from both cultivars allowed observing sinuate epidermal cells on the leaves of grapevines cultivated under heat stress and irregular giant oblong pores on their adaxial surface. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, leaf cross sections in grapevines cultivated under high temperature conditions exhibited folded cuticle and cell wall on the adaxial epidermis layer. Therefore, significantly greater cell wall thicknesses were measured under heat stress than control conditions in both cultivars. Regarding chloroplasts, they were more globular in shape under heat stress compared with control conditions and had disorganized thylakoids with a reduced thickness of grana stacking. The size of starch granule decreased, while the number of plastoglobules increased with heat stress, indicating a reduced carbon metabolism and a beginning of senescence within the 3-month heat stress period. This study confirms widespread adaptive properties in two grapevine cultivars in response to high temperature stress.

  14. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diane M.; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C.; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore. PMID:19359488

  16. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-04-28

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore.

  17. Xylem vessel relays contribute to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Connectivity within xylem networks plays an important role in the movement of water and nutrients through plants, but also facilitates the spread of pathogens and embolisms that increase hydraulic resistance. This study describes a unique anatomical feature found in grapevine xylem that forms radial...

  18. Structural Changes Induced in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) DNA by Femtosecond IR Laser Pulses: A Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Nicoleta E.; Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Fălămaș, Alexandra; Halmagyi, Adela; Coste, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, surface-enhanced Raman spectra of ten genomic DNAs extracted from leaf tissues of different grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties, respectively, are analyzed in the wavenumber range 300–1800 cm−1. Furthermore, structural changes induced in grapevine genomic nucleic acids upon femtosecond (170 fs) infrared (IR) laser pulse irradiation (λ = 1100 nm) are discussed in detail for seven genomic DNAs, respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signatures, vibrational band assignments and structural characterization of genomic DNAs are reported for each case. As a general observation, the wavenumber range between 1500 and 1660 cm−1 of the spectra seems to be modified upon laser treatment. This finding could reflect changes in the base-stacking interactions in DNA. Spectral shifts are mainly attributed to purines (dA, dG) and deoxyribose. Pyrimidine residues seem to be less affected by IR femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the conformational properties of nucleic acid segments are observed after laser treatment. We have found that DNA isolated from Feteasca Neagra grapevine leaf tissues is the most structurally-responsive system to the femtosecond IR laser irradiation process. In addition, using unbiased computational resources by means of principal component analysis (PCA), eight different grapevine varieties were discriminated. PMID:28335224

  19. Structural Changes Induced in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) DNA by Femtosecond IR Laser Pulses: A Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Dina, Nicoleta E; Muntean, Cristina M; Leopold, Nicolae; Fălămaș, Alexandra; Halmagyi, Adela; Coste, Ana

    2016-05-25

    In this work, surface-enhanced Raman spectra of ten genomic DNAs extracted from leaf tissues of different grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties, respectively, are analyzed in the wavenumber range 300-1800 cm(-1). Furthermore, structural changes induced in grapevine genomic nucleic acids upon femtosecond (170 fs) infrared (IR) laser pulse irradiation (λ = 1100 nm) are discussed in detail for seven genomic DNAs, respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signatures, vibrational band assignments and structural characterization of genomic DNAs are reported for each case. As a general observation, the wavenumber range between 1500 and 1660 cm(-1) of the spectra seems to be modified upon laser treatment. This finding could reflect changes in the base-stacking interactions in DNA. Spectral shifts are mainly attributed to purines (dA, dG) and deoxyribose. Pyrimidine residues seem to be less affected by IR femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the conformational properties of nucleic acid segments are observed after laser treatment. We have found that DNA isolated from Feteasca Neagra grapevine leaf tissues is the most structurally-responsive system to the femtosecond IR laser irradiation process. In addition, using unbiased computational resources by means of principal component analysis (PCA), eight different grapevine varieties were discriminated.

  20. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation in DNA methylation patterns of grapevine somaclones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schellenbaum, Paul; Mohler, Volker; Wenzel, Gerhard; Walter, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background In traditional vine areas, the production should present a typicity that partly depends on the grapevine variety. Therefore, vine improvement is considered difficult because of the limited choice in the natural variability of the cultivars within the limits of their characteristics. A possibility to circumvent this problem is the use of somatic variability. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis can lead to genotypic and phenotypic variations, described as somaclonal variation, that could be useful for the selection of improved grapevine genotypes. Results In order to study tissue culture-induced variation of grapevine, we have analysed 78 somaclones obtained from somatic embryos of two distinct cultivars using molecular marker techniques. SSRs were only useful to verify the conservation of the microsatellite genotype between the somaclones and the respective mother clones. AFLP polymorphism between mother clones and somaclones was 1.3–2.8 times higher to that found between clones. However, a majority of the somaclones (45/78) exhibited only few changes. Seven and five somaclones of 'Chardonnay 96' and 'Syrah 174', respectively, which covered at least all polymorphic loci found in AFLP analysis were used for MSAP study. All of the 120 polymorphic fragments were found only in the somaclones. The percentage of full methylation at CCGG recognition sites was slightly higher in somaclones due to more polymorphic bands generated after cleavage by EcoRI/HpaII. Different digestion patterns revealed different methylation status, especially different levels of de-methylation, that are the consequence of the in vitro culture. Conclusion MSAP highlights DNA methylation variation in somaclones compared to mother clones and, therefore, is a powerful tool for genotypic characterisation of somatic embryo-derived grapevines. The detection of the same polymorphic bands in numerous somaclones of different cultivars suggests the possibility of hot spots of DNA

  2. Isolation of Native Proanthocyanidins from Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Other Fruits in Aqueous Buffer.

    PubMed

    Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Fulcrand, Hélène; Carrillo, Stéphanie; Rouméas, Laurent; Romieu, Charles

    2017-04-05

    Condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins) present in strategic tissues of fruits (outer pericarp and vascular bundles) were known as short polymers of flavan-3-ols. A pretreatment of the plant material (fruits from the grapevine, persimmon) with buffered ascorbic acid and Triton X-100 followed by acetone extraction provided native white fully depolymerizable tannins. Tannins are usually extracted with aqueous solvents and further purified, although artifactual oxidations occur, altering their physicochemical characteristics. Compared to artifactually oxidized tannins prepared according to standard protocols, white tannins (also called leukotannins) exhibit a higher degree of polymerization and a far lower polydispersity.

  3. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053

  4. [Cadmium accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms in Vitis vinifera cv. chardonnay grapevine].

    PubMed

    Du, Yuan-Peng; Li, Hong-Jing; Yin, Ke-Lin; Zhai, Heng

    2012-06-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the Cd absorption, Cd subcellular distribution, and Cd chemical forms in one-year old self-rooted Chardonnay and SO4 rootstock-grafted Chardonnay grapevine after root-irrigating with different concentration CdCl and CaCl2. In the grapevine, the absorbed Cd was mostly distributed in underground organs (root and rhizome). In treatment 4 mmol x L(-1) of CdCl2, 77.1% and 1.4% of the absorbed Cd in self-rooted Chardonnay were accumulated in underground organs and leaves, respectively, while 93.9% and 0.1% of the absorbed Cd in grafted Chardonnay were accumulated in the organs below graft position and in leaves, respectively. 5 mmol L(-1) of CaCl2 decreased the plant Cd absorption and accumulation, while 10 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2 increased the plant Cd absorption and accumulation significantly. The Cd subcellular distribution in roots and leaves was in the order of cell wall > soluble fraction > organelle, and more than 50% of the Cd was accumulated in cell wall. In the roots, NaCl-extractable Cd had a major proportion, followed by HAc-extractable Cd, and water-extractable Cd. The contents of all the Cd chemical forms varied with the increasing concentration of Cd in the treatments.

  5. Relative quantification of phosphoproteomic changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves in response to abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rattanakan, Supakan; George, Iniga; Haynes, Paul A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods. Each identified common proteins, but also additional proteins not found with the other method. Overall, several thousand proteins were identified and several hundred were quantified. In addition, hundreds of phosphoproteins were identified. Tens of proteins were found to be affected in the leaf after the roots had been exposed to ABA for 2 h, more than half of them were phosphorylated proteins. Many phosphosites were confirmed and several new ones were identified. ABA increased the abundance of some proteins, but the majority of the proteins had their protein abundance decreased. Many of these proteins were involved in growth and plant organ development, including proteins involved in protein synthesis, photosynthesis, sugar and amino-acid metabolism. This study provides new insights into how ABA regulates plant responses and acclimation to water deficits. PMID:27366326

  6. Comparison between modified DNA extraction protocols and commercial isolation kits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Akkurt, M

    2012-08-13

    Various protocols have been developed and used for DNA extraction in grapevine. However, owing to the long duration of the isolation steps in previously developed protocols, researchers have preferred to use isolation kits for studies in recent years. In our study, the DNA yield and purity obtained using six methods--namely three DNA isolation protocols and three commercial DNA isolation kits--were compared. Modifications were made and the isolation steps were shortened in the previously developed DNA isolation protocols to achieve more rapid and practical protocols. The samples were taken from plants grown under vineyard and greenhouse conditions in two periods during spring and autumn. The best results among the six DNA isolation methods were discussed. The results were also supported with polymerase chain reaction analyses conducted with isolated DNAs.

  7. Transformation of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) with the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) and a PGIP gene from kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Szankowski, I; Briviba, K; Fleschhut, J; Schönherr, J; Jacobsen, H-J; Kiesecker, H

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to introduce genes with antifungal potential into the commercially important apple cvs. Elstar and Holsteiner Cox in order to establish resistance against fungal diseases. The gene encoding the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from Vitis vinifera L., responsible for the synthesis of the phytoalexin resveratrol in grapevine, and the gene for a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa) were transferred into Holsteiner Cox and Elstar via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of nine transgenic Holsteiner Cox clones and one transgenic E clone carrying the stilbene-synthase gene as well as three transgenic Holsteiner Cox lines harbouring the polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from Kiwi were identified via polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the accumulation of a resveratrol-derivate, a glycoside, in transgenic Vst1 plants.

  8. Partitioning and mobilization of starch and N reserves in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Zapata, Christophe; Deléens, Eliane; Chaillou, Sylvain; Magné, Christian

    2004-09-01

    We followed C and N reserves of grapevines grown in trenches under semi-controlled conditions over a 3-year period after planting. Temporal mobilization of stored C and N and subsequent distribution of reserve materials within the vines were described in parallel with 15N uptake, particularly during the third growing season. Storage C in the perennial tissues (roots, trunk, canes) was mainly made of starch, which accumulated in the ray parenchyma of the wood. In the permanent tissues, starch and total nitrogen contents were found to decrease early in the development (bleeding sap, budbreak) whereas, on a concentration basis, they decreased only after stage 7 (first leaf fully expanded). Starch started to accumulate again in the perennial tissues during flowering. The same observation was made with total nitrogen, although N levels were much lower than those of starch. The 15N study showed that N uptake by the roots started at budbreak and increased with vine development, becoming predominant over reserve mobilization only after the onset of flowering. Taken together, these results indicate that the spring growth period can be divided into three main phases: In the first (dormancy to budbreak), significant losses of C and N proceed mainly via root necrosis. In the second period (first leaf to the onset of bloom), a strong mobilization of starch (and, to a lower extent, of N) occurred for supporting vegetative and reproductive growth. At that point, most of the C and N reserves used on the spring flush were those of the roots, rather than those of the old wood (trunk, canes). In the third period (bloom and early berry development), the mobilization process became low and was relieved by N uptake (and CO2 assimilation) supplying nutrients to the sink structures.

  9. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  10. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    PubMed Central

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O.; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Zúñiga, Gustavo E.; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera ‘Dzhandzhal Kara,’ respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. ‘Crimson Seedless.’ We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases. PMID:28553300

  11. Use of the VvMybA1 gene for non-destructive quantification of promoter activity via color histogram analysis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a convenient plant-based reporter system to analyze promoters and facilitate selection of genetically engineered plants. The VvMybA1 gene of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) regulates the last metabolic step of anthocyanin biosynthesis and its ectopic expression leads to anthocyanin production in otherwise non-pigmented cells. To develop an anthocyanin-based quantitative reporter system, the VvMybA1 gene was isolated from V. vinifera 'Merlot' and placed under control of three promoters to test its ability to distinguish different activity levels. Promoters included a double enhanced CaMV35S (d35S) promoter, a double enhanced CsVMV (dCsVMV) promoter or a bi-directional dual promoter (BDDP), resulting in transformation vectors DAT, CAT and DEAT, respectively. These vectors were introduced into grapevine and tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for transient and stable expression analysis. A linear relationship between the mean red brightness (MRB) and optical density (OD) values with a 0.99 regression coefficient was identified in a dilution series of anthocyanin, thus allowing the use of histogram data for non-destructive and real-time assessment of transcriptional activity. Results of histogram-based analysis of color images from transformed grapevine somatic embryos (SE) and various tissues of transgenic tobacco showed a consistent six to sevenfold promoter activity increase of DEAT over DAT. This expression increase was verified by spectroscopic measurement of anthocyanin concentrations in sepal tissue of transgenic tobacco plants. These results were congruent with previously findings of promoter activity derived from GUS fluorometric assay, thus demonstrating for the first time that the VvMybA1 gene could offer a simple, versatile and reliable plant-based alternative for quantitative promoter analysis in plants.

  12. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit.

    PubMed

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Luchaire, Nathalie; Chatbanyong, Ratthaphon; Lecourieux, David; Kelly, Mary T; Romieu, Charles

    2014-04-28

    Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. This first day - night study on heat stress adaption of the

  13. Colonization of Vitis vinifera by a Green Fluorescence Protein-Labeled, gfp-Marked Strain of Xylophilus ampelinus, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Necrosis of Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Grall, Sophie; Manceau, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of Xylophilus ampelinus were studied in Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. Currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in France: the Cognac, Armagnac, and Die areas. This disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. We constructed gfp-marked strains of the CFBP2098 strain of X. ampelinus for histological studies. We studied the colonization of young plants of V. vinifera cv. Ugni blanc by X. ampelinus after three types of artificial contamination in a growth chamber and in a greenhouse. (i) After wounding of the stem and inoculation, the bacteria progressed down to the crown through the xylem vessels, where they organized into biofilms. (ii) When the bacteria were forced into woody cuttings, they rarely colonized the emerging plantlets. Xylem vessels could play a key role in the multiplication and conservation of the bacteria, rather than being a route for plant colonization. (iii) When bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the plants, bacteria progressed in two directions: both in emerging organs and down to the crown, thus displaying the importance of epiphytic colonization in disease development. PMID:12676663

  14. VvBOR1, the grapevine ortholog of AtBOR1, encodes an efflux boron transporter that is differentially expressed throughout reproductive development of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Kasai, Koji; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Tapia, Jaime; Fujiwara, Toru; González, Enrique

    2012-02-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for normal development of roots, shoots and reproductive tissues in plants. Due to its role in the structure of rhamnogalacturonan II, a polysaccharide required for pollen tube growth, B deficiency has been associated with the occurrence of parthenocarpic seedless grapes in some varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Despite that, it is unclear how B is mobilized and accumulated in reproductive tissues. Here we describe the characterization of an efflux B transporter, VvBOR1, homolog to AtBOR1, which is involved in B xylem loading in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. VvBOR1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed in A. thaliana localizes in the proximal plasma membrane domain in root pericycle cells, and VvBOR1 overexpression restores the wild-type phenotype in A. thaliana bor1-3 mutant plants exposed to B deficiency. Complementation of a mutant yeast strain indicates that VvBOR1 corresponds to a B efflux transporter. Transcriptional analyses during grapevine reproductive development show that the VvBOR1 gene is preferentially expressed in flowers at anthesis and a direct correlation between the expression pattern and B content in grapes was established, suggesting the involvement of this transporter in B accumulation in grapevine berries.

  15. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M. Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2·- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  17. Regulation of polar auxin transport in grapevine fruitlets (Vitis vinifera L.) and the proposed role of auxin homeostasis during fruit abscission.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Nathalie; Serrano, Alejandra; Abello, Carlos; Arce, Aníbal; Espinoza, Carmen; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-10-28

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, is a growth promoter hormone involved in several developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is very important to its function and this is achieved through the regulation of IAA biosynthesis, conjugation, degradation and transport. In grapevine, IAA plays an essential role during initial stages of berry development, since it delays fruitlet abscission by reducing the ethylene sensitivity in the abscission zone. For this reason, Continuous polar IAA transport to the pedicel is required. This kind of transport is controlled by IAA, which regulates its own movement by modifying the expression and localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux facilitators that localize asymmetrically within the cell. On the other hand, the hormone gibberellin (GA) also activates the polar auxin transport by increasing PIN stability. In Vitis vinifera, fruitlet abscission occurs during the first two to three weeks after flowering. During this time, IAA and GA are present, however the role of these hormones in the control of polar auxin transport is unknown. In this work, the use of radiolabeled IAA showed that auxin is basipetally transported during grapevine fruitlet abscission. This observation was further supported by immunolocalization of putative VvPIN proteins that display a basipetal distribution in pericarp cells. Polar auxin transport and transcripts of four putative VvPIN genes decreased in conjunction with increased abscission, and the inhibition of polar auxin transport resulted in fruit drop. GA3 and IAA treatments reduced polar auxin transport, but only GA3 treatment decreased VvPIN transcript abundance. When GA biosynthesis was blocked, IAA was capable to increase polar auxin transport, suggesting that its effect depends on GA content. Finally, we observed significant changes in the content of several IAA-related compounds during the abscission period. These results provide evidence that auxin homeostasis plays a central

  18. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of [Formula: see text] and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on 'pure' biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture.

  19. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  20. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly [1]. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and

  1. Vitis vinifera VvNPR1.1 is the functional ortholog of AtNPR1 and its overexpression in grapevine triggers constitutive activation of PR genes and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Le Henanff, Gaëlle; Farine, Sibylle; Kieffer-Mazet, Flore; Miclot, Anne-Sophie; Heitz, Thierry; Mestre, Pere; Bertsch, Christophe; Chong, Julie

    2011-08-01

    Studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) innate defense mechanisms is a prerequisite to the development of new protection strategies, based on the stimulation of plant signaling pathways to trigger pathogen resistance. Two transcriptional coactivators (VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2) with similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 (Non-Expressor of PR genes 1), a well-characterized and key signaling element of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, were recently isolated in Vitis vinifera. In this study, functional characterization of VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2, including complementation of the Arabidopsis npr1 mutant, revealed that VvNPR1.1 is a functional ortholog of AtNPR1, whereas VvNPR1.2 likely has a different function. Ectopic overexpression of VvNPR1.1 in the Arabidopsis npr1-2 mutant restored plant growth at a high SA concentration, Pathogenesis Related 1 (PR1) gene expression after treatment with SA or bacterial inoculation, and resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola bacteria. Moreover, stable overexpression of VvNPR1.1-GFP in V. vinifera resulted in constitutive nuclear localization of the fusion protein and enhanced PR gene expression in uninfected plants. Furthermore, grapevine plants overexpressing VvNPR1.1-GFP exhibited an enhanced resistance to powdery mildew infection. This work highlights the importance of the conserved SA/NPR1 signaling pathway for resistance to biotrophic pathogens in V. vinifera.

  2. In-vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera) in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Aslan, Mustafa; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ergun, Fatma; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2006-11-24

    The acute and the subacute (15 days) hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (250, 500 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. were evaluated in this study. The aqueous extract was further fractionated through successive solvent extractions and the acute effect of different doses of its subfractions, 25 mg/kg for ethylacetate fraction, 80 mg/kg for n-butanol fraction and 375 mg/kg for remaining aqueous fraction were investigated using normal, glucose-hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were measured according to the glucose oxidase method. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity of the test samples was studied in the liver, kidney and heart tissues of diabetic rats by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathion (GSH) levels. All results were compared to the diabetic control groups. The results showed that EtOAc Fr. was rich in polyphenolics and possessed a significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity equipotent with the reference hypoglycaemic agent (tolbutamide), when evaluated in diabetic rats.

  3. Influence of a deficit irrigation regime during ripening on berry composition in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in semi-arid areas.

    PubMed

    López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; Díaz, Antonio; Ramírez, Pilar; Morales, José

    2007-11-01

    A study was made of the effects of irrigation management strategies during ripening on the quality of Spanish field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (Baladi, Airén, Montepila, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains and Pedro Ximénez) grown under the "Montilla-Moriles" Appellation of Origin in Cordoba, Spain. From 1999 to 2002, two water-availability regimes were established: irrigation and non-irrigation. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of irrigation on berry development and ripening, and hence on grape juice quality. Changes in phenological stages, vegetative growth, vineyard yield, berry weight, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, malic acid, and potassium content were monitored. No significant differences were noted in phenological phases between the non-irrigation and deficit irrigation regimes. The Ravaz index, pruning weight, vineyard yield and berry weight were significantly higher in all varieties and years under deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation induced higher titrable acidity, higher malic acid and potassium contents and a lower pH, but had no significant effects on berry sugar accumulation or tartaric acid content. Deficit irrigation thus appears to be a promising technique for the production of quality young wines in semi-arid areas.

  4. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea) Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega).

    PubMed

    Negri, Stefano; Lovato, Arianna; Boscaini, Filippo; Salvetti, Elisa; Torriani, Sandra; Commisso, Mauro; Danzi, Roberta; Ugliano, Maurizio; Polverari, Annalisa; Tornielli, Giovanni B; Guzzo, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  5. Induction of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and transgenic stilbene synthase-apple plants (Malus domestica) by a culture filtrate of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Judith; Brunner, Philipp; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Products containing the epiphytic yeast Aureobasidium pullulans are commercially available and applied by fruit growers to prevent several fungal and bacterial diseases of fruit trees. The proposed beneficial mechanisms relate to limitations of space and nutrients for the pathogens in presence of the rapidly proliferating yeast cells. These explanations ignore the potential of yeasts to elicit the plant's defense. Our experiments aim at clarifying if an autoclaved and centrifuged suspension of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms. As a model system, the biosynthesis and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in callus and shoots of grapevine Vitis vinifera grown in vitro was used. Yeast application to the plant tissue stimulated stilbene biosynthesis, sometimes at the cost of flavonoids. The expression of the gene encoding stilbene synthase was enhanced and the enzyme showed higher activity while chalcone synthase activity and expression was reduced in some cases. An accumulation of stilbenes was also found in transgenic apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Holsteiner Cox) harboring the stilbene synthase-gene under control of its own promoter. These results clearly show that the application of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms of the treated plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional Differentiation of the Glycosyltransferases That Contribute to the Chemical Diversity of Bioactive Flavonol Glycosides in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera)[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Homma, Yu; Horikawa, Manabu; Kunikane-Doi, Satoshi; Imai, Haruna; Takahashi, Seiji; Kawai, Yosuke; Ishiguro, Masaji; Fukui, Yuko; Nakayama, Toru

    2010-01-01

    We identified two glycosyltransferases that contribute to the structural diversification of flavonol glycosides in grapevine (Vitis vinifera): glycosyltransferase 5 (Vv GT5) and Vv GT6. Biochemical analyses showed that Vv GT5 is a UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase (GAT), and Vv GT6 is a bifunctional UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose:flavonol-3-O-glucosyltransferase/galactosyltransferase. The Vv GT5 and Vv GT6 genes have very high sequence similarity (91%) and are located in tandem on chromosome 11, suggesting that one of these genes arose from the other by gene duplication. Both of these enzymes were expressed in accordance with flavonol synthase gene expression and flavonoid distribution patterns in this plant, corroborating their significance in flavonol glycoside biosynthesis. The determinant of the specificity of Vv GT5 for UDP-glucuronic acid was found to be Arg-140, which corresponded to none of the determinants previously identified for other plant GATs in primary structures, providing another example of convergent evolution of plant GAT. We also analyzed the determinants of the sugar donor specificity of Vv GT6. Gln-373 and Pro-19 were found to play important roles in the bifunctional specificity of the enzyme. The results presented here suggest that the sugar donor specificities of these Vv GTs could be determined by a limited number of amino acid substitutions in the primary structures of protein duplicates, illustrating the plasticity of plant glycosyltransferases in acquiring new sugar donor specificities. PMID:20693356

  7. Effects of Leaf Removal and Applied Water on Flavonoid Accumulation in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) Berry in a Hot Climate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Runze; Cook, Michael G; Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Gambetta, Gregory; Kennedy, James A; Kurtural, S Kaan

    2016-11-02

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) fruit zone light exposure and water deficits and the resulting berry flavonoid composition were investigated in a hot climate. The experimental design involved application of mechanical leaf removal (control, pre-bloom, post-fruit set) and differing water deficits (sustained deficit irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation). Flavonol and anthocyanin concentrations were measured by C18 reversed-phased HPLC and increased with pre-bloom leaf removal in 2013, but with post-fruit set leaf removal in 2014. Proanthocyanidin isolates were characterized by acid catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Post-fruit set leaf removal increased total proanthocyanidin concentration in both years, whereas no effect was observed with applied water amounts. Mean degree of polymerization of skin proanthocyanidins increased with post-fruit set leaf removal compared to pre-bloom, whereas water deficit had no effect. Conversion yield was greater with post-fruit set leaf removal. Seed proanthocyanidin concentration was rarely affected by applied treatments. The application of post-fruit set leaf removal, regardless of water deficit. increased the proportion of proanthocyanidins derived from the skin, whereas no leaf removal or pre-bloom leaf removal regardless of water deficit increased the proportion of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The study provides fundamental information to viticulturists and winemakers on how to manage red wine grape low molecular weight phenolics and polymeric proanthocyanidin composition in a hot climate.

  8. Applying generalized additive models to unravel dynamic changes in anthocyanin biosynthesis in methyl jasmonate elicited grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Moser, Claudio; Martens, Stefan; Franceschi, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell cultures represent important model systems to understand metabolism and its modulation by regulatory factors. Even in controlled conditions, cell metabolism is highly dynamic and can be fully characterized only by time course experiments. Here, we show that statistical analysis of this type of data gains power if it moves to approaches able to compare the ‘trends’ of the different metabolites. In particular, we show how generalized additive models can be used to model the time-dependent profile of anthocyanin synthesis in grapevine cell suspension cultures (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay), following treatment with 100 μm methyl jasmonate. The sampling was performed daily for 20 days of culturing following elicitation at day 5. All samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of fifteen anthocyanin compounds. The models confirmed the separation in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway between delphinidin-based and cyanidin-based compounds, showing that methyl jasmonate modulates the anthocyanin concentration profiles. Our results clearly indicate that the combination of high-throughput metabolomics and state of the art statistical modeling is a powerful approach to study plant metabolism. This approach is expected to gain popularity due to the growing availability of low-cost high-throughput ‘omic’ assays. PMID:28758015

  9. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  10. Evolution of the VvMybA gene family, the major determinant of berry colour in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Lacombe, T; Le Cunff, L; Boursiquot, J-M; This, P

    2010-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the grape transcription factor family VvMybA are responsible for variation in anthocyanin content in the berries of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa). Previous study has shown that white grapes arose through the mutation of two adjacent genes: a retroelement insertion in VvMybA1 and a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation in VvMybA2. The purpose of this study was to understand how these mutations emerged and affected genetic diversity at neighbouring sites and how they structured the genetic diversity of cultivated grapevines. We sequenced a total of 3225 bp of these genes in a core collection of genetic resources, and carried out empirical selection tests, phylogenetic- and coalescence-based demographic analyses. The insertion in the VvMybA1 promoter was shown to have occurred recently, after the mutation of VvMybA2, both mutations followed by a selective sweep. The mutational pattern for these colour genes is consistent with progressively relaxed selection from constrained ancestral coloured haplotypes to light coloured and finally white haplotypes. Dynamics of population size in the VvMybA genes showed an initial exponential growth, followed by population size stabilization. Most ancestral haplotypes are found in cultivars from western region, whereas recent haplotypes are essentially present in table cultivars from eastern regions where intense breeding practices may have replaced the original diversity. Finally, the emergence of the white allele was followed by a recent strong exponential growth, showing a very fast diffusion of the initial white allele.

  11. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (−)-rotundone

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (−)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (−)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (−)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (−)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (−)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (−)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. PMID:26590863

  14. Isolation, functional characterization, and expression analysis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) hexose transporters: differential roles in sink and source tissues.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew A; Davies, Christopher; Dry, Ian B

    2007-01-01

    Three hexose transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, and VvHT5) were cloned from Vitis vinifera L. and functionally characterized in the hexose transport-impaired Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant EBY.VW4000. Both VvHT4 and VvHT5 facilitated glucose uptake, with K(m)s of 137 muM and 89 muM, respectively. VvHT3 was not functional in the yeast system but a VvHT3:GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein was targeted to the plasma membrane in plant cells. In young 'sink' leaves, transcript levels of all five VvHTs and a cell wall invertase (VvcwINV) were low. In mature leaves, there were increased levels of VvHT1, VvHT3, VvHT5, and VvcwINV transcripts, suggesting that mature leaves may have an increased capacity for apoplastic sucrose hydrolysis and hexose retrieval. In grape berries, VvHT1, VvHT2, and VvHT3 transcript levels were found to be significantly higher than those of VvHT4 and VvHT5. VvHT1 was most highly expressed early in berry development but decreased during the period of rapid sugar accumulation, while VvHT2 and VvHT3 expression remained high during this accumulation phase. VvcwINV expression occurred throughout berry development but peaked just prior to veraison. It is clear that the machinery to transport the hexose molecules produced through the cleavage of sucrose, by cell wall invertase, is present in the berry. This agrees with the suggestion that hexose accumulation to high levels during the ripening phase occurs through an apoplastic pathway. Interestingly, there is no direct relationship between VvHT gene expression and hexose accumulation, which suggests either that transcription is not the main determinant of transport activity or that other transport pathways are also active.

  15. Genome sequence of Methylobacterium sp. strain GXF4, a xylem-associated bacterium isolated from Vitis vinifera L. grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Chew, Teong Han; Hudson, André O; Savka, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain GXF4 is an isolate from grapevine. Here we present the sequence, assembly, and annotation of its genome, which may shed light on its role as a grapevine xylem inhabitant. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a plant xylem-associated strain of the genus Methylobacterium.

  16. Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. Strain GXF4, a Xylem-Associated Bacterium Isolated from Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Chew, Teong Han; Hudson, André O.

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain GXF4 is an isolate from grapevine. Here we present the sequence, assembly, and annotation of its genome, which may shed light on its role as a grapevine xylem inhabitant. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a plant xylem-associated strain of the genus Methylobacterium. PMID:22933776

  17. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism.

  18. Collection and characterization of grapevine genetic resources (Vitis vinifera) in the Holy Land, towards the renewal of ancient winemaking practices.

    PubMed

    Drori, Elyashiv; Rahimi, Oshrit; Marrano, Annarita; Henig, Yakov; Brauner, Hodaya; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Netzer, Yishay; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Stanevsky, Maria; Failla, Osvaldo; Weiss, Ehud; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-03-17

    The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population's structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry.

  19. Collection and characterization of grapevine genetic resources (Vitis vinifera) in the Holy Land, towards the renewal of ancient winemaking practices

    PubMed Central

    Drori, Elyashiv; Rahimi, Oshrit; Marrano, Annarita; Henig, Yakov; Brauner, Hodaya; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Netzer, Yishay; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Stanevsky, Maria; Failla, Osvaldo; Weiss, Ehud; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population’s structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry. PMID:28303928

  20. The chemotaxis regulator pilG of Xylella fastidiosa is required for virulence in Vitis vinifera grapevines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that causes Pierce’s disease of grapevines. Type IV pili of X. fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motil...

  1. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Berta; Falco, Virgílio; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Bacelar, Eunice; Peixoto, Francisco; Correia, Carlos

    2009-01-14

    The impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on the quality of berries, must, and red wine (with special reference to volatile composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity) made from Touriga Franca, a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L. for Port and Douro wine manufacturing grown in the Demarcated Region of Douro, was investigated during 2005 and 2006. Grapevines were grown either in open-top chambers (OTC) with ambient (365 +/- 10 ppm) or elevated (500 +/-16 ppm) [CO2] or in an outside plot. In general, the increase of [CO2] did not affect berry characteristics, especially the total anthocyan and tannin concentrations. However, the total anthocyan and polyphenol concentrations of the red wine were inhibited under elevated [CO2]. The antioxidant capacity of the wines was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and TBARS assays and, despite the low concentrations of phenolics, the elevated [CO2] did not significantly change the total antioxidant capacity of the red wines. Thirty-five volatile compounds belonging to seven chemical groups were identified: C6 alcohols, higher alcohols, esters, terpenols, carbonyl compounds, acids, volatile phenols, and C13 norisoprenoids. Generally, the same volatile compounds were present in all of the wines, but the relative levels varied among the treatments. The effect of elevated [CO2] was significant because it was detected as an increase in ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid concentrations and a decrease in ethyl acetate concentration when compared to wines produced in ambient [CO2] in 2005. In elevated [CO2], wines from 2006 had lower methionol, 1-octanol, and 4-ethylguaiacol and higher ethyl lactate and linalool concentrations. The increase in [CO2] did not significantly affect C6 alcohols, citronellol, carbonyl compounds, and beta-damascenone concentrations. This study showed that the predicted rise in [CO2] did not produce negative

  3. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses.

  4. Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium and power of a large grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) diversity panel newly designed for association studies.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Stéphane D; Péros, Jean-Pierre; Lacombe, Thierry; Launay, Amandine; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Mangin, Brigitte; Valière, Sophie; Martins, Frédéric; Le Cunff, Loïc; Laucou, Valérie; Bacilieri, Roberto; Dereeper, Alexis; Chatelet, Philippe; This, Patrice; Doligez, Agnès

    2016-03-22

    As for many crops, new high-quality grapevine varieties requiring less pesticide and adapted to climate change are needed. In perennial species, breeding is a long process which can be speeded up by gaining knowledge about quantitative trait loci linked to agronomic traits variation. However, due to the long juvenile period of these species, establishing numerous highly recombinant populations for high resolution mapping is both costly and time-consuming. Genome wide association studies in germplasm panels is an alternative method of choice, since it allows identifying the main quantitative trait loci with high resolution by exploiting past recombination events between cultivars. Such studies require adequate panel design to represent most of the available genetic and phenotypic diversity. Assessing linkage disequilibrium extent and panel power is also needed to determine the marker density required for association studies. Starting from the largest grapevine collection worldwide maintained in Vassal (France), we designed a diversity panel of 279 cultivars with limited relatedness, reflecting the low structuration in three genetic pools resulting from different uses (table vs wine) and geographical origin (East vs West), and including the major founders of modern cultivars. With 20 simple sequence repeat markers and five quantitative traits, we showed that our panel adequately captured most of the genetic and phenotypic diversity existing within the entire Vassal collection. To assess linkage disequilibrium extent and panel power, we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms: 372 over four genomic regions and 129 distributed over the whole genome. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by correlation corrected for kinship, reached 0.2 for a physical distance between 9 and 458 Kb depending on genetic pool and genomic region, with varying size of linkage disequilibrium blocks. This panel achieved reasonable power to detect associations between traits with high broad

  5. Proteomic analysis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaf changes induced by transition to autotrophy and exposure to high light irradiance.

    PubMed

    Nilo-Poyanco, R; Olivares, D; Orellana, A; Hinrichsen, P; Pinto, M

    2013-10-08

    Using a proteomics approach, we evaluated the response of heterotrophic and autotrophic leaves of grapevine when exposed to high light irradiation. From a total of 572 protein spots detected on two-dimensional gels, 143 spots showed significant variation caused by changes in the trophic state. High light treatment caused variation in 90 spots, and 51 spots showed variation caused by the interaction between both factors. Regarding the trophic state of the leaf, most of the proteins detected in the heterotrophic stage decreased in abundance when the leaf reached the autotrophic stage. Major differences induced by high light were detected in autotrophic leaves. In the high-light-treated autotrophic leaves several proteins involved in the oxidative stress response were up-regulated. This pattern was not observed in the high-light-treated heterotrophic leaves. This indicates that in these types of leaves other mechanisms different to the protein antioxidant system are acting to protect young leaves against the excess of light. This also suggests that these protective mechanisms rely on other sets of proteins or non-enzymatic molecules, or that differences in protein dynamics between the heterotrophic and autotrophic stages makes the autotrophic leaves more prone to the accumulation of oxidative stress response proteins. Transition from a heterotrophic to an autotrophic state is a key period during which the anatomical, physiological and molecular characteristics of a leaf are defined. In many aspects the right functioning of a leaf at its mature stage depends on the conditions under what this transition occurs. This because apart of the genetic control, environmental factors like mineral nutrition, temperature, water supply, light etc. are also important in its control. Many anatomical and physiological changes have been described in several plant species, however in grapevine molecular data regarding changes triggered by this transition or by light stress are still

  6. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  7. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J.; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C.; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  8. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  9. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  10. A knowledge base for Vitis vinifera functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) is the most important fruit species in the modern world. Wine and table grapes sales contribute significantly to the economy of major wine producing countries. The most relevant goals in wine production concern quality and safety. In order to significantly improve the achievement of these objectives and to gain biological knowledge about cultivars, a genomic approach is the most reliable strategy. The recent grapevine genome sequencing offers the opportunity to study the potential roles of genes and microRNAs in fruit maturation and other physiological and pathological processes. Although several systems allowing the analysis of plant genomes have been reported, none of them has been designed specifically for the functional analysis of grapevine genomes of cultivars under environmental stress in connection with microRNA data. Description Here we introduce a novel knowledge base, called BIOWINE, designed for the functional analysis of Vitis vinifera genomes of cultivars present in Sicily. The system allows the analysis of RNA-seq experiments of two different cultivars, namely Nero d'Avola and Nerello Mascalese. Samples were taken under different climatic conditions of phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. The BIOWINE web interface is equipped with data analysis modules for grapevine genomes. In particular users may analyze the current genome assembly together with the RNA-seq data through a customized version of GBrowse. The web interface allows users to perform gene set enrichment by exploiting third-party databases. Conclusions BIOWINE is a knowledge base implementing a set of bioinformatics tools for the analysis of grapevine genomes. The system aims to increase our understanding of the grapevine varieties and species of Sicilian products focusing on adaptability to different climatic conditions, phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. PMID:26050794

  11. Gibberellin-induced changes in the transcriptome of grapevine (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera) cv. Kyoho flowers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chenxia; Jiao, Chen; Singer, Stacy D; Gao, Min; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zhi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-02-25

    Gibberellins are well known for their growth control function in flower, fruit and seed development, and as such, exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) application plays an important role in viticulture. Unfortunately, the mechanism by which GA3 acts in the regulation of these complicated developmental processes in grape remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that application of GA3 to 'Kyoho' grapevine inflorescences at pre-bloom promoted flower opening, and induced fruit coloring as well as seed abortion. In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving these responses to GA3 treatment, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of grape flowers following GA3 treatment using Illumina sequencing technology. Global expression profiles of GA3-treated and untreated grape flowers were compared and a large number of GA3-responsive genes were identified. Gene ontology (GO) term classification and biochemical pathway analyses indicated that GA3 treatment caused changes in the levels of transcripts involved in cellular processes, reproduction, hormone and secondary metabolism, as well as the scavenging and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that GA3-induced morphological alterations may be related to the control of hormone biosynthesis and signaling, regulation of transcription factors, alteration of secondary metabolites, and the stability of redox homeostasis. Taken together, this comprehensive inflorescence transcriptome data set provides novel insight into the response of grape flowers to GA3 treatment, and also provides possible candidate genes or markers that could be used to guide future efforts in this field.

  12. The coding region of the UFGT gene is a source of diagnostic SNP markers that allow single-locus DNA genotyping for the assessment of cultivar identity and ancestry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera L. is one of society’s most important agricultural crops with a broad genetic variability. The difficulty in recognizing grapevine genotypes based on ampelographic traits and secondary metabolites prompted the development of molecular markers suitable for achieving variety genetic identification. Findings Here, we propose a comparison between a multi-locus barcoding approach based on six chloroplast markers and a single-copy nuclear gene sequencing method using five coding regions combined with a character-based system with the aim of reconstructing cultivar-specific haplotypes and genotypes to be exploited for the molecular characterization of 157 V. vinifera accessions. The analysis of the chloroplast target regions proved the inadequacy of the DNA barcoding approach at the subspecies level, and hence further DNA genotyping analyses were targeted on the sequences of five nuclear single-copy genes amplified across all of the accessions. The sequencing of the coding region of the UFGT nuclear gene (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase, the key enzyme for the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins) enabled the discovery of discriminant SNPs (1/34 bp) and the reconstruction of 130 V. vinifera distinct genotypes. Most of the genotypes proved to be cultivar-specific, and only few genotypes were shared by more, although strictly related, cultivars. Conclusion On the whole, this technique was successful for inferring SNP-based genotypes of grapevine accessions suitable for assessing the genetic identity and ancestry of international cultivars and also useful for corroborating some hypotheses regarding the origin of local varieties, suggesting several issues of misidentification (synonymy/homonymy). PMID:24298902

  13. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  14. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  15. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  16. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of ESTs responsive to Rhizobium vitis from 'Tamnara' grapevines (Vitis sp.).

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Jung; Yun, Hae Keun; Park, Kyo Sun; Noh, Jeong Ho; Heo, Youn Young; Kim, Seung Hui; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Hee Jae

    2010-09-01

    Genes related with defense responses were screened from the cDNA library constructed with Rhizobium vitis-inoculated or salicylic acid (SA)-treated 'Tamnara' grapevine (Vitis sp.) leaves. Among 13,728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 'Tamnara' grapevine upon R. vitis inoculation and SA treatment, 6776 unigenes containing 1915 contigs and 4860 singletons were obtained. In gene ontology analysis, there were about 3200 clones related with biological process, 3555 with molecular function, and 3354 with cellular component genes. Proteins of secretory organ (35%), plasma membrane (30%), endoplasmic reticulum (20%), and vacuole (11%) were predicted. Photosynthesis-related genes and defense-related genes were most abundant. Among ESTs, 199 resistance-related ones were mapped to the genome of Vitis vinifera L. with three markers, GLP1-12, MHD98, and MHD145, which are known to be linked to resistance against powdery mildew. Approximately, 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) detected in cDNAs could be used as EST-derived SSR markers in disease resistant grape breeding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Cramer, Grant R.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Mathiason, Kathy; Van Hemert, John; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet). Methodology/Principal Findings The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. Conclusions/Significance VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and

  20. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of VvSERK1, VvSERK2, VvSERK3 and VvL1L genes and their expression during somatic embryogenesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Schellenbaum, Paul; Jacques, Alban; Maillot, Pascale; Bertsch, Christophe; Mazet, Flore; Farine, Sibylle; Walter, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the genes expressed during grapevine somatic embryogenesis. Both groups of Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (SERK) and Leafy Cotyledon (LEC and L1L) genes seem to play key roles during somatic embryogenesis in various plant species. Therefore, we identified and analysed the sequences of VvSERK and VvL1L (Leafy cotyledon1-Like) genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of VvSERK1, VvSERK2 and VvSERK3 are very similar to that of registered SERK proteins, with highest homologies for the kinase domain in the C-terminal region. The amino acid sequence of VvL1L presents all the domains that are characteristic for LEC1 and L1L proteins, particularly, the 16 amino acid residues that serve as signature of the B-domain. Phylogenetic analysis distinguishes members of subclass LEC1 and subclass L1L, and VvL1L is closely related to L1L proteins. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we studied gene expression of VvSERK1, VvSERK2, VvSERK3 and VvL1L in calli and somatic embryos obtained from anther culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay. Expression of VvSERK2 is relatively stable during in vitro culture. In contrast, VvSERK1, VvSERK3 and VvL1L are expressed more 4 to 6 weeks after transfer of the calli onto embryo induction medium, before the visible appearance of embryos on the calli as seen by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Later on (8 weeks after transfer) VvSERK1 expression is maintained in the embryogenic calli and VvSERK3 in the embryos, whereas VvL1L expression is very low. All together, these data suggest the involvement of VvSERK and VvL1L genes in grapevine somatic embryogenesis.

  2. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  3. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development.

  4. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    PubMed Central

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  5. Thermal thresholds as predictors of seed dormancy release and germination timing: altitude-related risks from climate warming for the wild grapevine Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Orrù, Martino; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The importance of thermal thresholds for predicting seed dormancy release and germination timing under the present climate conditions and simulated climate change scenarios was investigated. In particular, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris was investigated in four Sardinian populations over the full altitudinal range of the species (from approx. 100 to 800 m a.s.l). Methods Dried and fresh seeds from each population were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C), without any pre-treatment and after a warm (3 months at 25 °C) or a cold (3 months at 5 °C) stratification. A thermal time approach was then applied to the germination results for dried seeds and the seed responses were modelled according to the present climate conditions and two simulated scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): B1 (+1·8 °C) and A2 (+3·4 °C). Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy, while very few seeds germinated without treatments or after warm stratification. Fresh, cold-stratified seeds germinated significantly better (>80 %) at temperatures ≥20 °C than at lower temperatures. A base temperature for germination (Tb) of 9·0–11·3 °C and a thermal time requirement for 50 % of germination (θ50) ranging from 33·6 °Cd to 68·6 °Cd were identified for non-dormant cold-stratified seeds, depending on the populations. This complex combination of thermal requirements for dormancy release and germination allowed prediction of field emergence from March to May under the present climatic conditions for the investigated populations. Conclusions The thermal thresholds for seed germination identified in this study (Tb and θ50) explained the differences in seed germination detected among populations. Under the two simulated IPCC scenarios, an altitude-related risk from climate warming is identified, with lowland populations being more threatened due to a compromised seed dormancy

  6. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought

    PubMed Central

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

  7. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought.

    PubMed

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-11-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration.

  8. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is Present in Free-Living Vitis spp. Proximal to Cultivated Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Perry, Keith L; McLane, Heather; Hyder, Muhammad Z; Dangl, Gerald S; Thompson, Jeremy R; Fuchs, Marc F

    2016-06-01

    Red blotch is an emerging disease of grapevine associated with grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV). The virus spreads with infected planting stocks but no vector of epidemiological significance has been conclusively identified. A vineyard block of red-blotch-affected Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet franc' clone 214 was observed in California, with a clustering of infected, symptomatic vines focused along one edge of the field proximal to a riparian habitat with free-living Vitis spp. No genetic heterogeneity was observed in a 587-nucleotide region of the GRBaV genome in a population of 44 Cabernet franc clone 214 isolates. By contrast, genetic differences were observed in isolates from other cultivars and clones growing in adjacent blocks. GRBaV was confirmed infecting four free-living vines, two of which were shown to be V. californica × V. vinifera hybrids. The genomes of three free-living GRBaV vine isolates and seven from V. vinifera cultivars were compared; free-living vine isolates were shown to be more similar to each other and a 'Merlot' isolate than to the other cultivated vine isolates. The finding that GRBaV is present in free-living Vitis spp. indicates the virus can be spread by natural (nonhuman-mediated) means, and we hypothesize that in-field spread of GRBaV is occurring.

  9. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Marconi, Raffaella; Nonis, Alberto; Peterlunger, Enrico; Paillard, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Testolin, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    Background Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Results Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. Conclusion We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between

  10. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent.

  11. Differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Stanisław; Rybarczyk, Anna; Karamać, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Mostek, Agnieszka; Grębosz, Joanna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2013-03-14

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  12. Genome sequence of Novosphingobium sp. strain Rr 2-17, a nopaline crown gall-associated bacterium isolated from Vitis vinifera L. grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Chew, Teong Han; Hudson, André O; Savka, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Novosphingobium sp. strain Rr 2-17 is an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing bacterium isolated from the crown gall tumor of a grapevine. To our knowledge, this is the first draft genome announcement of a plant-associated strain from the genus Novosphingobium.

  13. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Modra frankinja” with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp–grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. “Modra frankinja” under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  14. High throughput SNP discovery and genotyping in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by combining a re-sequencing approach and SNPlex technology

    PubMed Central

    Lijavetzky, Diego; Cabezas, José Antonio; Ibáñez, Ana; Rodríguez, Virginia; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2007-01-01

    Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant type of DNA sequence polymorphisms. Their higher availability and stability when compared to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) provide enhanced possibilities for genetic and breeding applications such as cultivar identification, construction of genetic maps, the assessment of genetic diversity, the detection of genotype/phenotype associations, or marker-assisted breeding. In addition, the efficiency of these activities can be improved thanks to the ease with which SNP genotyping can be automated. Expressed sequence tags (EST) sequencing projects in grapevine are allowing for the in silico detection of multiple putative sequence polymorphisms within and among a reduced number of cultivars. In parallel, the sequence of the grapevine cultivar Pinot Noir is also providing thousands of polymorphisms present in this highly heterozygous genome. Still the general application of those SNPs requires further validation since their use could be restricted to those specific genotypes. Results In order to develop a large SNP set of wide application in grapevine we followed a systematic re-sequencing approach in a group of 11 grape genotypes corresponding to ancient unrelated cultivars as well as wild plants. Using this approach, we have sequenced 230 gene fragments, what represents the analysis of over 1 Mb of grape DNA sequence. This analysis has allowed the discovery of 1573 SNPs with an average of one SNP every 64 bp (one SNP every 47 bp in non-coding regions and every 69 bp in coding regions). Nucleotide diversity in grape (π = 0.0051) was found to be similar to values observed in highly polymorphic plant species such as maize. The average number of haplotypes per gene sequence was estimated as six, with three haplotypes representing over 83% of the analyzed sequences. Short-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) studies within the analyzed sequences indicate the existence of a rapid decay of LD within the

  15. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  16. Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under domestication: new morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Tabard, Elidie; Bouby, Laurent; Ivorra, Sarah; Pastor, Thierry; Figueiral, Isabel; Picq, Sandrine; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Jung, Cécile; Fabre, Laurent; Tardy, Christophe; Compan, Michel; Bacilieri, Roberto; Lacombe, Thierry; This, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of the abundance of archaeological, bio-archaeological, historical and genetic data, the origins, historical biogeography, identity of ancient grapevine cultivars and mechanisms of domestication are still largely unknown. Here, analysis of variation in seed morphology aims to provide accurate criteria for the discrimination between wild grapes and modern cultivars and to understand changes in functional traits in relation to the domestication process. This approach is also used to quantify the phenotypic diversity in the wild and cultivated compartments and to provide a starting point for comparing well-preserved archaeological material, in order to elucidate the history of grapevine varieties. Methods Geometrical analysis (elliptic Fourier transform method) was applied to grapevine seed outlines from modern wild individuals, cultivars and well-preserved archaeological material from southern France, dating back to the first to second centuries. Key Results and Conclusions Significant relationships between seed shape and taxonomic status, geographical origin (country or region) of accessions and parentage of varieties are highlighted, as previously noted based on genetic approaches. The combination of the analysis of modern reference material and well-preserved archaeological seeds provides original data about the history of ancient cultivated forms, some of them morphologically close to the current ‘Clairette’ and ‘Mondeuse blanche’ cultivars. Archaeobiological records seem to confirm the complexity of human contact, exchanges and migrations which spread grapevine cultivation in Europe and in Mediterranean areas, and argue in favour of the existence of local domestication in the Languedoc (southern France) region during Antiquity. PMID:20034966

  17. Antioxidant properties of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2009-12-01

    Currants and sultanas (Vitis vinifera L., Family Vitaceae) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used widely in the Mediterranean diet. We investigated the polar methanol extracts from the raisins for the antiradical activity, polyphenol content, cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, total glutathione (GSH) levels, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Extracts exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and inhibited tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cytotoxicity, GSH decrease, and LDL oxidation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the characteristic apoptotic patterns with tBHP and inhibition with the extracts. Elevated levels of total GSH and unaltered levels of GSSG with extract treatment demonstrated the induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The antioxidant activity was correlated to the polyphenolic content. Greek currants and sultanas are suggested as antioxidant components of the Mediterranean basin.

  18. Naturalised Vitis rootstocks in Europe and consequences to native wild grapevine.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-06-13

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures.

  19. Naturalised Vitis Rootstocks in Europe and Consequences to Native Wild Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures. PMID:17565374

  20. Comparison of a retrotransposon-based marker with microsatellite markers for discriminating accessions of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, G C; Ferreira, J L; Rocha, H S; Borém, A; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A

    2012-05-21

    Identification and knowledge concerning genetic diversity are fundamental for efficient management and use of grapevine germplasm. Recently, new types of molecular markers have been developed, such as retrotransposon-based markers. Because of their multilocus pattern, retrotransposon-based markers might be able to differentiate grapevine accessions with just one pair of primers. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this type of marker, we compared retrotransposon marker Tvv1 with seven microsatellite markers frequently used for genotyping of the genus Vitis (VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD5, VVMD27, VVMD31, VVS2, and VZAG62). The reference population that we used consisted of 26 accessions of Vitis, including seven European varieties of Vitis vinifera, four North American varieties and hybrids of Vitis labrusca, and 15 rootstock hybrids obtained from crosses of several Vitis species. Individually, the Tvv1 and the group of seven SSR markers were capable of distinguishing all accessions except 'White Niagara' compared to 'Red Niagara'. Using the Structure software, the retrotransposon marker Tvv1 generated two clusters: one with V. vinifera plus North American varieties and the other comprising rootstocks. The seven SSR markers generated five clusters: V. vinifera, the North American varieties, and three groups of rootstock hybrids. The percentages of variation explained by the first two components in the principal coordinate analysis were 65.21 (Tvv1) and 50.42 (SSR markers) while the Mantel correlation between the distance matrixes generated by the two types of markers was 42.5%. We conclude that the Tvv1 marker is useful for DNA fingerprinting, but it lacks efficiency for discrimination of structured groups.

  1. Modelling leaf photosynthetic and transpiration temperature-dependent responses in Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevines growing in hot, irrigated vineyard conditions.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H

    2012-01-01

    Grapevines growing in Australia are often exposed to very high temperatures and the question of how the gas exchange processes adjust to these conditions is not well understood. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis and transpiration in relation to temperature to quantify the impact of the growing conditions on vine performance. Leaf gas exchange was measured along the grapevine shoots in accordance with their growth and development over several growing seasons. Using a general linear statistical modelling approach, photosynthesis and transpiration were modelled against leaf temperature separated into bands and the model parameters and coefficients applied to independent datasets to validate the model. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance varied along the shoot, with early emerging leaves having the highest rates, but these declined as later emerging leaves increased their gas exchange capacities in accordance with development. The general linear modelling approach applied to these data revealed that photosynthesis at each temperature was additively dependent on stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and photon flux density. The temperature-dependent coefficients for these parameters applied to other datasets gave a predicted rate of photosynthesis that was linearly related to the measured rates, with a 1 : 1 slope. Temperature-dependent transpiration was multiplicatively related to stomatal conductance and the leaf to air vapour pressure deficit and applying the coefficients also showed a highly linear relationship, with a 1 : 1 slope between measured and modelled rates, when applied to independent datasets. The models developed for the grapevines were relatively simple but accounted for much of the seasonal variation in photosynthesis and transpiration. The goodness of fit in each case demonstrated that explicitly selecting leaf temperature as a model parameter, rather than including temperature intrinsically as is usually

  2. A Three-dimensional Statistical Reconstruction Model of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Simulating Canopy Structure Variability within and between Cultivar/Training System Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Lecoeur, Jérémie; Lebon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In grapevine, canopy-structure-related variations in light interception and distribution affect productivity, yield and the quality of the harvested product. A simple statistical model for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) canopy structures for various cultivar–training system (C × T) pairs has been implemented with special attention paid to balance the time required for model parameterization and accuracy of the representations from organ to stand scales. Such an approach particularly aims at overcoming the weak integration of interplant variability using the usual direct 3D measurement methods. Model This model is original in combining a turbid-medium-like envelope enclosing the volume occupied by vine shoots with the use of discrete geometric polygons representing leaves randomly located within this volume to represent plant structure. Reconstruction rules were adapted to capture the main determinants of grapevine shoot architecture and their variability. Using a simplified set of parameters, it was possible to describe (1) the 3D path of the main shoot, (2) the volume occupied by the foliage around this path and (3) the orientation of individual leaf surfaces. Model parameterization (estimation of the probability distribution for each parameter) was carried out for eight contrasting C × T pairs. Key Results and Conclusions The parameter values obtained in each situation were consistent with our knowledge of grapevine architecture. Quantitative assessments for the generated virtual scenes were carried out at the canopy and plant scales. Light interception efficiency and local variations of light transmittance within and between experimental plots were correctly simulated for all canopies studied. The approach predicted these key ecophysiological variables significantly more accurately than the classical complete digitization method with a limited number of plants. In addition, this model accurately reproduced the characteristics of a

  3. Modelling leaf photosynthetic and transpiration temperature-dependent responses in Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevines growing in hot, irrigated vineyard conditions

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Grapevines growing in Australia are often exposed to very high temperatures and the question of how the gas exchange processes adjust to these conditions is not well understood. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis and transpiration in relation to temperature to quantify the impact of the growing conditions on vine performance. Methodology Leaf gas exchange was measured along the grapevine shoots in accordance with their growth and development over several growing seasons. Using a general linear statistical modelling approach, photosynthesis and transpiration were modelled against leaf temperature separated into bands and the model parameters and coefficients applied to independent datasets to validate the model. Principal results Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance varied along the shoot, with early emerging leaves having the highest rates, but these declined as later emerging leaves increased their gas exchange capacities in accordance with development. The general linear modelling approach applied to these data revealed that photosynthesis at each temperature was additively dependent on stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration and photon flux density. The temperature-dependent coefficients for these parameters applied to other datasets gave a predicted rate of photosynthesis that was linearly related to the measured rates, with a 1 : 1 slope. Temperature-dependent transpiration was multiplicatively related to stomatal conductance and the leaf to air vapour pressure deficit and applying the coefficients also showed a highly linear relationship, with a 1 : 1 slope between measured and modelled rates, when applied to independent datasets. Conclusions The models developed for the grapevines were relatively simple but accounted for much of the seasonal variation in photosynthesis and transpiration. The goodness of fit in each case demonstrated that explicitly selecting leaf temperature as a model parameter

  4. Flowering as the Most Highly Sensitive Period of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria Dieback Agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences. PMID:24886812

  5. Flowering as the most highly sensitive period of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria dieback agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata infection.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-05-30

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences.

  6. Xylem Structure and Connectivity in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Shoots Provides a Passive Mechanism for the Spread of Bacteria in Grape Plants

    PubMed Central

    CHATELET, DAVID S.; MATTHEWS, MARK A.; ROST, THOMAS L.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Bacterial leaf scorch occurring in a number of economically important plants is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). In grapevine, Xf systemic infection causes Pierce's disease and is lethal. Traditional dogma is that Xf movement between vessels requires the digestion of inter-vessel pit membranes. However, Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) (a bacterium found in animals) and fluorescent beads moved rapidly within grapevine xylem from stem into leaf lamina, suggesting open conduits consisting of long, branched xylem vessels for passive movement. This study builds on and expands previous observations on the nature of these conduits and how they affect Xf movement. • Methods Air, latex paint and green fluorescence protein (GFP)-Xf were loaded into leaves and followed to confirm and identify these conduits. Leaf xylem anatomy was studied to determine the basis for the free and sometimes restricted movement of Ye, beads, air, paint and GFP-Xf into the lamina. • Key Results Reverse loading experiments demonstrated that long, branched xylem vessels occurred exclusively in primary xylem. They were observed in the stem for three internodes before diverging into mature leaves. However, this stem—leaf connection was an age-dependent character and was absent for the first 10–12 leaves basal to the apical meristem. Free movement in leaf blade xylem was cell-type specific with vessels facilitating movement in the body of the blade and tracheids near the leaf margin. Air, latex paint and GFP-Xf all moved about 50–60 % of the leaf length. GFP-Xf was never observed close to the leaf margin. • Conclusions The open vessels of the primary xylem offered unimpeded long distance pathways bridging stem to leaves, possibly facilitating the spread of bacterial pathogens in planta. GFP-Xf never reached the leaf margins where scorching appeared, suggesting a signal targeting specific cells or a toxic build-up at hydathodes. PMID

  7. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms.

  8. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation.

  9. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process.

  10. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Pascual; Dodd, Ian C.; Martinez-Cutillas, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year−1); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year−1); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year−1). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling. PMID:22451721

  11. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pascual; Dodd, Ian C; Martinez-Cutillas, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year(-1)); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year(-1)); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year(-1)). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling.

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of Vitis vinifera leaf tissues showing atypical symptoms of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Vecchione, A; Zulini, L; Pertot, I

    2005-01-01

    In an abandoned farm in Tuscany a year by year regression of downy mildew disease on grapevines was observed and a decrease in virulence as well as vigor and fertility of the causal fungus, Plasmopara viticola. Anomalous spots of the fungus (i.e. atypical coloration of leaves or mosaic) on leaf tissues of a sensitive Vitis vinifera grapevine were observed. The anomalous symptoms were often associated with the typical 'oil spots' and were present under environmental conditions favourable for a normal development of the disease. An ultrastructural study was carried out on leaf tissues of grapevine plants aimed at clarifying the cause of this phenomenon and detecting whether there were alterations in P. viticola mycelium and endophytes present. ELISA was also performed to check the presence of grapevine viruses in the plants. TEM results demonstrated that characteristic P. viticola was present in leaf samples showing oil spots, while, both the fungus and the host tissues showed cytological alterations in leaves with mosaic symptoms. Finally, hyphae were absent in leaf tissues without downy mildew spots, but showing severe ultrastructural modifications. Several plant virus infections were found in these grapevines. Literature reports that the development and sporulation of some phytopathogenic fungi inside their hosts can be limited by virus infections. Further experimental approaches are required to determine if resistance to P. viticola can be induced by viral infections in grapevines.

  13. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8’-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0–2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  14. Nondestructive diagnostic test for nitrogen nutrition of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) based on dualex leaf-clip measurements in the field.

    PubMed

    Cerovic, Zoran G; Ghozlen, Naïma Ben; Milhade, Charlotte; Obert, Mickaël; Debuisson, Sébastien; Le Moigne, Marine

    2015-04-15

    Crop nitrogen status is a major issue for crop yield and quality. It is usually assessed by destructive leaf or petiole tissue analysis. A quantitative nondestructive optical estimation of N sufficiency would be a great leap forward toward precision crop management. We therefore calibrated three optical indices against leaf nitrogen content: chlorophyll (Chl), epidermal flavonols, and the nitrogen balance index (NBI), which is the ratio of the former two indices. NBI was the best estimator of leaf N content measured by the Dumas or Kjeldahl method with a root-mean-square error smaller than 2 mg of N g(-1) dry weight, followed by Chl (3 mg g(-1)) and flavonols (4 mg g(-1)). This allowed us to propose the threshold values for the Dualex optical indices that characterize nitrogen supply to grapevines: the first is the threshold below which N supply to the vine can be considered deficient, and the second is the threshold above which N supply is excessive. For a putative optimal N content of 30 mg g(-1) < x < 40 mg g(-1), these thresholds are 30 μg cm(-2) < x < 40 μg cm(-2) for Chl and 11 < x < 18 for NBI at flowering. At bunch closure, for N thresholds of 22 < x < 32, Chl is 29 < x < 37 and NBI is 8 < x < 11, in respective units. These values should be verified and refined in the future for various growth regions and cultivars using the specified protocol. The sample size should be 36-60 leaves from a fixed node position, preferably node no. 5 from the tip of the shoot. An alternative to the use of the NBI would be to discard leaves that are not light exposed by checking their flavonol content and to deduce the N sufficiency directly from the Chl values.

  15. Proteomic analysis indicates massive changes in metabolism prior to the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Grant R; Van Sluyter, Steve C; Hopper, Daniel W; Pascovici, Dana; Keighley, Tim; Haynes, Paul A

    2013-03-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were exposed to a progressive, increasing water defict over 16 days. Shoot elongation and photosynthesis were measured for physiological responses to water deficit. The effect of water deficit over time on the abundance of individual proteins in growing shoot tips (including four immature leaves) was analyzed using nanoflow liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Water deficit progressively decreased shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis after Day 4; 2277 proteins were identified by shotgun proteomics with an average CV of 9% for the protein abundance of all proteins. There were 472 out of 942 (50%) proteins found in all samples that were significantly affected by water deficit. The 472 proteins were clustered into four groups: increased and decreased abundance of early- and late-responding protein profiles. Vines sensed the water deficit early, appearing to acclimate to stress, because the abundance of many proteins changed before decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Predominant functional categories of the early-responding proteins included photosynthesis, glycolysis, translation, antioxidant defense and growth-related categories (steroid metabolism and water transport), whereas additional proteins for late-responding proteins were largely involved with transport, photorespiration, antioxidants, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Proteomic responses to water deficit were dynamic with early, significant changes in abundance of proteins involved in translation, energy, antioxidant defense and steroid metabolism. The abundance of these proteins changed prior to any detectable decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Many of these early-responding proteins are known to be regulated by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation. The proteomics analysis indicates massive and substantial changes in plant

  16. Proteomic analysis indicates massive changes in metabolism prior to the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were exposed to a progressive, increasing water defict over 16 days. Shoot elongation and photosynthesis were measured for physiological responses to water deficit. The effect of water deficit over time on the abundance of individual proteins in growing shoot tips (including four immature leaves) was analyzed using nanoflow liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Results Water deficit progressively decreased shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis after Day 4; 2277 proteins were identified by shotgun proteomics with an average CV of 9% for the protein abundance of all proteins. There were 472 out of 942 (50%) proteins found in all samples that were significantly affected by water deficit. The 472 proteins were clustered into four groups: increased and decreased abundance of early- and late-responding protein profiles. Vines sensed the water deficit early, appearing to acclimate to stress, because the abundance of many proteins changed before decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Predominant functional categories of the early-responding proteins included photosynthesis, glycolysis, translation, antioxidant defense and growth-related categories (steroid metabolism and water transport), whereas additional proteins for late-responding proteins were largely involved with transport, photorespiration, antioxidants, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions Proteomic responses to water deficit were dynamic with early, significant changes in abundance of proteins involved in translation, energy, antioxidant defense and steroid metabolism. The abundance of these proteins changed prior to any detectable decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Many of these early-responding proteins are known to be regulated by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation. The proteomics analysis indicates massive and

  17. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. Results An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages. One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. Conclusions The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process. PMID:21171999

  18. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus.

  19. Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Herbert, K S; Umina, P A; Mitrovski, P J; Powell, K S; Viduka, K; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). The distribution and frequency of phylloxera clone lineages vary within infested regions of Australia, suggesting the introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae with host associations. Virulence levels of particular phylloxera clones may vary on V. vinifera, but much of this evidence is indirect. In this study, we directly tested the performance of phylloxera clones on V. vinifera using an established excised root assay and a new glasshouse vine assessment. In the root assay, grape phylloxera clones differed in egg production and egg to adult survivorship. In the vine assay, clones differed in the number of immature and adult life stages on roots. In addition vine characteristics, including mean stem weight, root weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area, were affected by different phylloxera clones. The two most widespread clones displayed high levels of virulence. These results point to only some phylloxera clones being highly virulent on V. vinifera, helping to explain patterns of field damage, phylloxera distributions and continued survival and production of V. vinifera vines in some infested areas.

  20. The comparative analysis of the potential relationship between resveratrol and stilbene synthase gene family in the development stages of grapes (Vitis quinquangularis and Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangli; He, Mingyang; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Huan; Ding, Jiahua; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; He, Jing; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is positively correlated with grapevine disease resistance and its consumption is also highly beneficial to human health. HPLC analyses showed that resveratrol content was significantly higher in most wild Chinese grapevines than in most European Vitis vinifera grapevine cvs. Fruit of the wild Chinese genotype Vitis quinquangularis Danfeng-2 contains much higher levels of resveratrol than some others. Because stilbene synthase is responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, 41 full-length stilbene synthase genes were isolated from Danfeng-2 using the RACE method. A neighbor-joining tree of the STS family displayed high similarity between Danfeng-2 and V. vinifera cv. Pinot Noir. The content of the endogenous stilbene synthase family in tissues and the expression levels induced by powdery mildew were both higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Moreover, expression in the berry was significantly higher than in the leaves. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol accumulation was consistent with endogenous STS gene expressions, and that both were higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Therefore, STS genes and producing resveratrol from V. quinquangularis played more important role in Vitis resistance. Otherwise, the gene VqSTS6 was markedly higher than the other VqSTS genes in the six tissues/organs assayed by Real-time PCR, which will offer a useful basis for commercial application of resveratrol from Chinese wild grapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. germplasm by high-throughput Vitis18kSNP array: the case of Georgian genetic resources.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Chipashvili, Ramaz; Failla, Osvaldo; Maghradze, David

    2015-06-23

    Georgia, in the Caucasian region, is considered the first domestication centre of grapevine. This country is characterized by high morphological variability of cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa (DC.) Hegi) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Hegi) compartments. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of genetic diversity obtained by the novel custom Vitis18kSNP array, in order to analyse 71 grapevine accessions representative of wild and cultivated Georgian germplasms. The number of loci successfully amplified was 15,317 out of 18,775 SNP and 79 % of loci resulted polymorphic. Sixty-eight unique profiles were identified, 42 for the sativa and 26 for the sylvestris compartment. Cluster analysis highlighted two main groups, one for cultivars and another for wild individuals, while a genetic structure according to accession taxonomic status and cultivar geographical origin was revealed by multivariate analysis, differentiating clearly the genotypes into 3 main groups, two groups including cultivars and one for wild individuals, even though a considerable overlapping area was observed. Pattern of genetic diversity structure presented an additional proof that grapevine domestication events took place in the Caucasian region contributing to the crop evolution. Our results demonstrated a moderate differentiation between sativa and sylvestris compartments, even though a connection between several samples of both subspecies may be assumed for the occurrence of cross hybridization events among native wild populations and the cultivated accessions. Nevertheless, first degree relationships have not been discovered between wild and cultivated individuals.

  2. Dissecting the transcriptional response to elicitors in Vitis vinifera cells.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Lorena; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production.

  3. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  4. Patterns of sequence polymorphism in the fleshless berry locus in cultivated and wild Vitis vinifera accessions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unlike in tomato, little is known about the genetic and molecular control of fleshy fruit development of perennial fruit trees like grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Here we present the study of the sequence polymorphism in a 1 Mb grapevine genome region at the top of chromosome 18 carrying the fleshless berry mutation (flb) in order, first to identify SNP markers closely linked to the gene and second to search for possible signatures of domestication. Results In total, 62 regions (17 SSR, 3 SNP, 1 CAPS and 41 re-sequenced gene fragments) were scanned for polymorphism along a 3.4 Mb interval (85,127-3,506,060 bp) at the top of the chromosome 18, in both V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay and a genotype carrying the flb mutation, V. vinifera cv. Ugni Blanc mutant. A nearly complete homozygosity in Ugni Blanc (wild and mutant forms) and an expected high level of heterozygosity in Chardonnay were revealed. Experiments using qPCR and BAC FISH confirmed the observed homozygosity. Under the assumption that flb could be one of the genes involved into the domestication syndrome of grapevine, we sequenced 69 gene fragments, spread over the flb region, representing 48,874 bp in a highly diverse set of cultivated and wild V. vinifera genotypes, to identify possible signatures of domestication in the cultivated V. vinifera compartment. We identified eight gene fragments presenting a significant deviation from neutrality of the Tajima's D parameter in the cultivated pool. One of these also showed higher nucleotide diversity in the wild compartments than in the cultivated compartments. In addition, SNPs significantly associated to berry weight variation were identified in the flb region. Conclusions We observed the occurrence of a large homozygous region in a non-repetitive region of the grapevine otherwise highly-heterozygous genome and propose a hypothesis for its formation. We demonstrated the feasibility to apply BAC FISH on the very small grapevine chromosomes and provided

  5. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Fruit and Leave Extracts from Virus Infected and Healthy Cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esfahanian, Zahra; Behbahani, Mandana; Shanehsaz, Mehrnaz; Hessami, Mohammad Javad; Nejatian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Grape virus diseases are a serious problem in Iran. Leaves and fruits of grape have been used for different purposes like cooking in Iran. The present investigation was carried out to study on the cytotoxic-activities of extracts of fruits and leaves of Vitis vinifera from both virus-free and virus-infected grape cultivars against breast cancer cell line (MDAMB- 231) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK 293). IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, THE CONSIDERED GRAPE CULTIVARS WERE AS FOLLOWS: Rish Baba Sefid, Shahani Ghasre Shirin, Rotabi Zarghan, Asgari Najaf Abad, Fars, Kaj Angor Bojnord, Sarkesh Shiraz and Siahe Zarqan. A real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (real-time Multiplex PCR) assay was applied to detect virus infected cultivars. The cytotoxic effect of the methanol extracts of different Vitis vinifera varieties on cultured cells was monitored using (3- (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 μg mL(-1)). Among these cultivars, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) along with related symptoms was detected in Siahe Zarqan and Fars. Methanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Vitis vinifera from both virus free and virus infected cultivars showed a range of limited to moderate cytotoxic activity. However, methanol extract of leaves belonged to virus infected cultivars was found to have strong cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-231 at different concentrations. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) can potentially increase the cytotoxicity of grape cultivars.

  6. Distribution of YLOID in soil-grapevine system (Vitis vinifera L.) as tool for geographical characterization of agro-food products. A two years case study on different grafting combinations.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Tutone, Livia; Saiano, Filippo

    2017-04-15

    The knowledge of a chemistry relationship between the soil and the agricultural products is an important tool for the quality assessment of food. We studied YLOID (Y, La and lanthanoids), recognized as very useful tracers due their coherent and predictable behavior, to trace and evaluate their distribution from soil to the grape in Vitis vinifera L. Because much of the world's viticulture is based on grafting, and rootstocks have proved affect vine growth, yield, fruit and wine quality, we carried out experimental trials to analyse the YLOID distribution of two different red cultivars, grafted onto six different rootstocks, on the same soil. The YLOID amounts, the relationship Heavy vs Light YLOID and the pattern of YLOID were calculated. The results showed that the different grafting combinations were not able to induce significant differences in YLOID uptake from the soil maintaining the same fingerprint (with the exception of Eu).

  7. Proteome and transcript analysis of Vitis vinifera cell cultures subjected to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    PubMed

    Dadakova, K; Havelkova, M; Kurkova, B; Tlolkova, I; Kasparovsky, T; Zdrahal, Z; Lochman, J

    2015-04-24

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine resulting in significant reductions in yield and fruit quality. In order to examine the molecular mechanisms that characterize the interaction between B. cinerea and the host plant, the grapevine cytoplasmic proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The interaction between Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cells and B. cinerea was characterized by the increase in spot abundance of 30 proteins, of which 21 were successfully identified. The majority of these proteins were related to defence and stress responses and to cell wall modifications. Some of the modulated proteins have been previously found to be affected by other pathogens when they infect V. vinifera but interestingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were influenced by B. cinerea have not been shown to be modulated by any other pathogen studied to date. Transcript analysis using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction additionally revealed the up-regulation of several acidic, probably extracellular, chitinases. The results indicate that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are likely to be important mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Although gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine, little information is available about proteomic changes in this pathosystem. These results suggest that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are important molecular mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Surprisingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were modulated by B. cinerea have not been shown to be affected by any other pathogen studied to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  9. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  10. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard.

    PubMed

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  11. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

    PubMed Central

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant. PMID:28855895

  12. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of grapevine leaf extract (Vitis vinifera) in mice and identification of its active constituents by LC-MS/MS analyses.

    PubMed

    Aouey, Bakhta; Samet, Amira Mahjoubi; Fetoui, Hamadi; Simmonds, Monique S J; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    The leaves of Vitis vinifera is used in traditional medicine for diarrhea, hepatitis and stomachaches. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Vitis vinifera (EVV) on experimental models to provide scientific basis for its use. The EVV was chemically characterized by LC-MS/MS analyses. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the EVV extract were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing and formalin test in mice, anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw oedema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice, and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats were evaluated at 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg doses of the extract. The extract (EVV) was found to contain resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, flavone, flavonols, anthocyanin, gallic acid and epicatechin. EVV produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema. EVV at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kgbw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 34.48% (P<0.05), 36.20% (P<0.05), and 41.37% (P<0.05) at 5h after carrageenan injection, respectively. Also EVV extract reduces significantly acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice dose dependently. EVV (100, 200 and 400mg/kgbw) produced significant dose-response analgesic activity in the formalin test. However, the low percentage inhibition (50%) suggests that it is not a centrally acting analgesic. Extract at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg bw, p.o. significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing by 48.15% (p<0.05), 57.97% (p<0.05), and 68.09% (p<0.05), respectively. The extract also caused marked dose-dependent inhibition of formalin-induced pain in the second phase (p<0.05). Statistical

  13. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  15. Characterization of Vitis vinifera NPR1 homologs involved in the regulation of Pathogenesis-Related gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Le Henanff, Gaëlle; Heitz, Thierry; Mestre, Pere; Mutterer, Jerôme; Walter, Bernard; Chong, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background Grapevine protection against diseases needs alternative strategies to the use of phytochemicals, implying a thorough knowledge of innate defense mechanisms. However, signalling pathways and regulatory elements leading to induction of defense responses have yet to be characterized in this species. In order to study defense response signalling to pathogens in Vitis vinifera, we took advantage of its recently completed genome sequence to characterize two putative orthologs of NPR1, a key player in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance to biotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Two cDNAs named VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 were isolated from Vitis vinifera cv Chardonnay, encoding proteins showing 55% and 40% identity to Arabidopsis NPR1 respectively. Constitutive expression of VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 monitored in leaves of V. vinifera cv Chardonnay was found to be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole, a SA analog. In contrast, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 transcript levels were not affected during infection of resistant Vitis riparia or susceptible V. vinifera with Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew, suggesting regulation of VvNPR1 activity at the protein level. VvNPR1.1-GFP and VvNPR1.2-GFP fusion proteins were transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, where they localized predominantly to the nucleus. In this system, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 expression was sufficient to trigger the accumulation of acidic SA-dependent Pathogenesis-Related proteins PR1 and PR2, but not of basic chitinases (PR3) in the absence of pathogen infection. Interestingly, when VvNPR1.1 or AtNPR1 were transiently overexpressed in Vitis vinifera leaves, the induction of grapevine PR1 was significantly enhanced in response to P. viticola. Conclusion In conclusion, our data identified grapevine homologs of NPR1, and their functional analysis showed that VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 likely control the expression of SA-dependent defense genes

  16. Determination and imaging of metabolites from Vitis vinifera leaves by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Gregory; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Maunit, Benoît; Frache, Gilles; Merdinoglu, Didier; Muller, Jean-François

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of grapevine phytoalexins at the surface of Vitis vinifera leaves has been achieved by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToFMS) without matrix deposition. This simple and rapid sampling method was successfully applied to map small organic compounds at the surface of grapevine leaves. It was also demonstrated that the laser wavelength is a highly critical parameter. Both 266 and 337 nm laser wavelengths were used but the 266 nm wavelength gave increased spatial resolution and better sensitivity for the detection of the targeted metabolites (resveratrol and linked stilbene compounds). Mass spectrometry imaging of grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon leaves revealed specific locations with respect to Plasmopara viticola pathogen infection or light illumination.

  17. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  18. Reference gene validation for quantitative RT-PCR during biotic and abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies.

  19. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  20. Procedure for collecting and packaging grapevine samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine yellows (GY) is a term that is used to refer to any of several diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that are caused by phytoplasmas. Around the globe, diverse ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species cause indistinguishable disease symptoms in V. vinifera and are spread by different species of ...

  1. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  2. Characterization of expression dynamics of WOX homeodomain transcription factors during somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Minuto, Martina; Boccacci, Paolo; Perrone, Irene; Vallania, Rosalina; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Different cultivars of Vitis vinifera vary in their potential to form embryogenic tissues. The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) genes have been shown to play an important role in coordinating the gene transcription involved in the early phases of embryogenesis. The expression dynamics of 12 VvWOX genes present in the V. vinifera genome in embryogenic and other tissues of 'Chardonnay' were analysed. In order to understand the influence of WOX genes on the somatic embryogenic process, their expression profiles were compared in two cultivars of V. vinifera ('Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon') that show different aptitudes for embryogenesis. The expression of all VvWOX genes was influenced by culture conditions. VvWOX2 and VvWOX9 were the principal WOX genes expressed during the somatic embryogenesis process, and the low aptitude for embryogenesis of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was generally correlated with the low expression levels of these VvWOX genes. VvWOX3 and VvWOX11 were strongly activated in correspondence to torpedo and cotyledonary stages of somatic embryos, with low expression in the earlier developmental stages (pre-embryogenic masses and globular embryos) and during embryo germination. VvWOX genes appeared to be key regulators of somatic embryogenesis in grapevine, and the regulation of these genes during early phases of somatic embryogenesis differed between the two cultivars of the same species.

  3. Allometric Relationships to Estimate Seasonal Above‐ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    CASTELAN‐ESTRADA, M.; VIVIN, P.; GAUDILLlÈRE, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure is described for obtaining allometric regression equations to estimate non‐destructively and in a cost‐effective manner the current year’s above‐ground vegetative and reproductive biomass of Vitis vinifera L. ‘Merlot’ throughout the growing season. Significant relationships were obtained over a 3‐year period (1998–2000) between the dimensions of an individual shoot per vine (i.e. diameter and length) and dry weights of its primary stem, primary leaves and lateral growth. The dry mass of a grape was best estimated from measurements of the basal diameter of the bunch peduncle. Introducing cumulative degree‐days as an additional explanatory variable in the equations allowed them to be used irrespective of year and growth stage. Multi‐year regressions were used to quantify in detail the seasonal evolution of mature grapevine biomass under the climatic conditions of the Bordeaux area, France, and for differing levels of soil nitrogen. PMID:12096800

  4. Chitosan improves development, and protects Vitis vinifera L. against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ait Barka, E; Eullaffroy, P; Clément, C; Vernet, G

    2004-03-01

    We evaluated the potential of chitosan both to stimulate plant development and to induce protection from Botrytis cinerea in Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. The presence of 1.75% (v/v) chitogel in the culture medium was the optimal concentration for in vitro grapevine plantlet growth, as determined by measurements on enhancement of root and shoot biomass. Photosynthesis and related parameters were also stimulated in chitogel-treated plantlets. Chitogel reduced the development of Botrytis cinerea and induced cytological alterations to the pathogen. When challenged with the fungus, a significant decrease in disease incidence was observed in plants growing on medium supplemented with chitogel. Furthermore, exogenous foliar applications of chitogel to plantlets growing on chitogel-free medium sensitized them so as to be protected against Botrytis cinerea attack. Our results indicate that chitogel can be used in the vineyard as a means to attain protection against Botrytis cinerea and that its application may counteract the wide use of chemical pesticides.

  5. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  6. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence.

  7. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the ‘PN40024’ reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops. PMID:28125640

  8. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Marrano, Annarita; Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the 'PN40024' reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops.

  9. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingzhen; Labate, Joanne A; Liang, Zhenchang; Cousins, Peter; Prins, Bernard; Preece, John E; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Zhong, Gan-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Wild and loss-of-function alleles of the 5 - O - glucosyltransferase gene responsible for synthesis of diglucoside anthocyanins in Vitis were characterized. The information aids marker development for tracking this gene in grape breeding. Anthocyanins in red grapes are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigmented grapes, diglucoside anthocyanins are rarely found in the cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera. Biochemically 3-O-glucoside anthocyanins can be converted into 3,5-di-O-glucoside anthocyanins by a 5-O-glucosyltransferase. In this study, we surveyed allelic variation of the 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene (5GT) in 70 V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars, 52 V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris accessions, 23 Vitis hybrid grapes, and 22 accessions of seven other Vitis species. Eighteen 5GT alleles with apparent loss-of-function mutations, including seven premature stop codon mutations and six frameshift indel mutations, were discovered in V. vinifera, but not in the other Vitis species. A total of 36 5GT alleles without apparent loss-of-function mutations (W-type) were identified. These W-type alleles were predominantly present in wild Vitis species, although a few of them were also found in some V. vinifera accessions. We further evaluated some of these 5GT alleles in producing diglucoside anthocyanins by analyzing the content of diglucoside anthocyanins in a set of representative V. vinifera cultivars. Through haplotype network analysis we revealed that V. vinifera ssp. vinifera and its wild progenitor V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris shared many loss-of-function 5GT alleles and extensive divergence of the 5GT alleles was evident within V. vinifera. This work advances our understanding of the genetic diversity of 5GT and provides a molecular basis for future marker-assisted selection for improving this important wine quality trait.

  10. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  11. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  12. Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2013-06-12

    Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed.

  13. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  14. Vitis vinifera L. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection with High-Resolution Melting Analysis Based on the UDP-Glucose:Flavonoid 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2015-10-21

    Vitis vinifera L. is a species with a large number of varieties, which differ in terms of anthocyanin content. The genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have a direct effect in the anthocyanin profile of each variety, being potentially interesting for varietal identification. The current study aimed at the design of an assay suitable for the discrimination of the largest number of grapevine varieties. Two genes of the anthocyanin pathway, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), were sequenced in 22 grapevine varieties. The CHI gene presented 5 SNPs within the sequence. A total of 58 SNPs and 1 INDEL were found among the UFGT gene, allowing the discrimination of 18 different genotypes within the 22 grapevine varieties. A HRM assay designed for UFGT, containing 704 bp, produced differentiated melting curves for each of the 18 haplotypes. The developed HRM assay is efficient in grapevine varietal discrimination.

  15. Ampelometric Leaf Trait and SSR Loci Selection for a Multivariate Statistical Approach in Vitis vinifera L. Biodiversity Management.

    PubMed

    Alba, Vittorio; Bergamini, Carlo; Genghi, Rosalinda; Gasparro, Marica; Perniola, Rocco; Antonacci, Donato

    2015-08-01

    High estimated heritability values were recently revealed for mature leaf traits in grape (Vitis vinifera L.), thus redeeming ampelography in the era of molecular markers. The "Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV)" set a list of hundreds of descriptors for grapevine in order to standardize ampelographic and ampelometric scores. Therefore, the selection and reduction of the number of OIV codes can represent a major goal for leaner biodiversity assessment studies. The identification of ampelometric traits associated with grape diversity allows to construct Classification Trees with chi squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) algorithm, a stepwise model-fitting method that produces a tree diagram in which at each step the sample pool is splitted based on the independent variables statistically different for the dependent variable. A collection of 100 table and wine grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) was characterized and evaluated by means of six microsatellites and twenty-two ampelometric traits on mature leaves. Nine ampelometric traits were selected by principal component analysis and employed to build the classification trees based on CHAID algorithm. The strategy can represent an effective tool for grape biodiversity management, right allocations, and identification of new grape genotypes, implemented by a further microsatellite investigation only when unsolved cases occur, allowing faster and cheaper results.

  16. In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Craig Robert; McElrone, Andrew Joseph; Choat, Brendan; Lee, Eric Franklin; Shackel, Kenneth Andrew; Matthews, Mark Allen

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance water transport through plant xylem is vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction during periods of increased tension on the xylem sap, often coinciding with drought. While the effects of local and systemic embolism on plant water transport and physiology are well documented, the spatial patterns of embolism formation and spread are not well understood. Using a recently developed nondestructive diagnostic imaging tool, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, we documented the dynamics of drought-induced embolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) plants in vivo, producing the first three-dimensional, high-resolution, time-lapse observations of embolism spread. Embolisms formed first in the vessels surrounding the pith at stem water potentials of approximately –1.2 megapascals in drought experiments. As stem water potential decreased, embolisms spread radially toward the epidermis within sectored vessel groupings via intervessel connections and conductive xylem relays, and infrequently (16 of 629 total connections) through lateral connections into adjacent vessel sectors. Theoretical loss of conductivity calculated from the high-resolution x-ray computed tomography images showed good agreement with previously published nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and hydraulic conductivity experiments also using grapevine. Overall, these data support a growing body of evidence that xylem organization is critically important to the isolation of drought-induced embolism spread and confirm that air seeding through the pit membranes is the principle mechanism of embolism spread. PMID:23463781

  17. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  18. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system.

  19. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause–effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  20. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-02-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause-effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed.

  1. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Navacchi, Oriano; Landi, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless) were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars. PMID:12354328

  2. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Navacchi, Oriano; Landi, Lucia

    2002-09-27

    Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless) were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

  3. Differential expression of chitinases in Vitis vinifera L. responding to systemic acquired resistance activators or fungal challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Busam, G; Kassemeyer, H H; Matern, U

    1997-01-01

    The concept of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) enables a novel approach to crop protection, and particular pathogenesis-related proteins, i.e. an acidic chitinase, have been classified as markers of the SAR response. Basic class I (VCHIT1b) and a class III (VCH3) chitinase cDNAs were cloned from cultured Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir cells and used to probe the induction response of grapevine cells to salicylic acid or yeast elicitor. Furthermore, the cells were treated with the commercial SAR activators 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Elicitor or salicylic acid induced both VCHIT1b and VCH3 transcript abundances, whereas 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester enhanced exclusively the expression of VCH3. To assess the systemic sensation of chitinase expression, single leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir or Vitis rupestris plants were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola spore suspensions, and the VCH3 and VCHIT1b mRNA amounts in the infected versus the adjacent, healthy leaf were monitored. Two VCH3 mRNA maxima were observed 2 and 6 d postinoculation in the infected, susceptible V. vinifera tissue, whereas in the healthy leaf the transcript increased from low levels d 2 postinoculation to prominent levels d 6 to 8 postinoculation. The level of VCH3 mRNA increased also over 4 d in the inoculated, resistant V. rupestris tissue. However, necrotic spots rapidly limited the infection, and the VCH3 transcript was undetectable in the upper-stage, healthy leaf. The expression of VCHIT1b remained negligible under either experimental condition. Overall, the results suggest that the selective expression of VCH3 might be a reliable indicator of the SAR response in V. vinifera L. PMID:9390436

  4. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  5. Characterisation of the Vitis vinifera PR10 multigene family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genes belonging to the pathogenesis related 10 (PR10) group have been studied in several plant species, where they form multigene families. Until now, such an analysis has not been performed in Vitis vinifera, although three different PR10 genes were found to be expressed under pathogen attack or abiotic stress, and during somatic embryogenesis induction. We used the complete genome sequence for characterising the whole V. vinifera PR10 gene family. The expression of candidate genes was studied in various non-treated tissues and following somatic embryogenesis induction by the auxin 2,4-D. Results In addition to the three V. vinifera PR10 genes already described, namely VvPR10.1, VvPR10.2 and VvPR10.3, fourteen different PR10 related sequences were identified. Showing high similarity, they form a single cluster on the chromosome 5 comprising three pseudogenes. The expression of nine different genes was detected in various tissues. Although differentially expressed in non-treated plant organs, several genes were up-regulated in tissues treated with 2,4-D, as expected for PR genes. Conclusions PR10 genes form a multigene family in V. vinifera, as found in birch, apple or peach. Seventeen closely related PR10 sequences are arranged in a tandem array on the chromosome 5, probably reflecting small-scale duplications during evolution. Various expression patterns were found for nine studied genes, highlighting functional diversification. A phylogenetic comparison of deduced proteins with PR10 proteins of other plants showed a characteristic low intraspecific variability. Particularly, a group of seven close tandem duplicates including VvPR10.1, VvPR10.2 and VvPR10.3 showed a very high similarity, suggesting concerted evolution or/and recent duplications. PMID:20727162

  6. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  7. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic ('seedless') table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Compatible GLRaV-3 viral infections affect berry ripening decreasing sugar accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Vega, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Cramer, Grant R; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-10-01

    Virus infections in grapevine cause important economic losses and affect fruit quality worldwide. Although the phenotypic symptoms associated to viral infections have been described, the molecular plant response triggered by virus infection is still poorly understood in Vitis vinifera. As a first step to understand the fruit changes and mechanisms involved in the compatible grapevine-virus interaction, we analyzed the berry transcriptome in two stages of development in the red wine cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon infected with Grapevine leaf-roll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3). Analysis of global gene expression patterns indicate incomplete berry maturation in infected berries as compared to uninfected fruit suggesting viral infection interrupts the normal berry maturation process. Genes with altered expression in berries harvested from GLRaV-3-infected vines as compared to uninfected tissue include anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism genes. The reduction in transcript accumulation for sugar and anthocyanin metabolism during fruit development is consistent with a dramatic reduction in anthocyanin biosynthesis as well as reduced sugar levels in berries, a hallmark phenotypic change observed in virus infected grapevines. Analysis of key regulatory factors provides a mechanism for the observed gene expression changes. Our results provide insight into commonly observed phenotypic alterations in virus infected vines and the molecular mechanisms associated with the plant response to the virus during berry ripening.

  9. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Medici, Anna; Jeauffre, Julien; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Lemoine, Rémi; Atanassova, Rossitza; Laloi, Maryse

    2010-11-12

    In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar transporter gene families in

  10. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar

  11. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  12. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves unravel possible innate resistance against pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Andreia; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Ferreira, Silvia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Choi, Young Hae; Sousa, Lisete; Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Pessoa, Fernando; Verpoorte, Robert; Pais, Maria Salomé

    2008-01-01

    Grapevine species (Vitis sp.) are prone to several diseases, fungi being the major pathogens compromising its cultivation and economic profit around the world. Knowledge of the complexity of mechanisms responsible for resistance to fungus infection of cultivars, such as Regent, is necessary for strategies to be defined which will improve resistance in highly susceptible crop species. Transcript and metabolic profiles of the Vitis vinifera cultivars Regent and Trincadeira (resistant and susceptible to fungi, respectively) were analysed by cDNA microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The integration of datasets obtained through transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed differences in transcripts and metabolites between both cultivars. These differences are probably associated with the innate resistance of Regent towards the mildews. Several transcripts related to stress and defence, namely a subtilisin-like protease, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase, WD-repeat protein like, and J2P, were up-regulated in Regent suggesting an intrinsic resistance capability of this cultivar. A metabolic profile revealed an accumulation of compounds such as inositol and caffeic acid, which are known to confer resistance to fungi. The differences in transcripts and metabolites detected are discussed in terms of the metabolic pathways and their possible role in plant defence against pathogen attack, as well as their potential interest to discriminate among resistant and susceptible grapevine cultivars.

  13. Relative Susceptibility of Vitis vinifera Cultivars to Vector-Borne Xylella fastidiosa through Time

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce’s disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols. PMID:23424629

  14. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-ε-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest.

  15. QTL analysis for fruit yield components in table grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Fanizza, G; Lamaj, F; Costantini, L; Chaabane, R; Grando, M S

    2005-08-01

    A segregation population of 184 genotypes derived from a pseudo-testcross of table grapes (Vitis vinifera), together with 203 AFLP and 110 SSR markers was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit yield components. Diffferent QTLs, a low percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the QTLs detected and QTL instability over years were detected for each fruit yield component. These results confirm the complex genetic architecture of the yield components in grapevine due to the perennial nature of this species, which has to adapt to yearly variations in climate. Phenotypic correlation analyses between fruit yield components were also performed. The negative correlation between berry weight and the number of berries per cluster seems to have an indirect negative effect on cluster weight, as revealed by the path coefficient analysis; however, this negative correlation was not supported at the molecular level because no coincident QTLs were observed between these traits. Nonetheless, the possibility to select seedless genotypes with large berries without affecting cluster weight needs to be substantiated in future experiments because factors such as sample size and heritability might influence QTL identification in table grapes.

  16. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  17. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols.

  19. Vitis vinifera root and leaf metabolic composition during fruit maturation: implications of defoliation.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Gerhard C; Orchard, Beverley A; Šuklje, Katja; Smith, Jason P; Barril, Celia; Deloire, Alain; Holzapfel, Bruno P

    2017-07-10

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) roots and leaves represent major carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) sources, either as recent assimilates, or mobilized from labile or storage pools. This study examined the response of root and leaf primary metabolism following defoliation treatments applied to fruiting vines during ripening. The objective was to link alterations in root and leaf metabolism to carbohydrate and N source functioning under conditions of increased fruit sink demand. Potted grapevine leaf area was adjusted near the start of véraison to 25 primary leaves per vine compared to 100 leaves for the control. An additional group of vines were completely defoliated. Fruit sugar and N content development was assessed, and root and leaf starch and N concentrations determined. An untargeted GC/MS approach was undertaken to evaluate root and leaf primary metabolite concentrations. Partial and full defoliation increased root carbohydrate source contribution towards berry sugar accumulation, evident through starch remobilization. Furthermore, root myo-inositol metabolism played a distinct role during carbohydrate remobilization. Full defoliation induced shikimate pathway derived aromatic amino acid accumulation in roots, while arginine accumulated after full and partial defoliation. Likewise, various leaf amino acids accumulated after partial defoliation. These results suggest elevated root and leaf amino N source activity when leaf N availability is restricted during fruit ripening. Overall, this study provides novel information regarding the impact of leaf source restriction, on metabolic compositions of major carbohydrate and N sources during berry maturation. These results enhance the understanding of source organ carbon and N metabolism during fruit maturation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures.

    PubMed

    Tisserant, Leo-Paul; Aziz, Aziz; Jullian, Nathalie; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2016-12-10

    Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs) improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW) in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  1. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  2. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-03-30

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: 'Chardonnay' (CH) and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine.

  3. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: ‘Chardonnay’ (CH) and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine. PMID:28358354

  4. Structure and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins having putative Rubisco activase function from Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Rubisco is a very large, complex and one of the most abundant proteins in the world and comprises up to 50% of all soluble protein in plants. The activity of Rubisco, the enzyme that catalyzes CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis, is regulated by Rubisco activase (Rca). In the present study, we searched for hypothetical protein of Vitis vinifera which has putative Rubisco activase function. The Arabidopsis and tobacco Rubisco activase protein sequences were used as seed sequences to search against Vitis vinifera in UniprotKB database. The selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera were subjected to sequence, structural and functional annotation. Subcellular localization predictions suggested it to be cytoplasmic protein. Homology modelling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera. Template search revealed that all the hypothetical proteins share more than 80% sequence identity with structure of green-type Rubisco activase from tobacco, indicating proteins are evolutionary conserved. The homology modelling was generated using SWISS-MODEL. Several quality assessment and validation parameters computed indicated that homology models are reliable. Further, functional annotation through PFAM, CATH, SUPERFAMILY, CDART suggested that selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera contain ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) and belong to the AAA+ super family of ring-shaped P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases. This study will lead to research in the optimization of the functionality of Rubisco which has large implication in the improvement of plant productivity and resource use efficiency.

  5. Haplotype diversity of VvTFL1A gene and association with cluster traits in grapevine (V. vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction between TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and LEAFY (LFY) seem to determine the inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis. In a parallel way, overexpression of VvTFL1A, a grapevine TFL1 homolog, causes delayed flowering and production of a ramose cluster in the reiterated reproductive meristem (RRM) somatic variant of cultivar Carignan. To analyze the possible contribution of this gene to cluster phenotypic variation in a diversity panel of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera) its nucleotide diversity was characterized and association analyses among detected sequence polymorphisms and phenology and cluster traits was carried out. Results A total of 3.6 kb of the VvTFL1A gene, including its promoter, was sequenced in a core collection of 140 individuals designed to maximize phenotypic variation at agronomical relevant traits. Nucleotide variation for VvTFL1A within this collection was higher in the promoter and intron sequences than in the exon regions; where few polymorphisms were located in agreement with a high conservation of coding sequence. Characterization of the VvTFL1A haplotype network identified three major haplogroups, consistent with the geographic origins and the use of the cultivars that could correspond to three major ancestral alleles or evolutionary branches, based on the existence of mutations in linkage disequilibrium. Genetic association studies with cluster traits revealed the presence of major INDEL polymorphisms, explaining 16%, 13% and 25% of flowering time, cluster width and berry weight, respectively, and also structuring the three haplogroups. Conclusions At least three major VvTFL1A haplogroups are present in cultivated grapevines, which are defined by the presence of three main polymorphism LD blocks and associated to characteristic phenotypic values for flowering time, cluster width and berry size. Phenotypic differences between haplogroups are consistent with differences observed between Eastern and

  6. Reference gene selection and validation for the early responses to downy mildew infection in susceptible and resistant Vitis vinifera cultivars.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Filipa; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pais, Maria Salomé; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2013-01-01

    The pivotal role of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in many countries economy is compromised by its high susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. Recent research has identified a set of genes related to resistance which may be used to track downy mildew infection. Quantification of the expression of these resistance genes requires normalizing qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied. In this study, a set of eleven genes (VATP16, 60 S, UQCC, SMD3, EF1α, UBQ, SAND, GAPDH, ACT, PsaB, PTB2) was evaluated to identify reference genes during the first hours of interaction (6, 12, 18 and 24 hpi) between two V. vinifera genotypes and P. viticola. Two analyses were used for the selection of reference genes: direct comparison of susceptible, Trincadeira, and resistant, Regent, V. vinifera cultivars at 0 h, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post inoculation with P. viticola (genotype effect); and comparison of each genotype with mock inoculated samples during inoculation time-course (biotic stress effect). Three statistical methods were used, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, allowing to identify UBQ, EF1α and GAPDH as the most stable genes for the genotype effect. For the biotic stress effect, EF1α, SAND and SMD3 were the most constant for the susceptible cultivar Trincadeira and EF1α, GAPDH, UBQ for the resistant cultivar Regent. In addition, the expression of three defense-related transcripts, encoding for subtilisin-like protein, CYP and PR10, was analysed, for both datasets, during inoculation time-course. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection towards a more accurate and widespread use of qPCR to study the first hours of interaction between different grapevine cultivars and P. viticola.

  7. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  8. Polyphenol glucosylating activity in cell suspensions of grape (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Mark N; Murphy, Terence M

    2004-06-02

    Stilbenes are phenolic molecules that have antifungal effects in the plant and antioxidant and anti-cancer effects when consumed in the human diet. Glycosylation of stilbenes increases their solubility and may make them more easily absorbed by the intestine. We have found an activity in extracts of cultured cells of Vitis vinifera (cv. Gamay Freaux) that glucosylates the stilbene resveratrol to form piceid. The Km for UDP-Glucose was 1.2 mM, and the Km for resveratrol was 0.06 mM, values similar to those of other phenolic glucosyltransferases. We investigated the resveratrol glucosylating activity of the enzyme extracted from cells grown under different light treatments (dark, visible light, light + ultraviolet (UVC) radiation) and found the activity to be unaffected or slightly reduced. In contrast, UVC light strongly stimulated extractable quercetin glucosyltransferase activity. These results, combined with analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from the differently treated cells, suggest that the resveratrol glucosyltransferase is distinct from the glucosyltransferase(s) active on other phenolics.

  9. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Marsoni, Milena; Bracale, Marcella; Espen, Luca; Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Vannini, Candida

    2008-02-01

    Two dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry has been used to study the somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera, by comparing embryogenic and non embryogenic calluses of the Thompson seedless cv. More than 1,000 spots were reproducibly resolved in colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue stained gels over a pI nonlinear range of 3-10 in the first dimension and using homogeneous 12.5% polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. The expression pattern of 35 spots differed significantly between the two samples. These spots were processed by mass spectrometry analysis and the protein identity was assigned by using both the non-redundant protein and EST databases. Several responsive proteins, some already known to be involved in the somatic embryogenesis process while others, for the first time put into relation with this process, have been described. Moreover, they have been subdivided in functional categories, and their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance in the somatic embryogenesis process.

  10. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  11. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deciphering the geographic origins of pathogens and elucidating the population biology of these microscopic organisms are necessary steps to establish effective disease-control strategies. The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To ...

  12. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  13. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  14. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  15. The SSR-based molecular profile of 1005 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions uncovers new synonymy and parentages, and reveals a large admixture amongst varieties of different geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Guido; Spadotto, Alessandro; Jurman, Irena; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Crespan, Manna; Meneghetti, Stefano; Frare, Enrica; Vignani, Rita; Cresti, Mauro; Morgante, Michele; Pezzotti, Mario; Pe, Enrico; Policriti, Alberto; Testolin, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    A collection of 1005 grapevine accessions was genotyped at 34 microsatellite loci (SSR) with the aim of analysing genetic diversity and exploring parentages. The comparison of molecular profiles revealed 200 groups of synonymy. The removal of perfect synonyms reduced the database to 745 unique genotypes, on which population genetic parameters were calculated. The analysis of kinship uncovered 74 complete pedigrees, with both parents identified. Many of these parentages were not previously known and are of considerable historical interest, e.g. Chenin blanc (Sauvignon × Traminer rot), Covè (Harslevelu selfed), Incrocio Manzoni 2-14 and 2-15 (Cabernet franc × Prosecco), Lagrein (Schiava gentile × Teroldego), Malvasia nera of Bolzano (Perera × Schiava gentile), Manzoni moscato (Raboso veronese × Moscato d'Amburgo), Moscato violetto (Moscato bianco × Duraguzza), Muscat of Alexandria (Muscat blanc à petit grain × Axina de tres bias) and others. Statistical robustness of unexpected pedigrees was reinforced with the analysis of an additional 7-30 SSRs. Grouping the accessions by profile resulted in a weak correlation with their geographical origin and/or current area of cultivation, revealing a large admixture of local varieties with those most widely cultivated, as a result of ancient commerce and population flow. The SSRs with tri- to penta-nucleotide repeats adopted for the present study showed a great capacity for discriminating amongst accessions, with probabilities of identity by chance as low as 1.45 × 10(-27) and 9.35 × 10(-12) for unrelated and full sib individuals, respectively. A database of allele frequencies and SSR profiles of 32 reference cultivars are provided.

  16. A strategy to investigate the intravarietal genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. for clones and biotypes identification and to correlate molecular profiles with morphological traits or geographic origins.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Stefano; Calò, Antonio; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2012-09-01

    Grapevine is the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop in the world. Molecular markers have been used on Vitis vinifera to distinguish among both varieties and clones. Microsatellites are used to fingerprint varieties and several other techniques, reported in many papers, are used to analyze the differences among clones, but it is not available in the literature as a well defined strategy to screen a large number of Vitis cultivars. In fact, it is often necessary to use different techniques to investigate the genetic variability in different grapevine varieties and a proposed technique is used to study a cultivar, which is often not suitable for either the study of another cultivar or compare the genetic relationship among various cultivars. We describe here a strategy used for the analysis of several grapevine cultivars to describe a universal method to obtain DNA polymorphisms of Vitis vinifera genotypes from the same cultivar by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), microsatellites AFLP (M-AFLP), and ISSR molecular markers. The strategy here adopted permitted both to identify different biotypes (i.e., Primitivo), accessions (i.e., Garnacha tinta), and clones (i.e., Callet, Manto Negro, Moll) among the variability of same variety and to correlate the genetic differences to their geographical origins (i.e., Garnacha tinta; Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce) or morphological traits (i.e., Malvasia of Candia). Here is also described the application of the protocol that allows to highlight the genetic variability accumulated during centuries of cultivations and selections of the same variety in different environments by vine growers.

  17. Characterization of the ABA signal transduction pathway in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-05-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants including the response to abiotic stress. ABA signal transduction consists of a double-negative regulatory mechanism, whereby ABA-bound PYR/RCARs inhibit PP2C activity, and PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s. We studied and analyzed the various genes participating in the ABA signaling cascade of the grape (Vitis vinifera). The grape ABA signal transduction consists of at least six SnRK2s. Yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between core components of grape ABA signal transduction. We found that a total of forty eight interactions can occur between the various components. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses such as drought, high salt concentration and cold, were applied to vines growing in a hydroponic system. These stresses regulated the expression of various grape SnRK2s as well as ABFs in leaves and roots. Based on the interactions between SnRK2s and its targets and the expression pattern, we suggest that VvSnRK2.1 and VvSnRK2.6, can be considered the major VvSnRK2 candidates involved in the stomata response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, we found that the expression pattern of the two grape ABF genes indicates organ specificity of these genes. The key role of ABA signaling in response to abiotic stresses makes the genes involve in this signaling potential candidates for manipulation in programs designed to improve fruit tree performance in extreme environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal fluctuations in Vitis vinifera root respiration in the field.

    PubMed

    Franck, Nicolás; Morales, Joaquín P; Arancibia-Avendaño, David; de Cortázar, Víctor García; Perez-Quezada, Jorge F; Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Pastenes, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    We studied the seasonal fluctuation of soil respiration (R(S)), and its root-dependent (R(R)) and basal (R(B)) components, in a Vitis vinifera (Chardonnay) vineyard. The R(S) components were estimated through independent field methods (y-intercept and trenching) and modeled on the basis of a Q(10) response to soil temperature, and fine and coarse root respiration coefficients. The effect of assimilate availability on R(R) was assessed through a trunk girdling treatment. The apparent Q(10) for R(R) was twice that of R(B) (3.5 vs 1.6) and increased linearly with increasing vine root biomass. The fastest R(R) of fine roots was during rapid fruit growth and the fastest R(R) of coarse roots was immediately following fruit development. R(S) was estimated at 32.6 kg ha(-1) d(-1) (69% as a result of R(R) ) for the hottest month and at 7.6 kg ha(-1) d(-1) (18% as a result of R(R)) during winter dormancy. Annual R(S) was low compared with other natural and cultivated ecosystems: 5.4 Mg ha(-1) (46% as a result of R(R)). Our estimates of annual vineyard R(S) are the first for any horticultural crop and suggest that the assumption that they are similar to those of annual crops or forest trees might lead to an overestimation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio

    PubMed Central

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F.; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  20. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  1. Tydeid and triophtydeid mites (Acari: Tydeoidea) associated with grapevine (Vitaceae: Vitis spp.) in Brazil, with the descriptions of species of Prelorryia (André, 1980) and Tydeus Koch, 1835.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Rocha, Matheus Dos Santos; Panou, Eleni N; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2014-06-11

    We report on the Tydeidae and Triophtydeidae associated with grapevine (Vitis labrusca L. and Vitis vinifera L.) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and describe a new species of Prelorryia, Prelorryia labrusca sp. nov., and two new species of Tydeus, Tydeus manoi sp. nov. and Tydeus riopardensis sp. nov. Brachytydeus formosa (Cooreman), B. podocarpa (Baker), Neolorryia pandana (Baker), Tydeus californicus (Banks), Pretydeus henriandrei Kaźmierski and Triophtydeus lebruni (André) are recorded and illustrated. A key to species of Tydeidae and Triophtydeidae from Brazil is provided. 

  2. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  3. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  4. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  5. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  6. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  7. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that ...

  8. Transformation of Eutypa dieback and esca disease pathogen toxins by antagonistic fungal strains reveals a second detoxification pathway not present in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Christen, Danilo; Tharin, Manuel; Perrin-Cherioux, Sandrine; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Tabacchi, Raphaël; Défago, Geneviève

    2005-09-07

    Eutypine, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 3-phenyllactic acid are some of the phytotoxins produced by the pathogens causing Eutypa dieback and esca disease, two trunk diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Known biocontrol agents such as Fusarium lateritium and Trichoderma sp. were screened for their ability to consume these toxins. Transformation time courses were performed, and an high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was developed to analyze toxin metabolism and to identify and quantify the converted products. The results show that the aldehyde function of eutypine was reduced to eutypinol, as by V. vinifera cv. Merlot, the cultivar tolerant to Eutypa dieback. We revealed a supplementary detoxification pathway, not known in Merlot, where the aldehyde function was oxidized to eutypinic acid. Moreover, some strains tested could further metabolize the transformation products. Every strain tested could transform 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to the corresponding alcohol and acid, and these intermediates disappeared totally at the end of the time courses. When biological assays on cells of V. vinifera cv. Chasselas were carried out, the transformation products exhibited a lower toxicity than the toxins. The possibility of selecting new biocontrol agents against trunk diseases of grapevine based on microbial detoxification is discussed.

  9. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  10. Flowers regulate the growth and vascular development of the inflorescence rachis in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; McCully, Margaret E; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-11-01

    The rachis, the structural framework of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence (and subsequent bunch), consists of a main axis and one or more orders of lateral branches with the flower-bearing pedicels at their fine tips. The rachis is crucial both for support, and transport from the shoot. Earlier suggestions that the flowers per se affect normal rachis development are investigated further in this study. Different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100) of flowers were removed manually one week before anthesis on field-grown vines. Treatment effects on subsequent rachis development (curvature, vitality, anatomy, starch deposit) were assessed. Sections, both fixed and embedded, and fresh hand-cut were observed by fluorescence and bright-field optics after appropriate staining. Emphasis was on measurement of changes in cross-sectional area of secondary xylem and phloem, and on maturation of fibres and periderm. Specific defects in rachis development were dependent on the percent and location of flower removal one week prior to anthesis. The rachises curved inwards where most of the flowers were removed. When fully de-flowered, they became progressively necrotic from the laterals back to the primary axes and from the distal to the proximal end of those axes, with a concurrent disorganisation of their anatomy. A few remaining groups of flowers prevented desiccation and abscission of the rachis axes proximal to the group, but not distally. Flower removal (50%) reduced rachis elongation, while 75% removal reduced xylem and phloem area and delayed phloem fibre and periderm development. 75% flower removal did not affect starch present in the rachis during berry development. Developing flowers affect the growth and vitality of the rachis and the development of its vascular and support structures. The extent of these effects depends on the cultivar and the number and position of flowers remaining after some are removed one week before anthesis. Copyright © 2016

  11. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  13. Ancestral synteny shared between distantly-related plant species from the asterid (Coffea canephora and Solanum Sp.) and rosid (Vitis vinifera) clades.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Romain; Lefebvre-Pautigny, Florent; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Rigoreau, Michel; Hamon, Perla; Leroy, Thierry; Hamon, Serge; Poncet, Valérie; Crouzillat, Dominique; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2012-03-20

    Coffee trees (Rubiaceae) and tomato (Solanaceae) belong to the Asterid clade, while grapevine (Vitaceae) belongs to the Rosid clade. Coffee and tomato separated from grapevine 125 million years ago, while coffee and tomato diverged 83-89 million years ago. These long periods of divergent evolution should have permitted the genomes to reorganize significantly. So far, very few comparative mappings have been performed between very distantly related species belonging to different clades. We report the first multiple comparison between species from Asterid and Rosid clades, to examine both macro-and microsynteny relationships. Thanks to a set of 867 COSII markers, macrosynteny was detected between coffee, tomato and grapevine. While coffee and tomato genomes share 318 orthologous markers and 27 conserved syntenic segments (CSSs), coffee and grapevine also share a similar number of syntenic markers and CSSs: 299 and 29 respectively. Despite large genome macrostructure reorganization, several large chromosome segments showed outstanding macrosynteny shedding new insights into chromosome evolution between Asterids and Rosids. We also analyzed a sequence of 174 kb containing the ovate gene, conserved in a syntenic block between coffee, tomato and grapevine that showed a high-level of microstructure conservation. A higher level of conservation was observed between coffee and grapevine, both woody and long life-cycle plants, than between coffee and tomato. Out of 16 coffee genes of this syntenic segment, 7 and 14 showed complete synteny between coffee and tomato or grapevine, respectively. These results show that significant conservation is found between distantly related species from the Asterid (Coffea canephora and Solanum sp.) and Rosid (Vitis vinifera) clades, at the genome macrostructure and microstructure levels. At the ovate locus, conservation did not decline in relation to increasing phylogenetic distance, suggesting that the time factor alone does not explain

  14. Ancestral synteny shared between distantly-related plant species from the asterid (Coffea canephora and Solanum Sp.) and rosid (Vitis vinifera) clades

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coffee trees (Rubiaceae) and tomato (Solanaceae) belong to the Asterid clade, while grapevine (Vitaceae) belongs to the Rosid clade. Coffee and tomato separated from grapevine 125 million years ago, while coffee and tomato diverged 83-89 million years ago. These long periods of divergent evolution should have permitted the genomes to reorganize significantly. So far, very few comparative mappings have been performed between very distantly related species belonging to different clades. We report the first multiple comparison between species from Asterid and Rosid clades, to examine both macro-and microsynteny relationships. Results Thanks to a set of 867 COSII markers, macrosynteny was detected between coffee, tomato and grapevine. While coffee and tomato genomes share 318 orthologous markers and 27 conserved syntenic segments (CSSs), coffee and grapevine also share a similar number of syntenic markers and CSSs: 299 and 29 respectively. Despite large genome macrostructure reorganization, several large chromosome segments showed outstanding macrosynteny shedding new insights into chromosome evolution between Asterids and Rosids. We also analyzed a sequence of 174 kb containing the ovate gene, conserved in a syntenic block between coffee, tomato and grapevine that showed a high-level of microstructure conservation. A higher level of conservation was observed between coffee and grapevine, both woody and long life-cycle plants, than between coffee and tomato. Out of 16 coffee genes of this syntenic segment, 7 and 14 showed complete synteny between coffee and tomato or grapevine, respectively. Conclusions These results show that significant conservation is found between distantly related species from the Asterid (Coffea canephora and Solanum sp.) and Rosid (Vitis vinifera) clades, at the genome macrostructure and microstructure levels. At the ovate locus, conservation did not decline in relation to increasing phylogenetic distance, suggesting that the time

  15. The R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors MYB14 and MYB15 Regulate Stilbene Biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera[W

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Janine; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Czemmel, Stefan; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Walker, Amanda R.; Rausch, Thomas; Lucchin, Margherita; Boss, Paul K.; Dry, Ian B.; Bogs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Plant stilbenes are phytoalexins that accumulate in a small number of plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been implicated in many beneficial effects on human health. In particular, resveratrol, the basic unit of all other complex stilbenes, has received widespread attention because of its cardio-protective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Although stilbene synthases (STSs), the key enzymes responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, have been isolated and characterized from several plant species, the transcriptional regulation underlying stilbene biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors (TFs) from grapevine, which regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway. These TFs, designated MYB14 and MYB15, strongly coexpress with STS genes, both in leaf tissues under biotic and abiotic stress and in the skin and seed of healthy developing berries during maturation. In transient gene reporter assays, MYB14 and MYB15 were demonstrated to specifically activate the promoters of STS genes, and the ectopic expression of MYB15 in grapevine hairy roots resulted in increased STS expression and in the accumulation of glycosylated stilbenes in planta. These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:24151295

  16. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  17. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Min; Hur, Youn-Young; Preece, John E.; Fiehn, Oliver; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS) evaluated by gall incidence (GI) and gall diameter (GD), which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD), SR (high GI and small GD), and SS (high GI and large GD), corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites) at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites) than RR (3 metabolites) or SR (one metabolite). This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine. PMID:27904455

  18. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Min; Hur, Youn-Young; Preece, John E; Fiehn, Oliver; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS) evaluated by gall incidence (GI) and gall diameter (GD), which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD), SR (high GI and small GD), and SS (high GI and large GD), corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites) at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites) than RR (3 metabolites) or SR (one metabolite). This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine.

  19. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g(-1) from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse

  20. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  2. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  3. Stilbenes from Vitis vinifera L. Waste: A Sustainable Tool for Controlling Plasmopara Viticola.

    PubMed

    Gabaston, Julien; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Biais, Benoît; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Renouf, Elodie; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Richard, Tristan; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-05

    Stilbene-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera waste (cane, wood, and root) were characterized by UHPLC-MS. Eleven stilbenes were identified and quantified as follows: ampelopsin A, (E)-piceatannol, pallidol, (E)-resveratrol, hopeaphenol, isohopeaphenol, (E)-ε-viniferin, (E)-miyabenol C, (E)-ω-viniferin, r2-viniferin, and r-viniferin. The fungicide concentration inhibiting 50% of growth of Plasmopara viticola sporulation (IC50) was determined for the extracts and also for the main compounds isolated. r-Viniferin followed by hopeaphenol and r2-viniferin showed low IC50 and thus high efficacy against Plasmopara viticola. Regarding stilbene extracts, wood extract followed by root extract showed the highest antifungal activities. These data suggest that stilbene complex mixtures from Vitis vinifera waste could be used as a cheap source of bioactive stilbenes for the development of natural fungicides.

  4. Characterization and expression of caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase proposed for the induced resistance response of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Busam, G; Junghanns, K T; Kneusel, R E; Kassemeyer, H H; Matern, U

    1997-01-01

    Cell-suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir accumulated resveratrol upon fungal elicitation, and the activity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyl-transferase (CCoAOMT), yielding feruloyl-CoA, increased to a transient maximum at 12 to 15 h. CCoAOMT cDNA was cloned from the elicited cells and was shown to encode a polypeptide highly homologous to CCoAOMTs from cells of Petroselinum species or Zinnia species. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli revealed that grapevine CCoAOMT methylates both caffeoyl- and 5-hydroxyferuloyl-coenzyme A and is probably involved in phenolic esterification and lignification. Commercial plant activators induce the disease-resistance response of test plants and are considered to mimic the action of salicylic acid. Among these chemicals, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester provoke systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and were also shown to induce the expression of class III chitinase in grapevine. The SAR response is classified by an unchanged phenotype of tissues, but the mechanistic basis is unknown. Treatment of the cultured V. vinifera cells with either fungal elicitor or low concentrations of salicylic acid and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, respectively, raised the CCoAOMT or stilbene synthase transcript abundance, suggesting that grapevine is capable of the SAR response, whereas benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester was ineffective. The data imply for the first time (to our knowledge) that the expression of phenyl-propanoid genes in grapevine is induced by SAR activators without phenotypic consequences and suggest a role for CCoAOMT and stilbene synthase in the disease-resistance response leading beyond the level of pathogenesis-related proteins as markers of the SAR. PMID:9390437

  5. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety. PMID:27462558

  6. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  7. Ecophysiological and phytochemical response to ozone of wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Alessio; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Rita Santamaria, Anna; Nicoletti, Marcello; Toniolo, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Bernardini, Alessandra; Pasqua, Gabriella; Manes, Fausto

    2015-12-18

    Vitis vinifera sensitivity to tropospheric ozone (O3) has been evidenced in several studies. In this work, physiological and metabolic effects of O3 on two wine cultivars of V. vinifera (i.e. Maturano and San Giuseppe) have been studied. Moreover, chlorogenic acid (CGA) production, in consideration of its importance in the biosynthetic pathway of polyphenols and as antioxidant, has been investigated. Maturano cultivar resulted more sensitive to O3, as evidenced by the gas exchange reduction at the early stage of treatment, and by the increase in Ci/Ca and the decoupling of net photosynthesis and the stomatal conductance at the end of the treatment. Unexpectedly, O3 did not activate stilbene production. Ozone induced an early CGA decrease, significantly more consistent in cv. Maturano, and an increase after 8 days, more consistent in cv. S. Giuseppe. These results suggest that CGA could be considered a biochemical marker of O3-induced stress in V. vinifera.

  8. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  9. Comparative anatomy and morphology of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) somatic embryos from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, S; Bondada, Bhaskar R; Li, Zhijian; Gray, D J

    2003-07-01

    Ontogeny of somatic embryos of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) produced from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses (PEM) was compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Somatic embryos produced from solid-medium-derived PEM (SPEM) had large cotyledons, little or no visible suspensor structure, and a relatively undeveloped concave shoot apical meristem, whereas those from liquid-medium-derived PEM (LPEM) had smaller cotyledons, a distinct suspensor, and a flat-to-convex shoot apical meristem. The convex shoot apical meristem in LPEM-derived somatic embryos formed as early as the heart stage of development; it was 4-6 cell layers deep and rich in protein. Suspensors persisted in fully developed and mature LPEM-derived somatic embryos. The SPEM-derived somatic embryos exhibited dormancy, as do mature zygotic embryos, which also have a rudimentary suspensor, whereas LPEM-derived embryos were not dormant. We hypothesize that the presence of a persistent suspensor in LPEM-derived somatic embryos modulates development, ultimately resulting in rapid germination and a high plant-regeneration rate.

  10. Metabolism of terpenes in the response of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaf tissues to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the terpene profiles as determined by GC-EIMS analysis of in vitro cultured plants of Vitis vinifera exposed to a "field-like" dose of UV-B (4.75 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) administered at two different fluence rates (low, 16 h at 8.25 μW cm(-2), and high 4 h at 33 μW cm(-2)). Low UV-B treatment increased levels of the membrane-related triterpenes sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol, more notable in young leaves, suggesting elicitation of a mechanism for grapevine acclimation. By contrast, accumulation of compounds with antioxidant properties, diterpenes α and γ tocopherol and phytol, the sesquiterpene E-nerolidol and the monoterpenes carene, α-pinene and terpinolene had maximum accumulation under high UV-B, which was accentuated in mature leaves. Also the levels of the sesquiterpenic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA) increased under high UV-B, although 24 h post irradiation ABA concentrations decreased. Such increments of antioxidant terpenes along with ABA suggest elicitation of mechanism of defense. The adaptative responses induced by relatively low UV-B irradiations as suggested by synthesis of terpenes related with membrane stability correlated with augments in terpene synthase activity.

  11. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.

  12. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  13. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process. PMID:22192855

  14. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  15. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sucrose Synthase Gene Family in Grape (Vitis vinifera): Structure, Evolution, and Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Mengqi; Li, Xiaopeng; Jiu, Songtao; Wang, Chen; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-03-28

    Sucrose synthase (SS) is widely considered as the key enzyme involved in the plant sugar metabolism that is critical to plant growth and development, especially quality of the fruit. The members of SS gene family have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes. However, detailed information about this gene family is lacking in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of the grape (V. vinifera) genome and reported that there are five SS genes (VvSS1-5) in the grape genome. Comparison of the structures of grape SS genes showed high structural conservation of grape SS genes, resulting from the selection pressures during the evolutionary process. The segmental duplication of grape SS genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses between grape and soybean (Glycine max) demonstrated that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of grape and soybean. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct evolutionary paths for the grape SS genes. VvSS1/VvSS5, VvSS2/VvSS3 and VvSS4 originated from three ancient SS genes, which were generated by duplication events before the split of monocots and eudicots. Bioinformatics analysis of publicly available microarray data, which was validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvSS genes in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results will be beneficial for further investigations into the functions of SS gene in the processes of grape resistance to environmental stresses.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sucrose Synthase Gene Family in Grape (Vitis vinifera): Structure, Evolution, and Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Mengqi; Li, Xiaopeng; Jiu, Songtao; Wang, Chen; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SS) is widely considered as the key enzyme involved in the plant sugar metabolism that is critical to plant growth and development, especially quality of the fruit. The members of SS gene family have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes. However, detailed information about this gene family is lacking in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of the grape (V. vinifera) genome and reported that there are five SS genes (VvSS1–5) in the grape genome. Comparison of the structures of grape SS genes showed high structural conservation of grape SS genes, resulting from the selection pressures during the evolutionary process. The segmental duplication of grape SS genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses between grape and soybean (Glycine max) demonstrated that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of grape and soybean. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct evolutionary paths for the grape SS genes. VvSS1/VvSS5, VvSS2/VvSS3 and VvSS4 originated from three ancient SS genes, which were generated by duplication events before the split of monocots and eudicots. Bioinformatics analysis of publicly available microarray data, which was validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvSS genes in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results will be beneficial for further investigations into the functions of SS gene in the processes of grape resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:28350372

  18. PR-1 gene family of grapevine: a uniquely duplicated PR-1 gene from a Vitis interspecific hybrid confers high level resistance to bacterial disease in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    A functional contribution of pathogenesis-related 1 (PR-1) proteins to host defense has been established. However, systematic investigation of the PR-1 gene family in grapevine (Vitis spp.) has not been conducted previously. Through mining genomic databases, we identified 21 PR-1 genes from the Vitis vinifera genome. Polypeptides encoded by putative PR-1 genes had a signal sequence of about 25 residues and a mature protein of 10.9-29 kDa in size. PR-1 mature proteins contained a highly conserved six-cysteine motif and pI values ranging from 4.6 to 9. A major cluster with 14 PR-1 genes was mapped to a 280-kb region on chromosome 3. One particular PR-1 gene within the cluster encoding a basic-type isoform (pI 7.77), herein named VvPR1b1, was isolated from various genotypes of grapevine (Vitis spp.) for functional studies. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified DNA revealed that all genotypes contained a single VvPR1b1 gene except for a broad-spectrum bacterial and fungal disease resistant Florida bunch grape hybrid, 'BN5-4', from which seven different homologues were identified. Duplication of VvPR1b1-related genes encoding acidic-type PR-1 isoforms was also observed among several genotypes. However, transgenic expression analysis of grapevine PR-1 genes under strong constitutive promoters in transgenic tobacco revealed that only the basic-type VvPR1b1 gene duplicated in 'BN5-4' was capable of conferring high level resistance to bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci.

  19. Shared and divergent pathways for flower abscission are triggered by gibberellic acid and carbon starvation in seedless Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Cardoso, Vânia; Sánchez, Claudia; Ramalho, José C; Larcher, Roberto; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    Abscission is a highly coordinated developmental process by which plants control vegetative and reproductive organs load. Aiming at get new insights on flower abscission regulation, changes in the global transcriptome, metabolome and physiology were analyzed in 'Thompson Seedless' grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences, using gibberellic acid (GAc) spraying and shading as abscission stimuli, applied at bloom. Natural flower drop rates increased from 63.1% in non-treated vines to 83% and 99% in response to GAc and shade treatments, respectively. Both treatments had a broad effect on inflorescences metabolism. Specific impacts from shade included photosynthesis inhibition, associated nutritional stress, carbon/nitrogen imbalance and cell division repression, whereas GAc spraying induced energetic metabolism simultaneously with induction of nucleotide biosynthesis and carbon metabolism, therefore, disclosing alternative mechanisms to regulate abscission. Regarding secondary metabolism, changes in flavonoid metabolism were the most represented metabolic pathways in the samples collected following GAc treatment while phenylpropanoid and stilbenoid related pathways were predominantly affected in the inflorescences by the shade treatment. However, both GAc and shade treated inflorescences revealed also shared pathways, that involved the regulation of putrescine catabolism, the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis, the induction of auxin biosynthesis and the activation of ethylene signaling pathways and antioxidant mechanisms, although often the quantitative changes occurred on specific transcripts and metabolites of the pathways. Globally, the results suggest that chemical and environmental cues induced contrasting effects on inflorescence metabolism, triggering flower abscission by different mechanisms and pinpointing the participation of novel abscission regulators. Grapevine showed to be considered a valid model to study molecular pathways of flower abscission

  20. Profiling of Vitis vinifera L. canes (poly)phenolic compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montero, Lidia; Sáez, Vania; von Baer, Dietrich; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2017-06-08

    Grapevine canes, a pruning-derived by-product, possess a great amount of bioactive (poly)phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical classes, thus, having a good potential for further valorization. However, in order to properly design valorization strategies, the precise chemical composition of this material has to be known. Up to now, this chemical characterization has been based on analysis of different groups of components individually, due to difficulties related to their huge chemical variability. In this work, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-based method (LC×LC) is developed to obtain the profiles of (poly)phenolic compounds present in grapevine canes from several varieties. Three different set-ups have been tested and compared; the combination of diol and C18 columns produced the best results, allowing the characterization of the (poly)phenolic profile in around 80min. This way, 81 different components were detected in the samples; most of them could be tentatively assigned using the information provided by the DAD and MS detectors employed. Indeed, it has been possible to detect in a single run components belonging to stilbenoids, procyanidins and prodelphinidins of varying degrees of polymerization, some of them not formerly described in this natural source. The method has shown extremely good separation capabilities, and is characterized by high effective peak capacity (842) and orthogonality (A0=78%). The obtained results demonstrate that Vitis vinifera L. canes may retain a great potential to be used as an underexploited natural source of bioactive compounds, with potential applications in different fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    PubMed

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  2. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera L. and hybrid red grapes by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of berry skin anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2012-05-09

    Among the methods that have been developed for anthocyanin characterization, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers several analytical advantages in terms of speed, minimal sample handling, specificity, and reliability, without requiring any previous chromatographic separation. This study used MALDI-TOF MS to profile the anthocyanins from the berry skins of 23 red grape varieties clustered as (i) authentic Vitis vinifera grapes, (ii) American hybrid cultivars, and (iii) Casavecchia cultivars, previously characterized as functional crosses of V. vinifera with nondefined hybrid grapevines. Anthocyanin profiling demonstrated evidence of several varietal traits that enabled the differentiation of authentic V. vinifera from hybrid cultivars on a molecular basis. In particular, acyl 3,5-O-diglucoside anthocyanins were established as easily monitored molecular markers of the hybrid varieties. It was also demonstrated that MALDI-post source decay MS is a powerful tool to differentiate isobaric 3,5-O-diglucosides and their derivatives, which prevail in hybrid cultivars, from acylated 3-O-glucoside anthocyanins.

  3. High throughput approaches reveal splicing of primary microRNA transcripts and tissue specific expression of mature microRNAs in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Mica, Erica; Piccolo, Viviana; Delledonne, Massimo; Ferrarini, Alberto; Pezzotti, Mario; Casati, Cesare; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Valle, Giorgio; Policriti, Alberto; Morgante, Michele; Pesole, Graziano; Pè, M Enrico; Horner, David S

    2009-11-25

    MicroRNAs are short (approximately 21 base) single stranded RNAs that, in plants, are generally coded by specific genes and cleaved specifically from hairpin precursors. MicroRNAs are critical for the regulation of multiple developmental, stress related and other physiological processes in plants. The recent annotation of the genome of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) allowed the identification of many putative conserved microRNA precursors, grouped into multiple gene families. Here we use oligonucleotide arrays to provide the first indication that many of these microRNAs show differential expression patterns between tissues and during the maturation of fruit in the grapevine. Furthermore we demonstrate that whole transcriptome sequencing and deep-sequencing of small RNA fractions can be used both to identify which microRNA precursors are expressed in different tissues and to estimate genomic coordinates and patterns of splicing and alternative splicing for many primary miRNA transcripts. Our results show that many microRNAs are differentially expressed in different tissues and during fruit maturation in the grapevine. Furthermore, the demonstration that whole transcriptome sequencing can be used to identify candidate splicing events and approximate primary microRNA transcript coordinates represents a significant step towards the large-scale elucidation of mechanisms regulating the expression of microRNAs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  4. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grace Nirmala, J; Evangeline Celsia, S; Swaminathan, Akila; Narendhirakannan, R T; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2017-10-05

    Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC50), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p < 0.01) and this effect is associated with the interference with mitochondrial membrane potential. This reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential probably initiated the apoptotic cascade in the extracts treated cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.

  5. Variation in the chilling requirement and bud burst rate of wild Vitis species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural fruit crops in the world. In the United States, grapevines are often grown in environments very different than the Mediterranean climate from where the cultivated species was domesticated. Predictions of changing clima...

  6. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  7. Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...

  8. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  9. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  10. Whole-Genome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Family Genes in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 “full-size,” 41 “half-size,” and 15 “soluble” putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera. PMID:24244377

  11. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  12. [Significant improved anthocyanins biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera by process intensification].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Yu, Xing-Ju; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-03-01

    The low-production is a ubiquitous problem and has prevented the commercialization of secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture. In order to examine the effective approaches to improvement of secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture, the investigation of anthocyanins accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, had been initiated in our laboratory. In this present research, various elicitors and the precursor of phenylalanine were used in combination to enhance the anthocyanins production in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. And an integrated process with the combination of elicitation, precursor feeding and light irradiation was reported for rational bioprocess design. Among the combination treatment of phenylalanine feeding and several elicitors (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, dextran T-40, methyl jasmonate, extracts of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium orthoceras), the combination with methyl jasmonate gave the highest anthocyanins production in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. When compared to the controls, the anthocyanins content (CV/g, FCW) and production (CV/L) increased by 2.7-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively. The optimum time for the addition of phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate was 4 days after inoculation. Two cell lines with different anthocyanins-producing capacity responded differently to the optimum combination treatment of 30 micromol/L phenylalanine feeding, 218 micromol/L methyl jasmonate elicitation and 3000 to approximately 4000 1x light illumination. The high-and low-anthocyanins-producing cell lines of VV05 and VV06 produced the maximum of 2975 and 4090 CV/L of anthocyanins that were 2.5- and 5.2-fold of the controls, respectively.

  13. Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses.

  14. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  15. Gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Lunenfeld, B

    1968-03-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems.

  16. Gonadotropin Promotion of Adventitious Root Production on Cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera 1

    PubMed Central

    Leshem, Y.; Lunenfeld, B.

    1968-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA3-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems. PMID:5641189

  17. Ultrastructural study of archaeological Vitis vinifera L. seeds using rapid-freeze fixation and substitution.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Vignani, Rita; Ciacci, Andrea; Nardini, Alessandra; Valenti, Marco; Cantini, Federico; Ciampolini, Fabrizio; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of Vitis vinifera seeds from different archaeological sites was studied. Preservation status differed between sites. Preliminary investigations of grape seeds from Poggio Bacherina (Chianciano Terme, Siena) and Miranduolo (Chiusdino, Siena) showed collapsed or charred tegument, making this material suitable for morphometric studies only. Rapid-freeze fixation and substitution of grape seeds from Shahr-I Sokhta in Iran and via De' Castellani in Florence revealed well preserved tegument suitable for chemical and cytochemical analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to determine chemical composition. Cytochemical analysis based on fluorescent staining with DAPI suggested the presence of cytoplasm residues.

  18. Monoterpenyl Glycosyltransferases Differentially Contribute to Production of Monoterpenyl Glycosides in Two Aromatic Vitis vinifera Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Wen, Ya-Qin; Meng, Nan; Qian, Xu; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS A similar trend on accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes was observed in both varietiesTwo VvGT7 alleles mutations occurred at key sites in Muscat blanc à PetitVvGT14 exerted a major role in production of monoterpenyl glycosides in both varieties Terpenoids are the major aroma components and generally exist as both free and glycosidically-bound forms, of which nonvolatile glycosides account for a large fraction in grape berries. Our previous study has indicated that differential accumulation of monoterpenyl glycosides in Vitis vinifera “Muscat blanc à Petit” between two regions is closely correlated to monoterpenyl glucosyltransferase (VvGT14, XM_002285734.2) transcript abundance. However, it has not been determined yet whether this correlation also exists in other Vitis vinifera varieties. This study investigated the evolution of free and glycosidically bound monoterpenes in two Vitis vinifera variety “Muscat blanc à Petit” and “Gewurztraminer” under two vintages, and further assessed the relation between the accumulation of bound monoterpenes and two monoterpenyl glycosyltransferase transcript levels. Results showed that free monoterpenes exhibited three evolution patterns in both varieties during berry development of two vintages, whereas glycosidically bound monoterpenes showed a concentration elevation with berry maturation. The Cis-rose oxide and geraniol were major components contributing to the aroma odors of “Gewürztraminer” grapes while linalool was major aroma contributor to the “Muscat blanc à Petit grain” grapes. The accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes in both varieties was accompanied with the high expression of VvGT7 (XM_002276510.2) and VvGT14. Only one allele of VvGT7 was found in the variety “Gewürztraminer” and no mutation was observed in its enzyme active sites. XB-VvGT7-4 and XB-VvGT7-5 were two alleles of VvGT7 detected in “Muscat blanc à Petit grain.” The mutation on its

  19. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Monoterpenyl Glycosyltransferases Differentially Contribute to Production of Monoterpenyl Glycosides in Two Aromatic Vitis vinifera Varieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Wen, Ya-Qin; Meng, Nan; Qian, Xu; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS A similar trend on accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes was observed in both varietiesTwo VvGT7 alleles mutations occurred at key sites in Muscat blanc à PetitVvGT14 exerted a major role in production of monoterpenyl glycosides in both varieties Terpenoids are the major aroma components and generally exist as both free and glycosidically-bound forms, of which nonvolatile glycosides account for a large fraction in grape berries. Our previous study has indicated that differential accumulation of monoterpenyl glycosides in Vitis vinifera "Muscat blanc à Petit" between two regions is closely correlated to monoterpenyl glucosyltransferase (VvGT14, XM_002285734.2) transcript abundance. However, it has not been determined yet whether this correlation also exists in other Vitis vinifera varieties. This study investigated the evolution of free and glycosidically bound monoterpenes in two Vitis vinifera variety "Muscat blanc à Petit" and "Gewurztraminer" under two vintages, and further assessed the relation between the accumulation of bound monoterpenes and two monoterpenyl glycosyltransferase transcript levels. Results showed that free monoterpenes exhibited three evolution patterns in both varieties during berry development of two vintages, whereas glycosidically bound monoterpenes showed a concentration elevation with berry maturation. The Cis-rose oxide and geraniol were major components contributing to the aroma odors of "Gewürztraminer" grapes while linalool was major aroma contributor to the "Muscat blanc à Petit grain" grapes. The accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes in both varieties was accompanied with the high expression of VvGT7 (XM_002276510.2) and VvGT14. Only one allele of VvGT7 was found in the variety "Gewürztraminer" and no mutation was observed in its enzyme active sites. XB-VvGT7-4 and XB-VvGT7-5 were two alleles of VvGT7 detected in "Muscat blanc à Petit grain." The mutation on its enzyme active site inhibited

  1. Ontogenic resistance to Uncinula necator varies by genotype and tissue type in a diverse collection of Vitis spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Berries of grapevine (Vitis spp.) have a limited window of susceptibility to Uncinula necator, the causal agent of grapevine powdery mildew, corresponding to approximately 2 to 3 weeks post-bloom. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in several cultivars of V. vinifera and in V. labruscana ‘Concor...

  2. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini.

  3. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of

  4. Evaluation of tannins interactions in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) skins.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Fiori, Simone; Failla, Osvaldo

    2014-09-15

    Tannins have a central role in grapevine berries both for their physiological and enological implications. In the skin tissue they can be in vacuolar solution, or associated to the cell walls through weak or strong physicochemical interactions. The present work aims to separate vacuolar, non-covalently and covalently bonded tannins fractions. A specific extraction procedure was developed. A first extraction in ethanol at low temperature allowed the quantification of vacuolar tannins. An urea treatment followed by an ethanol extraction at room temperature was able to separate non-covalently bonded compounds. Finally an acid catalysis was used to break down proanthocyanidin covalent bonds. The method was validated on ripe grape samples of three cultivars, on berries developed in two sun exposure conditions. The Ethephon treatment effect was also evaluated. Beside the method development, a preliminary evaluation of the cultivar, exposition and Ethephon treatment effects are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  6. No evidence for an open vessel effect in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves of a long-vesselled liana (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Vulnerability to cavitation curves are used to estimate xylem cavitation resistance and can be constructed using multiple techniques. It was recently suggested that a technique that relies on centrifugal force to generate negative xylem pressures may be susceptible to an open vessel artifact in long-vesselled species. Here, we used custom centrifuge rotors to measure different sample lengths of 1-yr-old stems of grapevine to examine the influence of open vessels on vulnerability curves, thus testing the hypothesized open vessel artifact. These curves were compared with a dehydration-based vulnerability curve. Although samples differed significantly in the number of open vessels, there was no difference in the vulnerability to cavitation measured on 0.14- and 0.271-m-long samples of Vitis vinifera. Dehydration and centrifuge-based curves showed a similar pattern of declining xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) with declining water potential. The percentage loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC) differed between dehydration and centrifuge curves and it was determined that grapevine is susceptible to errors in estimating maximum K(s) during dehydration because of the development of vessel blockages. Our results from a long-vesselled liana do not support the open vessel artifact hypothesis. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Transporters expressed during grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) development are associated with an increase in berry size and berry potassium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher; Shin, Ryoung; Liu, Weihong; Thomas, Mark R; Schachtman, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    Potassium accumulation is essential for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growth and development, but excessive levels in berries at harvest may reduce wine quality particularly for red wines. In addition to decreasing the free acid levels, potassium also combines with tartaric acid to form largely insoluble potassium bitartrate. This precipitates during winemaking and storage, resulting in an increase in wine pH that is associated with negative impacts on wine colour, flavour, and microbiological stability. For these reasons, a better understanding of potassium transport and accumulation within the vine and berries is important for producing fruit with improved winemaking characteristics. Here two genes encoding KUP/KT/HAK-type potassium transporters that are expressed in grape berries are described. Their function as potassium transporters was demonstrated by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The two transporters are expressed most highly in the berry skin during the first phase of berry development (pre-veraison), with similar patterns in two grapevine varieties. The timing and location of expression of these transporters are consistent with an involvement in potassium accumulation in grape berries.

  8. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  9. Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN

    PubMed Central

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream. PMID:15811990

  10. Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN.

    PubMed

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-04-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream.

  11. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Results Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. Conclusions In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated

  13. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  14. First report of a new grapevine yellows disease in Peru and its association with infection by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’-related phytoplasma strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), key source for wine production, is one of the most valuable horticultural crops in the world. Native to the Mediterranean region, V. vinifera is now cultivated on every continent and covers nearly eight million hectares of land. However, the health of this cultivate...

  15. Antitumoural activity of viniferin-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera L. cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, L; Innocenti, M; Santamaria, A R; Bigagli, E; Pasqua, G; Mulinacci, N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of stilbenes from different cultivars of Vitis vinifera on tumour proliferation. Extracts were obtained from elicited V. vinifera cell cultures and characterised by HPLC/DAD/MS. Cell growth was evaluated in four human cancer cell lines and in normal human fibroblasts. The cells were exposed to the extracts or to trans-resveratrol, used as reference molecule, for 48 h, at 1-10 μM concentrations of total stilbenoids. All the extracts exhibited antiproliferative activity, mediated by modulation of the cell cycle and induction of cytotoxicity in cancer but not in normal cell lines, and positively correlated with the content in dimeric stilbenoids. The Alphonse Lavallée extract was the most active, and the obtained stilbenoid fraction resulted 8-10 times more active than trans-resveratrol. Extracts from V. vinifera cell cultures could represent new sources of active stilbenoid compounds to be further assayed in in vivo studies for their antitumoural properties.

  16. De novo transcriptome characterization of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina unveils varietal diversity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp.) display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. Results We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina) and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. Conclusions The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes. PMID:23331995

  17. De novo transcriptome characterization of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina unveils varietal diversity.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Luca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Zenoni, Sara; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Fasoli, Marianna; Dal Santo, Silvia; Minio, Andrea; Buson, Genny; Tononi, Paola; Zago, Elisa Debora; Zamperin, Gianpiero; Bellin, Diana; Pezzotti, Mario; Delledonne, Massimo

    2013-01-18

    Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp.) display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina) and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.

  18. Strategies for RUN1 deployment using RUN2 and REN2 to manage grapevine powdery mildew informed by studies of race-specificity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The TIR-NB-LRR gene, Resistance to Uncinula necator 1 (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic Vitis vinifera cultivars. However, powdery mildew cleistothecia ha...

  19. Characterization of triterpenoid profiles and triterpene synthase expression in the leaves of eight Vitis vinifera cultivars grown in the Upper Rhine Valley.

    PubMed

    Pensec, Flora; Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Grabarczyk, Marta; Bertsch, Christophe; Fischer, Marc J C; Chong, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Plant triterpenoids are a diverse group of secondary metabolites with wide distribution, high chemical diversity and interesting pharmacological and antimicrobial properties. The first step in the biosynthesis of all triterpenoids is the cyclization of the 2,3-oxidosqualene precursor, catalyzed by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), which have characteristic product specificities. Biosynthesis and functions of pentacyclic triterpenes have been poorly studied in grapevine. In this study, we first investigated the profile of triterpenoids present in leaf cuticular waxes from eight Vitis vinifera cultivars cultivated in the Upper Rhine Valley. Further quantification of triterpenoids showed that these cultivars can be divided into two groups, characterized by high levels of lupeol (e.g., Pinot noir) or taraxerol (e.g., Gewurztraminer) respectively. We further analyzed the OSC family involved in the synthesis of pentacyclic triterpenes (called VvTTPSs) in the sequenced V. vinifera 40024 genome and found nine genes with similarity to previously characterized triterpene synthases. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that VvTTPS1-VvTTPS3 and VvTTPS5-VvTTPS9 belong to the β-amyrin synthase and multifunctional triterpene synthase clade, whereas VvTTPS10 belongs to the lupeol synthase clade. We studied the expression of several members of the VvTTPS family following biotic and abiotic stresses in V. vinifera 40024 as well as in the eight healthy cultivars. This study further revealed that one candidate gene, VvTTPS5, which does not belong to the lupeol synthase clade, is highly expressed in lupeol-rich cultivars. VvTTPS3, VvTTPS5, VvTTPS6, VvTTPS7 and VvTTPS10 were highly upregulated by UV stress, but only VvTTPS3, VvTTPS5, VvTTPS6 and VvTTPS10 were upregulated following downy mildew and gray mold infections respectively. These results suggest differential roles of VvTTPS against environmental stresses in grape leaves.

  20. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine.

  1. Intercontinental genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata, causal agent of Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), impacts all vineyard production systems worldwide. Our objectives were to characterize the population structure of E. lata at different geographical scales to identify migration patterns through ascospor...

  2. Global genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata is a trunk pathogen of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in all major grape-growing regions of the world. Throughout its geographic range, it is considered a generalist pathogen that can complete its life cycle on a broad range of hosts. To decipher the cosmopol...

  3. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  4. Genetically tailored grapevines for the wine industry.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Melané A; Pretorius, Isak S

    2002-11-01

    Grapevine biotechnology is one of the most promising developments in the global wine industry, which is increasingly faced with conflicting demands from markets, consumers and environmentalists. In the grapevine industries, this technology and its supporting disciplines entail the establishment of stress tolerant and disease resistant varieties of Vitis vinifera, with increased productivity, efficiency, sustainability and environmental friendliness, especially regarding improved pest and disease control, water use efficiency and grape quality. The implementation and successful commercialisation of genetically improved grapevine varieties will only be realized if an array of hurdles, both scientific and otherwise, can be overcome.

  5. Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization of Grapevine vein clearing virus from Wild Vitis rupestris.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven; Kovens, Michael; Hubbert, LeAnn; Honesty, Shae; Guo, Qiang; Pap, Daniel; Dai, Ru; Kovacs, Laszlo; Qiu, Wenping

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV), a new member of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is associated with a vein clearing and vine decline disease that severely affects grape production and berry quality in commercial vineyards in the Midwest region of the United States. In this paper, the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of GVCV-VRU1 and GVCV-VRU2, two isolates from wild Vitis rupestris grapevines in their native habitat, are described. The GVCV-VRU1 genome is 7,755 bp long while the GVCV-VRU2 genome consists of 7,725 bp, both of which are different from the genome of the GVCV-CHA isolate (7,753 bp), which was originally discovered in the grape cultivar 'Chardonel'. The nucleotide sequence identity among GVCV-VRU1, GVCV-VRU2, and GVCV-CHA ranges from 91.6 to 93.4%, and open reading frame (ORF) II is the most divergent ORF with only 83.3 to 88.5% identity. Sequence analysis of the ORF II indicated that GVCV isolates genetically similar to GVCV-VRU1 and GVCV-VRU2 also are present in commercial vineyards. Symptoms of GVCV-VRU1- or GVCV-VRU2-infected wild V. rupestris grapevine appeared initially as translucent vein clearing on young leaves and progressed to vein necrosis on mature leaves. Inoculation of GVCV-VRU1 or GVCV-VRU2 by grafting onto grape cultivar Chardonel resulted in mild mottle and leaf distortion. The natural range of wild V. rupestris grapevines overlaps with commercial vineyards in the Midwestern United States. Therefore, the discovery of GVCV isolates in wild V. rupestris grapevines has important implications for epidemics and management of the GVCV-associated disease.

  6. Mapping genetic loci for tolerance to lime-induced iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevine rootstocks (Vitis sp.).

    PubMed

    Bert, Pierre-François; Bordenave, Louis; Donnart, Martine; Hévin, Cyril; Ollat, Nathalie; Decroocq, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    Iron is essential to plants for chlorophyll formation as well as for the functioning of various iron-containing enzymes. Iron deficiency chlorosis is a wide-spread disorder of plants, in particular, of those growing on calcareous soils. Among the different ways to control iron deficiency problems for crops, plant material and especially rootstock breeding is a suitable and reliable method, especially for fruit trees and grapes. The aim of the experiment was to characterize the genetic basis of grapevine chlorosis tolerance under lime stress conditions. A segregating population of 138 F1 genotypes issued from an inter-specific cross between Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon (tolerant) × V. riparia Gloire de Montpellier (sensitive) was developed and phenotyped both as cuttings and as rootstock grafted with Cabernet Sauvignon scions in pots containing non-chlorosing and chlorosing soils. Tolerance was evaluated by chlorosis score, leaf chlorophyll content and growth parameters of the shoots and roots. The experiments were performed in 2001, 2003 and 2006. The plants analysed in 2006 were reassessed in 2007. The most significant findings of the trial were: (a) the soil properties strongly affect plant development, (b) there are differences in tolerance among segregating genotypes when grown as cuttings or as rootstocks on calcareous soil, (c) calcareous conditions induced chlorosis and revealed quantitative trait loci (QTLs) implicated in polygenic control of tolerance, (d) rootstock strongly contributes to lime-induced chlorosis response, and (e) a QTL with strong effect (from 10 to 25 % of the chlorotic symptom variance) was identified on chromosome 13. This QTL colocalized with a QTL for chlorophyll content (R (2) = 22 %) and a major QTL for plant development that explains about 50 % of both aerial and root system biomass variation. These findings were supported by stable results among the different years of experiment. These results open new insights into the

  7. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  8. Can Pierce’s disease PdR1 resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  9. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  10. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  11. Broad-spectrum of antimicrobial properties of commercial wines from different Vitis vinifera L. varieties.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Aleksandra; Arsić, Biljana; Radovanović, Vladimir; Jovančičević, Branimir; Nikolić, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods. The correlation between amounts of phenolics and antibacterial activities of investigated wines were studied by application of statistical (PCA, factor and cluster) analyses. This study gives the possibility to predict the biological quality of the wine from the same cluster towards bacteria without "wet" analysis. Obtained results can to be useful both to wine producers for the formation of market price of wine, and to wine consumers in choosing quality red wine with high content of polyphenols.

  12. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quantitating Organoleptic Volatile Phenols in Smoke-Exposed Vitis vinifera Berries.

    PubMed

    Noestheden, Matthew; Thiessen, Katelyn; Dennis, Eric G; Tiet, Ben; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2017-09-27

    Accurate methods for quantitating volatile phenols (i.e., guaiacol, syringol, 4-ethylphenol, etc.) in smoke-exposed Vitis vinifera berries prior to fermentation are needed to predict the likelihood of perceptible smoke taint following vinification. Reported here is a complete, cross-validated analytical workflow to accurately quantitate free and glycosidically bound volatile phenols in smoke-exposed berries using liquid-liquid extraction, acid-mediated hydrolysis, and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The reported workflow addresses critical gaps in existing methods for volatile phenols that impact quantitative accuracy, most notably the effect of injection port temperature and the variability in acid-mediated hydrolytic procedures currently used. Addressing these deficiencies will help the wine industry make accurate, informed decisions when producing wines from smoke-exposed berries.

  14. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  15. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  16. Antidotal effect of grape juice (Vitis vinifera) on ochratoxin A caused hepatorenal carcinogenesis in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Jeswal, P

    1998-01-01

    Oral administration of ochratoxin A to young weanling mice (Mus musculus) caused several haematological changes and induced hepatoma and renal carcinoma. Concurrent administration of berry and leaf juice of the common grape (Vitis vinifera) to mice together with ochratoxin A significantly reduced the hepatic and renal damage caused by ingestion of this mycotoxin. None of the animals receiving berry/leaf juice of V. vinifera showed the formation of hepatorenal carcinoma whereas 25% of animals receiving only ochratoxin A developed well differentiated renal carcinoma and hepatic lesions.

  17. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.

  18. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds display cardioprotection in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    Berti, F; Manfredi, B; Mantegazza, P; Rossoni, G

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, increasing evidence has suggested that the consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol is inversely correlated with mortality from myocardial infarction. There is also some evidence that the protective effects of wine might be more pronounced than those of other alcoholic beverages. These observations prompted us to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Vitis vinifera seeds in experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury. An isolated rabbit heart preparation paced electrically was used to evaluate the effects of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of oligomeric procyanidins isolated from Vitis vinifera seeds on myocardial reperfusion injury after 40 min of low-flow (1 ml/min) ischemia. Infusion of the heart with 100 or 200 microg/ml procyanidins dose-dependently reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure during ischemia, decreased coronary perfusion pressure, improved cardiac mechanical performance upon reperfusion, increased the release of 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1alpha into the perfusate in both the preischemic and the reperfusion periods and suppressed rhythm irregularity. Procyanidins dose-dependently relaxed human internal mammary aortic (IMA) rings (with intact endothelium) precontracted with norepinephrine. This effect was completely abolished in IMA-rings without functional endothelium or when this vascular tissue was pretreated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) or with guanylate cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). In conclusion, these results indicate that procyanidins could be of therapeutical potential in cardiovascular diseases. However, further investigations are required for a better definition of the mode of action of these oligomers.

  19. Biological Control of Crown Gall on Grapevine and Root Colonization by Nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis Strain ARK-1

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07–0.29, P<0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.53, P<0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years. PMID:23708779

  20. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards.

  1. Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2006-01-25

    This paper reports an attempt to functionally and chemically characterize commercial ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. grape skins, grape pomace, and leaves, which are used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. The antioxidant capacity of these ingredients was assessed for the first time by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methodology. Ingredients from grape skins and pomace (n = 17) showed ORAC values from 1.38 to 21.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg whereas ingredients from leaves (n = 4) showed ORAC values from 1.52 to 2.55 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization-mass sprectrometry analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols revealed the authenticity of the ingredients as derived from V. vinifera L. and confirmed large differences in their phenolic content and distribution. A progressive decline in both antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin content of a grape skin ingredient (43 and 40% decrease, respectively) was observed over a 60 day storage period (45 degrees C and 75% relative humidity), demonstrating its poor stability under these conditions.

  2. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine.

  3. Characterization of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) are intra-vacuolar structures capable of concentrating anthocyanins and are present in over 50 of the highest anthocyanin-accumulating plant species. Presence of AVIs alters pigment intensity, total anthocyanin levels, pigment hue and causes bathochromic shifts in a spatio-temporal manner within various flowers, vegetables and fruits. A year-long study on Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures found a strong correlation between AVI prevalence and anthocyanin content, but not the number of pigmented cells, growth rate or stilbene content. Furthermore, enhancement of the prevalence of AVIs and anthocyanins was achieved by treatment of V. vinifera cell suspension cultures with sucrose, jasmonic acid and white light. A unique autofluorescence of anthocyanins was used to demonstrate microscopically that AVIs proceed from the cytosol across the tonoplast and were able to coalesce intravacuolarly, with fewer, larger AVIs predominating as cells mature. Purification and characterisation of these bodies were performed, showing that they were dense, highly organic structures, with a lipid component indicative of membrane-encasement. These purified AVIs were also shown to comprise long-chain tannins and possessed an increased affinity for binding acylated anthocyanins, though no unique protein component was detected.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  5. [Effect of homogeneity on cell growth and anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Mei-Fang; Yu, Xing-Ju

    2006-09-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. To understand the instability, the investigation of anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, has been initiated in our laboratory. Suspension culture of a relatively homogeneous cell line E of V. vinifera, was established by long-term cell line selection by anthocyanin content differentiation. The aggregate size of E was smaller than that of other cell lines obtained by routine screening method. The variation coefficients of anthocyanin content in suspension cultures of E were 8.7% in long-term subcultures and 5% in repeated flasks, respectively. The effects of elicitor, precursor feeding and light irridiation on biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of E had been investigated and the results showed that all the variation coefficients were lower than 12% and this indicated the importance of homogeneity on stable production in plant cell culture. With the combination treatment of 30micromol/L phenylalanine and 218micromol/L methyl jasmonate in the dark in suspension cultures of E, the anthocyanin content and production in suspension culture of E was 5.89-fold and 4.30-fold of the controls, respectively, and all the variation coefficients of biomass and anthocyanin accumulation were lower than those of the controls in 5 successive subcultures.

  6. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine. PMID:28377754

  7. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine.

  9. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA of Vitis vinifera and the issue of rampant horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Viola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of grape (Vitis vinifera), the largest organelle genome sequenced so far, is presented. The genome is 773,279 nt long and has the highest coding capacity among known angiosperm mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). The proportion of promiscuous DNA of plastid origin in the genome is also the largest ever reported for an angiosperm mtDNA, both in absolute and relative terms. In all, 42.4% of chloroplast genome of Vitis has been incorporated into its mitochondrial genome. In order to test if horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has also contributed to the gene content of the grape mtDNA, we built phylogenetic trees with the coding sequences of mitochondrial genes of grape and their homologs from plant mitochondrial genomes. Many incongruent gene tree topologies were obtained. However, the extent of incongruence between these gene trees is not significantly greater than that observed among optimal trees for chloroplast genes, the common ancestry of which has never been in doubt. In both cases, we attribute this incongruence to artifacts of tree reconstruction, insufficient numbers of characters, and gene paralogy. This finding leads us to question the recent phylogenetic interpretation of Bergthorsson et al. (2003, 2004) and Richardson and Palmer (2007) that rampant HGT into the mtDNA of Amborella best explains phylogenetic incongruence between mitochondrial gene trees for angiosperms. The only evidence for HGT into the Vitis mtDNA found involves fragments of two coding sequences stemming from two closteroviruses that cause the leaf roll disease of this plant. We also report that analysis of sequences shared by both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes provides evidence for a previously unknown gene transfer route from the mitochondrion to the chloroplast.

  11. Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Cabrera, Nora; Holgado, Miriam G; Vicchi, Franco R

    2016-09-05

    Some species of Colaspis Fabricius are well-known pests of several crops in Argentina. In this contribution, we describe a new species within this genus: Colaspis caligula n. sp., found in association with Vitis vinifera (Linnaeus) crops. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva, pupa and adult, as well as notes on its diagnostic characters, life cycle, and the damages produced to the plants.

  12. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth.

  13. Rapid Genomic Characterization of the Genus Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Bonnie; Simon, Charles; Zhong, Gan Yuan; Buckler, Edward; Ware, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies promise to dramatically accelerate the use of genetic information for crop improvement by facilitating the genetic mapping of agriculturally important phenotypes. The first step in optimizing the design of genetic mapping studies involves large-scale polymorphism discovery and a subsequent genome-wide assessment of the population structure and pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the species of interest. In the present study, we provide such an assessment for the grapevine (genus Vitis), the world's most economically important fruit crop. Reduced representation libraries (RRLs) from 17 grape DNA samples (10 cultivated V. vinifera and 7 wild Vitis species) were sequenced with sequencing-by-synthesis technology. We developed heuristic approaches for SNP calling, identified hundreds of thousands of SNPs and validated a subset of these SNPs on a 9K genotyping array. We demonstrate that the 9K SNP array provides sufficient resolution to distinguish among V. vinifera cultivars, between V. vinifera and wild Vitis species, and even among diverse wild Vitis species. We show that there is substantial sharing of polymorphism between V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and find that genetic relationships among V. vinifera cultivars agree well with their proposed geographic origins using principal components analysis (PCA). Levels of LD in the domesticated grapevine are low even at short ranges, but LD persists above background levels to 3 kb. While genotyping arrays are useful for assessing population structure and the decay of LD across large numbers of samples, we suggest that whole-genome sequencing will become the genotyping method of choice for genome-wide genetic mapping studies in high-diversity plant species. This study demonstrates that we can move quickly towards genome-wide studies of crop species using next-generation sequencing. Our study sets the stage for future work in other high diversity crop species, and provides a

  14. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  15. Plant regeneration of grapevine (Vitis sp.) protoplasts isolated from embryogenic tissue.

    PubMed

    Reustle, G; Harst, M; Alleweldt, G

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts with high embryogenic competence could be isolated from leaf-disk-derived embryos and embryoids of Vitis sp. cv. Seyval blanc. After a 4-week induction treatment in NN-69 medium supplemented with 4.0mg/l naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) and 0.9mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and subsequent subcultivation in hormone-free medium, 38.5% of the developed microcalluses showed somatic embryogenesis. In contrast, only few formed somatic embryos after induction in CPW-13 medium with either 1.0mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5mg/l benzylaminopurine treatment (13.8%) or NOA/TDZ treatment (1.4%). Up to 30% of these embryos germinated and about half of them regenerated into typical in vitro grapevines when transferred onto LS-medium in culture tubes.

  16. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  17. Interactions between light and growing season temperatures on, growth and development and gas exchange of Semillon (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grown in an irrigated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2012-05-01

    High-light intensities and temperatures of the warm climate regions of Australia and elsewhere have a major effect on the growth and development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The objective of this research was to assess interactions between the light and seasonal temperatures by shading some vines and comparing these with vines exposed to high-light intensities. Canopy temperatures were monitored using infrared radiometers and budbreak, phenology, growth, yield, berry ripening and gas exchange determined over three growing seasons. Results showed canopies were generally about 4 °C cooler than air and shading extended this cooling. Irradiance, irrespective of seasonal temperatures, had no effect on time of budbreak, shoot phenology, stem growth, yield and bunch fresh weights while bunch and leaf dry weights were reduced in low-light. Bunch ripening was initially delayed by low-light but thereafter the ripening process was highly temperature-dependent. Rates increased linearly with increasing temperature in both low and high-light and were optimal at about 35 °C. Maximum photosynthetic capacity was impaired by low irradiance, in accordance with shade leaf attributes, and attributable to stomatal closure. No effects of the low photosynthetic capacity apparently carried-over to sugar accumulation, consistent with the strong sink capacity of bunches.

  18. The Application of Leaf Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants.

  19. The Application of Leaf Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J.; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D.; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G.; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants. PMID:27833626

  20. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  1. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2012-01-01

    Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. 'Freedom' and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2 °C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9-12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a >1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps, suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants.

  2. Diadenosine triphosphate is a novel factor which in combination with cyclodextrins synergistically enhances the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell suspension cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Czekała, Łukasz; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Pedreño, María Angeles; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates are considered as signal molecules that may evoke response of plant cells to stress. Other compounds whose biological effects have been recognized are cyclodextrins. They are cyclic oligosaccharides that chemically resemble the alkyl-derived pectic oligosaccharides naturally released from the cell walls during fungal attack, and they act as true elicitors, since, when added to plant cell culture, they induce the expression of genes involved in some secondary metabolism pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that some dinucleoside polyphosphates triggered the biosynthesis of enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells, cyclodextrins were shown to enhance the accumulation of trans-resveratrol, one of the basic units of the stilbenes derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we show that diadenosine triphosphate, applied alone or in combination with cyclodextrins to the grapevine suspension-cultured cells, increased the transcript level of genes encoding key phenylpropanoid-pathway enzymes as well as the trans-resveratrol production inside cells and its secretion into the extracellular medium. In the latter case, these two compounds acted synergistically. However, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside trans-piceid inside cells were stimulated much better by diadenosine triphosphate than by cyclodextrins. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation, N-Glycosylation and Lys-Acetylation in Grape (Vitis vinifera) Mesocarp and Exocarp Owing to Lobesia botrana Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N.; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R.; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; Thelen, Jay J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  4. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  5. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H(2)O(2)-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, José M L; Vatulescu, Ada D; Findlay, Kim; MacDougall, Alistair J; Jackson, Phil A P

    2011-06-14

    Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H(2)O(2), but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H(2)O(2) incubation assayed. This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H(2)O(2). Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons.

  6. Solar UV-B and ABA are involved in phenol metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. increasing biosynthesis of berry skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Berli, Federico J; Fanzone, Martín; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2011-05-11

    It has been previously found that abscisic acid (ABA) participates in the activation of grapevine leaf tissue defense against potentially damaging effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), apparently by triggering biosynthesis of phenols that filter the harmful radiation and act as antioxidants. The present work studies the effect of solar UV-B and exogenously applied ABA on berry growth, sugar accumulation, and phenol (anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin) profiles across berry development and ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec in a vineyard at 1450 m of altitude. The grapevines were exposed to relatively high UV-B irradiation (normal sunlight; +UV-B) and also to a reduced UV-B treatment (filter exclusion; -UV-B). These two UV-B treatments were combined with weekly spray applications to the leaves and berries of 1 mM ABA (+ABA) or H(2)O (-ABA). Reduction of UV-B delayed berry development and maturation, whereas the +UV-B and +ABA combined treatment hastened berry sugar and phenol accumulation. +UV-B/+ABA treatments also reduced berry growth and decreased sugar per berry without affecting sugar concentration (°Brix) at harvest. Berry skin ABA levels were higher in the +UV-B and +ABA combined treatment, which also hastened the onset of ripening up to 20 days. Berry skin ABA levels then decreased toward harvest, implying a possible role for ABA in the control of ripening in this nonclimacteric fruit. Under both +UV-B and +ABA treatments berry skin phenols were additively increased with a change in anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin profiles and increases in the proportion of phenols with high antioxidant capacity.

  7. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H2O2-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Results Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H2O2 incubation assayed. Conclusions This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H2O2. Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons. PMID:21672244

  8. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Phenolic content of grapevine leaves (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) and its neuroprotective effect against peroxide damage.

    PubMed

    Dani, C; Oliboni, L S; Agostini, F; Funchal, C; Serafini, L; Henriques, J A; Salvador, M

    2010-02-01

    In some countries, leaves of Vitis vinifera grapes have been used for food and for treating many medical disorders. However, there are no studies on the leaves of Vitis labrusca, the main species used for wine and juice production in South America. In this work, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of organic and conventional grape leaves extracts prepared from V. labrusca (var. Bordo) in brain tissues (in vitro model) have been evaluated. Both organic and conventional grape leaves extracts have similar total phenolic content, however, different patterns were observed for the main phenolic compounds of both kinds of leaves. The organic leaves extract showed about 10 times more resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts were able to reduce the lipid and protein damages induced by hydrogen peroxide in the brain of rats. This effect was accompanied by the reversion of the hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Negative correlations between lipid and protein damages and the levels of polyphenols were found, suggesting that these compounds contribute directly to the protective effect observed.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great implications for further studies.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves after Exposure to Ultraviolet C Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m−2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). Conclusions UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great

  12. VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION IN GRAPEVINES HAS BEEN OVERESTIMATED BY THE CENTRIFUGE TECHNIQUE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevines are considered among the most vulnerable woody plant species to water stress-induced cavitation with embolism forming at slight tensions. However, we found that native embolism in stems of field grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay never exceeded 30% despite xylem water potentials ('x) rea...

  13. A transcriptome analysis of two grapevine populations segregating for tendril phyllotaxy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shoot structure of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera L. typically exhibits a 3-node modular repetitive pattern, two sequential leaf-opposed tendrils followed by a tendril-free node. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of this pattern by characterizing differentially expressed ge...

  14. First Report of the Occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus in the Pacific Northwest Region Vineyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, genus: Nepovirus, family: Comoviridae), responsible for fanleaf degeneration disease is one of the most important viral diseases of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. During our reconnaissance studies, cambial scrapings from dormant wood cuttings of the wine grape...

  15. Genome Diversity and Intra- and Inter-Species Recombination Events in Grapevine fanleaf virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was documented in four wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown as own-rooted vines. GFLV was found as a mixed virus infection in cvs. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, but not in cvs. Merlot and Cabernet Franc. Fanleaf disease symptoms were observed only in the first two...

  16. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  17. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  18. Above ground drip application practices alter water productivity of Malbec grapevines under sustained deficit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of irrigation event frequency on water productivity, yield components, and berry maturity under two severities of sustained deficit irrigation was evaluated in field grown Malbec grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) over three growing seasons. Above ground drip was used to supply vines with ...

  19. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  20. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Grapevine Fabavirus, a Novel Putative Member of the Genus Fabavirus

    PubMed Central

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Westrick, Nathaniel M.; Golino, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus-like sequence from grapevine was identified by Illumina sequencing. The genomic organization was most similar to that of members of the genus Fabavirus. Polyproteins RNA-1 and RNA-2 of the virus tentatively named grapevine fabavirus (GFabV) shared 34 to 23% sequence identities with Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), respectively. GFabV was successfully graft transmitted to Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc. PMID:27445385

  1. Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis species limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains, race specificity against grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) is undocumented. In the current study, two sources of powdery mildew resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera were evaluated in the gree...

  2. Susceptibility of cultivated and wild Vitis to wood infection by fungal trunk pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivars of European grapevine, Vitis vinifera, show varying levels of susceptibility to Eutypa dieback and Esca, in terms of foliar symptoms. However, little is known regarding cultivar susceptibility of their woody tissues to canker formation. Accordingly, we evaluated the relative susceptibility...

  3. Mechanisms of quantitative resistance to Erysiphe necator in Vitis rupestris B38

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitis rupestris B38 is a North American grapevine resistant to the powdery mildew pathogen, Erysiphe necator. The segregation of foliar powdery mildew severity in a F1 family derived from a cross of V. rupestris B38 x V. vinifera ‘Chardonnay’ was observed in the field over three growing seasons and ...

  4. Biomolecule-mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Bhavesh, Riju; Park, Jongbong; Ganbold, Bilguun; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2014-02-27

    Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently the gained attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green approach to biosynthesize selenium nanoparticles (Se-np) using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extracts. The biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopic images revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles and a size range of 3-18 nm. Dynamic light scattering also confirmed the average particle size of 8.12 ± 2.5 nm with 0.212 PDI. The crystalline nature of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Moreover, as inferred from the FTIR spectrum, the presence of highly stable lignin biopolymer on the surface of selenium nanoballs suggests a possible role as capping agent.

  5. Streptomyces thinghirensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Loqman, S; Bouizgarne, B; Barka, E Ait; Clément, C; von Jan, M; Spröer, C; Klenk, H-P; Ouhdouch, Y

    2009-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain S10(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of wild Vitis vinifera in Thinghir, Ouarzazate Province, Southern Morocco. The taxonomic status of this strain was established using a polyphasic approach. Strain S10(T) had white-grey aerial mycelium with long, spiral spore chains bearing smooth surfaced spores and produced a yellow diffusible pigment. Chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the cell wall of strain S10(T) contained ll-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain S10(T) belonged to the Group I streptomycetes, branching off next to Streptomyces marokkonensis LMG 23016(T) from the Streptomyces violaceoruber group. DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data distinguished strain S10(T) from the phylogenetically closest related type strains. It is therefore proposed that strain S10(T) (=CCMM B35(T)=DSM 41919(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces thinghirensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of Vitis vinifera extract on prediabetic mice induced by a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Cha, Youn Soo; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2013-09-01

    Vitis vinifera grape seed extract (VVE) contains oligomeric proanthocyanidins that show antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. We evaluated VVE for its neuroprotective effect in prediabetic mice induce by a high-fat diet (HD). Mice were divided into four groups according to VVE dose: those fed a normal diet (ND; n = 10), HD (n = 10), HD with 100 mg/kg VVE (n = 10), and HD with 250 mg/kg VVE (n = 10). After 12 weeks, immunohistochemical analyses were carried out using a polyclonal antibody against antiprotein gene product 9.5 (protein-gene-product, 9.5), and intraepidermal innervation was subsequently quantified as nerve fiber abundance per unit length of epidermis (intraepidermal nerve fiber, IENF/mm). Daily administration of VVE at doses of 100 or 250 mg/kg for 12 weeks protected HD mice from nerve fiber loss compared to untreated mice, as follows (IENF/mm): controls (40.95 ± 5.40), HD (28.70 ± 6.37), HD with 100 mg/kg (41.14 ± 1.12), and HD with 250 mg/kg (48.98 ± 7.01; p < 0.05, HD with VVE vs. HD). This study provides scientific support for the therapeutic potential of VVE in peripheral neuropathy in an HD mouse model. Our results suggest that VVE could play a role in the management of peripheral neuropathy, similar to other antioxidants known to be beneficial for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    PubMed

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients.

  8. Dynamic Relation between Expansion and Cellular Turgor in Growing Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Matthews, Mark A.; Morrison, Janice C.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the growth and water relations of expanding grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves have been used to determine the relationship between leaf expansion rate and leaf cell turgor. Direct measurement of turgor on the small (approximately 15 micrometer diameter) epidermal cells over the midvein of expanding grape leaves was made possible by improvements in the pressure probe technique. Leaf expansion rate and leaf water status were perturbed by environmentally induced changes in plant transpiration. After establishing a steady state growth rate, a step decrease in plant transpiration resulted in a rapid and large increase in leaf cell turgor (0.25 megapascal in 5 minutes), and leaf expansion rate. Subsequently, leaf expansion rate returned to the original steady state rate with no change in cell turgor. These results indicate that the expansion rate of leaves may not be strongly related to the turgor of the leaf cells, and that substantial control of leaf expansion rate, despite changes in turgor, may be part of normal plant function. It is suggested that a strictly physical interpretation of the parameters most commonly used to describe the relationship between turgor and growth in plant cells (cell wall extensibility and yield threshold) may be inappropriate when considering the process of plant cell expansion. PMID:16665579

  9. Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2003-07-01

    Jasmonic acid altered the accumulation of major anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cell culture. Peonidin 3-glucoside content at day three was increased from 0.3 to 1.7 mg g(-1) dry cell wt while other major anthocyanins were increased by smaller increments. By day 14, the content of methylated and acylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside) was 6.3 mg g(-1) DCW, in response to treatment with jasmonic acid, and comprising approximately 45% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the untreated control culture contained 1.2 mg g(-1) DCW which made up approximately 32% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. Light further enhanced anthocyanin accumulation induced by jasmonic acid elicitation. The content of peonidin 3-glucoside at day 3 was 6.6 mg g(-1) DCW, 22-fold higher than control cultures while the content in response to light irradiation alone was 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW. When a highly pigmented cell line was elicited with jasmonic acid total anthocyanins increased from 9.2 to 20.7 mg g(-1) DCW, but there was no change in the anthocyanin composition.

  10. Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico).

    PubMed

    De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa

    2013-10-15

    Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

    2009-12-23

    Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed.

  13. Proteomic analysis of berry-sizing effect of GA3 on seedless Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zeng; Zhao, Fengxia; Zhao, Xiao; Ge, Hui; Chai, Lijuan; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Ma, Huiqin

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is widely used in the table grape and raisin industries to enlarge the berries of seedless varieties. However, the mechanism underlying its berry-sizing effect is poorly understood. In this study, clusters of Centennial Seedless (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 30 ppm GA3 on day 12 after flowering, and berries were sampled at development stages I, II and III for proteomic analysis. Among the 1479 proteins detected on 2-DE maps, 19, 70 and 69 spots in stages I, II and III, respectively, showed an at least twofold difference in volume between treatments and controls. Of these, 125 proteins were successfully identified and assigned to eight functional groups, chief among them are metabolism and energy, stress response, expression regulation and cytoskeleton proteins. Stress-response proteins were predominantly down-regulated in GA3-treated berries in stages I and II, and significantly up-regulated in stage III. Up-regulation of cytoskeleton, cell-wall modification and other important proteins was found in the two latter stages of berry development. Our proteomic results and subsequent validation revealed, for the first time, the role of redox homeostasis in GA3-induced berry enlargement and markedly remodeled cellular protein expression in treated berries.

  14. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Resistance to Water Transport in Shoots of Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Hans R.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    Apparent resistances to water transport in the liquid phase were determined from measurements of soil, root, basal shoot internode, shoot apex, and leaf water potentials and water flux in Vitis vinifera (cv White Riesling) during soil drying. Predawn water potential differences (ΔΨ) in the shoots accounted for 20% of the total ΔΨ between the soil and the shoot apex when plants were well-watered but increased to about 90% when shoot growth ceased. The ΔΨ from soil to root was essentially constant during this period. At low water potential, the ΔΨ in the shoot was persistent when transpiration was low (predawn) or completely prevented (plant bagging). The apparent hydraulic resistance between the basal shoot internode and most rapidly expanding leaf (or shoot apex) increased several-fold when water was withheld. Leaf and internode expansion both exhibited high sensitivity to increasing hydraulic resistance. Measurements of pneumatic resistance to air flow through frozen internode segments indicated progressive vapor-filling of vessels as soil drying progressed. From these observations and others in the literature, it was suggested that embolization may be a common occurrence and play an important role in the inhibition of shoot growth at moderate water deficits. PMID:16666373

  16. Quality assessment of commercial dietary antioxidant products from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Garrido, Ignacio; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic preparations from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds are products commonly used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. In this article, we used a methodology (the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of commercial dietary grape seed products and studied the relationship of the antioxidant capacity with the phenolic composition of these products. The ORAC value of the different brands of commercial products studied (n = 16) varied from 2.71 to 26.4 micromol Trolox equivalents/mg (approximately equal to 10-fold difference). For four of these products, the batch-to-batch ORAC variation, expressed as a coefficient of variation of the mean, was 10.5% (n = 6), 13.1% (n = 3), 19.4% (n = 4), and 7.8% (n = 4). Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols by liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD)/electrospray-mass spectrometry and procyanidins by thiolysis-LC-DAD also revealed large differences among the commercial grape seed products. Moreover, the ORAC value could be fitted to a regression model using variables from contents of individual phenolic compounds and procyanidins. The product-to-product and batch-to-batch variation in ORAC values and flavan-3-ol composition found among the commercial products studied demonstrated that they are poorly standardized, resulting in inconsistent composition and biological activity.

  17. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from grape (Vitis vinifera) stems.

    PubMed

    Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Chillemi, Rosa; Condorelli, Daniele Filippo; Sciuto, Sebastiano; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

    2009-01-01

    The fractionation, guided by cell-growth inhibition assay, of the EtOAc crude extract from grape stems of the Sicilian Vitis vinifera variety 'Nerello Mascalese' allowed identification often constituents, isolated either as pure compounds (1, 3-5, 7-10) or inseparable mixtures (2a-d and 6a-e). The pure constituents were: two triterpenoid acids, oleanolic (1) and betulinic acids (5); daucosterol (7); a stilbenoid, E-resveratrol (3) and its dimer E-epsilon-viniferin (4); the simple phenol gallic acid (8); and the flavanols catechin (9) and gallocatechin (10). Four 6'-O-acyldaucosterols (2a-d) and five 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl glycerols (6a-e) were also identified as inseparable mixtures. All the isolated compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and MTT bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The majority showed growth-inhibitory activity, 5 being the most active (GI50 = 0.57 microM). Compounds 3-5 were also tested on HT-29, U-87-MG and U-373-MG cell lines.

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from international Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Jovančićević, Branimir S; Radovanović, Blaga C; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zvezdanović, Jelena B

    2012-08-15

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from different international Vitis vinifera grape varieties and their correlation with contents of phenolic compounds were studied by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The antioxidant activity of red wines was estimated through their ability to scavenge 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•) ). The red wines, gallic acid, (+)-catechin and quercetin were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains using microdilution and disc diffusion techniques. Excellent correlations between the contents of quercetin-3-glucoside (R(2) = 0.9463) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.9337) and DPPH(•) -scavenging ability of the red wines were found. Serbian red wines exhibited significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Micrococcus flavus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella sonnei strains, which was in correlation with their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The compounds gallic acid, quercetin and (+)-catechin showed high activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. lutea and M. flavus Gram-positive and S. enteritidis and P. aeruginosa Gram-negative strains. The results show that quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin concentrations can be used as markers for the determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of red wines. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The epimerase activity of anthocyanidin reductase from Vitis vinifera and its regiospecific hydride transfers.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Mahmoud; Chaudière, Jean; Manigand, Claude; Maugé, Chloé; Bathany, Katell; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Gallois, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) from Vitis vinifera catalyzes an NADPH-dependent double reduction of anthocyanidins producing a mixture of (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-flavan-3-ols. At pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C, the first hydride transfer to anthocyanidin is irreversible, and no intermediate is released during catalysis. ANR reverse activity was assessed in the presence of excess NADP(+). Analysis of products by reverse phase and chiral phase HPLC demonstrates that ANR acts as a flavan-3-ol C(3)-epimerase under such conditions, but this is only observed with 2R-flavan-3-ols, not with 2S-flavan-3-ols produced by the enzyme in the forward reaction. In the presence of deuterated coenzyme 4S-NADPD, ANR transforms anthocyanidins into dideuterated flavan-3-ols. The regiospecificity of deuterium incorporation into catechin and afzelechin - derived from cyanidin and pelargonidin, respectively - was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electro- spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), and it was found that deuterium was always incorporated at C(2) and C(4). We conclude that C(3)-epimerization should be achieved by tautomerization between the two hydride transfers and that this produces a quinone methide intermediate which serves as C(4) target of the second hydride transfer, thereby avoiding any stereospecific modification of carbon 3. The inversion of C(2) stereochemistry required for 'reverse epimerization' suggests that the 2S configuration induces an irreversible product dissociation.

  20. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits.

  1. Cellular expansion and gene expression in the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Schlosser, J; Olsson, N; Weis, M; Reid, K; Peng, F; Lund, S; Bowen, P

    2008-01-01

    Expression profiles of genes involved in cell wall metabolism and water transport were compared with changes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry growth, basic chemical composition, and the shape, size, and wall thickness of cells within tissues of the berry pericarp. Expression of cell wall-modifying and aquaporin genes in berry pericarp tissues generally followed a bimodal expression profile with high levels of expression coinciding with the two periods of rapid berry growth, stages I and III, and low levels of expression corresponding to the slow-growth period, stage II. Cellular expansion was observed throughout all tissues during stage I, and only mesocarp cellular expansion was observed during stage III. Expansion of only exocarp cells was evident during transition between stages II and III. Cell wall-modifying and aquaporin gene expression profiles followed similar trends in exocarp and mesocarp tissues throughout berry development, with the exception of the up-regulation of pectin methylesterase, pectate lyase, two aquaporin genes (AQ1 and AQ2), and two expansin genes (EXP3 and EXPL) during stage II, which was delayed in the exocarp tissue compared with mesocarp tissue. Exocarp endo-(1-->3)-beta-glucanase and expansin-like gene expression was concurrent with increases in epidermal and hypodermal cell wall thickness. These results indicate a potential role of the grape berry skin in modulating grape berry growth.

  2. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T; Koumbi, Lemonica; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2008-01-01

    Currants and Sultanas (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used broadly in the Mediterranean diet. We aimed to investigate the gastric cancer preventive activity of methanol extracts obtained from currants from three different origins in Greece (Vostizza, Nemea, and Messinia) as well as methanol extracts obtained from Sultanas cultivated in the island of Crete as to inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of inflammation. All extracts from 500 microg dried raisins studied suppressed cell proliferation, significantly those obtained from Sultanas from Crete and currants from Nemea. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V labeled cells indicated that Cretan Sultana, Nemea, and Messinia currants at 500 microg dried product/ml medium significantly induced cell death. All extracts from 500 microg dried raisins statistically decreased protein and mRNA levels of ICAM-1 in TNF-alpha stimulated cells. Measurement of IL-8 protein levels and quantification for IL-8 mRNA showed no significant decrease. These results indicate that the methanol extracts from currants, rich in phenolic compounds, exhibit cancer preventive efficacy by limiting cell proliferation, inducing cell death, and suppressing ICAM-1 levels in AGS cells.

  3. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  4. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Twenty-Four Vitis vinifera Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenchang; Cheng, Lailiang; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g) and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g), cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts).The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future. PMID:25133401

  5. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  6. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  7. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Wang, Xiping

    2014-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I–III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments. PMID:24510937

  8. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-11-01

    Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.

  12. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  14. Identification of stable QTLs for vegetative and reproductive traits in the microvine (Vitis vinifera L.) using the 18 K Infinium chip.

    PubMed

    Houel, Cléa; Chatbanyong, Ratthaphon; Doligez, Agnès; Rienth, Markus; Foria, Serena; Luchaire, Nathalie; Roux, Catherine; Adivèze, Angélique; Lopez, Gilbert; Farnos, Marc; Pellegrino, Anne; This, Patrice; Romieu, Charles; Torregrosa, Laurent

    2015-08-19

    The increasing temperature associated with climate change impacts grapevine phenology and development with critical effects on grape yield and composition. Plant breeding has the potential to deliver new cultivars with stable yield and quality under warmer climate conditions, but this requires the identification of stable genetic determinants. This study tested the potentialities of the microvine to boost genetics in grapevine. A mapping population of 129 microvines derived from Picovine x Ugni Blanc flb, was genotyped with the Illumina® 18 K SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) chip. Forty-three vegetative and reproductive traits were phenotyped outdoors over four cropping cycles, and a subset of 22 traits over two cropping cycles in growth rooms with two contrasted temperatures, in order to map stable QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci). Ten stable QTLs for berry development and quality or leaf area were identified on the parental maps. A new major QTL explaining up to 44 % of total variance of berry weight was identified on chromosome 7 in Ugni Blanc flb, and co-localized with QTLs for seed number (up to 76 % total variance), major berry acids at green lag phase (up to 35 %), and other yield components (up to 25 %). In addition, a minor QTL for leaf area was found on chromosome 4 of the same parent. In contrast, only minor QTLs for berry acidity and leaf area could be found as moderately stable in Picovine. None of the transporters recently identified as mutated in low acidity apples or Cucurbits were included in the several hundreds of candidate genes underlying the above berry QTLs, which could be reduced to a few dozen candidate genes when a priori pertinent biological functions and organ specific expression were considered. This study combining the use of microvine and a high throughput genotyping technology was innovative for grapevine genetics. It allowed the identification of 10 stable QTLs, including the first berry acidity QTLs reported so far in a Vitis

  15. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model.

    PubMed

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-19

    The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and

  16. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  17. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stimulation of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Cl Mauro, M; Nef, C; Fallot, J

    1986-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent diploid plants have been obtained from anthers of Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon, a cultivar so far considered as recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration. Anthers enclosing microspores near the first pollen mitosis were found to be the most responsive. However, from a practical point of view anther length proved to be an easier criterium for determining the optimal physiological anther stage. Calli derived from the anther somatic tissues produced embryoids only when cultured on a medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate. Glutamine and adenine were found to stimulate this embryoid production. Evidence is presented that early removal of cotyledons increases the frequency of normal development of embryoids into plantlets.

  19. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content.

    PubMed

    Torres, Josep Lluís; Varela, Begoña; García, María Teresa; Carilla, Josep; Matito, Cecilia; Centelles, Josep J; Cascante, Marta; Sort, Xavier; Bobet, Raül

    2002-12-18

    Many byproducts and wastes generated by agroindustries contain polyphenols with potential application as food antioxidants and preventive agents against skin cancer and other diseases. The performance of polyphenolic fractions from Parellada grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace as antioxidants in different physicochemical environments was tested. Fractions containing oligomers with mean degree of polymerization between 3 and 4 and percentage galloylation ca. 30% were the most potent free radical scavengers and efficient antioxidants in an oil-in-