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Sample records for grapevine vitis vinifera

  1. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Alain; Torregrosa, Laurent; Iocco, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal co-cultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system which meets the above mentioned criteria.

  2. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  3. Transport and accumulation of flavonoids in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Braidot, Enrico; Zancani, Marco; Petrussa, Elisa; Peresson, Carlo; Bertolini, Alberto; Patui, Sonia; Macrì, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants that represent a huge portion of the soluble phenolics present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). These compounds play different physiological roles and are often involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stress. Even if the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways have been largely characterized, the mechanisms of their transport and accumulation in cell wall and vacuole are still not completely understood. This review analyses the known mechanisms of flavonoid uptake and accumulation in grapevine, with reference to the transport models and membrane carrier proteins described in other plant species. The effect of different environmental factors on flavonoid biosynthesis and transporters is also discussed. PMID:19513253

  4. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  5. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. IMPORTANCE The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All

  6. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation.

  7. Changes in the proteome of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) during long-term drought stress.

    PubMed

    Król, Angelika; Weidner, Stanisław

    2017-04-01

    The essence of exploring and understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses lies in the determination of patterns of the expression of proteins, identification of stress proteins and their association with the specific functions in metabolic pathways. To date, little information has been provided about the proteomic response of grapevine to the persistent influence of adverse environmental conditions. This article describes changes in the profile of protein accumulation in leaves of common grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seedlings in response to prolonged drought. Isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2 DE), and the proteins whose level of accumulation changed significantly due to the applied stress factors were identified with tandem mass spectrometry MALDI TOF/TOF type. Analysis of the proteome of grapevine leaves led to the detection of many proteins whose synthesis changed in response to the applied stressor. Drought caused the most numerous changes in the accumulation of proteins associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, mostly connected with the pathways of glycolysis and photosystem II protein components. The biological function of the identified proteins is discussed with reference to the stress of drought. Some of the identified proteins, especially the ones whose accumulation increased during drought stress, may be responsible for the adaptation of grapevine to drought.

  8. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  9. Inflorescence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): a high ability to distribute its own assimilates.

    PubMed

    Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Maillard, Pascale; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Gross, Patrick; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of carbon (C) into whole grapevine fruiting cuttings was investigated during flower development to determine the relative contribution of inflorescence and leaf photoassimilates in the total C balance and to investigate their partitioning towards other plant organs. A (13)C labelling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates by leaves and inflorescences in grapevine. Investigations were carried out at various stages of flower/berry development, from separated cluster to fruit set, using grapevine fruiting cuttings with four leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay). This is the first study reporting that, during its development, (i) the carbon needs of the inflorescence were met by both leaf and inflorescence photosynthesis, and (ii) the inflorescence amazingly participated significantly to the total C balance of grapevine cuttings by redistributing an important part of its own assimilates to other plant organs. With regard to flowering, 29% of C assimilated by the inflorescence remained in the inflorescence, while partitioning towards the stem reached 42% and, as a lower proportion, 15% in leaves, and 14% in roots.

  10. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  11. Transcriptional analysis of tendril and inflorescence development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Carmona, María J

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes.

  12. Investigations on the leaf surface ultrastructure in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bensalem-Fnayou, A; Jellouli, N; Bouamama, B; Mliki, A; Ghorbel, A

    2009-01-01

    Several Scanning microscopy techniques were used to investigate the leaf surface ultrastructure in the local "Razegui" grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.). Conventional scanning electron microscopy performed on glutaraldehyde-fixed samples allowed observation of well-preserved epidermal cells with an overlaying waxy layer. At a high magnification, the waxy layer exhibited crystalline projections in the form of horizontal and vertical platelets. Also, to avoid eventual ultrastructural alterations inherent in the use of solvents during sample preparation, fresh leaf blade samples were directly observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. A classical image of convex living epidermal cells was observed. At 2400x magnification, epicuticular waxes exhibited a granular structure. However, high-magnification images were not obtained with this device. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) performed on fresh leaf blade samples allowed observation of a textured surface and heterogeneous profiles attributed to epicuticular wax deposits. AFM topography images confirmed further, the presence of irregular crystalloid wax projections as multishaped platelets on the adaxial surface of grapevine leaf.

  13. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Debez, Ahmed; Mahmoudi, Henda; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-05-01

    Morpho-physiological responses to bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency were investigated in five Vitis vinifera L. Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Blanc3, Arich Dressé, Beldi, and Balta4). One-month-old woody cuttings were cultivated for 85days on a free calcareous soil irrigated with tap water containing increasing bicarbonate levels (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16mM NaHCO(3)). After this screening, a second experiment compared root biochemical responses of two contrasting genotypes (tolerant-sensitive) dealing with bicarbonate-induced iron deprivation (20microM Fe+/-10mM HCO(3)(-)) for 75days. Using morpho-physiological criteria, grapevine tolerance to HCO(3)(-)-induced Fe shortage appeared to be genotype-dependent: Balta4 and Beldi varieties showed the highest leaf-chlorosis score (especially at the extreme HCO(3)(-) levels), in contrast to Khamri variety. Growth parameters (shoot height, total leaf area, leaf number, and biomass production) as well as juvenile leaf chlorophyll content were also differently affected depending on both genotype and bicarbonate dose. At 16mM HCO(3)(-), Khamri was the less sensitive variety, contrasting with Balta4. On the other hand, chlorophyll content correlated positively with HCl-extractible Fe content of the juvenile leaves, suggesting that the grapevine response to iron deficiency may partly depend on to the plant ability to adequately supply young leaves with this element. Root biochemical responses revealed a relatively higher root acidification capacity in Khamri (tolerant) under Fe-deficiency while no significant changes occurred in Balta4 (sensitive). In addition, Fe(III)-reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) activities were strongly stimulated by Fe-deficiency in Khamri, while remaining constant in Balta4. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis.

  14. Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is a natural component of sunlight, which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. The nature of the response to UV-B is dependent on fluence rate, dose, duration and wavelength of the UV-B treatment. Some reports have analyzed the changes in gene expression caused by UV-B light on several plant species using microarray technology. However, there is no information on the transcriptome response triggered by UV-B in grapevine. In this paper we investigate the gene expression responses of leaves from in vitro cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants subjected to the same dose of biologically effective UV-B radiation (4.75 kJ m-2 d-1) administered at two different fluence rates (16 h at ≅ 8.25 μW cm-2, 4 h at ≅ 33 μW cm-2) using a new custom made GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip®. Results The number of genes modulated by high fluence rate UV-B doubled the number of genes modulated by low fluence UV-B. Their functional analyses revealed several functional categories commonly regulated by both UV-B treatments as well as categories more specifically modulated depending on UV-B fluence rate. General protective responses, namely the induction of pathways regulating synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds such as the Phenylpropanoid pathway, the induction of different antioxidant defense systems and the activation of pathways commonly associated with pathogen defense and abiotic stress responses seem to play critical roles in grapevine responses against UV-B radiation. Furthermore, high fluence rate UV-B seemed to specifically modulate additional pathways and processes in order to protect grapevine plantlets against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, stop the cell cycle progression, and control protein degradation. On the other hand, low fluence rate UV-B regulated the expression of specific responses in the metabolism of auxin and abscisic acid as well as in the modification of cell walls that could be involved

  15. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  16. Influence of intra-shoot trophic competition on shoot development in two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Louarn, Gaëtan; Christophe, Angélique; Lebon, Eric; Lecoeur, Jérémie

    2008-09-01

    The effect of trophic competition between vegetative sources and reproductive sinks on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) shoot development was analyzed. Two international cultivars (Grenache N and Syrah) grown in pots, which were well watered, were studied. A large range of trophic competition levels was obtained by modifying the cluster loads per plant. An analytical breakdown of the branching system was used to analyze the effects of trophic competition. Phytomer production on the primary axis and the probability and timing of axillary budburst were not affected by trophic competition. However, the duration of development and leaf production rate for secondary axes were both significantly affected. The impact of trophic competition differed within the P0-P1-P2 architectural module, locally within the shoot and between cultivars. Trophic competition reduced the organogenesis of secondary axes most strongly close to clusters, on P1-P2 phytomers and in Grenache N. Based on these results, a modeling approach simulating sink strength variation and the local effects of sink proximity would be more relevant than a model considering only development as a function of thermal time or the global distribution of available biomass.

  17. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats), due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol), is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS) with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars. PMID:21062440

  18. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines, Vitis vinifera, in Washington and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in eastern Washington and Idaho to determine the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wine grape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards. The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington and Idaho wine grape vineyards were Meloidogyne hapla, Paratylenchus ...

  19. Branch Development Controls Leaf Area Dynamics in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Growing in Drying Soil

    PubMed Central

    LEBON, ERIC; PELLEGRINO, ANNE; LOUARN, GAËTAN; LECOEUR, JEREMIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Soil water deficit is a major abiotic stress with severe consequences for the development, productivity and quality of crops. However, it is considered a positive factor in grapevine management (Vitis vinifera), as it has been shown to increase grape quality. The effects of soil water deficit on organogenesis, morphogenesis and gas exchange in the shoot were investigated. • Methods Shoot organogenesis was analysed by distinguishing between the various steps in the development of the main axis and branches. Several experiments were carried out in pots, placed in a greenhouse or outside, in southern France. Soil water deficits of various intensities were imposed during vegetative development of the shoots of two cultivars (‘Syrah’ and ‘Grenache N’). • Key Results All developmental processes were inhibited by soil water deficit, in an intensity-dependent manner, and sensitivity to water stress was process-dependent. Quantitative relationships with soil water were established for all processes. No difference was observed between the two cultivars for any criterion. The number of leaves on branches was particularly sensitive to soil water deficit, which rapidly and strongly reduced the rate of leaf appearance on developing branches. This response was not related to carbon availability, photosynthetic activity or the soluble sugar content of young expanding leaves. The potential number of branches was not a limiting factor for shoot development. • Conclusions The particularly high sensitivity to soil water deficit of leaf appearance on branches indicates that this process is a major determinant of the adaptation of plant leaf area to soil water deficit. The origin of this particular developmental response to soil water deficit is unclear, but it seems to be related to constitutive characteristics of branches rather than to competition for assimilates between axes differing in sink strength. PMID:16679414

  20. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  1. Cooking impact in color, pigments and volatile composition of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca).

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriano; Pereira, José Alberto; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2017-04-15

    Grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca) under culinary treatment (blanching and boiling at 60, 75 and 90min) were studied for their color, pigments and volatile fraction changes. Blanching and boiling caused a decrease in luminosity and a loss of green coloration in both varieties, while a yellow-brownish color arose. Significant correlations were established between the loss of green color (monochromatic variable a(∗)) and the total chlorophylls content. The main volatiles in fresh leaves [(Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate] were drastically reduced by blanching and suppressed by boiling. Other compounds like pentanal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2 one arose from blanching and boiling. A boiling time of 60min is adequate for the culinary process of grapevine leaves, since the product is considered edible and the pigments and volatile changes are not as drastic as observed at 75 and 90min of boiling.

  2. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  3. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  4. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  5. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts.

  6. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  7. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  8. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. "Flame seedless" stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed.

  9. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-García, R; Ruiz-García, L; Bolling, L; Ocete, R; López, M A; Arnold, C; Ergul, A; Söylemezoğlu, G; Uzun, H I; Cabello, F; Ibáñez, J; Aradhya, M K; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I; Balint, S; Cenis, J L; Costantini, L; Goris-Lavets, S; Grando, M S; Klein, B Y; McGovern, P E; Merdinoglu, D; Pejic, I; Pelsy, F; Primikirios, N; Risovannaya, V; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A; Snoussi, H; Sotiri, P; Tamhankar, S; This, P; Troshin, L; Malpica, J M; Lefort, F; Martinez-Zapater, J M

    2006-10-01

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations.

  10. Changes of defense proteins in the extracellular proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures in response to elicitors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Esteso, M J; Sellés-Marchart, S; Vera-Urbina, J C; Pedreño, M A; Bru-Martinez, R

    2009-12-01

    In plant cells, elicitors induce defense responses that resemble those triggered by pathogen attack, such as the synthesis of phytoalexins and pathogen-related proteins which accumulate in the extracellular space. In the search for the particular proteins involved in defense responses, we investigated the changes in the extracellular proteome of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell suspension in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Twenty-five of the 39 spots differentially expressed in 2-D gels were identified and found to be encoded by 10 different genes: three secretory peroxidases, chitinase-III, beta-1,3-glucanase, thaumatin-like, SGNH plant lipase-like, NtPR27-like, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and subtilisin-like protease. Most of them belong to the pathogenesis-related type proteins. A new class III secretory basic peroxidase and chitinase III were strongly induced in cultures treated with MBCD alone or combined with MeJA, while cultures treated with MeJA alone displayed a general repression of most of the extracellular proteins. Some of the proteins induced in grapevine cell cultures by MBCD are induced in other species by activators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a form of plant immunity. Collectively, the results suggest that treatment with MBCD resembles the effect of SAR induction agents in cell cultures.

  11. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva; Pidra, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase).

  12. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  13. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  14. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves.

  15. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding.

  16. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling.

  17. The peripheral xylem of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). 1. Structural integrity in post-veraison berries.

    PubMed

    Chatelet, David S; Rost, Thomas L; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    During the development of many fleshy fruits, water flow becomes progressively more phloemic and less xylemic. In grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the current hypothesis to explain this change is that the tracheary elements of the peripheral xylem break as a result of berry growth, rendering the xylem structurally discontinuous and hence non-functional. Recent work, however, has shown via apoplastic dye movement through the xylem of post-veraison berries that the xylem should remain structurally intact throughout berry development. To corroborate this, peripheral xylem structure in developing Chardonnay berries was investigated via maceration and plastic sectioning. Macerations revealed that, contrary to current belief, the xylem was comprised mostly of vessels with few tracheids. In cross-section, the tracheary elements of the vascular bundles formed almost parallel radial files, with later formed elements toward the epidermis and earlier formed elements toward the centre of the berry. Most tracheary elements remained intact throughout berry maturation, consistent with recent reports of vascular dye movement in post-veraison berries.

  18. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal.

  19. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase.

  20. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  1. Berry morphology and composition in irrigated and non-irrigated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sofo, Adriano; Nuzzo, Vitale; Tataranni, Giuseppe; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Scopa, Antonio

    2012-07-15

    The present study was carried out in a 5-year-old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Aglianico) located in Southern Italy. Half of the plants (IRR) were fully irrigated, whereas the other half were not irrigated (NIRR). In both of the treatments, plant water status, gas exchange, photosynthetic efficiency and productive performance were determined. The arid conditions resulted in significant decreases in stem water potential in NIRR (minimum values of -1.34 and -1.52 MPa in IRR and NIRR, respectively). The values of yield per plant, cluster weight and total berry weight were significantly higher in IRR. Grape berries were separated into four weight classes, and morphometric and microscopic analyses were carried out to measure and calculate berry skin characteristics. Irrigation determined a marked shift toward heavier (+23% in the class ≥ 1.25 g) and bigger (336.35 mm³ vs 299.15 mm³) berries, and induced significant changes in other morphometric berry parameters. No differences among berry weight classes and irrigation treatments were observed for berry skin thickness. In all of the berry weight classes, total anthocyanins extracted from berry skins were significantly higher in NIRR than in IRR (12301.53 and 9585.52 mg kg⁻¹ fresh berry skin, respectively), and appeared to be positively related to berry weight, whereas total flavonols were not significantly different between the two treatments. Qualitative changes in the levels of single anthocyanin and flavonol compounds were detected between IRR and NIRR. In addition, iron, copper and zinc, whose high concentration can negatively affect wine quality, were significantly higher in the IRR treatment. The results highlighted that the absence of irrigation did not determine decreases in grape quality. Such data can be of primary importance in environments where water availability is by far the most important limiting factor for plant growth.

  2. Co-evolution between Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus and Vitis vinifera L. leads to decreased defence responses and increased transcription of genes related to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Cuozzo, Danila; Fasoli, Marianna; Pagliarani, Chiara; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Pezzotti, Mario; Mannini, Franco

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a widespread virus infecting Vitis spp. Although it has established a compatible viral interaction in Vitis vinifera without the development of phenotypic alterations, it can occur as distinct variants that show different symptoms in diverse Vitis species. The changes induced by GRSPaV in V. vinifera cv 'Bosco', an Italian white grape variety, were investigated by combining agronomic, physiological, and molecular approaches, in order to provide comprehensive information about the global effects of GRSPaV. In two years, this virus caused a moderate decrease in physiological efficiency, yield performance, and sugar content in berries associated with several transcriptomic alterations. Transcript profiles were analysed by a microarray technique in petiole, leaf, and berry samples collected at véraison and by real-time RT-PCR in a time course carried out at five grapevine developmental stages. Global gene expression analyses showed that transcriptomic changes were highly variable among the different organs and the different phenological phases. GRSPaV triggers some unique responses in the grapevine at véraison, never reported before for other plant-virus interactions. These responses include an increase in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation, a moderate reduction in the photosynthesis rate and some defence mechanisms, and an overlap with responses to water and salinity stresses. It is hypothesized that the long co-existence of grapevine and GRSPaV has resulted in the evolution of a form of mutual adaptation between the virus and its host. This study contributes to elucidating alternative mechanisms used by infected plants to contend with viruses.

  3. Epigenetic repressor-like genes are differentially regulated during grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development.

    PubMed

    Almada, Rubén; Cabrera, Nuri; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González Villanueva, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Grapevine sexual reproduction involves a seasonal separation between inflorescence primordia (flowering induction) and flower development. We hypothesized that a repression mechanism implicating epigenetic changes could play a role in the seasonal separation of these two developmental processes in grapevine. Therefore, the expression of five grapevine genes with homology to the Arabidopsis epigenetic repressor genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), CURLY LEAF (CLF), MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1) and SWINGER (SWN) was analyzed during the development of buds and vegetative and reproductive organs. During bud development, the putative grapevine epigenetic repressor genes VvCLF, VvEMF2, VvMSI1, VvSWN and VvFIE are mainly expressed in latent buds at the flowering induction period, but also detected during bud burst and inflorescence/flower development. The overlapping expression patterns of grapevine PcG-like genes in buds suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms could be operating during grapevine bud development for controlling processes such as seasonal flowering, dormancy and bud burst. Furthermore, the expression of grapevine PcG-like genes was also detected in fruits and vegetative organs, suggesting that epigenetic changes could be at the basis of the regulation of various proliferation-differentiation cell transitions that occur during grapevine development.

  4. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  5. Revisiting Vitis vinifera Subtilase Gene Family: A Possible Role in Grapevine Resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Joana; Costa, Gonçalo J.; Maia, Marisa; Paulo, Octávio S.; Malhó, Rui; Sousa Silva, Marta; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defense mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing. All the subtilases identified present the characteristic S8 peptidase domain and the majority of them also have a pro-domain I9 inhibitor, a protease-associated (PA) domain, and a signal peptide for targeting to the secretory pathway. Phylogenetic studies revealed six subtilase groups denominated VvSBT1 to VvSBT6. As several evidences have highlighted the participation of plant subtilases in response to biotic stimulus, we have investigated subtilase participation in grapevine resistance to Plasmopara viticola, the causative agent of downy mildew. Fourteen grapevine subtilases presenting either high homology to P69C from tomato, SBT3.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana or located near the Resistance to P. viticola (RPV) locus were selected. Expression studies were conducted in the grapevine-P. viticola pathosystem with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Our results may indicate that some of grapevine subtilisins are potentially participating in the defense response against this biotrophic oomycete. PMID:27933087

  6. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  7. Investigations on the leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Bouamama, Badra; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Mliki, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    Leaf anatomical and ultrastructural responses of "Razegui" and "Muscat Italia" grapevine cultivars to high temperatures were studied under controlled conditions (T > 36°C), based on photonic and electron microscopy. Histological studies performed on leaves from heat-stressed and control grapevines revealed thicker leaf blades under high temperature conditions. Environmental scanning electron microscopy of leaf surfaces from both cultivars allowed observing sinuate epidermal cells on the leaves of grapevines cultivated under heat stress and irregular giant oblong pores on their adaxial surface. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, leaf cross sections in grapevines cultivated under high temperature conditions exhibited folded cuticle and cell wall on the adaxial epidermis layer. Therefore, significantly greater cell wall thicknesses were measured under heat stress than control conditions in both cultivars. Regarding chloroplasts, they were more globular in shape under heat stress compared with control conditions and had disorganized thylakoids with a reduced thickness of grana stacking. The size of starch granule decreased, while the number of plastoglobules increased with heat stress, indicating a reduced carbon metabolism and a beginning of senescence within the 3-month heat stress period. This study confirms widespread adaptive properties in two grapevine cultivars in response to high temperature stress.

  8. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens.

  9. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-04-28

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore.

  10. Xylem vessel relays contribute to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Connectivity within xylem networks plays an important role in the movement of water and nutrients through plants, but also facilitates the spread of pathogens and embolisms that increase hydraulic resistance. This study describes a unique anatomical feature found in grapevine xylem that forms radial...

  11. Structural Changes Induced in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) DNA by Femtosecond IR Laser Pulses: A Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Nicoleta E.; Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Fălămaș, Alexandra; Halmagyi, Adela; Coste, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, surface-enhanced Raman spectra of ten genomic DNAs extracted from leaf tissues of different grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties, respectively, are analyzed in the wavenumber range 300–1800 cm−1. Furthermore, structural changes induced in grapevine genomic nucleic acids upon femtosecond (170 fs) infrared (IR) laser pulse irradiation (λ = 1100 nm) are discussed in detail for seven genomic DNAs, respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signatures, vibrational band assignments and structural characterization of genomic DNAs are reported for each case. As a general observation, the wavenumber range between 1500 and 1660 cm−1 of the spectra seems to be modified upon laser treatment. This finding could reflect changes in the base-stacking interactions in DNA. Spectral shifts are mainly attributed to purines (dA, dG) and deoxyribose. Pyrimidine residues seem to be less affected by IR femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the conformational properties of nucleic acid segments are observed after laser treatment. We have found that DNA isolated from Feteasca Neagra grapevine leaf tissues is the most structurally-responsive system to the femtosecond IR laser irradiation process. In addition, using unbiased computational resources by means of principal component analysis (PCA), eight different grapevine varieties were discriminated.

  12. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  13. Isolation of Native Proanthocyanidins from Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Other Fruits in Aqueous Buffer.

    PubMed

    Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Fulcrand, Hélène; Carrillo, Stéphanie; Rouméas, Laurent; Romieu, Charles

    2017-04-05

    Condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins) present in strategic tissues of fruits (outer pericarp and vascular bundles) were known as short polymers of flavan-3-ols. A pretreatment of the plant material (fruits from the grapevine, persimmon) with buffered ascorbic acid and Triton X-100 followed by acetone extraction provided native white fully depolymerizable tannins. Tannins are usually extracted with aqueous solvents and further purified, although artifactual oxidations occur, altering their physicochemical characteristics. Compared to artifactually oxidized tannins prepared according to standard protocols, white tannins (also called leukotannins) exhibit a higher degree of polymerization and a far lower polydispersity.

  14. Variation in DNA methylation patterns of grapevine somaclones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schellenbaum, Paul; Mohler, Volker; Wenzel, Gerhard; Walter, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background In traditional vine areas, the production should present a typicity that partly depends on the grapevine variety. Therefore, vine improvement is considered difficult because of the limited choice in the natural variability of the cultivars within the limits of their characteristics. A possibility to circumvent this problem is the use of somatic variability. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis can lead to genotypic and phenotypic variations, described as somaclonal variation, that could be useful for the selection of improved grapevine genotypes. Results In order to study tissue culture-induced variation of grapevine, we have analysed 78 somaclones obtained from somatic embryos of two distinct cultivars using molecular marker techniques. SSRs were only useful to verify the conservation of the microsatellite genotype between the somaclones and the respective mother clones. AFLP polymorphism between mother clones and somaclones was 1.3–2.8 times higher to that found between clones. However, a majority of the somaclones (45/78) exhibited only few changes. Seven and five somaclones of 'Chardonnay 96' and 'Syrah 174', respectively, which covered at least all polymorphic loci found in AFLP analysis were used for MSAP study. All of the 120 polymorphic fragments were found only in the somaclones. The percentage of full methylation at CCGG recognition sites was slightly higher in somaclones due to more polymorphic bands generated after cleavage by EcoRI/HpaII. Different digestion patterns revealed different methylation status, especially different levels of de-methylation, that are the consequence of the in vitro culture. Conclusion MSAP highlights DNA methylation variation in somaclones compared to mother clones and, therefore, is a powerful tool for genotypic characterisation of somatic embryo-derived grapevines. The detection of the same polymorphic bands in numerous somaclones of different cultivars suggests the possibility of hot spots of DNA

  15. Relative quantification of phosphoproteomic changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves in response to abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rattanakan, Supakan; George, Iniga; Haynes, Paul A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods. Each identified common proteins, but also additional proteins not found with the other method. Overall, several thousand proteins were identified and several hundred were quantified. In addition, hundreds of phosphoproteins were identified. Tens of proteins were found to be affected in the leaf after the roots had been exposed to ABA for 2 h, more than half of them were phosphorylated proteins. Many phosphosites were confirmed and several new ones were identified. ABA increased the abundance of some proteins, but the majority of the proteins had their protein abundance decreased. Many of these proteins were involved in growth and plant organ development, including proteins involved in protein synthesis, photosynthesis, sugar and amino-acid metabolism. This study provides new insights into how ABA regulates plant responses and acclimation to water deficits. PMID:27366326

  16. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053

  17. Comparison between modified DNA extraction protocols and commercial isolation kits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Akkurt, M

    2012-08-13

    Various protocols have been developed and used for DNA extraction in grapevine. However, owing to the long duration of the isolation steps in previously developed protocols, researchers have preferred to use isolation kits for studies in recent years. In our study, the DNA yield and purity obtained using six methods--namely three DNA isolation protocols and three commercial DNA isolation kits--were compared. Modifications were made and the isolation steps were shortened in the previously developed DNA isolation protocols to achieve more rapid and practical protocols. The samples were taken from plants grown under vineyard and greenhouse conditions in two periods during spring and autumn. The best results among the six DNA isolation methods were discussed. The results were also supported with polymerase chain reaction analyses conducted with isolated DNAs.

  18. Partitioning and mobilization of starch and N reserves in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Zapata, Christophe; Deléens, Eliane; Chaillou, Sylvain; Magné, Christian

    2004-09-01

    We followed C and N reserves of grapevines grown in trenches under semi-controlled conditions over a 3-year period after planting. Temporal mobilization of stored C and N and subsequent distribution of reserve materials within the vines were described in parallel with 15N uptake, particularly during the third growing season. Storage C in the perennial tissues (roots, trunk, canes) was mainly made of starch, which accumulated in the ray parenchyma of the wood. In the permanent tissues, starch and total nitrogen contents were found to decrease early in the development (bleeding sap, budbreak) whereas, on a concentration basis, they decreased only after stage 7 (first leaf fully expanded). Starch started to accumulate again in the perennial tissues during flowering. The same observation was made with total nitrogen, although N levels were much lower than those of starch. The 15N study showed that N uptake by the roots started at budbreak and increased with vine development, becoming predominant over reserve mobilization only after the onset of flowering. Taken together, these results indicate that the spring growth period can be divided into three main phases: In the first (dormancy to budbreak), significant losses of C and N proceed mainly via root necrosis. In the second period (first leaf to the onset of bloom), a strong mobilization of starch (and, to a lower extent, of N) occurred for supporting vegetative and reproductive growth. At that point, most of the C and N reserves used on the spring flush were those of the roots, rather than those of the old wood (trunk, canes). In the third period (bloom and early berry development), the mobilization process became low and was relieved by N uptake (and CO2 assimilation) supplying nutrients to the sink structures.

  19. Transformation of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) with the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) and a PGIP gene from kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Szankowski, I; Briviba, K; Fleschhut, J; Schönherr, J; Jacobsen, H-J; Kiesecker, H

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to introduce genes with antifungal potential into the commercially important apple cvs. Elstar and Holsteiner Cox in order to establish resistance against fungal diseases. The gene encoding the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from Vitis vinifera L., responsible for the synthesis of the phytoalexin resveratrol in grapevine, and the gene for a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa) were transferred into Holsteiner Cox and Elstar via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of nine transgenic Holsteiner Cox clones and one transgenic E clone carrying the stilbene-synthase gene as well as three transgenic Holsteiner Cox lines harbouring the polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from Kiwi were identified via polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the accumulation of a resveratrol-derivate, a glycoside, in transgenic Vst1 plants.

  20. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  1. Use of the VvMybA1 gene for non-destructive quantification of promoter activity via color histogram analysis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a convenient plant-based reporter system to analyze promoters and facilitate selection of genetically engineered plants. The VvMybA1 gene of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) regulates the last metabolic step of anthocyanin biosynthesis and its ectopic expression leads to anthocyanin production in otherwise non-pigmented cells. To develop an anthocyanin-based quantitative reporter system, the VvMybA1 gene was isolated from V. vinifera 'Merlot' and placed under control of three promoters to test its ability to distinguish different activity levels. Promoters included a double enhanced CaMV35S (d35S) promoter, a double enhanced CsVMV (dCsVMV) promoter or a bi-directional dual promoter (BDDP), resulting in transformation vectors DAT, CAT and DEAT, respectively. These vectors were introduced into grapevine and tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for transient and stable expression analysis. A linear relationship between the mean red brightness (MRB) and optical density (OD) values with a 0.99 regression coefficient was identified in a dilution series of anthocyanin, thus allowing the use of histogram data for non-destructive and real-time assessment of transcriptional activity. Results of histogram-based analysis of color images from transformed grapevine somatic embryos (SE) and various tissues of transgenic tobacco showed a consistent six to sevenfold promoter activity increase of DEAT over DAT. This expression increase was verified by spectroscopic measurement of anthocyanin concentrations in sepal tissue of transgenic tobacco plants. These results were congruent with previously findings of promoter activity derived from GUS fluorometric assay, thus demonstrating for the first time that the VvMybA1 gene could offer a simple, versatile and reliable plant-based alternative for quantitative promoter analysis in plants.

  2. Colonization of Vitis vinifera by a Green Fluorescence Protein-Labeled, gfp-Marked Strain of Xylophilus ampelinus, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Necrosis of Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Grall, Sophie; Manceau, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of Xylophilus ampelinus were studied in Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. Currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in France: the Cognac, Armagnac, and Die areas. This disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. We constructed gfp-marked strains of the CFBP2098 strain of X. ampelinus for histological studies. We studied the colonization of young plants of V. vinifera cv. Ugni blanc by X. ampelinus after three types of artificial contamination in a growth chamber and in a greenhouse. (i) After wounding of the stem and inoculation, the bacteria progressed down to the crown through the xylem vessels, where they organized into biofilms. (ii) When the bacteria were forced into woody cuttings, they rarely colonized the emerging plantlets. Xylem vessels could play a key role in the multiplication and conservation of the bacteria, rather than being a route for plant colonization. (iii) When bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the plants, bacteria progressed in two directions: both in emerging organs and down to the crown, thus displaying the importance of epiphytic colonization in disease development. PMID:12676663

  3. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A.

  5. VvBOR1, the grapevine ortholog of AtBOR1, encodes an efflux boron transporter that is differentially expressed throughout reproductive development of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Kasai, Koji; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Tapia, Jaime; Fujiwara, Toru; González, Enrique

    2012-02-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for normal development of roots, shoots and reproductive tissues in plants. Due to its role in the structure of rhamnogalacturonan II, a polysaccharide required for pollen tube growth, B deficiency has been associated with the occurrence of parthenocarpic seedless grapes in some varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Despite that, it is unclear how B is mobilized and accumulated in reproductive tissues. Here we describe the characterization of an efflux B transporter, VvBOR1, homolog to AtBOR1, which is involved in B xylem loading in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. VvBOR1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed in A. thaliana localizes in the proximal plasma membrane domain in root pericycle cells, and VvBOR1 overexpression restores the wild-type phenotype in A. thaliana bor1-3 mutant plants exposed to B deficiency. Complementation of a mutant yeast strain indicates that VvBOR1 corresponds to a B efflux transporter. Transcriptional analyses during grapevine reproductive development show that the VvBOR1 gene is preferentially expressed in flowers at anthesis and a direct correlation between the expression pattern and B content in grapes was established, suggesting the involvement of this transporter in B accumulation in grapevine berries.

  6. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M. Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2·- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  7. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of [Formula: see text] and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on 'pure' biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture.

  8. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  9. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly [1]. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and

  10. Vitis vinifera VvNPR1.1 is the functional ortholog of AtNPR1 and its overexpression in grapevine triggers constitutive activation of PR genes and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Le Henanff, Gaëlle; Farine, Sibylle; Kieffer-Mazet, Flore; Miclot, Anne-Sophie; Heitz, Thierry; Mestre, Pere; Bertsch, Christophe; Chong, Julie

    2011-08-01

    Studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) innate defense mechanisms is a prerequisite to the development of new protection strategies, based on the stimulation of plant signaling pathways to trigger pathogen resistance. Two transcriptional coactivators (VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2) with similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 (Non-Expressor of PR genes 1), a well-characterized and key signaling element of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, were recently isolated in Vitis vinifera. In this study, functional characterization of VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2, including complementation of the Arabidopsis npr1 mutant, revealed that VvNPR1.1 is a functional ortholog of AtNPR1, whereas VvNPR1.2 likely has a different function. Ectopic overexpression of VvNPR1.1 in the Arabidopsis npr1-2 mutant restored plant growth at a high SA concentration, Pathogenesis Related 1 (PR1) gene expression after treatment with SA or bacterial inoculation, and resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola bacteria. Moreover, stable overexpression of VvNPR1.1-GFP in V. vinifera resulted in constitutive nuclear localization of the fusion protein and enhanced PR gene expression in uninfected plants. Furthermore, grapevine plants overexpressing VvNPR1.1-GFP exhibited an enhanced resistance to powdery mildew infection. This work highlights the importance of the conserved SA/NPR1 signaling pathway for resistance to biotrophic pathogens in V. vinifera.

  11. In-vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera) in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Aslan, Mustafa; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ergun, Fatma; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2006-11-24

    The acute and the subacute (15 days) hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (250, 500 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. were evaluated in this study. The aqueous extract was further fractionated through successive solvent extractions and the acute effect of different doses of its subfractions, 25 mg/kg for ethylacetate fraction, 80 mg/kg for n-butanol fraction and 375 mg/kg for remaining aqueous fraction were investigated using normal, glucose-hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were measured according to the glucose oxidase method. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity of the test samples was studied in the liver, kidney and heart tissues of diabetic rats by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathion (GSH) levels. All results were compared to the diabetic control groups. The results showed that EtOAc Fr. was rich in polyphenolics and possessed a significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity equipotent with the reference hypoglycaemic agent (tolbutamide), when evaluated in diabetic rats.

  12. Influence of a deficit irrigation regime during ripening on berry composition in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in semi-arid areas.

    PubMed

    López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; Díaz, Antonio; Ramírez, Pilar; Morales, José

    2007-11-01

    A study was made of the effects of irrigation management strategies during ripening on the quality of Spanish field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (Baladi, Airén, Montepila, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains and Pedro Ximénez) grown under the "Montilla-Moriles" Appellation of Origin in Cordoba, Spain. From 1999 to 2002, two water-availability regimes were established: irrigation and non-irrigation. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of irrigation on berry development and ripening, and hence on grape juice quality. Changes in phenological stages, vegetative growth, vineyard yield, berry weight, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, malic acid, and potassium content were monitored. No significant differences were noted in phenological phases between the non-irrigation and deficit irrigation regimes. The Ravaz index, pruning weight, vineyard yield and berry weight were significantly higher in all varieties and years under deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation induced higher titrable acidity, higher malic acid and potassium contents and a lower pH, but had no significant effects on berry sugar accumulation or tartaric acid content. Deficit irrigation thus appears to be a promising technique for the production of quality young wines in semi-arid areas.

  13. Functional Differentiation of the Glycosyltransferases That Contribute to the Chemical Diversity of Bioactive Flavonol Glycosides in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera)[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Homma, Yu; Horikawa, Manabu; Kunikane-Doi, Satoshi; Imai, Haruna; Takahashi, Seiji; Kawai, Yosuke; Ishiguro, Masaji; Fukui, Yuko; Nakayama, Toru

    2010-01-01

    We identified two glycosyltransferases that contribute to the structural diversification of flavonol glycosides in grapevine (Vitis vinifera): glycosyltransferase 5 (Vv GT5) and Vv GT6. Biochemical analyses showed that Vv GT5 is a UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase (GAT), and Vv GT6 is a bifunctional UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose:flavonol-3-O-glucosyltransferase/galactosyltransferase. The Vv GT5 and Vv GT6 genes have very high sequence similarity (91%) and are located in tandem on chromosome 11, suggesting that one of these genes arose from the other by gene duplication. Both of these enzymes were expressed in accordance with flavonol synthase gene expression and flavonoid distribution patterns in this plant, corroborating their significance in flavonol glycoside biosynthesis. The determinant of the specificity of Vv GT5 for UDP-glucuronic acid was found to be Arg-140, which corresponded to none of the determinants previously identified for other plant GATs in primary structures, providing another example of convergent evolution of plant GAT. We also analyzed the determinants of the sugar donor specificity of Vv GT6. Gln-373 and Pro-19 were found to play important roles in the bifunctional specificity of the enzyme. The results presented here suggest that the sugar donor specificities of these Vv GTs could be determined by a limited number of amino acid substitutions in the primary structures of protein duplicates, illustrating the plasticity of plant glycosyltransferases in acquiring new sugar donor specificities. PMID:20693356

  14. Induction of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and transgenic stilbene synthase-apple plants (Malus domestica) by a culture filtrate of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Judith; Brunner, Philipp; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Products containing the epiphytic yeast Aureobasidium pullulans are commercially available and applied by fruit growers to prevent several fungal and bacterial diseases of fruit trees. The proposed beneficial mechanisms relate to limitations of space and nutrients for the pathogens in presence of the rapidly proliferating yeast cells. These explanations ignore the potential of yeasts to elicit the plant's defense. Our experiments aim at clarifying if an autoclaved and centrifuged suspension of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms. As a model system, the biosynthesis and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in callus and shoots of grapevine Vitis vinifera grown in vitro was used. Yeast application to the plant tissue stimulated stilbene biosynthesis, sometimes at the cost of flavonoids. The expression of the gene encoding stilbene synthase was enhanced and the enzyme showed higher activity while chalcone synthase activity and expression was reduced in some cases. An accumulation of stilbenes was also found in transgenic apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Holsteiner Cox) harboring the stilbene synthase-gene under control of its own promoter. These results clearly show that the application of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms of the treated plants.

  15. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  16. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (−)-rotundone

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (−)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (−)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (−)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (−)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (−)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (−)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. PMID:26590863

  17. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  18. Evolution of the VvMybA gene family, the major determinant of berry colour in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Lacombe, T; Le Cunff, L; Boursiquot, J-M; This, P

    2010-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the grape transcription factor family VvMybA are responsible for variation in anthocyanin content in the berries of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa). Previous study has shown that white grapes arose through the mutation of two adjacent genes: a retroelement insertion in VvMybA1 and a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation in VvMybA2. The purpose of this study was to understand how these mutations emerged and affected genetic diversity at neighbouring sites and how they structured the genetic diversity of cultivated grapevines. We sequenced a total of 3225 bp of these genes in a core collection of genetic resources, and carried out empirical selection tests, phylogenetic- and coalescence-based demographic analyses. The insertion in the VvMybA1 promoter was shown to have occurred recently, after the mutation of VvMybA2, both mutations followed by a selective sweep. The mutational pattern for these colour genes is consistent with progressively relaxed selection from constrained ancestral coloured haplotypes to light coloured and finally white haplotypes. Dynamics of population size in the VvMybA genes showed an initial exponential growth, followed by population size stabilization. Most ancestral haplotypes are found in cultivars from western region, whereas recent haplotypes are essentially present in table cultivars from eastern regions where intense breeding practices may have replaced the original diversity. Finally, the emergence of the white allele was followed by a recent strong exponential growth, showing a very fast diffusion of the initial white allele.

  19. Isolation, functional characterization, and expression analysis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) hexose transporters: differential roles in sink and source tissues.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew A; Davies, Christopher; Dry, Ian B

    2007-01-01

    Three hexose transporters (VvHT3, VvHT4, and VvHT5) were cloned from Vitis vinifera L. and functionally characterized in the hexose transport-impaired Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant EBY.VW4000. Both VvHT4 and VvHT5 facilitated glucose uptake, with K(m)s of 137 muM and 89 muM, respectively. VvHT3 was not functional in the yeast system but a VvHT3:GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein was targeted to the plasma membrane in plant cells. In young 'sink' leaves, transcript levels of all five VvHTs and a cell wall invertase (VvcwINV) were low. In mature leaves, there were increased levels of VvHT1, VvHT3, VvHT5, and VvcwINV transcripts, suggesting that mature leaves may have an increased capacity for apoplastic sucrose hydrolysis and hexose retrieval. In grape berries, VvHT1, VvHT2, and VvHT3 transcript levels were found to be significantly higher than those of VvHT4 and VvHT5. VvHT1 was most highly expressed early in berry development but decreased during the period of rapid sugar accumulation, while VvHT2 and VvHT3 expression remained high during this accumulation phase. VvcwINV expression occurred throughout berry development but peaked just prior to veraison. It is clear that the machinery to transport the hexose molecules produced through the cleavage of sucrose, by cell wall invertase, is present in the berry. This agrees with the suggestion that hexose accumulation to high levels during the ripening phase occurs through an apoplastic pathway. Interestingly, there is no direct relationship between VvHT gene expression and hexose accumulation, which suggests either that transcription is not the main determinant of transport activity or that other transport pathways are also active.

  20. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism.

  1. The chemotaxis regulator pilG of Xylella fastidiosa is required for virulence in Vitis vinifera grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that causes Pierce’s disease of grapevines. Type IV pili of X. fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motil...

  2. Collection and characterization of grapevine genetic resources (Vitis vinifera) in the Holy Land, towards the renewal of ancient winemaking practices.

    PubMed

    Drori, Elyashiv; Rahimi, Oshrit; Marrano, Annarita; Henig, Yakov; Brauner, Hodaya; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Netzer, Yishay; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Stanevsky, Maria; Failla, Osvaldo; Weiss, Ehud; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-03-17

    The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population's structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry.

  3. Collection and characterization of grapevine genetic resources (Vitis vinifera) in the Holy Land, towards the renewal of ancient winemaking practices

    PubMed Central

    Drori, Elyashiv; Rahimi, Oshrit; Marrano, Annarita; Henig, Yakov; Brauner, Hodaya; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Netzer, Yishay; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Stanevsky, Maria; Failla, Osvaldo; Weiss, Ehud; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population’s structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry. PMID:28303928

  4. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses.

  5. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses.

  6. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J.; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C.; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  7. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  8. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  9. A knowledge base for Vitis vinifera functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) is the most important fruit species in the modern world. Wine and table grapes sales contribute significantly to the economy of major wine producing countries. The most relevant goals in wine production concern quality and safety. In order to significantly improve the achievement of these objectives and to gain biological knowledge about cultivars, a genomic approach is the most reliable strategy. The recent grapevine genome sequencing offers the opportunity to study the potential roles of genes and microRNAs in fruit maturation and other physiological and pathological processes. Although several systems allowing the analysis of plant genomes have been reported, none of them has been designed specifically for the functional analysis of grapevine genomes of cultivars under environmental stress in connection with microRNA data. Description Here we introduce a novel knowledge base, called BIOWINE, designed for the functional analysis of Vitis vinifera genomes of cultivars present in Sicily. The system allows the analysis of RNA-seq experiments of two different cultivars, namely Nero d'Avola and Nerello Mascalese. Samples were taken under different climatic conditions of phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. The BIOWINE web interface is equipped with data analysis modules for grapevine genomes. In particular users may analyze the current genome assembly together with the RNA-seq data through a customized version of GBrowse. The web interface allows users to perform gene set enrichment by exploiting third-party databases. Conclusions BIOWINE is a knowledge base implementing a set of bioinformatics tools for the analysis of grapevine genomes. The system aims to increase our understanding of the grapevine varieties and species of Sicilian products focusing on adaptability to different climatic conditions, phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. PMID:26050794

  10. The coding region of the UFGT gene is a source of diagnostic SNP markers that allow single-locus DNA genotyping for the assessment of cultivar identity and ancestry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera L. is one of society’s most important agricultural crops with a broad genetic variability. The difficulty in recognizing grapevine genotypes based on ampelographic traits and secondary metabolites prompted the development of molecular markers suitable for achieving variety genetic identification. Findings Here, we propose a comparison between a multi-locus barcoding approach based on six chloroplast markers and a single-copy nuclear gene sequencing method using five coding regions combined with a character-based system with the aim of reconstructing cultivar-specific haplotypes and genotypes to be exploited for the molecular characterization of 157 V. vinifera accessions. The analysis of the chloroplast target regions proved the inadequacy of the DNA barcoding approach at the subspecies level, and hence further DNA genotyping analyses were targeted on the sequences of five nuclear single-copy genes amplified across all of the accessions. The sequencing of the coding region of the UFGT nuclear gene (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase, the key enzyme for the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins) enabled the discovery of discriminant SNPs (1/34 bp) and the reconstruction of 130 V. vinifera distinct genotypes. Most of the genotypes proved to be cultivar-specific, and only few genotypes were shared by more, although strictly related, cultivars. Conclusion On the whole, this technique was successful for inferring SNP-based genotypes of grapevine accessions suitable for assessing the genetic identity and ancestry of international cultivars and also useful for corroborating some hypotheses regarding the origin of local varieties, suggesting several issues of misidentification (synonymy/homonymy). PMID:24298902

  11. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  12. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  13. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  14. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself.

  15. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  16. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress.

  17. Characterization of VvSERK1, VvSERK2, VvSERK3 and VvL1L genes and their expression during somatic embryogenesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Schellenbaum, Paul; Jacques, Alban; Maillot, Pascale; Bertsch, Christophe; Mazet, Flore; Farine, Sibylle; Walter, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the genes expressed during grapevine somatic embryogenesis. Both groups of Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (SERK) and Leafy Cotyledon (LEC and L1L) genes seem to play key roles during somatic embryogenesis in various plant species. Therefore, we identified and analysed the sequences of VvSERK and VvL1L (Leafy cotyledon1-Like) genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of VvSERK1, VvSERK2 and VvSERK3 are very similar to that of registered SERK proteins, with highest homologies for the kinase domain in the C-terminal region. The amino acid sequence of VvL1L presents all the domains that are characteristic for LEC1 and L1L proteins, particularly, the 16 amino acid residues that serve as signature of the B-domain. Phylogenetic analysis distinguishes members of subclass LEC1 and subclass L1L, and VvL1L is closely related to L1L proteins. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we studied gene expression of VvSERK1, VvSERK2, VvSERK3 and VvL1L in calli and somatic embryos obtained from anther culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay. Expression of VvSERK2 is relatively stable during in vitro culture. In contrast, VvSERK1, VvSERK3 and VvL1L are expressed more 4 to 6 weeks after transfer of the calli onto embryo induction medium, before the visible appearance of embryos on the calli as seen by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Later on (8 weeks after transfer) VvSERK1 expression is maintained in the embryogenic calli and VvSERK3 in the embryos, whereas VvL1L expression is very low. All together, these data suggest the involvement of VvSERK and VvL1L genes in grapevine somatic embryogenesis.

  18. VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Cramer, Grant R.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Mathiason, Kathy; Van Hemert, John; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet). Methodology/Principal Findings The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. Conclusions/Significance VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and

  19. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  20. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development.

  1. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    PubMed Central

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  2. Thermal thresholds as predictors of seed dormancy release and germination timing: altitude-related risks from climate warming for the wild grapevine Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Orrù, Martino; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The importance of thermal thresholds for predicting seed dormancy release and germination timing under the present climate conditions and simulated climate change scenarios was investigated. In particular, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris was investigated in four Sardinian populations over the full altitudinal range of the species (from approx. 100 to 800 m a.s.l). Methods Dried and fresh seeds from each population were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C), without any pre-treatment and after a warm (3 months at 25 °C) or a cold (3 months at 5 °C) stratification. A thermal time approach was then applied to the germination results for dried seeds and the seed responses were modelled according to the present climate conditions and two simulated scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): B1 (+1·8 °C) and A2 (+3·4 °C). Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy, while very few seeds germinated without treatments or after warm stratification. Fresh, cold-stratified seeds germinated significantly better (>80 %) at temperatures ≥20 °C than at lower temperatures. A base temperature for germination (Tb) of 9·0–11·3 °C and a thermal time requirement for 50 % of germination (θ50) ranging from 33·6 °Cd to 68·6 °Cd were identified for non-dormant cold-stratified seeds, depending on the populations. This complex combination of thermal requirements for dormancy release and germination allowed prediction of field emergence from March to May under the present climatic conditions for the investigated populations. Conclusions The thermal thresholds for seed germination identified in this study (Tb and θ50) explained the differences in seed germination detected among populations. Under the two simulated IPCC scenarios, an altitude-related risk from climate warming is identified, with lowland populations being more threatened due to a compromised seed dormancy

  3. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought

    PubMed Central

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

  4. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought.

    PubMed

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-11-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration.

  5. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is Present in Free-Living Vitis spp. Proximal to Cultivated Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Perry, Keith L; McLane, Heather; Hyder, Muhammad Z; Dangl, Gerald S; Thompson, Jeremy R; Fuchs, Marc F

    2016-06-01

    Red blotch is an emerging disease of grapevine associated with grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV). The virus spreads with infected planting stocks but no vector of epidemiological significance has been conclusively identified. A vineyard block of red-blotch-affected Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet franc' clone 214 was observed in California, with a clustering of infected, symptomatic vines focused along one edge of the field proximal to a riparian habitat with free-living Vitis spp. No genetic heterogeneity was observed in a 587-nucleotide region of the GRBaV genome in a population of 44 Cabernet franc clone 214 isolates. By contrast, genetic differences were observed in isolates from other cultivars and clones growing in adjacent blocks. GRBaV was confirmed infecting four free-living vines, two of which were shown to be V. californica × V. vinifera hybrids. The genomes of three free-living GRBaV vine isolates and seven from V. vinifera cultivars were compared; free-living vine isolates were shown to be more similar to each other and a 'Merlot' isolate than to the other cultivated vine isolates. The finding that GRBaV is present in free-living Vitis spp. indicates the virus can be spread by natural (nonhuman-mediated) means, and we hypothesize that in-field spread of GRBaV is occurring.

  6. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent.

  7. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Modra frankinja” with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp–grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. “Modra frankinja” under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  8. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  9. Antioxidant properties of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2009-12-01

    Currants and sultanas (Vitis vinifera L., Family Vitaceae) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used widely in the Mediterranean diet. We investigated the polar methanol extracts from the raisins for the antiradical activity, polyphenol content, cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, total glutathione (GSH) levels, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Extracts exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and inhibited tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cytotoxicity, GSH decrease, and LDL oxidation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the characteristic apoptotic patterns with tBHP and inhibition with the extracts. Elevated levels of total GSH and unaltered levels of GSSG with extract treatment demonstrated the induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The antioxidant activity was correlated to the polyphenolic content. Greek currants and sultanas are suggested as antioxidant components of the Mediterranean basin.

  10. Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under domestication: new morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Tabard, Elidie; Bouby, Laurent; Ivorra, Sarah; Pastor, Thierry; Figueiral, Isabel; Picq, Sandrine; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Jung, Cécile; Fabre, Laurent; Tardy, Christophe; Compan, Michel; Bacilieri, Roberto; Lacombe, Thierry; This, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of the abundance of archaeological, bio-archaeological, historical and genetic data, the origins, historical biogeography, identity of ancient grapevine cultivars and mechanisms of domestication are still largely unknown. Here, analysis of variation in seed morphology aims to provide accurate criteria for the discrimination between wild grapes and modern cultivars and to understand changes in functional traits in relation to the domestication process. This approach is also used to quantify the phenotypic diversity in the wild and cultivated compartments and to provide a starting point for comparing well-preserved archaeological material, in order to elucidate the history of grapevine varieties. Methods Geometrical analysis (elliptic Fourier transform method) was applied to grapevine seed outlines from modern wild individuals, cultivars and well-preserved archaeological material from southern France, dating back to the first to second centuries. Key Results and Conclusions Significant relationships between seed shape and taxonomic status, geographical origin (country or region) of accessions and parentage of varieties are highlighted, as previously noted based on genetic approaches. The combination of the analysis of modern reference material and well-preserved archaeological seeds provides original data about the history of ancient cultivated forms, some of them morphologically close to the current ‘Clairette’ and ‘Mondeuse blanche’ cultivars. Archaeobiological records seem to confirm the complexity of human contact, exchanges and migrations which spread grapevine cultivation in Europe and in Mediterranean areas, and argue in favour of the existence of local domestication in the Languedoc (southern France) region during Antiquity. PMID:20034966

  11. Comparison of a retrotransposon-based marker with microsatellite markers for discriminating accessions of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, G C; Ferreira, J L; Rocha, H S; Borém, A; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A

    2012-05-21

    Identification and knowledge concerning genetic diversity are fundamental for efficient management and use of grapevine germplasm. Recently, new types of molecular markers have been developed, such as retrotransposon-based markers. Because of their multilocus pattern, retrotransposon-based markers might be able to differentiate grapevine accessions with just one pair of primers. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this type of marker, we compared retrotransposon marker Tvv1 with seven microsatellite markers frequently used for genotyping of the genus Vitis (VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD5, VVMD27, VVMD31, VVS2, and VZAG62). The reference population that we used consisted of 26 accessions of Vitis, including seven European varieties of Vitis vinifera, four North American varieties and hybrids of Vitis labrusca, and 15 rootstock hybrids obtained from crosses of several Vitis species. Individually, the Tvv1 and the group of seven SSR markers were capable of distinguishing all accessions except 'White Niagara' compared to 'Red Niagara'. Using the Structure software, the retrotransposon marker Tvv1 generated two clusters: one with V. vinifera plus North American varieties and the other comprising rootstocks. The seven SSR markers generated five clusters: V. vinifera, the North American varieties, and three groups of rootstock hybrids. The percentages of variation explained by the first two components in the principal coordinate analysis were 65.21 (Tvv1) and 50.42 (SSR markers) while the Mantel correlation between the distance matrixes generated by the two types of markers was 42.5%. We conclude that the Tvv1 marker is useful for DNA fingerprinting, but it lacks efficiency for discrimination of structured groups.

  12. A Three-dimensional Statistical Reconstruction Model of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Simulating Canopy Structure Variability within and between Cultivar/Training System Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Lecoeur, Jérémie; Lebon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In grapevine, canopy-structure-related variations in light interception and distribution affect productivity, yield and the quality of the harvested product. A simple statistical model for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) canopy structures for various cultivar–training system (C × T) pairs has been implemented with special attention paid to balance the time required for model parameterization and accuracy of the representations from organ to stand scales. Such an approach particularly aims at overcoming the weak integration of interplant variability using the usual direct 3D measurement methods. Model This model is original in combining a turbid-medium-like envelope enclosing the volume occupied by vine shoots with the use of discrete geometric polygons representing leaves randomly located within this volume to represent plant structure. Reconstruction rules were adapted to capture the main determinants of grapevine shoot architecture and their variability. Using a simplified set of parameters, it was possible to describe (1) the 3D path of the main shoot, (2) the volume occupied by the foliage around this path and (3) the orientation of individual leaf surfaces. Model parameterization (estimation of the probability distribution for each parameter) was carried out for eight contrasting C × T pairs. Key Results and Conclusions The parameter values obtained in each situation were consistent with our knowledge of grapevine architecture. Quantitative assessments for the generated virtual scenes were carried out at the canopy and plant scales. Light interception efficiency and local variations of light transmittance within and between experimental plots were correctly simulated for all canopies studied. The approach predicted these key ecophysiological variables significantly more accurately than the classical complete digitization method with a limited number of plants. In addition, this model accurately reproduced the characteristics of a

  13. Flowering as the Most Highly Sensitive Period of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria Dieback Agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences. PMID:24886812

  14. Flowering as the most highly sensitive period of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria dieback agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata infection.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-05-30

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences.

  15. Xylem Structure and Connectivity in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Shoots Provides a Passive Mechanism for the Spread of Bacteria in Grape Plants

    PubMed Central

    CHATELET, DAVID S.; MATTHEWS, MARK A.; ROST, THOMAS L.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Bacterial leaf scorch occurring in a number of economically important plants is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). In grapevine, Xf systemic infection causes Pierce's disease and is lethal. Traditional dogma is that Xf movement between vessels requires the digestion of inter-vessel pit membranes. However, Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) (a bacterium found in animals) and fluorescent beads moved rapidly within grapevine xylem from stem into leaf lamina, suggesting open conduits consisting of long, branched xylem vessels for passive movement. This study builds on and expands previous observations on the nature of these conduits and how they affect Xf movement. • Methods Air, latex paint and green fluorescence protein (GFP)-Xf were loaded into leaves and followed to confirm and identify these conduits. Leaf xylem anatomy was studied to determine the basis for the free and sometimes restricted movement of Ye, beads, air, paint and GFP-Xf into the lamina. • Key Results Reverse loading experiments demonstrated that long, branched xylem vessels occurred exclusively in primary xylem. They were observed in the stem for three internodes before diverging into mature leaves. However, this stem—leaf connection was an age-dependent character and was absent for the first 10–12 leaves basal to the apical meristem. Free movement in leaf blade xylem was cell-type specific with vessels facilitating movement in the body of the blade and tracheids near the leaf margin. Air, latex paint and GFP-Xf all moved about 50–60 % of the leaf length. GFP-Xf was never observed close to the leaf margin. • Conclusions The open vessels of the primary xylem offered unimpeded long distance pathways bridging stem to leaves, possibly facilitating the spread of bacterial pathogens in planta. GFP-Xf never reached the leaf margins where scorching appeared, suggesting a signal targeting specific cells or a toxic build-up at hydathodes. PMID

  16. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms.

  17. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process.

  18. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation.

  19. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pascual; Dodd, Ian C; Martinez-Cutillas, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year(-1)); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year(-1)); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year(-1)). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling.

  20. Ultrastructural analysis of Vitis vinifera leaf tissues showing atypical symptoms of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Vecchione, A; Zulini, L; Pertot, I

    2005-01-01

    In an abandoned farm in Tuscany a year by year regression of downy mildew disease on grapevines was observed and a decrease in virulence as well as vigor and fertility of the causal fungus, Plasmopara viticola. Anomalous spots of the fungus (i.e. atypical coloration of leaves or mosaic) on leaf tissues of a sensitive Vitis vinifera grapevine were observed. The anomalous symptoms were often associated with the typical 'oil spots' and were present under environmental conditions favourable for a normal development of the disease. An ultrastructural study was carried out on leaf tissues of grapevine plants aimed at clarifying the cause of this phenomenon and detecting whether there were alterations in P. viticola mycelium and endophytes present. ELISA was also performed to check the presence of grapevine viruses in the plants. TEM results demonstrated that characteristic P. viticola was present in leaf samples showing oil spots, while, both the fungus and the host tissues showed cytological alterations in leaves with mosaic symptoms. Finally, hyphae were absent in leaf tissues without downy mildew spots, but showing severe ultrastructural modifications. Several plant virus infections were found in these grapevines. Literature reports that the development and sporulation of some phytopathogenic fungi inside their hosts can be limited by virus infections. Further experimental approaches are required to determine if resistance to P. viticola can be induced by viral infections in grapevines.

  1. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus.

  2. Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Herbert, K S; Umina, P A; Mitrovski, P J; Powell, K S; Viduka, K; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). The distribution and frequency of phylloxera clone lineages vary within infested regions of Australia, suggesting the introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae with host associations. Virulence levels of particular phylloxera clones may vary on V. vinifera, but much of this evidence is indirect. In this study, we directly tested the performance of phylloxera clones on V. vinifera using an established excised root assay and a new glasshouse vine assessment. In the root assay, grape phylloxera clones differed in egg production and egg to adult survivorship. In the vine assay, clones differed in the number of immature and adult life stages on roots. In addition vine characteristics, including mean stem weight, root weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area, were affected by different phylloxera clones. The two most widespread clones displayed high levels of virulence. These results point to only some phylloxera clones being highly virulent on V. vinifera, helping to explain patterns of field damage, phylloxera distributions and continued survival and production of V. vinifera vines in some infested areas.

  3. The comparative analysis of the potential relationship between resveratrol and stilbene synthase gene family in the development stages of grapes (Vitis quinquangularis and Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangli; He, Mingyang; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Huan; Ding, Jiahua; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; He, Jing; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is positively correlated with grapevine disease resistance and its consumption is also highly beneficial to human health. HPLC analyses showed that resveratrol content was significantly higher in most wild Chinese grapevines than in most European Vitis vinifera grapevine cvs. Fruit of the wild Chinese genotype Vitis quinquangularis Danfeng-2 contains much higher levels of resveratrol than some others. Because stilbene synthase is responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, 41 full-length stilbene synthase genes were isolated from Danfeng-2 using the RACE method. A neighbor-joining tree of the STS family displayed high similarity between Danfeng-2 and V. vinifera cv. Pinot Noir. The content of the endogenous stilbene synthase family in tissues and the expression levels induced by powdery mildew were both higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Moreover, expression in the berry was significantly higher than in the leaves. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol accumulation was consistent with endogenous STS gene expressions, and that both were higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Therefore, STS genes and producing resveratrol from V. quinquangularis played more important role in Vitis resistance. Otherwise, the gene VqSTS6 was markedly higher than the other VqSTS genes in the six tissues/organs assayed by Real-time PCR, which will offer a useful basis for commercial application of resveratrol from Chinese wild grapes.

  4. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  5. Distribution of YLOID in soil-grapevine system (Vitis vinifera L.) as tool for geographical characterization of agro-food products. A two years case study on different grafting combinations.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Tutone, Livia; Saiano, Filippo

    2017-04-15

    The knowledge of a chemistry relationship between the soil and the agricultural products is an important tool for the quality assessment of food. We studied YLOID (Y, La and lanthanoids), recognized as very useful tracers due their coherent and predictable behavior, to trace and evaluate their distribution from soil to the grape in Vitis vinifera L. Because much of the world's viticulture is based on grafting, and rootstocks have proved affect vine growth, yield, fruit and wine quality, we carried out experimental trials to analyse the YLOID distribution of two different red cultivars, grafted onto six different rootstocks, on the same soil. The YLOID amounts, the relationship Heavy vs Light YLOID and the pattern of YLOID were calculated. The results showed that the different grafting combinations were not able to induce significant differences in YLOID uptake from the soil maintaining the same fingerprint (with the exception of Eu).

  6. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  8. Determination and imaging of metabolites from Vitis vinifera leaves by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Gregory; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Maunit, Benoît; Frache, Gilles; Merdinoglu, Didier; Muller, Jean-François

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of grapevine phytoalexins at the surface of Vitis vinifera leaves has been achieved by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToFMS) without matrix deposition. This simple and rapid sampling method was successfully applied to map small organic compounds at the surface of grapevine leaves. It was also demonstrated that the laser wavelength is a highly critical parameter. Both 266 and 337 nm laser wavelengths were used but the 266 nm wavelength gave increased spatial resolution and better sensitivity for the detection of the targeted metabolites (resveratrol and linked stilbene compounds). Mass spectrometry imaging of grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon leaves revealed specific locations with respect to Plasmopara viticola pathogen infection or light illumination.

  9. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  10. Reference gene validation for quantitative RT-PCR during biotic and abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies.

  11. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  12. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  13. Characterization of expression dynamics of WOX homeodomain transcription factors during somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Minuto, Martina; Boccacci, Paolo; Perrone, Irene; Vallania, Rosalina; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Different cultivars of Vitis vinifera vary in their potential to form embryogenic tissues. The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) genes have been shown to play an important role in coordinating the gene transcription involved in the early phases of embryogenesis. The expression dynamics of 12 VvWOX genes present in the V. vinifera genome in embryogenic and other tissues of 'Chardonnay' were analysed. In order to understand the influence of WOX genes on the somatic embryogenic process, their expression profiles were compared in two cultivars of V. vinifera ('Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon') that show different aptitudes for embryogenesis. The expression of all VvWOX genes was influenced by culture conditions. VvWOX2 and VvWOX9 were the principal WOX genes expressed during the somatic embryogenesis process, and the low aptitude for embryogenesis of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was generally correlated with the low expression levels of these VvWOX genes. VvWOX3 and VvWOX11 were strongly activated in correspondence to torpedo and cotyledonary stages of somatic embryos, with low expression in the earlier developmental stages (pre-embryogenic masses and globular embryos) and during embryo germination. VvWOX genes appeared to be key regulators of somatic embryogenesis in grapevine, and the regulation of these genes during early phases of somatic embryogenesis differed between the two cultivars of the same species.

  14. Chitosan improves development, and protects Vitis vinifera L. against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ait Barka, E; Eullaffroy, P; Clément, C; Vernet, G

    2004-03-01

    We evaluated the potential of chitosan both to stimulate plant development and to induce protection from Botrytis cinerea in Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. The presence of 1.75% (v/v) chitogel in the culture medium was the optimal concentration for in vitro grapevine plantlet growth, as determined by measurements on enhancement of root and shoot biomass. Photosynthesis and related parameters were also stimulated in chitogel-treated plantlets. Chitogel reduced the development of Botrytis cinerea and induced cytological alterations to the pathogen. When challenged with the fungus, a significant decrease in disease incidence was observed in plants growing on medium supplemented with chitogel. Furthermore, exogenous foliar applications of chitogel to plantlets growing on chitogel-free medium sensitized them so as to be protected against Botrytis cinerea attack. Our results indicate that chitogel can be used in the vineyard as a means to attain protection against Botrytis cinerea and that its application may counteract the wide use of chemical pesticides.

  15. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  16. Procedure for collecting and packaging grapevine samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine yellows (GY) is a term that is used to refer to any of several diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that are caused by phytoplasmas. Around the globe, diverse ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species cause indistinguishable disease symptoms in V. vinifera and are spread by different species of ...

  17. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence.

  18. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Marrano, Annarita; Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the 'PN40024' reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops.

  19. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the ‘PN40024’ reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops. PMID:28125640

  20. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  1. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  2. Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2013-06-12

    Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed.

  3. Ampelometric Leaf Trait and SSR Loci Selection for a Multivariate Statistical Approach in Vitis vinifera L. Biodiversity Management.

    PubMed

    Alba, Vittorio; Bergamini, Carlo; Genghi, Rosalinda; Gasparro, Marica; Perniola, Rocco; Antonacci, Donato

    2015-08-01

    High estimated heritability values were recently revealed for mature leaf traits in grape (Vitis vinifera L.), thus redeeming ampelography in the era of molecular markers. The "Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV)" set a list of hundreds of descriptors for grapevine in order to standardize ampelographic and ampelometric scores. Therefore, the selection and reduction of the number of OIV codes can represent a major goal for leaner biodiversity assessment studies. The identification of ampelometric traits associated with grape diversity allows to construct Classification Trees with chi squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) algorithm, a stepwise model-fitting method that produces a tree diagram in which at each step the sample pool is splitted based on the independent variables statistically different for the dependent variable. A collection of 100 table and wine grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) was characterized and evaluated by means of six microsatellites and twenty-two ampelometric traits on mature leaves. Nine ampelometric traits were selected by principal component analysis and employed to build the classification trees based on CHAID algorithm. The strategy can represent an effective tool for grape biodiversity management, right allocations, and identification of new grape genotypes, implemented by a further microsatellite investigation only when unsolved cases occur, allowing faster and cheaper results.

  4. Vitis vinifera L. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection with High-Resolution Melting Analysis Based on the UDP-Glucose:Flavonoid 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2015-10-21

    Vitis vinifera L. is a species with a large number of varieties, which differ in terms of anthocyanin content. The genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have a direct effect in the anthocyanin profile of each variety, being potentially interesting for varietal identification. The current study aimed at the design of an assay suitable for the discrimination of the largest number of grapevine varieties. Two genes of the anthocyanin pathway, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), were sequenced in 22 grapevine varieties. The CHI gene presented 5 SNPs within the sequence. A total of 58 SNPs and 1 INDEL were found among the UFGT gene, allowing the discrimination of 18 different genotypes within the 22 grapevine varieties. A HRM assay designed for UFGT, containing 704 bp, produced differentiated melting curves for each of the 18 haplotypes. The developed HRM assay is efficient in grapevine varietal discrimination.

  5. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system.

  6. In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Craig Robert; McElrone, Andrew Joseph; Choat, Brendan; Lee, Eric Franklin; Shackel, Kenneth Andrew; Matthews, Mark Allen

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance water transport through plant xylem is vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction during periods of increased tension on the xylem sap, often coinciding with drought. While the effects of local and systemic embolism on plant water transport and physiology are well documented, the spatial patterns of embolism formation and spread are not well understood. Using a recently developed nondestructive diagnostic imaging tool, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, we documented the dynamics of drought-induced embolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) plants in vivo, producing the first three-dimensional, high-resolution, time-lapse observations of embolism spread. Embolisms formed first in the vessels surrounding the pith at stem water potentials of approximately –1.2 megapascals in drought experiments. As stem water potential decreased, embolisms spread radially toward the epidermis within sectored vessel groupings via intervessel connections and conductive xylem relays, and infrequently (16 of 629 total connections) through lateral connections into adjacent vessel sectors. Theoretical loss of conductivity calculated from the high-resolution x-ray computed tomography images showed good agreement with previously published nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and hydraulic conductivity experiments also using grapevine. Overall, these data support a growing body of evidence that xylem organization is critically important to the isolation of drought-induced embolism spread and confirm that air seeding through the pit membranes is the principle mechanism of embolism spread. PMID:23463781

  7. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  8. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-02-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause-effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed.

  9. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause–effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  10. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  11. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic ('seedless') table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine.

  12. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  13. Compatible GLRaV-3 viral infections affect berry ripening decreasing sugar accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Vega, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Cramer, Grant R; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-10-01

    Virus infections in grapevine cause important economic losses and affect fruit quality worldwide. Although the phenotypic symptoms associated to viral infections have been described, the molecular plant response triggered by virus infection is still poorly understood in Vitis vinifera. As a first step to understand the fruit changes and mechanisms involved in the compatible grapevine-virus interaction, we analyzed the berry transcriptome in two stages of development in the red wine cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon infected with Grapevine leaf-roll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3). Analysis of global gene expression patterns indicate incomplete berry maturation in infected berries as compared to uninfected fruit suggesting viral infection interrupts the normal berry maturation process. Genes with altered expression in berries harvested from GLRaV-3-infected vines as compared to uninfected tissue include anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism genes. The reduction in transcript accumulation for sugar and anthocyanin metabolism during fruit development is consistent with a dramatic reduction in anthocyanin biosynthesis as well as reduced sugar levels in berries, a hallmark phenotypic change observed in virus infected grapevines. Analysis of key regulatory factors provides a mechanism for the observed gene expression changes. Our results provide insight into commonly observed phenotypic alterations in virus infected vines and the molecular mechanisms associated with the plant response to the virus during berry ripening.

  14. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar

  15. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  16. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries.

  17. Relative Susceptibility of Vitis vinifera Cultivars to Vector-Borne Xylella fastidiosa through Time

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce’s disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols. PMID:23424629

  18. QTL analysis for fruit yield components in table grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Fanizza, G; Lamaj, F; Costantini, L; Chaabane, R; Grando, M S

    2005-08-01

    A segregation population of 184 genotypes derived from a pseudo-testcross of table grapes (Vitis vinifera), together with 203 AFLP and 110 SSR markers was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit yield components. Diffferent QTLs, a low percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the QTLs detected and QTL instability over years were detected for each fruit yield component. These results confirm the complex genetic architecture of the yield components in grapevine due to the perennial nature of this species, which has to adapt to yearly variations in climate. Phenotypic correlation analyses between fruit yield components were also performed. The negative correlation between berry weight and the number of berries per cluster seems to have an indirect negative effect on cluster weight, as revealed by the path coefficient analysis; however, this negative correlation was not supported at the molecular level because no coincident QTLs were observed between these traits. Nonetheless, the possibility to select seedless genotypes with large berries without affecting cluster weight needs to be substantiated in future experiments because factors such as sample size and heritability might influence QTL identification in table grapes.

  19. Relative susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to vector-borne Xylella fastidiosa through time.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Arash; Kwan, Joyce; Baraff, Breanna; Ling, Diane; Daugherty, Matthew P; Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between pathogen, crop and vector are necessary for the development of disease control practices of vector-borne pathogens. For instance, resistant plant genotypes can help constrain disease symptoms due to infections and limit pathogen spread by vectors. On the other hand, genotypes susceptible to infection may increase pathogen spread owing to their greater pathogen quantity, regardless of their symptom status. In this study, we evaluated under greenhouse conditions the relative levels of resistance (i.e. relatively lower pathogen quantity) versus tolerance (i.e. less symptom severity) of 10 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars to Pierce's disease etiological agent, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Overall, no correlation was detected between pathogen quantity and disease severity, indicating the existence of among-cultivar variation in plant response to infection. Thompson Seedless and Barbera were the two most susceptible among 10 evaluated cultivars. Rubired showed the least severe disease symptoms and was categorized as one of the most resistant genotypes in this study. However, within each cultivar the degree of resistance/tolerance was not consistent across sampling dates. These cultivar and temporal differences in susceptibility to infection may have important consequences for disease epidemiology and the effectiveness of management protocols.

  20. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-ε-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest.

  1. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  2. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  3. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-03-30

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: 'Chardonnay' (CH) and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine.

  4. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: ‘Chardonnay’ (CH) and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine. PMID:28358354

  5. Structure and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins having putative Rubisco activase function from Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Rubisco is a very large, complex and one of the most abundant proteins in the world and comprises up to 50% of all soluble protein in plants. The activity of Rubisco, the enzyme that catalyzes CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis, is regulated by Rubisco activase (Rca). In the present study, we searched for hypothetical protein of Vitis vinifera which has putative Rubisco activase function. The Arabidopsis and tobacco Rubisco activase protein sequences were used as seed sequences to search against Vitis vinifera in UniprotKB database. The selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera were subjected to sequence, structural and functional annotation. Subcellular localization predictions suggested it to be cytoplasmic protein. Homology modelling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera. Template search revealed that all the hypothetical proteins share more than 80% sequence identity with structure of green-type Rubisco activase from tobacco, indicating proteins are evolutionary conserved. The homology modelling was generated using SWISS-MODEL. Several quality assessment and validation parameters computed indicated that homology models are reliable. Further, functional annotation through PFAM, CATH, SUPERFAMILY, CDART suggested that selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera contain ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) and belong to the AAA+ super family of ring-shaped P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases. This study will lead to research in the optimization of the functionality of Rubisco which has large implication in the improvement of plant productivity and resource use efficiency.

  6. Haplotype diversity of VvTFL1A gene and association with cluster traits in grapevine (V. vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction between TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and LEAFY (LFY) seem to determine the inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis. In a parallel way, overexpression of VvTFL1A, a grapevine TFL1 homolog, causes delayed flowering and production of a ramose cluster in the reiterated reproductive meristem (RRM) somatic variant of cultivar Carignan. To analyze the possible contribution of this gene to cluster phenotypic variation in a diversity panel of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera) its nucleotide diversity was characterized and association analyses among detected sequence polymorphisms and phenology and cluster traits was carried out. Results A total of 3.6 kb of the VvTFL1A gene, including its promoter, was sequenced in a core collection of 140 individuals designed to maximize phenotypic variation at agronomical relevant traits. Nucleotide variation for VvTFL1A within this collection was higher in the promoter and intron sequences than in the exon regions; where few polymorphisms were located in agreement with a high conservation of coding sequence. Characterization of the VvTFL1A haplotype network identified three major haplogroups, consistent with the geographic origins and the use of the cultivars that could correspond to three major ancestral alleles or evolutionary branches, based on the existence of mutations in linkage disequilibrium. Genetic association studies with cluster traits revealed the presence of major INDEL polymorphisms, explaining 16%, 13% and 25% of flowering time, cluster width and berry weight, respectively, and also structuring the three haplogroups. Conclusions At least three major VvTFL1A haplogroups are present in cultivated grapevines, which are defined by the presence of three main polymorphism LD blocks and associated to characteristic phenotypic values for flowering time, cluster width and berry size. Phenotypic differences between haplogroups are consistent with differences observed between Eastern and

  7. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  8. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Marsoni, Milena; Bracale, Marcella; Espen, Luca; Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Vannini, Candida

    2008-02-01

    Two dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry has been used to study the somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera, by comparing embryogenic and non embryogenic calluses of the Thompson seedless cv. More than 1,000 spots were reproducibly resolved in colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue stained gels over a pI nonlinear range of 3-10 in the first dimension and using homogeneous 12.5% polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. The expression pattern of 35 spots differed significantly between the two samples. These spots were processed by mass spectrometry analysis and the protein identity was assigned by using both the non-redundant protein and EST databases. Several responsive proteins, some already known to be involved in the somatic embryogenesis process while others, for the first time put into relation with this process, have been described. Moreover, they have been subdivided in functional categories, and their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance in the somatic embryogenesis process.

  9. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  10. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  11. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deciphering the geographic origins of pathogens and elucidating the population biology of these microscopic organisms are necessary steps to establish effective disease-control strategies. The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To ...

  12. The SSR-based molecular profile of 1005 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions uncovers new synonymy and parentages, and reveals a large admixture amongst varieties of different geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Guido; Spadotto, Alessandro; Jurman, Irena; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Crespan, Manna; Meneghetti, Stefano; Frare, Enrica; Vignani, Rita; Cresti, Mauro; Morgante, Michele; Pezzotti, Mario; Pe, Enrico; Policriti, Alberto; Testolin, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    A collection of 1005 grapevine accessions was genotyped at 34 microsatellite loci (SSR) with the aim of analysing genetic diversity and exploring parentages. The comparison of molecular profiles revealed 200 groups of synonymy. The removal of perfect synonyms reduced the database to 745 unique genotypes, on which population genetic parameters were calculated. The analysis of kinship uncovered 74 complete pedigrees, with both parents identified. Many of these parentages were not previously known and are of considerable historical interest, e.g. Chenin blanc (Sauvignon × Traminer rot), Covè (Harslevelu selfed), Incrocio Manzoni 2-14 and 2-15 (Cabernet franc × Prosecco), Lagrein (Schiava gentile × Teroldego), Malvasia nera of Bolzano (Perera × Schiava gentile), Manzoni moscato (Raboso veronese × Moscato d'Amburgo), Moscato violetto (Moscato bianco × Duraguzza), Muscat of Alexandria (Muscat blanc à petit grain × Axina de tres bias) and others. Statistical robustness of unexpected pedigrees was reinforced with the analysis of an additional 7-30 SSRs. Grouping the accessions by profile resulted in a weak correlation with their geographical origin and/or current area of cultivation, revealing a large admixture of local varieties with those most widely cultivated, as a result of ancient commerce and population flow. The SSRs with tri- to penta-nucleotide repeats adopted for the present study showed a great capacity for discriminating amongst accessions, with probabilities of identity by chance as low as 1.45 × 10(-27) and 9.35 × 10(-12) for unrelated and full sib individuals, respectively. A database of allele frequencies and SSR profiles of 32 reference cultivars are provided.

  13. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  14. Characterization of the ABA signal transduction pathway in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-05-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants including the response to abiotic stress. ABA signal transduction consists of a double-negative regulatory mechanism, whereby ABA-bound PYR/RCARs inhibit PP2C activity, and PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s. We studied and analyzed the various genes participating in the ABA signaling cascade of the grape (Vitis vinifera). The grape ABA signal transduction consists of at least six SnRK2s. Yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between core components of grape ABA signal transduction. We found that a total of forty eight interactions can occur between the various components. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses such as drought, high salt concentration and cold, were applied to vines growing in a hydroponic system. These stresses regulated the expression of various grape SnRK2s as well as ABFs in leaves and roots. Based on the interactions between SnRK2s and its targets and the expression pattern, we suggest that VvSnRK2.1 and VvSnRK2.6, can be considered the major VvSnRK2 candidates involved in the stomata response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, we found that the expression pattern of the two grape ABF genes indicates organ specificity of these genes. The key role of ABA signaling in response to abiotic stresses makes the genes involve in this signaling potential candidates for manipulation in programs designed to improve fruit tree performance in extreme environments.

  15. A strategy to investigate the intravarietal genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. for clones and biotypes identification and to correlate molecular profiles with morphological traits or geographic origins.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Stefano; Calò, Antonio; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2012-09-01

    Grapevine is the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop in the world. Molecular markers have been used on Vitis vinifera to distinguish among both varieties and clones. Microsatellites are used to fingerprint varieties and several other techniques, reported in many papers, are used to analyze the differences among clones, but it is not available in the literature as a well defined strategy to screen a large number of Vitis cultivars. In fact, it is often necessary to use different techniques to investigate the genetic variability in different grapevine varieties and a proposed technique is used to study a cultivar, which is often not suitable for either the study of another cultivar or compare the genetic relationship among various cultivars. We describe here a strategy used for the analysis of several grapevine cultivars to describe a universal method to obtain DNA polymorphisms of Vitis vinifera genotypes from the same cultivar by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), microsatellites AFLP (M-AFLP), and ISSR molecular markers. The strategy here adopted permitted both to identify different biotypes (i.e., Primitivo), accessions (i.e., Garnacha tinta), and clones (i.e., Callet, Manto Negro, Moll) among the variability of same variety and to correlate the genetic differences to their geographical origins (i.e., Garnacha tinta; Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce) or morphological traits (i.e., Malvasia of Candia). Here is also described the application of the protocol that allows to highlight the genetic variability accumulated during centuries of cultivations and selections of the same variety in different environments by vine growers.

  16. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  17. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio

    PubMed Central

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F.; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  18. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  19. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  20. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  1. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  2. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit.

  3. Flowers regulate the growth and vascular development of the inflorescence rachis in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; McCully, Margaret E; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-11-01

    The rachis, the structural framework of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence (and subsequent bunch), consists of a main axis and one or more orders of lateral branches with the flower-bearing pedicels at their fine tips. The rachis is crucial both for support, and transport from the shoot. Earlier suggestions that the flowers per se affect normal rachis development are investigated further in this study. Different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100) of flowers were removed manually one week before anthesis on field-grown vines. Treatment effects on subsequent rachis development (curvature, vitality, anatomy, starch deposit) were assessed. Sections, both fixed and embedded, and fresh hand-cut were observed by fluorescence and bright-field optics after appropriate staining. Emphasis was on measurement of changes in cross-sectional area of secondary xylem and phloem, and on maturation of fibres and periderm. Specific defects in rachis development were dependent on the percent and location of flower removal one week prior to anthesis. The rachises curved inwards where most of the flowers were removed. When fully de-flowered, they became progressively necrotic from the laterals back to the primary axes and from the distal to the proximal end of those axes, with a concurrent disorganisation of their anatomy. A few remaining groups of flowers prevented desiccation and abscission of the rachis axes proximal to the group, but not distally. Flower removal (50%) reduced rachis elongation, while 75% removal reduced xylem and phloem area and delayed phloem fibre and periderm development. 75% flower removal did not affect starch present in the rachis during berry development. Developing flowers affect the growth and vitality of the rachis and the development of its vascular and support structures. The extent of these effects depends on the cultivar and the number and position of flowers remaining after some are removed one week before anthesis.

  4. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  5. Transformation of Eutypa dieback and esca disease pathogen toxins by antagonistic fungal strains reveals a second detoxification pathway not present in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Christen, Danilo; Tharin, Manuel; Perrin-Cherioux, Sandrine; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Tabacchi, Raphaël; Défago, Geneviève

    2005-09-07

    Eutypine, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 3-phenyllactic acid are some of the phytotoxins produced by the pathogens causing Eutypa dieback and esca disease, two trunk diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Known biocontrol agents such as Fusarium lateritium and Trichoderma sp. were screened for their ability to consume these toxins. Transformation time courses were performed, and an high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was developed to analyze toxin metabolism and to identify and quantify the converted products. The results show that the aldehyde function of eutypine was reduced to eutypinol, as by V. vinifera cv. Merlot, the cultivar tolerant to Eutypa dieback. We revealed a supplementary detoxification pathway, not known in Merlot, where the aldehyde function was oxidized to eutypinic acid. Moreover, some strains tested could further metabolize the transformation products. Every strain tested could transform 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to the corresponding alcohol and acid, and these intermediates disappeared totally at the end of the time courses. When biological assays on cells of V. vinifera cv. Chasselas were carried out, the transformation products exhibited a lower toxicity than the toxins. The possibility of selecting new biocontrol agents against trunk diseases of grapevine based on microbial detoxification is discussed.

  6. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  7. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that ...

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  9. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  10. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Min; Hur, Youn-Young; Preece, John E; Fiehn, Oliver; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS) evaluated by gall incidence (GI) and gall diameter (GD), which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD), SR (high GI and small GD), and SS (high GI and large GD), corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites) at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites) than RR (3 metabolites) or SR (one metabolite). This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine.

  11. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Min; Hur, Youn-Young; Preece, John E.; Fiehn, Oliver; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS) evaluated by gall incidence (GI) and gall diameter (GD), which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD), SR (high GI and small GD), and SS (high GI and large GD), corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites) at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites) than RR (3 metabolites) or SR (one metabolite). This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine. PMID:27904455

  12. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  13. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  14. Stilbenes from Vitis vinifera L. Waste: A Sustainable Tool for Controlling Plasmopara Viticola.

    PubMed

    Gabaston, Julien; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Biais, Benoît; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Renouf, Elodie; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Richard, Tristan; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-05

    Stilbene-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera waste (cane, wood, and root) were characterized by UHPLC-MS. Eleven stilbenes were identified and quantified as follows: ampelopsin A, (E)-piceatannol, pallidol, (E)-resveratrol, hopeaphenol, isohopeaphenol, (E)-ε-viniferin, (E)-miyabenol C, (E)-ω-viniferin, r2-viniferin, and r-viniferin. The fungicide concentration inhibiting 50% of growth of Plasmopara viticola sporulation (IC50) was determined for the extracts and also for the main compounds isolated. r-Viniferin followed by hopeaphenol and r2-viniferin showed low IC50 and thus high efficacy against Plasmopara viticola. Regarding stilbene extracts, wood extract followed by root extract showed the highest antifungal activities. These data suggest that stilbene complex mixtures from Vitis vinifera waste could be used as a cheap source of bioactive stilbenes for the development of natural fungicides.

  15. Characterization and expression of caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase proposed for the induced resistance response of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Busam, G; Junghanns, K T; Kneusel, R E; Kassemeyer, H H; Matern, U

    1997-01-01

    Cell-suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir accumulated resveratrol upon fungal elicitation, and the activity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyl-transferase (CCoAOMT), yielding feruloyl-CoA, increased to a transient maximum at 12 to 15 h. CCoAOMT cDNA was cloned from the elicited cells and was shown to encode a polypeptide highly homologous to CCoAOMTs from cells of Petroselinum species or Zinnia species. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli revealed that grapevine CCoAOMT methylates both caffeoyl- and 5-hydroxyferuloyl-coenzyme A and is probably involved in phenolic esterification and lignification. Commercial plant activators induce the disease-resistance response of test plants and are considered to mimic the action of salicylic acid. Among these chemicals, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester provoke systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and were also shown to induce the expression of class III chitinase in grapevine. The SAR response is classified by an unchanged phenotype of tissues, but the mechanistic basis is unknown. Treatment of the cultured V. vinifera cells with either fungal elicitor or low concentrations of salicylic acid and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, respectively, raised the CCoAOMT or stilbene synthase transcript abundance, suggesting that grapevine is capable of the SAR response, whereas benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester was ineffective. The data imply for the first time (to our knowledge) that the expression of phenyl-propanoid genes in grapevine is induced by SAR activators without phenotypic consequences and suggest a role for CCoAOMT and stilbene synthase in the disease-resistance response leading beyond the level of pathogenesis-related proteins as markers of the SAR. PMID:9390437

  16. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety. PMID:27462558

  17. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  18. Ecophysiological and phytochemical response to ozone of wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Alessio; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Rita Santamaria, Anna; Nicoletti, Marcello; Toniolo, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Bernardini, Alessandra; Pasqua, Gabriella; Manes, Fausto

    2015-12-18

    Vitis vinifera sensitivity to tropospheric ozone (O3) has been evidenced in several studies. In this work, physiological and metabolic effects of O3 on two wine cultivars of V. vinifera (i.e. Maturano and San Giuseppe) have been studied. Moreover, chlorogenic acid (CGA) production, in consideration of its importance in the biosynthetic pathway of polyphenols and as antioxidant, has been investigated. Maturano cultivar resulted more sensitive to O3, as evidenced by the gas exchange reduction at the early stage of treatment, and by the increase in Ci/Ca and the decoupling of net photosynthesis and the stomatal conductance at the end of the treatment. Unexpectedly, O3 did not activate stilbene production. Ozone induced an early CGA decrease, significantly more consistent in cv. Maturano, and an increase after 8 days, more consistent in cv. S. Giuseppe. These results suggest that CGA could be considered a biochemical marker of O3-induced stress in V. vinifera.

  19. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  20. Metabolism of terpenes in the response of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaf tissues to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the terpene profiles as determined by GC-EIMS analysis of in vitro cultured plants of Vitis vinifera exposed to a "field-like" dose of UV-B (4.75 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) administered at two different fluence rates (low, 16 h at 8.25 μW cm(-2), and high 4 h at 33 μW cm(-2)). Low UV-B treatment increased levels of the membrane-related triterpenes sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol, more notable in young leaves, suggesting elicitation of a mechanism for grapevine acclimation. By contrast, accumulation of compounds with antioxidant properties, diterpenes α and γ tocopherol and phytol, the sesquiterpene E-nerolidol and the monoterpenes carene, α-pinene and terpinolene had maximum accumulation under high UV-B, which was accentuated in mature leaves. Also the levels of the sesquiterpenic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA) increased under high UV-B, although 24 h post irradiation ABA concentrations decreased. Such increments of antioxidant terpenes along with ABA suggest elicitation of mechanism of defense. The adaptative responses induced by relatively low UV-B irradiations as suggested by synthesis of terpenes related with membrane stability correlated with augments in terpene synthase activity.

  1. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  2. Comparative anatomy and morphology of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) somatic embryos from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, S; Bondada, Bhaskar R; Li, Zhijian; Gray, D J

    2003-07-01

    Ontogeny of somatic embryos of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) produced from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses (PEM) was compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Somatic embryos produced from solid-medium-derived PEM (SPEM) had large cotyledons, little or no visible suspensor structure, and a relatively undeveloped concave shoot apical meristem, whereas those from liquid-medium-derived PEM (LPEM) had smaller cotyledons, a distinct suspensor, and a flat-to-convex shoot apical meristem. The convex shoot apical meristem in LPEM-derived somatic embryos formed as early as the heart stage of development; it was 4-6 cell layers deep and rich in protein. Suspensors persisted in fully developed and mature LPEM-derived somatic embryos. The SPEM-derived somatic embryos exhibited dormancy, as do mature zygotic embryos, which also have a rudimentary suspensor, whereas LPEM-derived embryos were not dormant. We hypothesize that the presence of a persistent suspensor in LPEM-derived somatic embryos modulates development, ultimately resulting in rapid germination and a high plant-regeneration rate.

  3. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  4. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process. PMID:22192855

  5. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sucrose Synthase Gene Family in Grape (Vitis vinifera): Structure, Evolution, and Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Mengqi; Li, Xiaopeng; Jiu, Songtao; Wang, Chen; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-03-28

    Sucrose synthase (SS) is widely considered as the key enzyme involved in the plant sugar metabolism that is critical to plant growth and development, especially quality of the fruit. The members of SS gene family have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes. However, detailed information about this gene family is lacking in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of the grape (V. vinifera) genome and reported that there are five SS genes (VvSS1-5) in the grape genome. Comparison of the structures of grape SS genes showed high structural conservation of grape SS genes, resulting from the selection pressures during the evolutionary process. The segmental duplication of grape SS genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses between grape and soybean (Glycine max) demonstrated that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of grape and soybean. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct evolutionary paths for the grape SS genes. VvSS1/VvSS5, VvSS2/VvSS3 and VvSS4 originated from three ancient SS genes, which were generated by duplication events before the split of monocots and eudicots. Bioinformatics analysis of publicly available microarray data, which was validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvSS genes in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results will be beneficial for further investigations into the functions of SS gene in the processes of grape resistance to environmental stresses.

  7. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera L. and hybrid red grapes by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of berry skin anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2012-05-09

    Among the methods that have been developed for anthocyanin characterization, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers several analytical advantages in terms of speed, minimal sample handling, specificity, and reliability, without requiring any previous chromatographic separation. This study used MALDI-TOF MS to profile the anthocyanins from the berry skins of 23 red grape varieties clustered as (i) authentic Vitis vinifera grapes, (ii) American hybrid cultivars, and (iii) Casavecchia cultivars, previously characterized as functional crosses of V. vinifera with nondefined hybrid grapevines. Anthocyanin profiling demonstrated evidence of several varietal traits that enabled the differentiation of authentic V. vinifera from hybrid cultivars on a molecular basis. In particular, acyl 3,5-O-diglucoside anthocyanins were established as easily monitored molecular markers of the hybrid varieties. It was also demonstrated that MALDI-post source decay MS is a powerful tool to differentiate isobaric 3,5-O-diglucosides and their derivatives, which prevail in hybrid cultivars, from acylated 3-O-glucoside anthocyanins.

  8. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    PubMed

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  9. Variation in the chilling requirement and bud burst rate of wild Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural fruit crops in the world. In the United States, grapevines are often grown in environments very different than the Mediterranean climate from where the cultivated species was domesticated. Predictions of changing clima...

  10. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  11. Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...

  12. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  13. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  14. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  15. [Significant improved anthocyanins biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera by process intensification].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Yu, Xing-Ju; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-03-01

    The low-production is a ubiquitous problem and has prevented the commercialization of secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture. In order to examine the effective approaches to improvement of secondary metabolite production in plant cell culture, the investigation of anthocyanins accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, had been initiated in our laboratory. In this present research, various elicitors and the precursor of phenylalanine were used in combination to enhance the anthocyanins production in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. And an integrated process with the combination of elicitation, precursor feeding and light irradiation was reported for rational bioprocess design. Among the combination treatment of phenylalanine feeding and several elicitors (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, dextran T-40, methyl jasmonate, extracts of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium orthoceras), the combination with methyl jasmonate gave the highest anthocyanins production in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. When compared to the controls, the anthocyanins content (CV/g, FCW) and production (CV/L) increased by 2.7-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively. The optimum time for the addition of phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate was 4 days after inoculation. Two cell lines with different anthocyanins-producing capacity responded differently to the optimum combination treatment of 30 micromol/L phenylalanine feeding, 218 micromol/L methyl jasmonate elicitation and 3000 to approximately 4000 1x light illumination. The high-and low-anthocyanins-producing cell lines of VV05 and VV06 produced the maximum of 2975 and 4090 CV/L of anthocyanins that were 2.5- and 5.2-fold of the controls, respectively.

  16. Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses.

  17. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  18. Gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Lunenfeld, B

    1968-03-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems.

  19. Gonadotropin Promotion of Adventitious Root Production on Cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera 1

    PubMed Central

    Leshem, Y.; Lunenfeld, B.

    1968-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA3-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems. PMID:5641189

  20. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  1. Ultrastructural study of archaeological Vitis vinifera L. seeds using rapid-freeze fixation and substitution.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Vignani, Rita; Ciacci, Andrea; Nardini, Alessandra; Valenti, Marco; Cantini, Federico; Ciampolini, Fabrizio; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of Vitis vinifera seeds from different archaeological sites was studied. Preservation status differed between sites. Preliminary investigations of grape seeds from Poggio Bacherina (Chianciano Terme, Siena) and Miranduolo (Chiusdino, Siena) showed collapsed or charred tegument, making this material suitable for morphometric studies only. Rapid-freeze fixation and substitution of grape seeds from Shahr-I Sokhta in Iran and via De' Castellani in Florence revealed well preserved tegument suitable for chemical and cytochemical analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to determine chemical composition. Cytochemical analysis based on fluorescent staining with DAPI suggested the presence of cytoplasm residues.

  2. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini.

  3. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  4. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  5. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses.

  6. Transporters expressed during grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) development are associated with an increase in berry size and berry potassium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher; Shin, Ryoung; Liu, Weihong; Thomas, Mark R; Schachtman, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    Potassium accumulation is essential for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growth and development, but excessive levels in berries at harvest may reduce wine quality particularly for red wines. In addition to decreasing the free acid levels, potassium also combines with tartaric acid to form largely insoluble potassium bitartrate. This precipitates during winemaking and storage, resulting in an increase in wine pH that is associated with negative impacts on wine colour, flavour, and microbiological stability. For these reasons, a better understanding of potassium transport and accumulation within the vine and berries is important for producing fruit with improved winemaking characteristics. Here two genes encoding KUP/KT/HAK-type potassium transporters that are expressed in grape berries are described. Their function as potassium transporters was demonstrated by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The two transporters are expressed most highly in the berry skin during the first phase of berry development (pre-veraison), with similar patterns in two grapevine varieties. The timing and location of expression of these transporters are consistent with an involvement in potassium accumulation in grape berries.

  7. Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN.

    PubMed

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-04-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream.

  8. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Results Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. Conclusions In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated

  9. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine.

  10. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  11. Strategies for RUN1 deployment using RUN2 and REN2 to manage grapevine powdery mildew informed by studies of race-specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TIR-NB-LRR gene, Resistance to Uncinula necator 1 (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic Vitis vinifera cultivars. However, powdery mildew cleistothecia ha...

  12. Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization of Grapevine vein clearing virus from Wild Vitis rupestris.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven; Kovens, Michael; Hubbert, LeAnn; Honesty, Shae; Guo, Qiang; Pap, Daniel; Dai, Ru; Kovacs, Laszlo; Qiu, Wenping

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV), a new member of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is associated with a vein clearing and vine decline disease that severely affects grape production and berry quality in commercial vineyards in the Midwest region of the United States. In this paper, the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of GVCV-VRU1 and GVCV-VRU2, two isolates from wild Vitis rupestris grapevines in their native habitat, are described. The GVCV-VRU1 genome is 7,755 bp long while the GVCV-VRU2 genome consists of 7,725 bp, both of which are different from the genome of the GVCV-CHA isolate (7,753 bp), which was originally discovered in the grape cultivar 'Chardonel'. The nucleotide sequence identity among GVCV-VRU1, GVCV-VRU2, and GVCV-CHA ranges from 91.6 to 93.4%, and open reading frame (ORF) II is the most divergent ORF with only 83.3 to 88.5% identity. Sequence analysis of the ORF II indicated that GVCV isolates genetically similar to GVCV-VRU1 and GVCV-VRU2 also are present in commercial vineyards. Symptoms of GVCV-VRU1- or GVCV-VRU2-infected wild V. rupestris grapevine appeared initially as translucent vein clearing on young leaves and progressed to vein necrosis on mature leaves. Inoculation of GVCV-VRU1 or GVCV-VRU2 by grafting onto grape cultivar Chardonel resulted in mild mottle and leaf distortion. The natural range of wild V. rupestris grapevines overlaps with commercial vineyards in the Midwestern United States. Therefore, the discovery of GVCV isolates in wild V. rupestris grapevines has important implications for epidemics and management of the GVCV-associated disease.

  13. Mapping genetic loci for tolerance to lime-induced iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevine rootstocks (Vitis sp.).

    PubMed

    Bert, Pierre-François; Bordenave, Louis; Donnart, Martine; Hévin, Cyril; Ollat, Nathalie; Decroocq, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    Iron is essential to plants for chlorophyll formation as well as for the functioning of various iron-containing enzymes. Iron deficiency chlorosis is a wide-spread disorder of plants, in particular, of those growing on calcareous soils. Among the different ways to control iron deficiency problems for crops, plant material and especially rootstock breeding is a suitable and reliable method, especially for fruit trees and grapes. The aim of the experiment was to characterize the genetic basis of grapevine chlorosis tolerance under lime stress conditions. A segregating population of 138 F1 genotypes issued from an inter-specific cross between Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon (tolerant) × V. riparia Gloire de Montpellier (sensitive) was developed and phenotyped both as cuttings and as rootstock grafted with Cabernet Sauvignon scions in pots containing non-chlorosing and chlorosing soils. Tolerance was evaluated by chlorosis score, leaf chlorophyll content and growth parameters of the shoots and roots. The experiments were performed in 2001, 2003 and 2006. The plants analysed in 2006 were reassessed in 2007. The most significant findings of the trial were: (a) the soil properties strongly affect plant development, (b) there are differences in tolerance among segregating genotypes when grown as cuttings or as rootstocks on calcareous soil, (c) calcareous conditions induced chlorosis and revealed quantitative trait loci (QTLs) implicated in polygenic control of tolerance, (d) rootstock strongly contributes to lime-induced chlorosis response, and (e) a QTL with strong effect (from 10 to 25 % of the chlorotic symptom variance) was identified on chromosome 13. This QTL colocalized with a QTL for chlorophyll content (R (2) = 22 %) and a major QTL for plant development that explains about 50 % of both aerial and root system biomass variation. These findings were supported by stable results among the different years of experiment. These results open new insights into the

  14. Intercontinental genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata, causal agent of Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), impacts all vineyard production systems worldwide. Our objectives were to characterize the population structure of E. lata at different geographical scales to identify migration patterns through ascospor...

  15. Global genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata is a trunk pathogen of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in all major grape-growing regions of the world. Throughout its geographic range, it is considered a generalist pathogen that can complete its life cycle on a broad range of hosts. To decipher the cosmopol...

  16. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  17. Can Pierce’s disease PdR1 resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  18. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  19. Broad-spectrum of antimicrobial properties of commercial wines from different Vitis vinifera L. varieties.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Aleksandra; Arsić, Biljana; Radovanović, Vladimir; Jovančičević, Branimir; Nikolić, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods. The correlation between amounts of phenolics and antibacterial activities of investigated wines were studied by application of statistical (PCA, factor and cluster) analyses. This study gives the possibility to predict the biological quality of the wine from the same cluster towards bacteria without "wet" analysis. Obtained results can to be useful both to wine producers for the formation of market price of wine, and to wine consumers in choosing quality red wine with high content of polyphenols.

  20. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  1. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  2. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  3. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.

  4. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds display cardioprotection in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    Berti, F; Manfredi, B; Mantegazza, P; Rossoni, G

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, increasing evidence has suggested that the consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol is inversely correlated with mortality from myocardial infarction. There is also some evidence that the protective effects of wine might be more pronounced than those of other alcoholic beverages. These observations prompted us to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Vitis vinifera seeds in experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury. An isolated rabbit heart preparation paced electrically was used to evaluate the effects of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of oligomeric procyanidins isolated from Vitis vinifera seeds on myocardial reperfusion injury after 40 min of low-flow (1 ml/min) ischemia. Infusion of the heart with 100 or 200 microg/ml procyanidins dose-dependently reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure during ischemia, decreased coronary perfusion pressure, improved cardiac mechanical performance upon reperfusion, increased the release of 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1alpha into the perfusate in both the preischemic and the reperfusion periods and suppressed rhythm irregularity. Procyanidins dose-dependently relaxed human internal mammary aortic (IMA) rings (with intact endothelium) precontracted with norepinephrine. This effect was completely abolished in IMA-rings without functional endothelium or when this vascular tissue was pretreated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) or with guanylate cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). In conclusion, these results indicate that procyanidins could be of therapeutical potential in cardiovascular diseases. However, further investigations are required for a better definition of the mode of action of these oligomers.

  5. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine.

  6. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine.

  7. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential.

  8. Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2006-01-25

    This paper reports an attempt to functionally and chemically characterize commercial ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. grape skins, grape pomace, and leaves, which are used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. The antioxidant capacity of these ingredients was assessed for the first time by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methodology. Ingredients from grape skins and pomace (n = 17) showed ORAC values from 1.38 to 21.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg whereas ingredients from leaves (n = 4) showed ORAC values from 1.52 to 2.55 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization-mass sprectrometry analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols revealed the authenticity of the ingredients as derived from V. vinifera L. and confirmed large differences in their phenolic content and distribution. A progressive decline in both antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin content of a grape skin ingredient (43 and 40% decrease, respectively) was observed over a 60 day storage period (45 degrees C and 75% relative humidity), demonstrating its poor stability under these conditions.

  9. Characterization of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) are intra-vacuolar structures capable of concentrating anthocyanins and are present in over 50 of the highest anthocyanin-accumulating plant species. Presence of AVIs alters pigment intensity, total anthocyanin levels, pigment hue and causes bathochromic shifts in a spatio-temporal manner within various flowers, vegetables and fruits. A year-long study on Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures found a strong correlation between AVI prevalence and anthocyanin content, but not the number of pigmented cells, growth rate or stilbene content. Furthermore, enhancement of the prevalence of AVIs and anthocyanins was achieved by treatment of V. vinifera cell suspension cultures with sucrose, jasmonic acid and white light. A unique autofluorescence of anthocyanins was used to demonstrate microscopically that AVIs proceed from the cytosol across the tonoplast and were able to coalesce intravacuolarly, with fewer, larger AVIs predominating as cells mature. Purification and characterisation of these bodies were performed, showing that they were dense, highly organic structures, with a lipid component indicative of membrane-encasement. These purified AVIs were also shown to comprise long-chain tannins and possessed an increased affinity for binding acylated anthocyanins, though no unique protein component was detected.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  11. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine. PMID:28377754

  12. [Effect of homogeneity on cell growth and anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Mei-Fang; Yu, Xing-Ju

    2006-09-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. To understand the instability, the investigation of anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, has been initiated in our laboratory. Suspension culture of a relatively homogeneous cell line E of V. vinifera, was established by long-term cell line selection by anthocyanin content differentiation. The aggregate size of E was smaller than that of other cell lines obtained by routine screening method. The variation coefficients of anthocyanin content in suspension cultures of E were 8.7% in long-term subcultures and 5% in repeated flasks, respectively. The effects of elicitor, precursor feeding and light irridiation on biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of E had been investigated and the results showed that all the variation coefficients were lower than 12% and this indicated the importance of homogeneity on stable production in plant cell culture. With the combination treatment of 30micromol/L phenylalanine and 218micromol/L methyl jasmonate in the dark in suspension cultures of E, the anthocyanin content and production in suspension culture of E was 5.89-fold and 4.30-fold of the controls, respectively, and all the variation coefficients of biomass and anthocyanin accumulation were lower than those of the controls in 5 successive subcultures.

  13. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA of Vitis vinifera and the issue of rampant horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Viola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of grape (Vitis vinifera), the largest organelle genome sequenced so far, is presented. The genome is 773,279 nt long and has the highest coding capacity among known angiosperm mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). The proportion of promiscuous DNA of plastid origin in the genome is also the largest ever reported for an angiosperm mtDNA, both in absolute and relative terms. In all, 42.4% of chloroplast genome of Vitis has been incorporated into its mitochondrial genome. In order to test if horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has also contributed to the gene content of the grape mtDNA, we built phylogenetic trees with the coding sequences of mitochondrial genes of grape and their homologs from plant mitochondrial genomes. Many incongruent gene tree topologies were obtained. However, the extent of incongruence between these gene trees is not significantly greater than that observed among optimal trees for chloroplast genes, the common ancestry of which has never been in doubt. In both cases, we attribute this incongruence to artifacts of tree reconstruction, insufficient numbers of characters, and gene paralogy. This finding leads us to question the recent phylogenetic interpretation of Bergthorsson et al. (2003, 2004) and Richardson and Palmer (2007) that rampant HGT into the mtDNA of Amborella best explains phylogenetic incongruence between mitochondrial gene trees for angiosperms. The only evidence for HGT into the Vitis mtDNA found involves fragments of two coding sequences stemming from two closteroviruses that cause the leaf roll disease of this plant. We also report that analysis of sequences shared by both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes provides evidence for a previously unknown gene transfer route from the mitochondrion to the chloroplast.

  15. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth.

  16. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  17. Plant regeneration of grapevine (Vitis sp.) protoplasts isolated from embryogenic tissue.

    PubMed

    Reustle, G; Harst, M; Alleweldt, G

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts with high embryogenic competence could be isolated from leaf-disk-derived embryos and embryoids of Vitis sp. cv. Seyval blanc. After a 4-week induction treatment in NN-69 medium supplemented with 4.0mg/l naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) and 0.9mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and subsequent subcultivation in hormone-free medium, 38.5% of the developed microcalluses showed somatic embryogenesis. In contrast, only few formed somatic embryos after induction in CPW-13 medium with either 1.0mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5mg/l benzylaminopurine treatment (13.8%) or NOA/TDZ treatment (1.4%). Up to 30% of these embryos germinated and about half of them regenerated into typical in vitro grapevines when transferred onto LS-medium in culture tubes.

  18. Diadenosine triphosphate is a novel factor which in combination with cyclodextrins synergistically enhances the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell suspension cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Czekała, Lukasz; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Pedreño, María Angeles; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates are considered as signal molecules that may evoke response of plant cells to stress. Other compounds whose biological effects have been recognized are cyclodextrins. They are cyclic oligosaccharides that chemically resemble the alkyl-derived pectic oligosaccharides naturally released from the cell walls during fungal attack, and they act as true elicitors, since, when added to plant cell culture, they induce the expression of genes involved in some secondary metabolism pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that some dinucleoside polyphosphates triggered the biosynthesis of enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells, cyclodextrins were shown to enhance the accumulation of trans-resveratrol, one of the basic units of the stilbenes derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we show that diadenosine triphosphate, applied alone or in combination with cyclodextrins to the grapevine suspension-cultured cells, increased the transcript level of genes encoding key phenylpropanoid-pathway enzymes as well as the trans-resveratrol production inside cells and its secretion into the extracellular medium. In the latter case, these two compounds acted synergistically. However, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside trans-piceid inside cells were stimulated much better by diadenosine triphosphate than by cyclodextrins.

  19. The Application of Leaf Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants.

  20. The Application of Leaf Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J.; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D.; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G.; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants. PMID:27833626

  1. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  2. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  3. Interactions between light and growing season temperatures on, growth and development and gas exchange of Semillon (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grown in an irrigated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2012-05-01

    High-light intensities and temperatures of the warm climate regions of Australia and elsewhere have a major effect on the growth and development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The objective of this research was to assess interactions between the light and seasonal temperatures by shading some vines and comparing these with vines exposed to high-light intensities. Canopy temperatures were monitored using infrared radiometers and budbreak, phenology, growth, yield, berry ripening and gas exchange determined over three growing seasons. Results showed canopies were generally about 4 °C cooler than air and shading extended this cooling. Irradiance, irrespective of seasonal temperatures, had no effect on time of budbreak, shoot phenology, stem growth, yield and bunch fresh weights while bunch and leaf dry weights were reduced in low-light. Bunch ripening was initially delayed by low-light but thereafter the ripening process was highly temperature-dependent. Rates increased linearly with increasing temperature in both low and high-light and were optimal at about 35 °C. Maximum photosynthetic capacity was impaired by low irradiance, in accordance with shade leaf attributes, and attributable to stomatal closure. No effects of the low photosynthetic capacity apparently carried-over to sugar accumulation, consistent with the strong sink capacity of bunches.

  4. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2012-01-01

    Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. 'Freedom' and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2 °C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9-12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a >1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps, suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants.

  5. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  6. Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation, N-Glycosylation and Lys-Acetylation in Grape (Vitis vinifera) Mesocarp and Exocarp Owing to Lobesia botrana Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N.; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R.; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; Thelen, Jay J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  7. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  8. Resistance to Water Transport in Shoots of Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Hans R.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    Apparent resistances to water transport in the liquid phase were determined from measurements of soil, root, basal shoot internode, shoot apex, and leaf water potentials and water flux in Vitis vinifera (cv White Riesling) during soil drying. Predawn water potential differences (ΔΨ) in the shoots accounted for 20% of the total ΔΨ between the soil and the shoot apex when plants were well-watered but increased to about 90% when shoot growth ceased. The ΔΨ from soil to root was essentially constant during this period. At low water potential, the ΔΨ in the shoot was persistent when transpiration was low (predawn) or completely prevented (plant bagging). The apparent hydraulic resistance between the basal shoot internode and most rapidly expanding leaf (or shoot apex) increased several-fold when water was withheld. Leaf and internode expansion both exhibited high sensitivity to increasing hydraulic resistance. Measurements of pneumatic resistance to air flow through frozen internode segments indicated progressive vapor-filling of vessels as soil drying progressed. From these observations and others in the literature, it was suggested that embolization may be a common occurrence and play an important role in the inhibition of shoot growth at moderate water deficits. PMID:16666373

  9. The epimerase activity of anthocyanidin reductase from Vitis vinifera and its regiospecific hydride transfers.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Mahmoud; Chaudière, Jean; Manigand, Claude; Maugé, Chloé; Bathany, Katell; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Gallois, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) from Vitis vinifera catalyzes an NADPH-dependent double reduction of anthocyanidins producing a mixture of (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-flavan-3-ols. At pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C, the first hydride transfer to anthocyanidin is irreversible, and no intermediate is released during catalysis. ANR reverse activity was assessed in the presence of excess NADP(+). Analysis of products by reverse phase and chiral phase HPLC demonstrates that ANR acts as a flavan-3-ol C(3)-epimerase under such conditions, but this is only observed with 2R-flavan-3-ols, not with 2S-flavan-3-ols produced by the enzyme in the forward reaction. In the presence of deuterated coenzyme 4S-NADPD, ANR transforms anthocyanidins into dideuterated flavan-3-ols. The regiospecificity of deuterium incorporation into catechin and afzelechin - derived from cyanidin and pelargonidin, respectively - was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electro- spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), and it was found that deuterium was always incorporated at C(2) and C(4). We conclude that C(3)-epimerization should be achieved by tautomerization between the two hydride transfers and that this produces a quinone methide intermediate which serves as C(4) target of the second hydride transfer, thereby avoiding any stereospecific modification of carbon 3. The inversion of C(2) stereochemistry required for 'reverse epimerization' suggests that the 2S configuration induces an irreversible product dissociation.

  10. Dynamic Relation between Expansion and Cellular Turgor in Growing Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Matthews, Mark A.; Morrison, Janice C.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the growth and water relations of expanding grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves have been used to determine the relationship between leaf expansion rate and leaf cell turgor. Direct measurement of turgor on the small (approximately 15 micrometer diameter) epidermal cells over the midvein of expanding grape leaves was made possible by improvements in the pressure probe technique. Leaf expansion rate and leaf water status were perturbed by environmentally induced changes in plant transpiration. After establishing a steady state growth rate, a step decrease in plant transpiration resulted in a rapid and large increase in leaf cell turgor (0.25 megapascal in 5 minutes), and leaf expansion rate. Subsequently, leaf expansion rate returned to the original steady state rate with no change in cell turgor. These results indicate that the expansion rate of leaves may not be strongly related to the turgor of the leaf cells, and that substantial control of leaf expansion rate, despite changes in turgor, may be part of normal plant function. It is suggested that a strictly physical interpretation of the parameters most commonly used to describe the relationship between turgor and growth in plant cells (cell wall extensibility and yield threshold) may be inappropriate when considering the process of plant cell expansion. PMID:16665579

  11. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  12. Biomolecule-mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Bhavesh, Riju; Park, Jongbong; Ganbold, Bilguun; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2014-02-27

    Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently the gained attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green approach to biosynthesize selenium nanoparticles (Se-np) using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extracts. The biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopic images revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles and a size range of 3-18 nm. Dynamic light scattering also confirmed the average particle size of 8.12 ± 2.5 nm with 0.212 PDI. The crystalline nature of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Moreover, as inferred from the FTIR spectrum, the presence of highly stable lignin biopolymer on the surface of selenium nanoballs suggests a possible role as capping agent.

  13. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    PubMed

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients.

  14. Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2003-07-01

    Jasmonic acid altered the accumulation of major anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cell culture. Peonidin 3-glucoside content at day three was increased from 0.3 to 1.7 mg g(-1) dry cell wt while other major anthocyanins were increased by smaller increments. By day 14, the content of methylated and acylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside) was 6.3 mg g(-1) DCW, in response to treatment with jasmonic acid, and comprising approximately 45% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the untreated control culture contained 1.2 mg g(-1) DCW which made up approximately 32% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. Light further enhanced anthocyanin accumulation induced by jasmonic acid elicitation. The content of peonidin 3-glucoside at day 3 was 6.6 mg g(-1) DCW, 22-fold higher than control cultures while the content in response to light irradiation alone was 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW. When a highly pigmented cell line was elicited with jasmonic acid total anthocyanins increased from 9.2 to 20.7 mg g(-1) DCW, but there was no change in the anthocyanin composition.

  15. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  16. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  17. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  18. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  19. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages.

  20. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  1. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits.

  2. Cellular expansion and gene expression in the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Schlosser, J; Olsson, N; Weis, M; Reid, K; Peng, F; Lund, S; Bowen, P

    2008-01-01

    Expression profiles of genes involved in cell wall metabolism and water transport were compared with changes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry growth, basic chemical composition, and the shape, size, and wall thickness of cells within tissues of the berry pericarp. Expression of cell wall-modifying and aquaporin genes in berry pericarp tissues generally followed a bimodal expression profile with high levels of expression coinciding with the two periods of rapid berry growth, stages I and III, and low levels of expression corresponding to the slow-growth period, stage II. Cellular expansion was observed throughout all tissues during stage I, and only mesocarp cellular expansion was observed during stage III. Expansion of only exocarp cells was evident during transition between stages II and III. Cell wall-modifying and aquaporin gene expression profiles followed similar trends in exocarp and mesocarp tissues throughout berry development, with the exception of the up-regulation of pectin methylesterase, pectate lyase, two aquaporin genes (AQ1 and AQ2), and two expansin genes (EXP3 and EXPL) during stage II, which was delayed in the exocarp tissue compared with mesocarp tissue. Exocarp endo-(1-->3)-beta-glucanase and expansin-like gene expression was concurrent with increases in epidermal and hypodermal cell wall thickness. These results indicate a potential role of the grape berry skin in modulating grape berry growth.

  3. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T; Koumbi, Lemonica; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2008-01-01

    Currants and Sultanas (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used broadly in the Mediterranean diet. We aimed to investigate the gastric cancer preventive activity of methanol extracts obtained from currants from three different origins in Greece (Vostizza, Nemea, and Messinia) as well as methanol extracts obtained from Sultanas cultivated in the island of Crete as to inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of inflammation. All extracts from 500 microg dried raisins studied suppressed cell proliferation, significantly those obtained from Sultanas from Crete and currants from Nemea. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V labeled cells indicated that Cretan Sultana, Nemea, and Messinia currants at 500 microg dried product/ml medium significantly induced cell death. All extracts from 500 microg dried raisins statistically decreased protein and mRNA levels of ICAM-1 in TNF-alpha stimulated cells. Measurement of IL-8 protein levels and quantification for IL-8 mRNA showed no significant decrease. These results indicate that the methanol extracts from currants, rich in phenolic compounds, exhibit cancer preventive efficacy by limiting cell proliferation, inducing cell death, and suppressing ICAM-1 levels in AGS cells.

  4. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  5. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  6. Genome Diversity and Intra- and Inter-Species Recombination Events in Grapevine fanleaf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was documented in four wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown as own-rooted vines. GFLV was found as a mixed virus infection in cvs. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, but not in cvs. Merlot and Cabernet Franc. Fanleaf disease symptoms were observed only in the first two...

  7. VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION IN GRAPEVINES HAS BEEN OVERESTIMATED BY THE CENTRIFUGE TECHNIQUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines are considered among the most vulnerable woody plant species to water stress-induced cavitation with embolism forming at slight tensions. However, we found that native embolism in stems of field grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay never exceeded 30% despite xylem water potentials ('x) rea...

  8. First Report of the Occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus in the Pacific Northwest Region Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, genus: Nepovirus, family: Comoviridae), responsible for fanleaf degeneration disease is one of the most important viral diseases of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. During our reconnaissance studies, cambial scrapings from dormant wood cuttings of the wine grape...

  9. Susceptibility of cultivated and wild Vitis to wood infection by fungal trunk pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivars of European grapevine, Vitis vinifera, show varying levels of susceptibility to Eutypa dieback and Esca, in terms of foliar symptoms. However, little is known regarding cultivar susceptibility of their woody tissues to canker formation. Accordingly, we evaluated the relative susceptibility...

  10. Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis species limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains, race specificity against grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) is undocumented. In the current study, two sources of powdery mildew resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera were evaluated in the gree...

  11. Mechanisms of quantitative resistance to Erysiphe necator in Vitis rupestris B38

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitis rupestris B38 is a North American grapevine resistant to the powdery mildew pathogen, Erysiphe necator. The segregation of foliar powdery mildew severity in a F1 family derived from a cross of V. rupestris B38 x V. vinifera ‘Chardonnay’ was observed in the field over three growing seasons and ...

  12. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Grapevine Fabavirus, a Novel Putative Member of the Genus Fabavirus

    PubMed Central

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Westrick, Nathaniel M.; Golino, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus-like sequence from grapevine was identified by Illumina sequencing. The genomic organization was most similar to that of members of the genus Fabavirus. Polyproteins RNA-1 and RNA-2 of the virus tentatively named grapevine fabavirus (GFabV) shared 34 to 23% sequence identities with Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), respectively. GFabV was successfully graft transmitted to Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc. PMID:27445385

  13. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity.

  14. Stimulation of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Cl Mauro, M; Nef, C; Fallot, J

    1986-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent diploid plants have been obtained from anthers of Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon, a cultivar so far considered as recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration. Anthers enclosing microspores near the first pollen mitosis were found to be the most responsive. However, from a practical point of view anther length proved to be an easier criterium for determining the optimal physiological anther stage. Calli derived from the anther somatic tissues produced embryoids only when cultured on a medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate. Glutamine and adenine were found to stimulate this embryoid production. Evidence is presented that early removal of cotyledons increases the frequency of normal development of embryoids into plantlets.

  15. [MAST2-like protein kinase from grape vine Vitis vinifera: cloning of catalytic domain cDNA].

    PubMed

    Briantseva, S A; Gavriushina, E S; Emets, A I; Karpov, P A; Blium, Ia B; Drygin, Iu F; Nadezhdina, E S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our work is the identification of protein kinases phosphorylating microtubule proteins in plant cells. Using bioinformatic approach, we found genes of putative homologues of microtubule-associated mammalian protein kinase MAST2 in higher plant genomes. The gene of closest MAST2 homologue, putative protein, named GMLK (Grape MAST2-Like Kinase, A7NTE9_VITVI), was found in grape Vitis vinifera. We report here the cloning of cDNA of GMLK (A7NTE9) from Pinot Noir grape vine leaves.

  16. Hairy root culture optimization and resveratrol production from Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sayed Mehdi; Bahramnejad, Bahman; Douleti Baneh, Hamed; Emamifar, Aryo; Goodwin, Paul H

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced in very low levels in grapes. To achieve high yield of resveratrol in wild grape, three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402, were used to induce hairy roots following infection of internodes, nodes or petioles of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris accessions W2 and W16, and cultivar Rasha. The effects of inoculation time, age of explants, bacterial concentration and co-cultivation times were examined on the efficiency of the production of hairy roots. Strains Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402 all induced hairy roots in the tested genotypes, but the efficiency of ArA4 strain was higher than the other strains. The highest hairy root production was with using internodes as explants. The transformation of hairy roots lines was confirmed by PCR detection of rolB gene. Half Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was better for biomass production compared with MS medium. HPLC analysis of resveratrol production in the hairy root cultures showed that all the genotypes produced higher amounts of resveratrol than control roots. The highest amount of resveratrol was produced from W16 internode cultures, which was 31-fold higher than that of control root. Furthermore, TLC analysis showed that treatments of hairy roots with sodium acetate and jasmonate elevated resveratrol levels both in hairy root tissue and excreted into the half MS medium. These results demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous factors can affect resveratrol production in hairy root culture of grape, and this strategy could be used to increase low resveratrol production in grapes.

  17. Assessment of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries using a noninvasive chlorophyll fluorescence method.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Meyer, Sylvie; Matteini, Paolo; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2007-02-21

    Anthocyanins (Anths) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries harvested at véraison from Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier cultivars were assessed nondestructively by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra. With increasing Anth content, less excitation light was transmitted to the deeper Chl layers, and thus the ChlF signal decreased proportionally. By applying Beer-Lambert's law, the logarithm of the ratio between the fluorescence excitation spectra (log FER) from a green and a red berry gave the in vivo absorption spectrum of Anths, which peaked at about 540 nm. Absolute quantitative nondestructive determination of Anths for each berry was obtained by the log FER calculated for two excitation wavelengths, 540 and 635 nm (absorbed and not-absorbed by Anths, respectively) of ChlF at 685 nm. Over a range of skin colors going from green to purple, the relationship between the log [ChlF(635)/ChlF(540)] and the Anth concentration of berry extracts was fairly well fitted (r 2 = 0.92) using a power function. Reflectance spectra on the same berry samples were also measured, and Anth reflectance indices, which were originally developed for apples and table grapes, were derived. The log FER Anth index was superior to the reflectance-ratio-based index, but was as good as the color index for red grapes (CIRG) calculated from the whole visible reflectance spectrum. The proposed log FER method, applied by means of suitable portable devices, may represent a new, rapid, and noninvasive tool for the assessment of grape phenolic maturity in vineyards.

  18. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  19. A Candidate-Gene Association Study for Berry Colour and Anthocyanin Content in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Silvana; Lau, Winston; Eiras Dias, José; Fevereiro, Pedro; Maniatis, Nikolas

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA) concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST). Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, MYCA, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHSA). Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYCB, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies. PMID:23029369

  20. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard.

  1. Free radical scavenging of grape pomace extracts from Cabernet sauvingnon (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    de Campos, Luanda M A S; Leimann, Fernanda V; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2008-11-01

    Pressed grape pomace obtained from the wine production of Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vintage was dried until 9.8% moisture content, ground and submitted to extraction of soluble components from different extraction techniques. Low pressure extractions were performed with ethanol maceration followed by fractionation with n-hexane, dichloromethane, butanol and ethyl acetate. These solvents were furthermore applied for soxhlet extraction. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was also performed to obtain grape pomace extracts by using pure CO2 and CO2 with ethanol as co-solvent in concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%w/w. The operating condition used in high pressure extractions was 150bar and 40 degrees C. The antioxidant activity of the grape pomace extracts was determined considering the free radical scavenging assay using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and was correlated with the total phenol content determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results obtained in DPPH tests indicate the highest antioxidant activity of 96.6+/-0.3%AA, with an IC50 value of 13+/-1, for the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate in solid-liquid extraction. The highest yield values were achieved in soxhlet extraction with ethanol (13.2%w/w) and with butanol (12.2%w/w), and also by SFE with 15% ethanol (9.2%w/w). The lipophilic composition of grape pomace extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the identification of components like linoleic acid and ethyl linoleate, with important therapeutic activities.

  2. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Liu, Cai-Yun; Liu, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Yue-Ling; Xu, Rui-Rui

    2016-09-01

    In plants, the transcription factor families have been implicated in many important biological processes. These processes include morphogenesis, signal transduction and environmental stress responses. Proteins containing the lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), which encodes a zinc finger-like domain are only found in plants. This finding indicates that this unique gene family regulates only plant-specific biological processes. LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of plants such as Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, poplar, apple and tomato. However, relatively little is known about the LBD genes in grape (Vitis vinifera). In this study, we identified 40 LBD genes in the grape genome. A complete overview of the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, structures and expression profiles of this gene family during development in grape is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LBD genes could be divided into classes I and II, together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. We mapped the 40 LBD genes on the grape chromosomes (chr1-chr19) and found that 37 of the predicted grape LBD genes were distributed in different densities across 12 chromosomes. Grape LBDs were found to share a similar intron/exon structure and gene length within the same class. The expression profiles of grape LBD genes at different developmental stages were analysed using microarray data. Results showed that 21 grape LBD genes may be involved in grape developmental processes, including preveraison, veraison and ripening. Finally, we analysed the expression patterns of six LBD genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reation analysis. The six LBD genes showed differential expression patterns among the three representative grape tissues, and five of these genes were found to be involved in responses to mannitol, sodium chloride, heat stress and low temperature treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the LBD gene family in

  3. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  4. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    PubMed

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  5. Localization of stilbene synthase in Vitis vinifera L. during berry development.

    PubMed

    Fornara, V; Onelli, E; Sparvoli, F; Rossoni, M; Aina, R; Marino, G; Citterio, S

    2008-01-01

    The localization of stilbene synthase (STS) (EC 2.3.1.95) in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated during fruit development. The berries were collected at 2, 4, 7, 11, and 15 weeks postflowering from the cultivar Nebbiolo during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that berries accumulated cis- and trans-isomers of resveratrol mainly in the exocarp throughout fruit development. Immunodetection of STS protein was performed on berry extracts and sections with an antibody specifically developed against recombinant grape STS1. In agreement with resveratrol presence, STS was found in berry exocarp tissues during all stages of fruit development. The labeled epidermal cells were few and were randomly distributed, whereas nearly all the outer hypodermis cells were STS-positive. The STS signal decreased gradually from exocarp to mesocarp, where the protein was detected only occasionally. At the subcellular level, STS was found predominantly within vesicles (of varying size), along the plasma membrane and in the cell wall, suggesting protein secretion in the apoplast compartment. Despite the differences in fruit size and structure, the STS localization was the same before and after veraison, the relatively short developmental period during which the firm green berries begin to soften and change color. Nevertheless, the amount of protein detected in both exocarp and mesocarp decreased significantly in ripe berries, in agreement with the lower resveratrol content measured in the same tissues. The location of STS in exocarp cell wall is consistent with its role in synthesizing defense compounds and supports the hypothesis that a differential localization of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic machinery regulates the deposition of specific secondary products at different action sites within cells.

  6. Moderate water stress from regulated deficit irrigation decreases transpiration similarly to net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) canopies, whole-canopy transpiration (TrV) and canopy conductance to water vapor (gc) were calculated from whole-vine gas exchange near key stages of fruit development. The vines were ma...

  7. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  9. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  10. In-vitro selection of Vitis vinifera 'Chardonnay' with Elsinoe ampelina culture filtrate is accompanied by fungal resistance and enhanced secretion of chitinase.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, S; Li, Z; Gray, D J

    2000-07-01

    Proembryogenic masses of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) 'Chardonnay' (clone 02Ch) were exposed to the culture filtrate of Elsinoe ampelina (deBary) Shear, the causal agent of anthracnose disease. After four or five cycles of recurrent in-vitro selection with medium containing 40% fungal culture filtrate, putative resistant lines RC1 and RC2 respectively, were established. The selected lines inhibited the growth of E. ampelina and Fusarium oxysporium (Schlecht.) (isolated from watermelon) in a dual-culture assay and reduced the growth of mycelium on a conditioned-medium test, thus suggesting the involvement of extracellular compounds in resistance. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoresis of extracellular proteins from spent suspension-culture medium showed enhanced secretion of new proteins by selected lines. A 36-kDa protein was immunodetected by a chitinase antiserum. This chitinase continued to express constitutively in differentiated somatic embryos and also in the intercellular fluids of plants regenerated from the selected lines. Somatic embryos from selected lines grew uninhibitedly in a medium containing 40% fungal culture filtrate, whereas non-selected (control) somatic embryos became necrotic and died within a few days. Plants regenerated from selected lines exhibited resistance to infection by E. ampelina in both greenhouse tests and detached leaf bioassays. Results suggest that embryogenic cells can be selected for resistance following in-vitro selection, resulting in resistant plants. Whether or not resistant cells pre-existed in the original embryogenic culture or were induced by the selection pressure could not be determined.

  11. Temperature and CO2 dependency of the photosynthetic photon flux density responses of leaves of Vitis vinifera cvs. Chardonnay and Merlot grown in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons of the photosynthetic responses to light and temperature between related cultivars are important to understand how well matched they are to the climate where they are grown. Photosynthetic light responses at a range of leaf temperatures and two CO2 concentrations were measured on leaves of two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) Chardonnay and Merlot vines growing in field conditions. The objective was to assess the interaction between photon flux density (PFD), leaf temperature and CO2 on photosynthesis and to compare the two cultivars. Merlot leaves maintained higher light-saturated rates of photosynthesis at all leaf temperatures compared with the Chardonnay leaves. At low temperatures, a reduced photon yield offset with a high stomatal conductance accounted for the low rates of the Chardonnay leaves. At moderate to high temperatures, photon yields, PFDs at light saturation and stomatal conductances did not account for differences between Merlot and Chardonnay leaves. At elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol(-1)) concentrations, the differences in photosynthetic performance between the cultivars were enhanced, with 30% higher light saturated rates for Merlot compared with Chardonnay leaves. Merlot berries accumulated more sugar, consistent with published data. These results demonstrate Chardonnay, unlike Merlot, appeared to be poorly matched to the hot climate. However, considering the current market and political trends, low alcoholic wines (and, thus, low sugar grapes) should be preferred. Especially in hot climates, it is always hard to obtain such kind of wines and, thus, the most interesting agronomical challenge, especially for Chardonnay vines could be interpreted in an opposite way.

  12. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of Vitis vinifera under high light using a custom-made array and the Affymetrix GeneChip.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luísa C; Vilela, Belmiro J; Mullineaux, Phil M; Amâncio, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Understanding abiotic stress responses is one of the most important issues in plant research nowadays. Abiotic stress, including excess light, can promote the onset of oxidative stress through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress also arises when in vitro propagated plants are exposed to high light upon transfer to ex vitro. To determine whether the underlying pathways activated at the transfer of in vitro grapevine to ex vitro conditions reflect the processes occurring upon light stress, we used Vitis vinifera Affymetrix GeneChip (VvGA) and a custom array of genes responsive to light stress (LSCA) detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). When gene-expression profiles were compared, 'protein metabolism and modification', 'signaling', and 'anti-oxidative' genes were more represented in LSCA, while, in VvGA, 'cell wall metabolism' and 'secondary metabolism' were the categories in which gene expression varied more significantly. The above functional categories confirm previous studies involving other types of abiotic stresses, enhancing the common attributes of abiotic stress defense pathways. The LSCA analysis of our experimental system detected strong response of heat shock genes, particularly the protein rescuing mechanism involving the cooperation of two ATP-dependent chaperone systems, Hsp100 and Hsp70, which showed an unusually late response during the recovery period, of extreme relevance to remove non-functional, potentially harmful polypeptides arising from misfolding, denaturation, or aggregation brought about by stress. The success of LSCA also proves the feasibility of a custom-made qRT-PCR approach, particularly for species for which no GeneChip is available and for researchers dealing with a specific and focused problem.

  13. Response of Vitis vinifera cell cultures to Eutypa lata and Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates: expression of defence-related genes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mutawila, C; Stander, C; Halleen, F; Vivier, M A; Mostert, L

    2017-03-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera cv. Dauphine berries were used to study the response to the vascular pathogen, Eutypa lata, in comparison with a biological control agent, Trichoderma atroviride, that was previously shown to be effective in pruning wound protection. The expression of genes coding for enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins was profiled over a 48-h period using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The cell cultures responded to elicitors of both fungi with a hypersensitive-like response that lead to a decrease in cell viability. Similar genes were triggered by both the pathogen and biocontrol agent, but the timing patterns and magnitude of expression was dependent on the specific fungal elicitor. Culture filtrates of both fungi caused upregulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumaroyl Co-A ligase (CCo-A) and stilbene synthase (STS), and a downregulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The pathogen filtrate caused a biphasic pattern in the upregulation of PAL and STS genes which was not observed in cells treated with filtrates of the biocontrol agent. Analytical assays showed significantly higher total phenolic content and chitinolytic enzyme activity in the cell cultures treated with the T. atroviride filtrate compared to the pathogen filtrate. These results corresponded well to the higher expression of PAL and chitinase class IV genes. The response of the cell cultures to T. atroviride filtrate provides support for the notion that the wound protection by the biocontrol agent at least partially relies on the induction of grapevine resistance mechanisms.

  14. Phytoseiidae in European grape (Vitis vinifera L.): bio-ecological aspects and keys to species (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    PubMed

    Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Baldassar, Andrea; Duso, Carlo; Kreiter, Serge

    2013-01-01

    The family Phytoseiidae includes many species of predators involved in the control of mite pests of crops all over the world. In European vineyards, these natural enemies play a key role in plant protection as their presence usually makes the use of acaricides unnecessary. Each species has its specific biological features. It is thus of great interest to identify the species reported on grape, Vitis vinifera. The present paper, based on a world database of the family Phytoseiidae and on an analysis of more than 250 publications, presents the 54 species of Phytoseiidae belonging to 15 genera reported on V. vinifera in Europe, and identification keys to species. Online versions of the key (dichotomous and polytomous) with illustrations are available at http://wwwl.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/phytoseiidae/sitewebvineyards2/index.htm. An analysis of the biogeographic distribution of these species and their prey has also been carried out. Most species reported on V. vinifera in Europe are rare; only five species are frequently observed: Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) pyri, Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus, Euseius finlandicus and Phytoseius finitimus. The 12 countries where Phytoseiidae have been reported from grapes have been unevenly surveyed, the most well-known faunas being from Italy, Greece and France. These species are reported to prey upon the main species of mite pests of grapes.

  15. Nuclear DNA content of Vitis vinifera cultivars and ploidy level analyses of somatic embryo-derived plants obtained from anther culture.

    PubMed

    Leal, F; Loureiro, J; Rodriguez, E; Pais, M S; Santos, C; Pinto-Carnide, O

    2006-09-01

    Flow cytometry was employed to determine the ploidy level of Vitis vinifera L. somatic embryo-derived plants obtained from anther culture. Only one among the 41 analysed plants (2.4%) presented somaclonal variation (tetraploidy); the other plants were diploid. No significant differences (Pvinifera cultivars was also estimated using flow cytometry. A non-significant variation was found among the cultivars, with DNA content ranging from 1.17 pg/2C (cv. 'Tinta Barroca' and 'Viosinho') to 1.26 pg/2C (cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). These results and previous studies on other Vitis species suggest that Vitis genome is stable with regard to nuclear DNA content.

  16. Assessing prediction quality of several phenological process based models using various types of databases. A case study using Vitis vinifera data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, Inaki; Neethling, Etienne; De Rességuier, Laure; Parker, Amber K.; Barbeau, Gérard; Quenol, Hervé; Sturman, Andrew; Trought, Mike; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2014-05-01

    Modeling phenology has become a major issue in the context of studies on the impact of climate change. Phenology is the first biological indicator of this change and consequently, accurate simulations are essential to correctly predict the timing of development in the future. In recent years several models have been developed and tested to simulate phenology for various species, with many studies focused on perennial species (forest trees, orchards and grapevine). Furthermore, the development of databases and networks of observations have been used to test models under a wide range of climate conditions. In this study we examined the impact of databases and their origin on the accuracy of simulation of flowering and veraison for the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) We compared the results of calibration and cross- validation of several classic phenological models (Growing Degrees Days, Chuine, Sigmoid, Beta function - Wang and Engel and Richardson) for two different varieties (Cabernet Franc and Merlot), at two different locations (Middle Loire Valley and Bordeaux vineyards) using different datasets : 1) Dataset1: a dataset from a network of temperature sensors at a fine scale where phenology was also observed at each of the locations of the temperature sensors (11 to 60 different points); 2) Dataset2: an historical dataset (at least 20 years) from a plot located in the same area as the network , 3) Dataset3: a dataset obtained from other locations in France (Phenoclim database). Cross tests of the best model calibrated with each dataset on the other sites were conducted to assess the effect of the choice of database on the model output for each of these stages (flowering and veraison) at different scales. Initial results showed that the database used to calibrate different models could influence model parameters. This methodology will help to improve the quantification of uncertainties of each model and check the stability of the model parameters over different

  17. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated

  19. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  20. Chemical characterization of red wine grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis interspecific hybrids) and pomace phenolic extracts and their biological activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Thimothe, Joanne; Bonsi, Illeme A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Koo, Hyun

    2007-12-12

    Grapes are rich sources of potentially bioactive polyphenols. However, the phenolic content is variable depending on grape variety, and may be modified during vinification. In this study, we examined the chemical composition and biological activity of phenolic extracts prepared from several red wine grape varieties and their fermented byproduct of winemaking (pomace) on some of the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans a well-known dental pathogen. Grape phenolic extracts were obtained from Vitis vinifera varieties Cabernet Franc and Pinot Noir and Vitis interspecific hybrid varieties Baco Noir and Noiret. The anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols content were highly variable depending on grape variety and type of extract (whole fruit vs fermented pomace). Nevertheless, all grape phenolic extracts remarkably inhibited glucosyltransferases B and C (70-85% inhibition) at concentrations as low as 62.5 microg/mL (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the glycolytic pH-drop by S. mutans cells was inhibited by the grape extracts without affecting the bacterial viability; an effect that can be attributed to partial inhibition of F-ATPase activity (30-65% inhibition at 125 microg/mL; P < 0.01). The biological activity of fermented pomace was either as effective as or significantly better than whole fruit grape extracts. The results showed that grape phenolic extracts, especially from pomace, are highly effective against specific virulence traits of S. mutans despite major differences in their phenolic content.

  1. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-Glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins in red grapes (Vitis genus) are important components of wine and beneficial to human health. These antioxidant compounds are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigm...

  2. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism.

  3. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  4. Effects of elicitors on the production of resveratrol and viniferins in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Italia.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; Mulinacci, Nadia; Valletta, Alessio; Innocenti, Marzia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2011-09-14

    Methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid and chitosan were tested as elicitors on cell suspension cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cv Italia to investigate their effect on stilbene production. Stilbene accumulation in the callus, grown under nonelicited conditions, was also investigated. Calli and cell suspensions were obtained in a B5 culture medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA and 1 mg L(-1) KIN. Stilbene determination was achieved by HPLC/DAD/MS. Whereas callus biosynthesized only piceid, cell suspensions elicited with jasmonates produced several stilbenes, mainly viniferins. In suspended cells, methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid were the most effective in stimulating stilbene biosynthesis, whereas chitosan was less effective; in fact, the amount of stilbenes obtained with this elicitor was not significantly different from that obtained for the control cells. The maximum production of total stilbenes was at day 20 of culture with 0.970 and 1.023 mg g(-1) DW for MeJA and JA, respectively.

  5. Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine.

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of Vitis vinifera L. leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Orhan, Nilüfer; Ergun, Ender; Ergun, Fatma

    2007-05-30

    The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract and its four different fractions (CHCl(3), EtOAc, n-BuOH, and remaining water fraction) of Vitis vinifera L. leaves was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The ethanolic extract was found active at 125mg/kg dose (per os). The ethanolic extract was fractionated through successive solvent-solvent extractions and the n-BuOH fraction in 83mg/kg dose possessed remarkable antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Liver damage was assessed by using biochemical parameters (plasma and liver tissue MDA [malondialdehyde], transaminase enzyme levels in plasma [AST-aspartate transaminase, ALT-alanine transferase] and liver GSH [glutathione] levels). Additionally, the pathological changes in liver were evaluated by histopathological studies. Legalon 70 Protect was used as standard natural originated drug.

  7. Stilbene production in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Red Globe and Michele Palieri elicited by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, A R; Antonacci, D; Caruso, G; Cavaliere, C; Gubbiotti, R; Lagana, A; Valletta, A; Pasqua, G

    2010-09-01

    Cell cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cvs Michele Palieri and Red Globe were cultured in order to stimulate stilbene production. In the calli, stilbene production peaked at day 22 of culture for both cultivars; the main compound was trans-piceid, followed by cis-piceid. Methyl jasmonate, which was added to cell suspensions in the first half of the exponential growth phase, enhanced stilbene accumulation, producing mainly trans-piceid and epsilon-viniferin. Other stilbenoids, though in lower quantities, were identified by liquid chromatography/positive electrospray mass spectrometry. epsilon-Viniferin and trans-resveratrol were the main compounds released into the culture medium. The total quantity of stilbenes was genotype dependent, with a better response found for the cv Red Globe.

  8. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning.

  9. Transgenic plants from shoot apical meristems of Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M; Li, Z T; Dhekney, S A; Gray, D J

    2007-12-01

    Shoot apical meristem explants of Vitis vinifera "Thompson Seedless" were used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. It was determined that the meristems had to be subjected to a dark growth phase then wounded to obtain transgenic plants. Morphological and histological studies illustrated the role of wounding to expose apical meristem cells for transformation. A bifunctional egfp/nptII fusion gene was used to select kanamycin resistant plants that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). Kanamycin at a concentration of 16 mg L(-1) in selection medium resulted in recovery of non-chimeric transgenic plants that uniformly expressed GFP, whereas 8 mg L(-1) kanamycin allowed non-transgenic and/or chimeric plants to develop. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of transgenes and their stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants. Up to 1% of shoot tips produced stable transgenic cultures within 6 weeks of treatment, resulting in a total of 18 independent lines.

  10. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, E; Di Lorenzo, C; Colombo, E; Colombo, F; Fumagalli, M; Frigerio, G; Restani, P; Dell'Agli, M

    2015-08-01

    Botanicals are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, with increased usage in the general population, in many different types of products, including foods and plant food supplements. Several reports support for the beneficial effects of botanicals against gastrointestinal inflammation. However, no studies regarding the anti-inflammatory activity in the gastrointestinal tract of red vine leaves have been reported so far. The present work investigates the biological activity of Vitis vinifera L. water extract (VVWE) from dried leaves in two in vitro models of gastric and intestinal inflammation. The extract was characterized by a validated HPLC-DAD method, and tested on human epithelial gastric (AGS) and intestinal (Caco-2) cells with the aim to investigate the inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion and promoter activity, before and after in vitro gastric or gastrointestinal digestion. Our results show that the water extract from red vine leaves inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and expression in human gastric epithelial cells; the effect should be maintained, although to a lesser extent, after gastric digestion. In contrast, the effect after intestinal digestion is dramatically decreased since degradation of the active components in the gut does not allow the extract to efficiently counteract TNFα or IL-1β induced IL-8 expression and the NF-κB pathway. The main molecular target of VVWE at the gastric level includes TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and occurs at concentrations easily reachable after PFS consumption based on red vine leaf water extract as the ingredient. Our findings suggest that PFS containing water extracts from Vitis vinifera L. leaves could be useful to inhibit/attenuate gastric inflammation inhibiting IL-8 secretion and expression through impairment of the NF-κB pathway.

  11. Effects of flumioxazin herbicide on carbon nutrition of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-07-02

    To evaluate the impact of the herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) on nontarget grapevines, its effects were assessed on fruiting cuttings and field-grown plants. The stress caused by the herbicide differed according to the grapevine model. In cuttings, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment levels as well as hexose contents decreased, whereas sucrose and starch accumulated, suggesting an inhibition of photosynthesis and an increase of carbohydrate reserves as a response to the fmx-induced stress. Paradoxically, in the field-grown grapevine leaves, fmx caused a stimulation of photosynthesis, an accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and monosaccharides, in parallel with a mobilization of sucrose and starch. These results suggest that fmx reaches grapevine leaves via root uptake and has prolonged effects. In cuttings, fmx generated a toxic effect related to its target, whereas in field-grown plants, fmx had rather positive physiological effects and acts as a signal further stimulating photosynthesis and related parameters.

  12. Geochemical behaviour of rare earths in Vitis vinifera grafted onto different rootstocks and growing on several soils.

    PubMed

    Censi, P; Saiano, F; Pisciotta, A; Tuzzolino, N

    2014-03-01

    The geochemical behaviour of lanthanides and yttrium (Rare Earth Elements, REEs) has been investigated mainly in geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. This behaviour is assessed according to features recorded in sequences of REE concentrations along the REE series normalised with respect to a reference material. In this study, the geochemical behaviour of REE was investigated in different parts of Vitis vinifera specimens grown off-soil, on soils of different nature and grafted onto several rootstocks in order to evaluate effects induced by these changes. The results indicated that roots are the plant organs where REEs are preferentially concentrated, in particular elements from Sm to Ho (middle REE, MREE) whereas Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts. The geochemical behaviour of REE suggests that MREE enrichments in roots are due to preferential MREE interactions with biological membranes or to surface complexation with newly formed phosphates. Eu-positive anomalies suggest that Eu(3+) can form stable organic complexes in place of Ca(2+) in several biological processes in xylem fluids. The possibility that Eu mobility in these fluids can be enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu(2+) cannot be ruled out. The assessment of the geochemical behaviour of REE according to the theory of the Tetrad Effect carried out confirms that REEs coming from soil are scavenged onto root tissues or mineral surfaces whereas their behaviour in aerial parts of V. vinifera is driven by dissolved complexation.

  13. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-08

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  14. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Fauconneau, B; Waffo-Teguo, P; Huguet, F; Barrier, L; Decendit, A; Merillon, J M

    1997-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions were used to isolate and characterize the flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes) found in red wine. Furthermore, we showed that astringin is produced although this stilbene has not previously been reported to be a constituent of V. vinifera or wine. The ability of these compounds to act as radical scavengers was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical. Antioxidant activities were assessed by their capacity to prevent Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and their action on Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins. The results showed that astringin has an important antioxidant effect similar to that of trans-resveratrol, and a higher radical scavenger activity than the latter. Astringinin appeared to be more active. These data indicate that phenolic compounds (stilbenes, catechins, anthocyanins) exhibit interesting properties which may account in part for the so-called "French paradox," i.e. that moderate drinking of red wine over a long period of time can protect against coronary heart disease.

  15. Biochemical and genetic polymorphisms for carboxylesterase and acetylesterase in grape clones of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Orasmo, Gleice Ribeiro; Oliveira-Collet, Sandra A; Lapenta, Ana Sílvia; de Fátima P S Machado, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was employed to show the highest number of esterase loci and to detect alpha- and beta-esterase polymorphisms in leaf buds of Vitis vinifera cultivars. A total of 16 esterase isozymes were detected in leaf buds from 235 plants including Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil cultivars. Biochemical characterization of the grape esterases using ester substrates revealed alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases with inhibitor tests distinguishing both carboxylesterases (EST-2, EST-3, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7, EST-8, EST-9, EST-10, and EST-16 isozymes) and acetylesterases (EST-4, EST-11, EST-12, EST-13, EST-14, EST-15 isozymes). No allele variation for alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases was detected; however, EST-3 alpha-carboxylesterase was absent in 61.7% of vines, and EST-4 alpha/beta-acetylesterase was absent in one vine of Rubi cv. Null EST-3 carboxylesterase phenotype (61.7%) cannot be explained in this article, but the high genetic polymorphism in four V. vinifera clones is a positive aspect for genetic selection and development of new clones with different characteristics.

  16. Accumulation of tocopherols and tocotrienols during seed development of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallée).

    PubMed

    Horvath, G; Wessjohann, L; Bigirimana, J; Monica, H; Jansen, M; Guisez, Y; Caubergs, R; Horemans, N

    2006-01-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols are present in mature seeds. Yet, little is known about the physiological role and the metabolism of these compounds during seed development. Here we present data on tocopherol and tocotrienol accumulation during seed development in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallée (Royal). This species was chosen for its ability to synthesize both tocopherols and tocotrienols. It is shown here for the first time that during seed development there are significant differences in localization and accumulation kinetics of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are found homogeneously dispersed throughout all tissues of the seed, in concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 microg tocopherol per g dry weight. Tocopherol levels decrease gradually during seed development. In contrast, tocotrienols are only found in the endosperm of the seeds, accumulating in a sigmoid fashion during the maturation period of seed development. Tocotrienol levels were found to be (54+/-7.4) microg/g dry seed in 90-day-old seeds of V. vinifera L. Furthermore, tocotrienol biosynthesis is demonstrated in these seeds during tocotrienol accumulation and in an endosperm fraction isolated at 75 days after flowering.

  17. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  18. The Synthesis and Accumulation of Resveratrol Are Associated with Veraison and Abscisic Acid Concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) Berry Skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junfang; Wang, Shuqin; Liu, Guotian; Edwards, Everard J.; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA) can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening) and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA) on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin, and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis), i.e., 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity). Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 days pre-veraison, veraison or 7 days post-veraison), thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 days pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27857716

  19. Examination of Correlation between Histidine and Cadmium Absorption by Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. Using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods wereused for the determination of histidine and cadmium in Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. leaves taken from industrial area including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. To histidine determination by HPLC-MS, flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized as 0.2 mL · min⁻¹, 70 V, 15 µL and 20 °C, respectively. For extraction of histidine from plants, distilled water was used by applying on 90 °C and 30 min. The concentrations (as mg · kg⁻¹) of histidine were found to be in range of 8~22 for Eleagnus angustifolia L., 10~33 for Vitis vinifera L. and 6~11 for Nerium oleander L. The concentrations of cadmium were found to be in ranges of 6~21 µg · kg⁻¹ for Vitis vinifera L. 15~110 µg · kg⁻¹ for Eleagnus angustifolia L. and 63~218 µg · kg⁻¹ for Nerium oleander L.

  20. Unraveling the etiology of North American grapevine yellows (NAGY): multilocus genotyping and structural analysis of secY proteins distinguish NAGYIII phytoplasma strains from strains causing X-disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American grapevine yellows (NAGY) disease has sometimes been ascribed to infection of Vitis vinifera L. by X-disease phytoplasma, but the accuracy of this attribution has remained open to question. In the present study of NAGY etiology, the disease was discovered in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Oh...

  1. Foliar applied abscisic acid increases 'Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera) bud freezing tolerance during Autumn cold acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic loss due to cold weather events is a major constraint to winegrape-related industries where extreme and/or fluctuating winter temperatures induce injury and required remedial retraining and replanting increases production costs and lowers yield and fruit quality. The purpose of this study ...

  2. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  3. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  4. The peripheral xylem of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries. 2. Anatomy and development.

    PubMed

    Chatelet, David S; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A; Shackel, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the substantial reductions in xylemic water flow occurring at veraison are due to physical disruption (breaking) of the xylem as a result of renewed berry growth. In a companion paper, evidence was presented that the vast majority of xylem tracheary elements remained intact despite the growth of the berry, and it was proposed that existing tracheary elements stretch to accommodate growth and that additional elements may also differentiate after veraison. Measurements of the intergyre distance of tracheary elements in macerated tissue were used to test for stretching, and the numbers of tracheary elements per vascular bundle and of branch points of the peripheral xylem network were analysed to test for continued differentiation from 18 to 120 d after anthesis in Chardonnay berries. The distance between the epidermis and the vasculature increased substantially from pre- to post-veraison, potentially increasing the amount of skin available for analysis of compounds important for winemaking. Tracheary elements continued to differentiate within the existing vascular bundles throughout berry development. Additional vascular bundles also appeared until after veraison, thereby increasing the complexity of the peripheral vascular network. The results also confirmed that tracheary elements stretched by approximately 20%, but this was not as much as that predicted based on the growth of the vascular diameter (40%). These results complete a comprehensive evaluation of grape berry peripheral xylem during its development and show that tracheary development continues further into berry maturation than previously thought.

  5. Varietal relationship between instrumental skin hardness and climate for grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Rolle, Luca; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Schneider, Anna; Spanna, Federico; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-10-12

    The main aims of this work were to classify 30 colored and white wine grape varieties according to the berry skin hardness, to assess the influence of annual variations in climate on the berry skin hardness, and to establish significant relationships among berry skin mechanical properties and some climatic-bioclimatic indices calculated for different grape-ripening periods, close to the harvest date. The results obtained show that the most influential bioclimatic indices on the skin mechanical attributes were temperature parameters. In the same season, the influence of the production area was also evaluated, precipitation parameters being the best correlated with the berry skin hardness. This first work has permitted us to know the relationship among skin texture characteristics and seasonal climatic indices.

  6. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera.

  7. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  8. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  9. Influence of plant water status on the production of C13-norisoprenoid precursors in Vitis vinifera L. Cv. cabernet sauvignon grape berries.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Dry, Peter R; Loveys, Brian R

    2007-05-30

    The influence of irrigation strategy on grape berry carotenoids and C13-norisoprenoid precursors was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Two irrigation treatments were compared, one in which vines received reduced irrigation applied alternately to either side of the vine (partial rootzone drying, PRD) and a second control treatment in which water was applied to both sides of the vine. Over the two years of the experiments, PRD vines received on average 66% of the water applied to the controls. Initially, the PRD treatment did not alter midday leaf (psiL) and stem (psiS) water potential relative to the control, but decreased stomatal conductance (gs). Continued exposure to the PRD treatment resulted in treated grapevines experiencing hydraulic water deficit relative to the control treatment and induced lowered midday psiL and psiS, which was also reflected in decreased berry weight at harvest. In both irrigation treatments, the most abundant grape berry carotenoids, beta-carotene and lutein, followed the developmental pattern typical of other grape varieties, decreasing post-veraison. At certain points in time, as the fruit approached maturity, the concentration of these carotenoids was increased in fruit of PRD-treated vines relative to the controls. This effect was greater for lutein than for beta-carotene. PRD consistently caused increases in the concentration of hydrolytically released C13-norisoprenoids beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene in fruit at harvest (24 degrees Brix) over two seasons. The effect of the PRD treatment on the concentration of hydrolytically released C13-norisoprenoids was greater in the second of the two seasons of the experiment and was also reflected in an increase in total C13-norisoprenoid content per berry. This suggests that the increases in the concentration of the C13-norisoprenoids in response to PRD were independent of water deficit induced changes in berry size and

  10. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  11. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  12. Determination of abscisic acid and its glucosyl ester in embryogenic callus cultures of Vitis vinifera in relation to the maturation of somatic embryos using a new liquid chromatography-ELISA analysis method.

    PubMed

    Prado, María Jesús; Largo, Asier; Domínguez, Cristina; González, María Victoria; Rey, Manuel; Centeno, María Luz

    2014-06-15

    The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), its conjugate ABA-GE, and IAA were determined in embryogenic calli of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Mencía) cultured in DM1 differentiation medium, to relate them to the maturation process of somatic embryos. To achieve this goal, we developed an analytical method that included two steps of solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation by HPLC, ABA-GE hydrolysis, and sensitive ELISA quantification. Because the ABA immunoassay was based on new polyclonal antibodies raised against a C4'-ABA conjugate, the assay was characterized (detection limit, midrange, measure range, and cross-reaction) and validated by a comparison of the ABA data obtained with this ELISA procedure and with a physicochemical method (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Radioactive-labeled internal standards were initially added to callus extracts to correct the losses of plant hormones, and thus assure the accuracy of the measurements. The endogenous concentration of ABA in the embryogenic callus cultured in DM1 medium was doubled at the fifth week of culture, concurring with the maturation process of somatic embryos, as indicated by the accumulation of carbohydrates observed through histological analysis. The ABA-GE content was higher than ABA, decreasing at 21 days of culture in DM1 medium but increasing thereafter. The data suggest the involvement of the synthesis and conjugation of ABA in the final stages of development in grapevine somatic embryos from embryogenic callus. IAA levels were low, suggesting that auxin plays no significant role during the maturation of somatic embryos. In addition, the lower ABA levels in calli cultured in DM differentiation medium with PGRs, a medium presenting high precocious germination and deficiencies in somatic embryo development indicate that an increase in ABA content during the development of somatic embryos in grapevine is necessary for their correct maturation.

  13. Digital Morphometrics of Two North American Grapevines (Vitis: Vitaceae) Quantifies Leaf Variation between Species, within Species, and among Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Laura L.; Caito, Madeleine; Chapnick, Chad; Kitchen, Cassandra; O’Hanlon, Regan; Chitwood, Dan H.; Miller, Allison J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that grapevine (Vitis spp.) leaf shape can be quantified using digital approaches which indicate phylogenetic signal in leaf shape, discernible patterns of developmental context within single leaves, and signatures of local environmental conditions. Here, we extend this work by quantifying intra-individual, intraspecific, and interspecific variation in leaf morphology in accessions of North American Vitis riparia and V. rupestris in a common environment. For each species at least four clonal replicates of multiple genotypes were grown in the Missouri Botanical Garden Kemper Center for Home Gardening. All leaves from a single shoot were harvested and scanned leaf images were used to conduct generalized Procrustes analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and elliptical Fourier analysis. Leaf shapes displayed genotype-specific signatures and species distinctions consistent with taxonomic classifications. Leaf shape variation within genotypes and among clones was the result of pest and pathogen-induced leaf damage that alters leaf morphology. Significant trends in leaf damage caused by disease and infestation were non-random with respect to leaf position on the shoot. Digital morphometrics is a powerful tool for assessing leaf shape variation among species, genotypes, and clones under common conditions and suggests biotic factors such as pests and pathogens as important drivers influencing leaf shape. PMID:28367159

  14. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Margină, Denisa; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Grădinaru, Daniela; GuȚu, Claudia; Voicu, Sorina; Dinischiotu, Anca; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-11-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4-39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  15. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  16. Antennal and behavioral responses of grapevine moth Lobesia botrana females to volatiles from grapevine.

    PubMed

    Tasin, Marco; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Carlin, Silvia; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Schmidt, Silvia; Bengtsson, Marie; Versini, Giuseppe; Witzgall, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is the economically most important insect of grapevine Vitis vinifera in Europe. Flower buds, flowers, and green berries of Chardonnay grapevine are known to attract L. botrana for oviposition. The volatile compounds collected from these phenological stages were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the antennal response of L. botrana females to these headspace collections was recorded by gas chromatography-electroantennography. The compounds found in all phenological stages, which consistently elicited a strong antennal response, were pentadecane, nonanal, and alpha-farnesene. In a wind tunnel, gravid L. botrana females flew upwind to green grapes, as well as to headspace collections from these berries released by a piezoelectric sprayer release device. However, no females landed at the source of headspace volatiles, possibly due to inappropriate concentrations or biased ratios of compounds in the headspace extracts.

  17. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index Singly and Combined on Vine Growth of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Raski, D. J.; Goheen, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines. PMID:19308243

  18. Sex Conversion in a Male Vitis vinifera L. by a Kinin.

    PubMed

    Negi, S S; Olmo, H P

    1966-06-17

    A synthetic (reputed) kinin, SD 8339, at 1000 parts per million in alcohol solution, applied to flower clusters of a male grapevine about 3 weeks before anthesis, completely converted the flower sex from male to hermaphrodite. Indolebutyric acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride beta-naphthoxyacetic acid, beta-indoleacetic acid, alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, and gibberellin A(3) failed to modify the sex.

  19. Pruning-induced tylose development in stems of current-year shoots of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A

    2006-11-01

    Tyloses form in xylem vessels in response to various environmental stimuli, but little is known of the kinetics or regulation of their development. Preliminary investigations indicated that wounds seal quickly with tyloses after pruning of grapevine shoots. In this study, tylose development was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively at different depths and times from pruning cuts along current-year shoots of grapevines at basal, middle, and apical stem regions. Tyloses developed simultaneously within a single vessel but much separated in time among vessels. Pruning caused prodigious tylosis in vessels of grape stems, extending to approximately 1 cm deep and to 7 d after wounding, but about half of the vessels did not become completely occluded. The fraction of vessels forming tyloses was greatest in basal (85%) and least in apical (50%) regions. The depth of maximum density of tyloses was 4 mm from the cut in the basal region and 2 mm from the cut in the middle and apical regions. Tylose development was faster in the basal and middle than in the apical region. The pattern of tylose development is discussed in the context of wound repair and pathogen movement in grapevines.

  20. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  1. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  2. Enhanced extracellular production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells by using cyclodextrins and coronatine.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Lorena; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, María A

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the effect of cyclodextrin and coronatine on both trans-resveratrol production and the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera L. cv Monastrell suspension cultured cells were evaluated. The results showed the maximum level of trans-resveratrol produced by cells and secreted to the culture medium with 50 mM cyclodextrins and 1 μM coronatine. Since the levels of trans-resveratrol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. In addition, all the analysed genes were induced by cyclodextrins and/or coronatine. The expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase genes was greatly enhanced by coronatine although an increase in the amount of trans-resveratrol in the spent medium was not detected. Therefore, despite the fact that trans-resveratrol production is related with the expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic process, other factors may be involved, such as post-transcriptional and post-traductional regulation. The expression maximal levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase genes were found with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with coronatine suggesting that the activity of these enzymes could be not only important for the formation of intermediates of trans-R biosynthesis but also for those intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of lignins and/or flavonoids.

  3. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  4. Varietal Dependence of GLVs Accumulation and LOX-HPL Pathway Gene Expression in Four Vitis vinifera Wine Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Ke-Ji; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Variety is one of the major factors influencing grape and wine aromatic characteristics. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), derived from lipoxygenase-hydroperoxides lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway, are important components for the aromatic quality of grapes and wines. However, the varietal difference regarding GLVs accumulation and related gene expression are poorly studied. This work exhibited that the accumulation of various GLVs and the expression of LOX-HPL pathway genes in four Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars: Syrah, Muscat Tchervine, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay. The results showed a variety dependence of GLVs profile. Muscat Tchervine harvested grapes contained less C6 aldehydes and the most abundant esters, which corresponded to very low VvLOXA and VvHPL1 expression abundance as well as high VvAAT transcript in this variety. High expression level of both VvLOXA and VvHPL1 paralleled with higher level of C6 aldehydes together with higher alcohols in Syrah grape. Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay grapes had high aldehydes and alcohols as well as low esters, which were resulted from their higher expression level of VvLOXA or VvHPL1 and lower VvAAT. From these above corresponding relations, it is concluded that VvLOXA, VvHPL1 and VvAAT in the LOX-HPL pathway are targets for altering GLVs composition in the grape varieties. PMID:27886056

  5. Seasonal pattern of apoplastic solute accumulation and loss of cell turgor during ripening of Vitis vinifera fruit under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hiroshi; Matthews, Mark A.; Shackel, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a novel pressure membrane (PM) apparatus for the extraction of apoplastic fluid from field-grown grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, our hypothesis that significant apoplast solutes accumulate at the beginning of the ripening process (i.e. veraison), and that this accumulation might contribute to progressive berry softening due to a progressive loss of mesocarp cell turgor pressure (P) was tested. It was necessary to correct the solute potential (Ψs) of fluid collected with the PM for dilution due to the presence of a dead volume in the apparatus, but after correction, the Ψs obtained with the PM agreed with that obtained by low speed centrifugation. A clear decline in fruit apoplastic solute potential (ψSA) began approximately 10 d prior to fruit coloration, and it was found to be coincident with a decline in mesocarp cell P and fruit elasticity (E). By late in fruit development when berry growth ceased (90 d after anthesis), both apoplast and fruit Ψs reached almost –4 MPa. These results support the hypothesis that a decrease in ψSA is responsible for the observed loss in mesocarp cell P, and is the mechanistic cause of berry softening. PMID:19386616

  6. Enhanced resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures by heavy metals without loss of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Kastell, Anja; Speiser, Claire; Smetanska, Iryna

    2013-09-01

    The effects of heavy metal ions (Co(2+), Ag(+), Cd(2+)) on cell viability and secondary metabolite production, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures, were investigated. Of these, Co at all three used concentrations (5.0, 25, and 50 μM), Ag, and Cd at low concentration (5.0 μM) were most effective to stimulate the phenolic acid production, increasing the 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol up to 1.6-fold of the control level (250.5 versus 152.4 μmol/g), 4 h after the treatments. Meanwhile, the elicitors at effective concentrations did not suppress cell growth, while the cell viability maintained. In contrast, Ag and Cd at high concentrations (25 and 50 μM) remarkably reduced the cell viability, decreasing the cell viability up to about 15 % of the control level, 24 h after the treatments. The heavy metal ions did not affect the anthocyanin production. These observations show how, in a single system, different groups of secondary products can show distinct differences in their responses to potential elicitors. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, peroxidase activity, medium pH value, and conductivity were only slightly elevated by the heavy metal ions. The results suggest that some of the secondary metabolites production was stimulated by the used elicitors, but there was not a stress response of the cells.

  7. Proanthocyanidin composition and antioxidant potential of the stem winemaking byproducts from 10 different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-12-05

    Stem byproducts from 10 different grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents, flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin profiles, and antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, and ORAC assays, with a view to the recovery of their natural bioactive compounds. Stems from Callet, Syrah, Premsal Blanc, Parellada, and Manto Negro varieties yielded the highest total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents and showed the greatest antioxidant capacities, whereas Chardonnay and Merlot stems presented the lowest values. Varieties differed significantly (p<0.05) with regard to both the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of their stems. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were observed when stems from red and white varieties were considered separately. For the 10 grape varieties investigated, this is the first study presenting a detailed description of their stem flavan-3-ol composition determined by HPLC-UV-fluo. All of the analyses confirmed the stem byproducts as a potential polyphenol-rich source, especially promising in the case of the Callet variety.

  8. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  9. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  10. Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols from grapes and wines of Vitis vinifera cv. Cesanese d'Affile.

    PubMed

    Mulinacci, N; Santamaria, A R; Giaccherini, C; Innocenti, M; Valletta, A; Ciolfi, G; Pasqua, G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the amount of some potential health-promoting phenols in the grape of Vitis vinifera cv. Cesanese d'Affile and in wines made from these grapes. The analyses were performed using HPLC/DAD/MS. The accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flavan-3-ols in the seed was determined at different stages of ripening of the grape (i.e. green, veraison, middle stage of ripening, and complete ripening). Thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the skin at all stages of ripening, except the green stage. With regard to flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin gallate were detected in all of the seed samples. The highest (+)-catechin content was found in the seeds of the green grape (2 mg g(-1) DW), whereas in the seeds from the completely ripe grape the content was more than ten times lower. The highest catechin content in the seed was correlated with the lowest anthocyanin content in the skin. The wines produced in the years 2004 and 2005 showed, at wavelengths of 520 and 280 nm, almost identical quali-quantitative chromatographic profiles, with high concentrations of anthocyanin 3-O-glucosides, low concentrations of acylated anthocyanins, and trace amounts of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin.

  11. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  12. Chemical Changes in Grape Stem and Their Relationship to Stem Color throughout Berry Ripening in Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yudan; Kravchuk, Olena; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-01-22

    Little attention has been paid to the color change or chemical compositional changes that occur in grape stems and how this correlates with the berry ripening process. Recently we have found that the change in grape peduncle color of Shiraz (Vitis vinifera) from green at veraison to predominantly brown at harvest occurs in parallel with berry ripening and as such may represent a new way of assisting in the prediction of grape maturity and harvest date. We have now investigated further the link between certain key chemical compositional changes that occur in the grape stem (peduncle and rachis) from veraison to harvest and how these attributes correlate with the observed color change in the vineyard. We report that peduncle moisture content has an excellent linear correlation with the color hue value and is negatively correlated in a strong fashion with the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment ratio (Ca+b/Cx+c) within the peduncles. Significant differences in the moisture content, total chlorophylls (including chlorophyll a and b levels), total carotenoids, total phenolics, and the antioxidant capacity (DPPH) levels between the peduncles and rachises were found as they evolve from veraison to harvest. Finally, we have demonstrated for the first time that peduncle moisture content codevelops with the prototypical berry ripeness parameters ((o)Brix, pH, TA), which provides for the development of a new approach for viticulturists and winemakers to evaluate grape ripeness through peduncle moisture levels and therefore assist in harvest decision making.

  13. Transposable elements are a major cause of somatic polymorphism in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Grégory; Le Cunff, Loïc; Dereeper, Alexis; Legrand, Delphine; Sabot, François; Bouchez, Olivier; Audeguin, Laurent; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; This, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Through multiple vegetative propagation cycles, clones accumulate mutations in somatic cells that are at the origin of clonal phenotypic diversity in grape. Clonal diversity provided clones such as Cabernet-Sauvignon N°470, Chardonnay N° 548 and Pinot noir N° 777 which all produce wines of superior quality. The economic impact of clonal selection is therefore very high: since approx. 95% of the grapevines produced in French nurseries originate from the French clonal selection. In this study we provide the first broad description of polymorphism in different clones of a single grapevine cultivar, Pinot noir, in the context of vegetative propagation. Genome sequencing was performed using 454 GS-FLX methodology without a priori, in order to identify and quantify for the first time molecular polymorphisms responsible for clonal variability in grapevine. New generation sequencing (NGS) was used to compare a large portion of the genome of three Pinot noir clones selected for their phenotypic differences. Reads obtained with NGS and the sequence of Pinot noir ENTAV-INRA® 115 sequenced by Velasco et al., were aligned on the PN40024 reference sequence. We then searched for molecular polymorphism between clones. Three types of polymorphism (SNPs, Indels, mobile elements) were found but insertion polymorphism generated by mobile elements of many families displayed the highest mutational event with respect to clonal variation. Mobile elements inducing insertion polymorphism in the genome of Pinot noir were identified and classified and a list is presented in this study as potential markers for the study of clonal variation. Among these, the dynamic of four mobile elements with a high polymorphism level were analyzed and insertion polymorphism was confirmed in all the Pinot clones registered in France.

  14. Association of a novel DNA virus with the grapevine vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Singh, Kashmir; Kaur, Ravneet; Qiu, Wenping

    2011-09-01

    A severe vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome has emerged on grapevines (Vitis vinifera) and hybrid grape cultivars in the Midwest region of the United States. The typical symptoms are translucent vein-clearing on young leaves, short internodes and decline of vine vigor. Known viral pathogens of grapevines were not closely associated with the syndrome. To obtain a comprehensive profile of viruses in a diseased grapevine, small RNAs were enriched and two cDNA libraries were constructed from a symptomatic grapevine and a symptomless grapevine, respectively. Deep sequencing of the two cDNA libraries showed that the most abundant viral small RNAs align with the genomes of viruses in the genus Badnavirus, the family Caulimoviridae. Amplification of the viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction allowed the assembly of the whole genome sequence of a grapevine DNA virus, which shared the highest homology with the Badnavirus sequences. This is the first report of a DNA virus in grapevines. The new DNA virus is closely associated with the vein-clearing symptom, and thus has been given a provisional name Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV). GVCV was detected in six grapevine cultivars showing vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome in Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, suggesting its wide distribution in the Midwest region of the United States. Discovery of DNA viruses in grapevines merits further studies on their epidemics and economic impact on grape production worldwide.

  15. Identification of Vitis vinifera (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase by in silico screening of full-length cDNA ESTs and functional characterization of recombinant terpene synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The flavour and aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape varieties is dominated by volatile terpenes and small volatile aldehydes. Monoterpenes contribute to the final grape and wine aroma and flavour in form of free volatiles and as glycoside conjugates of monoterpene alcohols. Typical monoterpenol components of the cultivar Gewürztraminer and other aroma-rich grape varieties are linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, and alpha-terpineol. In a functional genomics effort to identify genes for the formation of monoterpene alcohols in V. vinifera, a database of full-length cDNA sequences was screened in silico and yielded two clones for putative monoterpene synthases. The gene products were functionally characterized by expression in Escherichia coli, in vitro enzyme assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) product identification as multi-product (-)-alpha-terpineol synthases.

  16. Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including β-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, α-ionone and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation

  17. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape.

  18. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. Conclusions/Significance A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are present from early

  19. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  20. Removal of PFOA and PFOS from aqueous solutions using activated carbon produced from Vitis vinifera leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Fagbayigbo, Bamidele Oladapo; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Fatoki, Olalekan Siyanbola; Akenga, Terresa Ayuko; Olatunji, Olatunde Stephen

    2017-04-05

    The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons. The effect of solution concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature was evaluated to optimize the removal efficiency of activated carbons. Adsorption isotherm models were used to analyse the equilibrium data obtained, and kinetic models were applied to study sorption mechanisms. The results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm with both AC-KOH and AC-H3PO4 having high K f values. Maximum adsorption capacities for AC-H3PO4 were 78.90 and 75.13 mg/g for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. Equilibrium was reached before 60 min on both adsorbents, and thermodynamic studies indicated that the process was exothermic and spontaneous. Surface morphology showed the abundance of microspores (>60%) with BET total surface area of 295.488 and 158.67 m(2)/g for AC-H3PO4 and AC-KOH activated carbons, respectively. Removal efficiencies were 95 and 90% for PFOA using AC-H3PO4 and AC-KOH, respectively; corresponding values for PFOS were 94 and 88%. Adsorbents' removal capacities depended on the physicochemical characteristics of adsorbents.

  1. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  2. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits.

  3. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  4. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  5. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  6. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  7. Chemopreventive effects of Calluna vulgaris and Vitis vinifera extracts on UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Filip, A; Clichici, S; Daicoviciu, D; Catoi, C; Bolfa, P; Postescu, I D; Gal, A; Baldea, I; Gherman, C; Muresan, A

    2011-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy in the management of cutaneous neoplasia. The study investigated the protective activity of Calluna vulgaris (Cv) and red grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety) (BM) extracts in vivo on UVB-induced deleterious effects in SKH-1 mice skin. Forty SKH-1 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): control, UVB irradiated, Cv + UVB irradiated, BM+UVB irradiated. Both extracts were applied topically on the skin in a dose of 4 mg/40 μl/cm(2) before UVB exposure - single dose. The effects were evaluated in skin 24 hours after irradiation through the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and sunburn cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 levels. The antioxidant activity of BM extract was higher than those of Cv extract as determined using stable free radical DPPH assay and ABTS test. One single dose of UVB generated formation of CPDs (p<0.0001) and sunburn cells (p<0.0002) and increased the cytokine levels in skin (p<0.0001). Twenty hours following irradiation BM extract inhibited UVB-induced sunburn cells (p<0.02) and CPDs formation (p<0.0001). Pretreatment with Cv and BM extracts resulted in significantly reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with UVB alone (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that BM extracts might be a potential candidate in preventing the damages induced by UV in skin.

  8. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  9. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  10. [Impact of subculture cycles and inoculum sizes on suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Quan-Li; Jin, Mei-Fang

    2006-11-01

    The commercial application of plant cell cultures is often hindered by the instability of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the metabolite yield fluctuates and decline dramatically over subcultures. This study proposed that such instability is due to the fluctuations of culture variables. To validate this hypothesis, the effects of the fluctuations of two culture variables (subculture cycle and inoculum size) on the biomass, anthocyanin biosynthesig, intracellular carbon, nitrogen and phosphate during continuous 10 subculture cycles were investigated. The subculture cycle was fluctuated for 12h in a 7 day cycle (6.5, 7 and 7.5 d), and the inoculum size was fluctuated by 20% on basis of 2.00 g (1.60, 2.00 and 2.40 g). It was found that all the measured culture parameters fluctuated over the 10 subculture cycles. The fluctuation in terms of inoculum sizes had a greater effect on the stability of anthocyanin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of V. vinifera. Among all the subculture conditions investigated, 7d-subculture cycle and 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to hold the relatively stable anthocyanin production. The anthocyanin yield presented a negative correlation with intracellular sucrose content or intracellular total phosphate content.

  11. Proteomic analysis of the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries

    PubMed Central

    Giribaldi, Marzia; Gény, Laurence; Delrot, Serge; Schubert, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The control of ripening of the non-climacteric grapevine fruit is still a matter of debate, but several lines of evidence point to an important role for the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The effects of ABA treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon berries before and at véraison were studied using a 2-DE proteomic approach. Proteins from whole deseeded berries (before véraison) and berry flesh and skin (at véraison) treated with 0.76 mM ABA and collected 24 h after treatment were separated and analysed. A total of 60 protein spots showed significant variations between treated and control berries, and 40 proteins, mainly related to general metabolism and cell defence, were identified by LC MS/MS. Our results show that ABA acts mainly through the regulation of mostly the same proteins which are involved in the ripening process, and that several of these changes share common elements with the ABA-induced responses in vegetative tissues. PMID:20388747

  12. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars.

  13. Gene expression in vessel-associated cells upon xylem embolism repair in Vitis vinifera L. petioles.

    PubMed

    Chitarra, Walter; Balestrini, Raffaella; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Perrone, Irene; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the involvement of vessel-associated cells in embolism recovery was investigated by studying leaf petiole hydraulics and expression profiles of aquaporins and genes related to sugar metabolism. Two different stress treatments were imposed onto grapevines to induce xylem embolism: one involved a pressure collar applied to the stems, while the other consisted of water deprivation (drought). Embolism formation and repair were monitored during stress application and release (recovery). At the same time, stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)) and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration were measured. For each treatment, gene transcript levels were assessed on vessel-associated cells (isolated from leaf petioles by laser microdissection technique) and whole petioles. Both treatments induced severe xylem embolism formation and drops in g s and Ψ (leaf) at a lesser degree and with faster recovery in the case of application of the pressure collar. Leaf ABA concentration only increased upon drought and subsequent recovery. Transcripts linked to sugar mobilisation (encoding a β-amylase and a glucose-6-P transporter) were over-expressed upon stress or recovery, both in vessel-associated cells and whole petioles. However, two aquaporin genes (VvPIP2;1 and VvPIP2;4N) were activated upon stress or recovery only in vessel-associated cells, suggesting a specific effect on embolism refilling. Furthermore, the latter gene was only activated upon drought and subsequent recovery, suggesting that either severe water stress or ABA is required for its regulation.

  14. Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles exhibit chemopreventive potential, antioxidant activity and induce apoptosis through mutant p53, Bcl-2 and pan cytokeratin down-regulation in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, J Grace; Narendhirakannan, R T

    2017-03-07

    Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using Vitis vinifera peel and seed aqueous extracts and characterized by Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. On topical application, peel and seed gold nanoparticles demonstrated chemopreventive potential by significantly (p<0.05) reducing the cumulative number of tumors while increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities in the gold nanoparticles treated mice. The down-regulated expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and the levels of pan-cytokeratins might have facilitated the process of apoptosis in the chemical carcinogenesis process. The results were supported by the histopathological evaluation which exhibited mild dysplasia and acanthosis in the skin tissues of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs treated mice. Based on the present study, the chemopreventive action of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs is probably due to its ability to stimulate the antioxidant enzymes within the cells and suppressed abnormal skin cell proliferation that occurred during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis.

  15. Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois noir in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the "Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum" group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name "Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae." Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii." Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As "Ca. Sulcia" is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between "Ca. Sulcia" and "Ca. Purcelliella," "Ca. Vidania," or both.

  16. A new strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol by overexpressing stilbene synthase gene in elicited Vitis vinifera cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mingyu; Pedreño, M A; Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Lydia; Burgos, Lorenzo; Almagro, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    In this work, transgenic lines of suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell containing the plasmid pMOG800-sts have been obtained. The cell growth of these transgenic cell lines decreased slightly as compared to non-transgenic suspension cultured cells, while cell viability was not affected. In addition, the elicitation with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate enhanced the production of trans-resveratrol, observing the highest levels of this compound in sts-expressing transgenic Vitis suspension cultured cells with the sts expression cassette in the forwards orientation. Moreover, the forwards 2 (F2) transgenic cell line produced the greater levels of trans-resveratrol in comparison with the non-transgenic cell line. In fact, when suspension cultured cells were treated with both elicitors, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol outside the cells in the F2 transgenic suspension cultured cells increased twice (1458 mg.L(-1)) as compared to non-transgenic cell lines (724 mg.L(-1)). In both cases, the levels of trans-resveratrol detected in the treatment with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate were greater than the sum of the individual treatments, and therefore we observed a synergistic effect in the presence of both elicitors. Moreover, the expression profile of sts gene in transgenic V. vinifera cell lines was similar to the expression profile detected for the endogenous sts gene in non-transgenic V. vinifera cell lines, being the expression levels greater in the treatment with methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, which was related to the high levels of trans-resveratrol found in the presence of both elicitors.

  17. Induction of trans-resveratrol and extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins in elicited suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell.

    PubMed

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Almagro, Lorena; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén; Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, Maria Angeles

    2013-02-15

    Suspension-cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell were used to investigate the effects of methyljasmonate, ethylene and salicylic acid separately or in combination with cyclodextrins on both trans-resveratrol production and the induction of defense responses. The results showed that the addition of methyljasmonate or ethylene to suspension-cultured cells jointly treated with cyclodextrins and salicylic acid provoked a decrease of trans-resveratrol levels suggesting that salicylic acid has a negative and antagonistic effect with methyljasmonate or ethylene on trans-resveratrol production. Likewise, the exogenous application of these compounds induced the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. Analysis of the extracellular proteome showed the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to an specific β-1,3-glucanase, class III peroxidases and a β-1,4-mannanase, which suggests that these signal molecules could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in V. vinifera cv Monastrell. Apart from these inducible proteins, other proteins were found in both the control and elicited cell cultures of V. vinifera. These included class IV chitinase, polygalacturonase inhibitor protein and reticuline oxidase-like protein, suggesting that their expression is constitutive being involved in the modification of the cell wall architecture during cell culture growth and in the prevention of pathogen attack.

  18. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues.

  19. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  20. A novel Bacteroidetes symbiont is localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the insect vector of Flavescence dorée in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Marzorati, Massimo; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Palermo, Simona; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Balloi, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Clementi, Emanuela; Corona, Silvia; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2006-02-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease that afflicts several wine production areas in Europe, from Portugal to Serbia. FD is caused by a bacterium, "Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis," which is spread throughout the vineyards by a leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus (Cicadellidae). After collection of S. titanus specimens from FD-contaminated vineyards in three different areas in the Piedmont region of Italy, we performed a survey to characterize the bacterial microflora associated with this insect. Using length heterogeneity PCR with universal primers for bacteria we identified a major peak associated with almost all of the individuals examined (both males and females). Characterization by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a major band that, after sequencing, showed a 97 to 99% identity with Bacteroidetes symbionts of the "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" group. In addition, electron microscopy of tissues of S. titanus fed for 3 months on phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed bacterial cells with the typical morphology of "Ca. Cardinium hertigii." This endosymbiont, tentatively designated ST1-C, was found in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic ovarian cells, in the follicle cells, and in the fat body and salivary glands. In addition, cell morphologies resembling those of "Ca. Phytoplasma vitis" were detected in the midgut, and specific PCR assays indicated the presence of the phytoplasma in the gut, fat body and salivary glands. These results indicate that ST1-C and "Ca. Phytoplasma vitis" have a complex life cycle in the body of S. titanus and are colocalized in different organs and tissues.

  1. Transcriptome of Erysiphe necator-infected Vitis pseudoreticulata leaves provides insight into grapevine resistance to powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Kai; Li, Zhi-Qian; Liu, Rui-Qi; Wang, Lan; Wang, Yue-Jin; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM), which is caused by the pathogen Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., is the single most damaging disease of cultivated grapes (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. However, little is known about the transcriptional response of grapes to infection with PM. RNA-seq analysis was used for deep sequencing of the leaf transcriptome to study PM resistance in Chinese wild grapes (V. pseudoreticulata Baihe 35-1) to better understand the interaction between host and pathogen. Greater than 100 million (M) 90-nt cDNA reads were sequenced from a cDNA library derived from PM-infected leaves. Among the sequences obtained, 6541 genes were differentially expressed (DEG) and were annotated with Gene Ontology terms and by pathway enrichment. The significant categories that were identified included the following: defense, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses; systemic acquired resistance (SAR); hypersensitive response; plant–pathogen interaction; flavonoid biosynthesis; and plant hormone signal transduction. Various putative secretory proteins were identified, indicating potential defense responses to PM infection. In all, 318 putative R-genes and 183 putative secreted proteins were identified, including the defense-related R-genes BAK1, MRH1 and MLO3 and the defense-related secreted proteins GLP and PR5. The expression patterns of 16 genes were further illuminated by RT-qPCR. The present study identified several candidate genes and pathways that may contribute to PM resistance in grapes and illustrated that RNA-seq is a powerful tool for studying gene expression. The RT-qPCR results reveal that effective resistance responses of grapes to PM include enhancement of JA and SAR responses and accumulation of phytoalexins. PMID:26504551

  2. Three ERF transcription factors from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata participate in different biotic and abiotic stress-responsive pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ziguo; Shi, Jiangli; Xu, Weirong; Li, Huie; He, Mingyang; Xu, Yan; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yazhou; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-07-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) functions as an important plant-specific transcription factor in regulating biotic and abiotic stress response through interaction with various stress pathways. We previously obtained three ERF members, VpERF1, VpERF2, and VpERF3 from a highly powdery mildew (PM)-resistant Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata cDNA full-length library. To explore their functions associated with plant disease resistance or biotic stress, we report here to characterize three ERF members from this library. PM-inoculation analysis on three different resistant grapevine genotypes revealed that three VpERFs displayed significant responses, but a different expression pattern. Over-expression of VpERF1, VpERF2, and VpERF3 in transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that VpERF2 and VpERF3 enhanced resistance to both bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and fungal pathogen Phytophtora parasitica var. nicotianae Tucker. Importantly, VpERF1-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants increased susceptibility toward these pathogens. Investigation on drought, cold, and heat treatments suggested, VpERF2 was distinctly induced, whereas VpERF3 displayed a very weak response and VpERF1 was distinctly induced by drought and heat. Concurrently, VpERF3 was significantly induced by salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ET. Our results showed that the three VpERFs from Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata play different roles in either preventing disease progression via regulating the expression of relevant defense genes, or directly involving abiotic stress responsive pathways.

  3. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12

  4. Relating Water Deficiency to Berry Texture, Skin Cell Wall Composition, and Expression of Remodeling Genes in Two Vitis vinifera L. Varieties.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Cobb, F; Tracana, S; Costa, G J; Valente, I; Goulao, L F; Amâncio, S

    2015-04-22

    The cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that responds to stress. Water shortage (WS) impacts grapevine berry composition and its sensorial quality. In the present work, berry texture, skin CW composition, and expression of remodeling genes were investigated in two V. vinifera varieties, Touriga Nacional (TN) and Trincadeira (TR), under two water regimes, Full Irrigation (FI) and No Irrigation (NI). The global results allowed an evident separation between both varieties and the water treatments. WS resulted in increased anthocyanin contents in both varieties, reduced amounts in cellulose and lignin at maturation, but an increase in arabinose-containing polysaccharides more tightly bound to the CW in TR. In response to WS, the majority of the CW related genes were down-regulated in a variety dependent pattern. The results support the assumption that WS affects grape berries by stiffening the CW through alteration in pectin structure, supporting its involvement in responses to environmental conditions.

  5. Reduction in pathogen populations at grapevine wound sites is associated with the mechanism underlying the biological control of crown gall by rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2014-09-17

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium (=Agrobacterium) vitis, ARK-1, limited the development of grapevine crown gall. A co-inoculation with ARK-1 and the tumorigenic strain VAT07-1 at a 1:1 cell ratio resulted in a higher population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in shoots without tumors, but a significantly lower population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in grapevine shoots with tumors. ARK-1 began to significantly suppress the VAT07-1 population 2 d after the inoculation. This result indicated that ARK-1 reduced the pathogen population at the wound site through biological control. Although ARK-1 produced a zone of inhibition against other tumorigenic Rhizobium spp. in in vitro assays, antibiosis depended on the culture medium. ARK-1 did not inhibit the growth of tumorigenic R. radiobacter strain AtC1 in the antibiosis assay, but suppressed the AtC1-induced formation of tumors on grapevine shoots, suggesting that antibiosis by ARK-1 may not be the main mechanism responsible for biological control.

  6. Reduction in Pathogen Populations at Grapevine Wound Sites is Associated with the Mechanism Underlying the Biological Control of Crown Gall by Rhizobium vitis Strain ARK-1

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium (=Agrobacterium) vitis, ARK-1, limited the development of grapevine crown gall. A co-inoculation with ARK-1 and the tumorigenic strain VAT07-1 at a 1:1 cell ratio resulted in a higher population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in shoots without tumors, but a significantly lower population of ARK-1 than VAT07-1 in grapevine shoots with tumors. ARK-1 began to significantly suppress the VAT07-1 population 2 d after the inoculation. This result indicated that ARK-1 reduced the pathogen population at the wound site through biological control. Although ARK-1 produced a zone of inhibition against other tumorigenic Rhizobium spp. in in vitro assays, antibiosis depended on the culture medium. ARK-1 did not inhibit the growth of tumorigenic R. radiobacter strain AtC1 in the antibiosis assay, but suppressed the AtC1-induced formation of tumors on grapevine shoots, suggesting that antibiosis by ARK-1 may not be the main mechanism responsible for biological control. PMID:25077443

  7. Separation and identification of highly fluorescent compounds derived from trans-resveratrol in the leaves of Vitis vinifera infected by Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Olejníčková, Julie; Jílek, Rudolf; Sotolář, Radek

    2012-03-06

    A method for identification of highly fluorescent compounds in vine leaves infected by Plasmopara viticola was developed using reversed phase liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorometric detection. Fluorescent compounds were extracted from leaves with a methanol-water mixture (70:30). Separation by HPLC was performed using a C(18) column and gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mixtures (20-80% of acetonitrile). The main unknown fluorescent compound was identified by line spectral comparison with a standard obtained by UV photoisomerization of trans-resveratrol glucoside, and its structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Identification and structural elucidation of the fluorescent compound in the leaves of Vitis vinifera allows early detection of Plasmopara viticola invasion.

  8. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  9. Effect of two different treatments for reducing grape yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on wine composition and quality: berry thinning versus cluster thinning.

    PubMed

    Gil, M; Esteruelas, M; González, E; Kontoudakis, N; Jiménez, J; Fort, F; Canals, J M; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Zamora, F

    2013-05-22

    The influence of two treatments for reducing grape yield, cluster thinning and berry thinning, on red wine composition and quality were studied in a Vitis vinifera cv Syrah vineyard in AOC Penedès (Spain). Cluster thinning reduced grape yield per vine by around 40% whereas berry thinning only reduced it by around 20%. Cluster thinning grapes had higher soluble solids content than control grapes, and their resultant wines have greater anthocyanin and polysaccharide concentrations than the control wine. Wine obtained from berry thinning grapes had a higher total phenolic index, greater flavonol, proanthocyanidin, and polysaccharide concentrations, and lower titratable acidity than the control wine. Wines obtained from both treatments were sufficiently different from the control wine to be significantly distinguished by a trained panel in a triangular test. Even though both treatments seem to be effective at improving the quality of wine, berry thinning has the advantage because it has less impact on crop yield reduction.

  10. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  11. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  12. Unravelling the Diversity of Grapevine Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; C. Gomes, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  13. Morphological and phylogenetic identification of Botrytis sinoviticola, a novel cryptic species causing gray mold disease of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y J; Zhang, J; Wang, X D; Yang, L; Jiang, D H; Li, G Q; Hsiang, T; Zhuang, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five isolates of Botrytis collected from table grapes (Vitis vinifera) with gray mold symptoms in China were identified based on morpho-cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar (20 C) and/or phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2). Isolates of different species of Botrytis were compared with fenhexamid sensitivity, Bc-hch gene-RFLP haplotyping and pathogenicity to V. vinifera. The 75 isolates comprise two species, B. cinerea (63 isolates) and an undescribed Botrytis sp. (12 isolates) described here as Botrytis sinoviticola Zhang et al. sp., nov. Both B. sinoviticola (Bs) and B. cinerea (Bc) were found to have 20 C optimum for mycelial growth and 25 C for conidial germination. Sensitivity to fenhexamid was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for Bc (EC50 = 0.04 ± 0.01 μg mL(-1)) than for Bs (EC50 = 0.08 ± 0.02 μg mL(-1)). Digestion of the PCR amplicons of the Bc-hch gene with Hha I generated two haplotypes, Group I haplotype for Bs and Group II haplotype for Bc. Bs infected table grapes (leaves, berries) only through wounds, whereas Bc infected both injured and non-injured tissues of table grapes. This study suggests that Bs is a cryptic species sympatric with Bc on table grapes in China.

  14. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  15. Enhanced anthocyanins and resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension culture by indanoyl-isoleucine, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and insect saliva.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-05

    The effects of two synthetic elicitor indanoyl-isoleucine (In-Ile), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (Lin-Gln) and one biotic elicitor insect saliva (from Manduca sexta larvae) on plant cell cultures with respect to the induction of secondary metabolite production were investigated. Stimulated production of secondary metabolites, particularly anthocyanins in plant cells and phenolic acids in culture medium, was studied by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. In the treatments with In-Ile, the production of anthocyanins was enhanced 2.6-fold. In-Ile, Lin-Gln and saliva significantly elevated the accumulation of phenolic acids, particularly 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol. The used elicitors did not suppress cell growth. Secondary metabolites were differently responsive to elicitation. 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol was the predominant phenolic acid in V. vinifera cell culture, and its production was significantly stimulated by saliva, with 7.0-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. The production of 4-(3,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-phenol was significantly stimulated by In-Ile with 6.4-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment.

  16. Enhancement of viniferin production in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Alphonse Lavallée Cell suspensions by low-energy ultrasound alone and in combination with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia; Melani, Fabrizio; Valletta, Alessio; Sciandra, Ilaria; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2012-11-07

    This study examined for the first time the effect of low-energy ultrasound (US), used alone or in combination with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), on viniferin production in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Alphonse Lavallée. Cell suspensions were exposed for 2 min to US (power 30, 60, and 90 mW cm(-3)). The highest viniferin production was obtained at 30 mW cm(-3). When sonication was performed twice, the effect on viniferin production was negligible, whereas triple sonication slightly increased production. US treatment at 30 mW cm(-3) for 5 min decreased viniferin production and induced cellular death. The combined use of MeJA and US (2 min) increased the production of δ-viniferin, the dominant stilbene, more than each elicitor used alone. These results suggest that low-energy US, alone and in combination with MeJA, can act as a physical elicitor to stimulate viniferin production in V. vinifera cell cultures.

  17. Phenolics and their antifungal role in grapevine wood decay: focus on the Botryosphaeriaceae family.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Richard, Tristan; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2012-12-05

    The interaction between Vitis vinifera and trunk disease fungi requires better understanding. We studied the role of phenolics as possible plant defense compounds in this context. The impact of 24 grapevine phenolic compounds was determined on 6 major wood decay fungi by an in vitro agar plate assay. Hydroxystilbenoids, especially oligomers such as miyabenol C, isohopeaphenol, and vitisin A and B, greatly reduced the growth of the fungi, except that of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum . A detailed investigation in 10 Botryosphaeriaceae strains revealed that all of the studied members of this family display a common susceptibility to phenolics that is more or less significant. Then we undertook a quantitative analysis of stilbenoid content in grapevine plantlets inoculated with Botryosphaeriaceae to investigate whether in planta these fungi have to counteract the most active phenolics. On the basis of our results, the possible role of phenolics in grapevine defense against trunk disease agents is discussed.

  18. Response of grapevines to fluoride under field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, F.

    1983-07-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) were fumigated in open-top chambers with hydrogen fluoride for 64 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.17 or 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/. Other grapevines grown under ambient conditions in the vineyard or maintained in control chambers were exposed to 0.13 or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, respectively. Leaves of grapevines exposed to 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ accumulated up to 85, 55, 20, or 11 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was observed on plants exposed to 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, but no injury symptoms were observed at 0.17 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ or in control plants. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions had significantly greater mean bunch weight, peduncle weight, number of grapes per bunch, and leaf protein levels than the fumigated treatments. However, these differences may be associated with a chamber effect rather than with an effect of fluoride on grapevines. No significant differences were found between treatments for grape potential alcohol content, fruit acids, number of bunches or grapes per vine, fresh weight of grapes, or leaf chlorophyll content, despite foliar fluoride concentrations in the highest fluoride fumigation level reaching 85 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/. No evidence was found of significant fluoride accumulation in berries or canes. 26 references, 4 tables.

  19. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  20. The impact of the recent climatic change on grapevine phenophases and the prediction for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradnicek, P.

    2009-09-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivation is influenced by the weather. The study try to explain connection between selected phenophases and meteorological characteristics with the focus on their temporal dynamics. Phenological observations in the Czech Lands have a long tradition, but choice of a suitable station is not simple. Finally were selected station Velké Pavlovice, this station have meteorological elements observation. The guideline for observers was set up in 1956 and has included the subsequent observed variables for the vine Vitis vinifera L.. This was replaced by the new CHMI methodology instruction number 3 in 1984. This case study researched available period 1984-2007. The quality control of meteorological characteristics were executed and then data were checked for relative homogenity by Standard Normal Homogeneity Test and then adjusted with respect to the inhomogeneity year. Grapevine phenophases best respond with high correlation coefficient with average and maximum temperature. In the last time the temperature significantly increase and it is hyphothesis this phenomen will be continued. Grapevine react on this climatic change yet in the present time. Beginning of the phenophases is earlier about 8 to 20 days before 20 years and in the future could be starting of the phenophases faster. The study work with time scale 2021-2050 and 2071-2100.

  1. Toxicity of extracellular proteins from Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum involved in grapevine Botryosphaeria dieback.

    PubMed

    Bénard-Gellon, M; Farine, S; Goddard, M L; Schmitt, M; Stempien, E; Pensec, F; Laloue, H; Mazet-Kieffer, F; Fontaine, F; Larignon, P; Chong, J; Tarnus, C; Bertsch, C

    2015-03-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback, esca and Eutypa dieback are three economic major grapevine trunk diseases that cause severe yield reduction in vineyards worldwide. The frequency of disease symptoms has increased considerably over the past decade, and no efficient treatment is currently available to control these diseases. The different fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases mainly induce necrotic wood and characteristic foliar symptoms. In this context, fungi virulence factors and host invasion are not well understood. We hypothesise that extracellular proteins produced by Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum, two causal agents associated with Botryosphaeria dieback, are virulence factors responsible for the pathogenicity. In our previous work, we demonstrated that the total extracellular compounds produced by N. parvum induced more necrosis on Chardonnay calli and triggered a different defence gene expression pattern than those produced by D. seriata. Furthermore, this aggressiveness was not clearly correlated with the production of mellein, a characteristic phytotoxin of Botryosphaeriaceae, in our in vitro calli model. To characterise other potential virulence factors and to understand the mechanisms of host invasion by the fungus, we evaluated the profile, quantity and the impact of extracellular proteins produced by these fungi on Vitis vinifera calli necrosis and defence gene expression. Our results reveal that, under the same conditions, N. parvum produces more extracellular proteins and in higher concentrations than D. seriata. With Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay cells, we showed that equivalent concentrations of proteins secreted by N. parvum were more aggressive than those of D. seriata in producing necrosis and that they clearly induced more grapevine defence genes.

  2. The crucial role of Φ- and K-segments in the in vitro functionality of Vitis vinifera dehydrin DHN1a.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Escribano, Ma Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, Ma Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs), group II LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins, are among the most commonly observed proteins which accumulate in plants in response to cold and any other environmental factors, causing the dehydration of cells. In previous studies, we isolated a YSK2-type VvcDHN1a gene from table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) which presented two spliced variants (the spliced, DHN1a_s and the unspliced, DHN1a_u). Their expression was induced by low temperature storage and CO2, although with different accumulation patterns. DHN1a_u codifies for a truncated YS protein lacking Ф- and K-segments, which might affect its functionality. In this work, we expressed both DHN1a_s and DHN1a_u recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We carried out a number of in vitro assays to analyze the implications that Ф- and K-segments have in the protective role of VvcDHN1 against different abiotic stresses and their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results showed that unlike DHN1a_u, DHN1a_s has a potent cryoprotective effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity, protects malate dehydrogenase against dehydration and partially inhibits B. cinerea growth. Moreover, the DHN1a promoter presented cis-regulatory elements related to cold and drought, as well as biotic stress-related elements. We also observed that both spliced variants interact weakly with DNA, suggesting that K-segments are not involved in DNA binding. Overall, this work highlights the crucial role of Ф- and K-segments in DHNs function in plant response to abiotic stress showing for the first time, the potential role of the V. vinifera DHN1a_s in the protection against freezing and dehydration as well as inhibiting B. cinerea growth.

  3. Domain analysis of 3 Keto Acyl-CoA synthase for structural variations in Vitis vinifera and Oryza brachyantha using comparative modelling.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Mamta; Pandey, Neetesh; Qamar, Naseha; Singh, Brijendra; Shukla, Akanksha

    2015-03-01

    The long chain fatty acids incorporated into plant lipids are derived from the iterative addition of C2 units which is provided by malonyl-CoA to an acyl-CoA after interactions with 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), found in several plants. This study provides functional characterization of three 3 ketoacyl CoA synthase like proteins in Vitis vinifera (one) and Oryza brachyantha (two proteins). Sequence analysis reveals that protein of Oryza brachyantha shows 96% similarity to a hypothetical protein in Sorghum bicolor; total 11 homologs were predicted in Sorghum bicolor. Conserved domain prediction confirm the presence of FAE1/Type III polyketide synthase-like protein, Thiolase-like, subgroup; Thiolase-like and 3-Oxoacyl-ACP synthase III, C-terminal and chalcone synthase like domain but very long chain 3-keto acyl CoA domain is absent. All three proteins were found to have Chalcone and stilbene synthases C terminal domain which is similar to domain of thiolase and β keto acyl synthase. Its N terminal domain is absent in J3M9Z7 protein of Oryza brachyantha and F6HH63 protein of Vitis vinifera. Differences in N-terminal domain is responsible for distinguish activity. The J3MF16 protein of Oryza brachyantha contains N terminal domain and C terminal domain and characterized using annotation of these domains. Domains Gcs (streptomyces coelicolor) and Chalcone-stilbene synthases (KAS) in 2-pyrone synthase (Gerbera hybrid) and chalcone synthase 2 (Medicago sativa) were found to be present in three proteins. This similarity points toward anthocyanin biosynthetic process. Similarity to chalcone synthase 2 reveals its possible role in Naringenine and Chalcone synthase like activity. In 3 keto acyl CoA synthase of Oryza brachyantha. Active site residues C-240, H-407, N-447 are present in J3MF16 protein that are common in these three protein at different positions. Structural variations among dimer interface, product binding site, malonyl-CoA binding sites, were predicted in

  4. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management. PMID:24971084

  5. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Rolshausen, Philippe E

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management.

  6. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuntong; Xu, Weirong; Duan, Dong; Wang, Yuejin; Nick, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. PMID:27702992

  7. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  8. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  9. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines.

  10. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis of the GRF Genes in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd), Poplar (Populous), Grape (Vitis vinifera), Arabidopsis and Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. Previous studies on GRF family members focused either on a single or a small set of genes. Here, a comparative genomic analysis of the GRF gene family was performed in poplar (a model tree species), Arabidopsis (a model plant for annual herbaceous dicots), grape (one model plant for perennial dicots), rice (a model plant for monocots) and Chinese pear (one of the economical fruit crops). In total, 58 GRF genes were identified, 12 genes in rice (Oryza sativa), 8 genes in grape (Vitis vinifera), 9 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, 19 genes in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and 10 genes in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri). The GRF genes were divided into five subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis, which was supported by their structural analysis. Furthermore, microsynteny analysis indicated that highly conserved regions of microsynteny were identified in all of the five species tested. And Ka/Ks analysis revealed that purifying selection plays an important role in the maintenance of GRF genes. Our results provide basic information on GRF genes in five plant species and lay the foundation for future research on the functions of these genes. PMID:27933074

  12. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans-caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans-caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  13. Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from pigmented Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures as putative anthocyanin transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Curtin, Chris; Bézier, Annie; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The ligandin activity of specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is necessary for the transport of anthocyanins from the cytosol to the plant vacuole. Five GSTs were purified from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux cell suspension cultures by glutathione affinity chromatography. These proteins underwent Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry fingerprinting, with the resultant fragments aligned with predicted GSTs within public databases. The corresponding coding sequences were cloned, with heterologous expression in Escherichia coli used to confirm GST activity. Transcriptional profiling of these candidate GST genes and key anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (PAL, CHS, DFR, and UFGT) in cell suspensions and grape berries against anthocyanin accumulation demonstrated strong positive correlation with two sequences, VvGST1 and VvGST4, respectively. The ability of VvGST1 and VvGST4 to transport anthocyanins was confirmed in the heterologous maize bronze-2 complementation model, providing further evidence for their function as anthocyanin transport proteins in grape cells. Furthermore, the differential induction of VvGST1 and VvGST4 in suspension cells and grape berries suggests functional differences between these two proteins. Further investigation of these candidate ligandins may identify a mechanism for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation in planta and in vitro suspension cells.

  14. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures.

  15. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  16. Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Anna; Stagos, Dimitrios; Galitsiou, Elissavet; Spyrou, Argiris; Haroutounian, Serko; Portesis, Nikolaos; Trizoglou, Ioanna; Wallace Hayes, A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Grape extracts and wine have been studied widely due to their beneficial effects on human health. However, there are only few studies from grape stems extracts. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was the assessment in stem extracts from Greek Vitis vinifera varieties of the total polyphenolic content (TPC), the identification of the polyphenols present in them, and the evaluation of their antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and inhibition of liver (HepG2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell growth. The range of the TPC in grape stem extracts was from 345 to 584 mg GAE/g dry weight. Moreover, stem extracts contained different classes of polyphenols as flavonols, flavanols, procyanidins, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In DPPH and ABTS assays, the IC50 values of the stem extracts had an average of 7.8 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.6 μg/mL respectively. Also, all stem extracts inhibited OH- and ROO-induced DNA damage dose dependent with average IC50 values of 478 ± 217 and 1.15 ± 0.85 μg/mL respectively. Furthermore, stem extracts inhibited at low concentrations the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells with average IC50 values of 50 ± 12 and 32 ± 16 μg/mL respectively. The above activities of grape stem extracts were comparable to those of seed extracts.

  17. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  18. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  19. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen.

  20. Distribution of resveratrol and stilbene synthase in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and the effect of UV-C on its accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ke; Yang, Hao-Ru; Wen, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Current research indicated that the resveratrol was mainly accumulated in the skin of grape berry, however, little is yet known about the distribution of resveratrol, as well as the regulation mechanism at protein level and the localization of stilbene synthase (malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.95; STS), a key enzyme of resveratrol biosynthesis, in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Resveratrol, whose constitutive level ranged from 0.2 mg kg(-1) FW to 16.5 mg kg(-1) FW, could be detected in stem, axillary bud, shoot tip, petiole, root and leaf of grape plants. Among them, stem phloems presented the most abundant of resveratrol, and the leaves presented the lowest. Interestingly, the level of STS mRNA and protein were highest in grape leaves. And the analysis of immunohistochemical showed the tissue-specific distribution of STS in different organs, presenting the similar results compared with the amount of protein. And the subcellular localization revealed that the cell wall in different tissues processed the most golden particles representing STS. Subjecting to UV-C irradiation, resveratrol and STS were both intensely stimulated in grape leaves, with the similar response pattern. Results above indicated that distribution of resveratrol and STS in grape was organ-specific and tissue-specific. And the accumulation of resveratrol induced by UV-C was regulated by transcriptional and translational level of STS.

  1. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  2. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol.

  3. Stilbenes and tyrosol as target compounds in the assessment of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of Vitis vinifera red wines from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gris, Eliana Fortes; Mattivi, Fulvio; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2011-07-27

    The contents of stilbene monomers, cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid, trans-piceid, and tyrosol, were quantified in Vitis vinifera red wines, cvs. Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese, and Syrah, 2006 and 2007 vintages, from the São Joaquim region, a new grape-growing region at southern Brazil. Moreover, the effect of chronic consumption of these wines on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities was monitored in C57BL6 LDL receptor knockout mice and treated with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Red wines from this region had substantial levels of resveratrols (the predominant forms were glycoside and trans) and tyrosol. Biomonitoring of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in vivo revealed that consumption of these wines increased the antioxidant capacity and reduced the hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia promoted by the hypercholesterolemic diet. Significant correlations were found between the increase of antioxidant capacity markers, the decrease of lipid levels promoted by wine consumption, and the contents of stilbenes and tyrosol, supporting the important biological activity of these compounds.

  4. Color recovery in berries of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) 'Benitaka', a bud sport of 'Italia', is caused by a novel allele at the VvmybA1 locus.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Shozo; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Shiraishi, Mikio; Mitani, Nobuhito; Yakushiji, Hiroshi; Koshita, Yoshiko

    2009-04-01

    Color mutations in grape berry skin are relatively frequent events, and can be easily seen in the vineyard. Both light-red-skinned 'Ruby Okuyama' and more intense and uniform rosy-skinned 'Benitaka' (Vitis vinifera L.) are bud sports of white-skinned 'Italia'. Previously, we reported that 'Ruby Okuyama' was caused by the recovery of VvmybA1 expression, which may have occurred as a result of intra-LTR (long terminal repeat) recombination within a retrotransposon, Gret1. However, the molecular basis of the color recovery in 'Benitaka' has not been elucidated so far. Here, we found that the VvmybA1 locus of 'Benitaka' is heterozygous for the VvmybA1a allele (non-functional) and a novel VvmybA1(BEN) allele, and that VvmybA1(BEN) restored VvmybA1 transcripts. We hypothesized that VvmybA1(BEN) allele was caused by homologous recombination between VvmybA1a and VvmybA3. In addition, the content and composition of anthocyanins in berry skins differed greatly between 'Ruby Okuyama' and 'Benitaka'. The levels of expression of the genes for flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), O-methyltransferase (OMT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were associated with differences in the anthocyanin content and composition between the two cultivars.

  5. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems.

  6. Ectopic expression of a Ve homolog VvVe gene from Vitis vinifera enhances defense response to Verticillium dahliae infection in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Lin, Jing; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Zhang, Baolong; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-15

    Verticillium wilt is a soil borne disease that can cause devastating losses to the production of many economically important crops. A Ve1 homologous gene responding to Verticillium dahliae infection was identified in Vitis vinifera cv. "HeiFeng" by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was designated as VvVe. The overexpression of VvVe in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly enhanced the resistance to isolate V991 of V. dahliae when compared with the wild type plants. The expressions of defense-related genes including the salicylic acid regulated gene pathogen-related 1 (PR1) but not PR2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated genes ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were significantly increased due to over expression of VvVe. And greater accumulation of active oxygen, callose and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were observed in the leaves of transgenic VvVe tobacco plants than the wild type when under infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, the hypersensitive response mimicking cell death was exclusively occurred in the transgenic VvVe tobacco plants but not in the wild type. Taken together, the VvVe gene is a Ve1 like gene which involves in the signal cascade of salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene defense pathways and enhances defense response to V. dahliae infection in the transgenic tobacco.

  7. Flavanol quantification of grapes via Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry. Application to the differentiation among clones of Vitis vinifera L. cv Rufete grapes.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Escribano-Bailon, M Teresa

    2017-02-03

    The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and inter-day precision (lower than 5%) and the LOD and LOQ values, low enough to quantify flavanols in grapes, are good results from the method validation procedure. Its usefulness has also been tested by determining the detailed composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv Rufete grapes. Seventy-two (38 non-galloylated and 34 galloylated) and 53 (24 procyanidins and 29 prodelphinidins) flavanols have been identified and quantified in grape seed and grape skin, respectively. The use of HCA and PCA on the detailed flavanol composition has allowed the differentiation among Rufete clones.

  8. Variability in chemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv Mencía from different geographic areas and vintages in Ribeira Sacra (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Vilanova, M; Rodríguez, I; Canosa, P; Otero, I; Gamero, E; Moreno, D; Talaverano, I; Valdés, E

    2015-02-15

    A chemical study was conducted from 2009 to 2012 to examine spatial and seasonal variability of red Vitis vinifera Mencía located in different geographic areas (Amandi, Chantada, Quiroga-Bibei, Ribeiras do Sil and Ribeiras do Miño) from NW Spain. Mencía samples were analysed for phenolic, (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, acids and resveratrol), nitrogen (TAC, TAN, YAN and TAS) and volatiles compounds (alcohols, C6 compounds, ethyl esters, terpenes, aldehydes, acids, lactones, volatile phenols and carbonyl compounds) by GC-MS and HPLC. Results showed that the composition of Mencía cultivar was more affected by the vintage than the geographic area. The amino acid composition was less affected by both geographic origin and vintage, showing more varietal stability. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to experimental data showed a good separation of Mencía grape according to geographical origin and vintages. PCA also showed high correlations between the ripening ratio and C6 compounds, resveratrol and carbonyl compounds.

  9. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  10. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  11. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.

  12. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    PubMed

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotser