Science.gov

Sample records for graphical big picture

  1. A Graphical Big Picture for Tank Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-06-15

    A graphical method is presented for comparing different tank technologies and evaluating scalability, over wide ranges of volume and pressure. Mass contours are plotted on log-log graphs of pressure versus volume, using either theory or data points representing hardware. The simple theoretical case for infinitely scaleable tanks made of a single isotropic material has a constant value of PV/m over the entire plot, and results in straight diagonal mass contours. The contours become more complicated as a result of practical considerations. The latter include minimum wall thickness limits and non-pressure structural loads, as well as minimum thicknesses for the liner and composite over-wrap of multi-layered tank walls. Given a requirement for a tank at a particular volume and pressure, a set of plots representing different technologies can be used to estimate tank masses and select one or more technologies that would meet the need.

  2. Science's Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The state of science is a moving target, and its ever-shifting horizons can best be gleaned by the contents of scientific journals. However, the bigger picture of the scientific enterprise, which also encompasses its past, its future, and its overarching philosophies, can often be better represented through the more reflective pace of popular…

  3. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  4. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  5. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  6. Getting the picture through computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.; Carmichael, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The benefits of computer graphics in design are discussed, with particular reference to aerospace applications. The evolution of computer graphics is illustrated by the following examples: solid lines representing the edges of solid geometric parts; graphics with colored lines providing better descriptions of a variety of objects, such as circuit boards, maps, and complete aircraft; graphics with colored surfaces mapping such information as heating rates and pressures on aircraft; and color mapping combined with shading. Finally, examples are given of complex flow fields and scenes showing many objects that are displayed dynamically, with transparency used to clarify these scenes.

  7. Scaling Up the Big Picture. Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Education and Social Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The research project describes a Providence-based non-profit organization called the Big Picture Company (BP), and its efforts to replicate its small high school design in multiple communities throughout the United States (with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation). It refers implicitly also to BP's ambition (and that of the Gates…

  8. Study of journal bearing dynamics using 3-dimensional motion picture graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E.; Sosoka, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Computer generated motion pictures of three dimensional graphics are being used to analyze journal bearings under dynamically loaded conditions. The motion pictures simultaneously present the motion of the journal and the pressures predicted within the fluid film of the bearing as they evolve in time. The correct prediction of these fluid film pressures can be complicated by the development of cavitation within the fluid. The numerical model that is used predicts the formation of the cavitation bubble and its growth, downstream movement, and subsequent collapse. A complete physical picture is created in the motion picture as the journal traverses through the entire dynamic cycle.

  9. Perception and multimeaning analysis of graphic symbols for Thai picture-based communication system.

    PubMed

    Chompoobutr, Sarinya; Potibal, Puttachart; Boriboon, Monthika; Phantachat, Wantanee

    2013-03-01

    Graphic symbols are a vital part of most augmentative and alternative communication systems. Communication fluency of graphic symbol user depends on how well the relationship between symbols and its referents are learnt. The first aim of this study is to survey the perception of the selected graphic symbols across seven age groups of participants with different educational background. Sixty-five individuals identified themselves as Thai and ranged in age from 10 to 50 years participated in the investigation used 64 graphic symbols. The last aim of this study is to demonstrate the analysis of multimeaning graphic symbols, which will be used in Thai Picture-based communication system. The twenty graphic symbols with 9-14 meanings are analyzed in both syntactic and semantic aspects. The meanings are divided into five categories: noun, verb/adjective, size, color and shape. Respect to the first aim, the results suggest that the participants under investigation with different sexes, age groups, as well as various educational levels perceive the features or inherent characteristics of such graphic symbols similarly. The results of the analysis of multimeaning of graphic symbols indicate that the foundation of Minspeak, polysemy and redundancy of the words illustrates the inherit meanings of the real-life objects, and it also conveys that the Thai graphic symbols are influenced by numerous factors in Thai circumstance such as ability, motivation, experience, worldview and culture.

  10. The Big Picture? Video and the Representation of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Lydia; Stephen, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Researchers who use video to record interactions usually need to translate the video data into another medium at some stage in order to facilitate its analysis and dissemination. This article considers some methodological issues that arise in this process by examining transcripts, diagrams and pictures as examples of different techniques for…

  11. The influence of the media environment on physical activity: looking for the big picture.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Influence of the Media Environment on Physical Activity: Looking for the Big Picture Media consumption is expected to continue to increase well into the future. With this in mind the author suggests opportunities to influence the media environment for the purposes of promoting physical activity. A research agenda focused on media consumption, media content, commercial considerations, promoting physical activity through the media, partnerships with industry, positioning, dissemination of proven methods, and environmental change is proposed.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  13. Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Susan

    1975-01-01

    An art teacher described an elective course in graphics which was designed to enlarge a student's knowledge of value, color, shape within a shape, transparency, line and texture. This course utilized the technique of working a multi-colored print from a single block that was first introduced by Picasso. (Author/RK)

  14. The mission events graphic generator software: A small tool with big results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Leibee, Jack; Scaffidi, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Utilization of graphics has long been a useful methodology for many aspects of spacecraft operations. A personal computer based software tool that implements straight-forward graphics and greatly enhances spacecraft operations is presented. This unique software tool is the Mission Events Graphic Generator (MEGG) software which is used in support of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project. MEGG reads the HST mission schedule and generates a graphical timeline.

  15. Seeing big things: overestimation of heights is greater for real objects than for objects in pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. L.; Dixon, M. W.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    In six experiments we demonstrate that the vertical-horizontal illusion that is evoked when viewing photographs and line drawings is relatively small, whereas the magnitude of this illusion when large objects are viewed is at least twice as great. Furthermore, we show that the illusion is due more to vertical overestimation than horizontal underestimation. The lack of a difference in vertical overestimation between pictures and line drawings suggests that vertical overestimation in pictures depends solely on the perceived physical size of the projection on the picture surface, rather than on what is apparent about an object's represented size. The vertical-horizontal illusion is influenced by perceived physical size. It is greater when viewing large objects than small pictures of these same objects, even when visual angles are equated.

  16. The World in Words and Pictures: How Graphic Novels Can Help to Increase Reading Comprehension for Students with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Britt

    2011-01-01

    The use of graphic novels to engage students has increased steadily in recent years. School librarians and teachers throughout elementary, middle, and secondary schools are integrating graphic novels into English language arts learning and across the curriculum. The growing acceptance of graphic novels in teaching and learning activities is due in…

  17. "Pictures with a purpose": the birth control debate on the big screen.

    PubMed

    Parry, Manon

    2011-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, birth control advocates used the mass media to reframe contraception from a private, secret matter to an acceptable part of life fit for public discussion. Although their campaign began in print, they quickly embraced the more far-reaching medium of film to deliver their message. This article argues that birth control advocates circumvented the Comstock Act in the early decades of the twentieth century by taking up this new medium as part of a long-running strategy to publicize the birth control movement. Their efforts shaped both the public debate on the topic and the development of motion picture censorship.

  18. Hard disk online caches in picture archiving and communication systems archives: how big is beautiful?

    PubMed

    Wirth, Stefan; Treitl, Marcus; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich-Gerd; Rieger, Johannes; Mittermaier, Ingo; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian

    2006-08-01

    The objective of our study was to support algorithmic recommendations for the appropriate sizing of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) caches. For a large PACS installation, a detailed analysis of current radiographic (CR), CT and MRI studies (n=400 consecutive studies, respectively) was performed. In this process every available prior examination was also considered. A new algorithmic procedure for appropriate sizing of PACS caches was developed and applied to the given cache implementation. The number of all priors was 7.6+/-12.3. Of them, 61% were relevant priors with an average age of 203+/-385 days. A basic cache (BC) that covers 12 months of current imaging results in a pre-fetching quote of 15.4% (8.6% for 24 months). In the PACS installation examined, a minimal threefold increase in cache capacity was recommended. Studies that are retrieved, prior to viewing, from the long-term archive require additional space in the extended cache (EC). An intimate and mutual interaction between hospital information system (HIS), radiology information system (RIS) and PACS minimizes this requirement and increases the time during which actual image material from the BC is available online. A basic cache size covering actual imaging of 12 months up to 24 months is recommended. The parameters governing the individual dimensions of both cache spaces and a mathematical algorithm are demonstrated.

  19. Proceedings of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, February 11-14, 2008: Painting the Big Picture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.

    2009-01-01

    The Second USGS Modeling Conference was held February 11-14, 2008, in Orange Beach, Ala. Participants at the conference came from all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regions and represented all four science discipline - Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water. Representatives from other Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and partners from the academic community also participated. The conference, which was focused on 'painting the big picture', emphasized the following themes: Integrated Landscape Monitoring, Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Modeling, and Hazards and Risks. The conference centered on providing a forum for modelers to meet, exchange information on current approaches, identify specific opportunities to share existing models and develop more linked and integrated models to address complex science questions, and increase collaboration across disciplines and with other organizations. Abstracts for the 31 oral presentations and more than 60 posters presented at the conference are included here. The conference also featured a field trip to review scientific modeling issues along the Gulf of Mexico. The field trip included visits to Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center, and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. On behalf of all the participants of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, the conference organizing committee expresses our sincere appreciation for the support of field trip oganizers and leaders, including the managers from the various Reserves and Refuges. The organizing committee for the conference included Jenifer Bracewell, Sally Brady, Jacoby Carter, Thomas Casadevall, Linda Gundersen, Tom Gunther, Heather Henkel, Lauren Hay, Pat Jellison, K. Bruce Jones, Kenneth Odom, and Mark Wildhaber.

  20. The Big Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVolder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Describes how sustainable educational facility design, resulting from a holistic approach to architectural design, engineering, and construction, can generate capital, operational, and maintenance savings. Offers examples related to roofing, air quality, and lighting. (EV)

  1. The Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley

    2003-01-01

    Effective professional development requires that the district take charge to develop a comprehensive strategy. Districts must be able to describe the strategy and organize to meet their goals. A balanced strategy includes compensation, planning time, teachers' job structure and responsibilities, and professional learning opportunities. Districts…

  2. The Storyboard's Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malloy, Cheryl A.; Cooley, William

    2003-01-01

    At Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Cape Canaveral Office, we're using a project management tool that facilitates team communication, keeps our project team focused, streamlines work and identifies potential issues. What did it cost us to install the tool? Almost nothing.

  3. The Big Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains a series of activities which focus on the process of extinction, how the increasing human population affects other species, and on the reasons for helping endangered species. Includes diagrams and illustrations of endangered species. (ML)

  4. The Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of chemistry in daily life of the students is discussed. The approach provides a connection between the details of molecular structure, bonding and reactivity with many aspects of the impact of chemistry on the society.

  5. Temporal changes in methane stable isotopes in polar ice cores: big picture and implications for ecosystem changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Seth, Barbara; Beck, Jonas; Fischer, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas after water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO2). Since the industrial revolution the mixing ratio of CH4 in the atmosphere rose to ~1800 ppb, a value never reached within the last 800 000 years. Nowadays, CH4 contributes ~20% to the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived greenhouse gases. This CH4 increase can only be assessed in relation to natural methane changes in the past. Firn air and air enclosures in polar ice cores represent the only direct paleoatmospheric archive. The latter show that atmospheric CH4 concentrations changed in concert with northern hemisphere temperature during both glacial/interglacial transitions as well as rapid climate changes (Dansgaard-Oeschger events), however, the sources of the methane concentration changes are still a matter of debate. Stable isotopes of methane (δ13CH4 and δD(CH4)) may help to distinguish differences in the magnitude of source type emissions (e.g. Bock et al. 2010). However, recently we could show that it is difficult to interpret the atmospheric loading of methane by relative source mix changes alone (Möller et al. 2013). In fact it appears, that the carbon isotopic signature (δ13CH4) of e.g. tropical wetlands undergoes drastic shifts connected to climate, CO2, sea level or potentially other unknown processes. Here we present the big picture derived from the EDML (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica, Dronning Maud Land) and Vostok ice cores (Möller et al. 2013) and additional new dual isotope data from 4 ice cores from both poles that cover three interglacials: the Holocene, MIS 5 and MIS 11. The contribution sheds light on our current understanding of methane biogeochemistry and discusses open questions. References: Bock, M., J. Schmitt, L. Möller, R. Spahni, T. Blunier, H. Fischer (2010). 'Hydrogen Isotopes Preclude Marine Hydrate CH4 Emissions at the Onset of Dansgaard-Oeschger Events', Science, 328, 1686-1689 Möller, L., T

  6. Assessing coastal waters of American Samoa: territory-wide water quality data provide a critical "big-picture" view for this tropical archipelago.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Guy T; DiDonato, Eva M; Smith, Lisa M; Harwell, Linda C; Summers, J Kevin

    2009-03-01

    The coastal waters of American Samoa's five high islands (Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u) were surveyed in 2004 using a probabilistic design. Water quality data were collected from the near-shore coastal habitat, defined as all near-shore coastal waters including embayments, extending out to 1/4 mile off-shore. Hydrography and water column samples were collected, and water quality data were compared to the Territorial water quality standards for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), Enterococcus, chlorophyll a, water clarity, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. All station measurements for pH, DO, and Enterococcus satisfied the local water quality standards, although some fraction of the Territory could not be assessed for either DO or Enterococcus. With respect to chlorophyll a, 66 +/- 18% of Territory coastal waters complied with the standard, while 34 +/- 18% failed to comply with the standard. For water clarity, 54 +/- 18% of the Territorial waters complied with the standard while 42 +/- 7% failed to comply. Territorial waters satisfied the standards for total nitrogen and phosphorus 72 +/- 17% and 92 +/- 10%, respectively. These data provide the first "big-picture" view of water quality in the near shore region around the high islands of American Samoa. While the picture is encouraging, these data suggest emerging water quality concerns.

  7. Streamlining the discovery, evaluation, and integration of data, models, and decision support systems: a big picture view (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laniak, G.

    2013-12-01

    21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant systems and to provide assessors and decision makers with appropriate data, tools, and strategies. There are significant science and technology challenges being confronted in an effort to streamline the movement of knowledge from its research and experience-based sources to its decision endpoints. In this presentation we explore this continuum and attempt to articulate a holistic and coherent picture of the relationship among the myriad elements of the environmental problem solving landscape. This is done in the hope that this view will enhance the ability of all environmental stakeholders to express their individual contributions in a technological form that will be accessible and usable to the greater community.

  8. Multicenter clinical trials in sepsis: understanding the big picture and building a successful operation at your hospital.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, R Phillip; Schorr, Christa; Trzeciak, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Only through adequately designed and adequately conducted clinical trials can new treatments be found for the benefit of the septic patient. Over the past 20 years, tens of thousands of patients have been enrolled in sepsis clinical trials with little success. These efforts, however, have not been without worth. Much has been learned and the knowledge gained has changed our approach to trial design in this very difficult field. Animal studies are better designed to match the clinical picture of severe sepsis. Phase II studies are more carefully engineered to answer questions about the most suitable target population and end points. Trial conduct likely benefits from use of CROs and a CCC. The future of clinical trials may include more standardization of sepsis management across investigative sites. Before the decision is made to become an investigative site in a multicenter industry-sponsored clinical trial in sepsis or severe sepsis, it is important to recognize what is required to succeed. Once these key-to-success elements are in place, members of the investigative team are more likely to realize the satisfaction and career growth from becoming a successful site. The most professional satisfaction comes from the knowledge of contributing to original science in the field of the sepsis.

  9. Focusing on the big picture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ingfei

    2003-09-10

    As a postdoc in cognitive neuroscience who's also a neurology fellow, Adam Gazzaley is a meld of basic science expertise and clinical experience: He studies brain aging in people by using functional magnetic resonance imaging at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, and he also sees patients at UC San Francisco's Memory and Aging Center. The 34-year-old native New Yorker dives with equal fervor into scientific research and nature photography, two lenses for viewing a single world of discovery. Growing up in Queens, Gazzaley knew from age 7 that he wanted to become a scientist, and as a teenager, he commuted long hours to attend the Bronx High School of Science. He earned an M.D.-Ph.D. from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Gazzaley's hobby as a shutterbug periodically takes him on backpacking trips to document the beauty of the great outdoors. He sells fine-art prints of his photographs to individuals, hospitals, and clinics through his company, Wanderings Inc.

  10. The Big Picture: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard C.

    2010-01-01

    The system office for community college institutional research (SOCCIR) plays a role in the drama of higher education that states must orchestrate to help community college systems operate effectively and efficiently over the long term. But how exactly does the SOCCIR enable a state to accomplish what the separate institutional research (IR)…

  11. Environmental genomics, the big picture?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco

    2004-02-16

    The enormous sequencing capabilities of our times might be reaching the point of overflowing the possibilities to analyse data and allow for a feedback on where to focus the available resources. We have now a foreseeable future in which most bacterial species will have an annotated genome. However, we know also that most prokaryotic diversity would not be included there. On the one hand, there is the problem of many groups not being easily amenable to culture and hence not represented in culture-centred microbial taxonomy. On the other hand, the gene pools present in one species can be orders of magnitude larger than the genome of one strain (selected for genome sequencing). Contrasting with eukaryotic genomes, the repertoire of genes present in one prokaryotic cell genome does not correlate stringently with its taxonomic identity. Hence gene catalogues from one environment might provide more meaningful information than the classical species catalogues. Metagenomics or microbial environmental genomics provide a different tool that gravitates around the habitat rather than the species. Such a tool could be just the right way to complement "organismal genomics". Its potential to advance our understanding of microbial ecology and prokaryotic diversity and evolution is discussed.

  12. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  13. Graphical Man/Machine Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported concerning the use of computer controlled graphical displays in the areas of radiaton diffusion and hydrodynamics, general...ventricular dynamics. Progress is continuing on the use of computer graphics in architecture. Some progress in halftone graphics is reported with no basic...developments presented. Colored halftone perspective pictures are being used to represent multivariable situations. Nonlinear waveform processing is

  14. Real time emotion aware applications: a case study employing emotion evocative pictures and neuro-physiological sensing enhanced by Graphic Processor Units.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Frantzidis, Christos A; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the feasibility of adopting Graphic Processor Units towards real-time emotion aware computing is investigated for boosting the time consuming computations employed in such applications. The proposed methodology was employed in analysis of encephalographic and electrodermal data gathered when participants passively viewed emotional evocative stimuli. The GPU effectiveness when processing electroencephalographic and electrodermal recordings is demonstrated by comparing the execution time of chaos/complexity analysis through nonlinear dynamics (multi-channel correlation dimension/D2) and signal processing algorithms (computation of skin conductance level/SCL) into various popular programming environments. Apart from the beneficial role of parallel programming, the adoption of special design techniques regarding memory management may further enhance the time minimization which approximates a factor of 30 in comparison with ANSI C language (single-core sequential execution). Therefore, the use of GPU parallel capabilities offers a reliable and robust solution for real-time sensing the user's affective state.

  15. Knowledge From Pictures (KFP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Paterra, Frank; Bailin, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    The old maxim goes: 'A picture is worth a thousand words'. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to demonstrate this idea as it relates to the knowledge acquisition process and the automated development of an expert system's rule base. A prototype tool, the Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) tool, has been developed which configures an expert system's rule base by an automated analysis of and reasoning about a 'picture', i.e., a graphical representation of some target system to be supported by the diagnostic capabilities of the expert system under development. This rule base, when refined, could then be used by the expert system for target system monitoring and fault analysis in an operational setting. Most people, when faced with the problem of understanding the behavior of a complicated system, resort to the use of some picture or graphical representation of the system as an aid in thinking about it. This depiction provides a means of helping the individual to visualize the bahavior and dynamics of the system under study. An analysis of the picture augmented with the individual's background information, allows the problem solver to codify knowledge about the system. This knowledge can, in turn, be used to develop computer programs to automatically monitor the system's performance. The approach taken is this research was to mimic this knowledge acquisition paradigm. A prototype tool was developed which provides the user: (1) a mechanism for graphically representing sample system-configurations appropriate for the domain, and (2) a linguistic device for annotating the graphical representation with the behaviors and mutual influences of the components depicted in the graphic. The KFP tool, reasoning from the graphical depiction along with user-supplied annotations of component behaviors and inter-component influences, generates a rule base that could be used in automating the fault detection, isolation, and repair of the system.

  16. Thinking big thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-08-01

    The short synopsis of The Big Picture by Sean Carroll is that it explores the question of whether science can explain everything in the world, and analyses the emerging reality that such an explanation entails.

  17. The lack of a big picture in tuberculosis: the clinical point of view, the problems of experimental modeling and immunomodulation. The factors we should consider when designing novel treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    This short review explores the large gap between clinical issues and basic science, and suggests why tuberculosis research should focus on redirect the immune system and not only on eradicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus. Along the manuscript, several concepts involved in human tuberculosis are explored in order to understand the big picture, including infection and disease dynamics, animal modeling, liquefaction, inflammation and immunomodulation. Scientists should take into account all these factors in order to answer questions with clinical relevance. Moreover, the inclusion of the concept of a strong inflammatory response being required in order to develop cavitary tuberculosis disease opens a new field for developing new therapeutic and prophylactic tools in which destruction of the bacilli may not necessarily be the final goal. PMID:24592258

  18. Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    1970-01-01

    Computer graphics have been called the most exciting development in computer technology. At the University of Michigan, three kinds of graphics output equipment are now being used: symbolic printers, line plotters or drafting devices, and cathode-ray tubes (CRT). Six examples are given that demonstrate the range of graphics use at the University.…

  19. Seeing the “Big” Picture: Big Data Methods for Exploring Relationships Between Usage, Language, and Outcome in Internet Intervention Data

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Jordan; Crutchley, Patrick; Zilca, Ran D; Schwartz, H Andrew; Smith, Laura K; Cobb, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessing the efficacy of Internet interventions that are already in the market introduces both challenges and opportunities. While vast, often unprecedented amounts of data may be available (hundreds of thousands, and sometimes millions of participants with high dimensions of assessed variables), the data are observational in nature, are partly unstructured (eg, free text, images, sensor data), do not include a natural control group to be used for comparison, and typically exhibit high attrition rates. New approaches are therefore needed to use these existing data and derive new insights that can augment traditional smaller-group randomized controlled trials. Objective Our objective was to demonstrate how emerging big data approaches can help explore questions about the effectiveness and process of an Internet well-being intervention. Methods We drew data from the user base of a well-being website and app called Happify. To explore effectiveness, multilevel models focusing on within-person variation explored whether greater usage predicted higher well-being in a sample of 152,747 users. In addition, to explore the underlying processes that accompany improvement, we analyzed language for 10,818 users who had a sufficient volume of free-text response and timespan of platform usage. A topic model constructed from this free text provided language-based correlates of individual user improvement in outcome measures, providing insights into the beneficial underlying processes experienced by users. Results On a measure of positive emotion, the average user improved 1.38 points per week (SE 0.01, t122,455=113.60, P<.001, 95% CI 1.36–1.41), about an 11% increase over 8 weeks. Within a given individual user, more usage predicted more positive emotion and less usage predicted less positive emotion (estimate 0.09, SE 0.01, t6047=9.15, P=.001, 95% CI .07–.12). This estimate predicted that a given user would report positive emotion 1.26 points (or 1.26%) higher

  20. NATURAL graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware and software developments in computer graphics are discussed. Major topics include: system capabilities, hardware design, system compatibility, and software interface with the data base management system.

  1. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  2. Graphic Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John

    2009-01-01

    Graphic storytelling is a medium that allows students to make and share stories, while developing their art communication skills. American comics today are more varied in genre, approach, and audience than ever before. When considering the impact of Japanese manga on the youth, graphic storytelling emerges as a powerful player in pop culture. In…

  3. Picture Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Katherine; Eslami, Zohreh; McTigue, Erin; Reynolds, Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Studies evaluating the graphics in science textbooks have recommended that teachers use eye-catching visuals to reinforce student learning objectives. Similarly, the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) suggest that science teachers use visuals to teach English Language Learners (ELLs). However, little research has…

  4. Picture Postage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…

  5. Fundamental Quantum Mechanics--A Graphic Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, M. N.; Kelley, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a presentation of basic quantum mechanics for nonscience majors that relies on a computer-generated graphic display to circumvent the usual mathematical difficulties. It allows a detailed treatment of free-particle motion in a wave picture. (MLH)

  6. Graphic pathogeographies.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Courtney

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on the graphic pathogeographies in David B.'s Epileptic and David Small's Stitches: A Memoir to highlight the significance of geographic concepts in graphic novels of health and disease. Despite its importance in such works, few scholars have examined the role of geography in their narrative and structure. I examine the role of place in Epileptic and Stitches to extend the academic discussion on graphic novels of health and disease and identify how such works bring attention to the role of geography in the individual's engagement with health, disease, and related settings.

  7. The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge to chronic disease prevention and health across the life course around the world. Fueled by economic growth, industrialization, mechanized transport, urbanization, an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a nutritional transition to processed foods and high calorie diets over the last 30 years, many countries have witnessed the prevalence of obesity in its citizens double, and even quadruple. Rising prevalence of childhood obesity, in particular, forebodes a staggering burden of disease in individuals and healthcare systems in the decades to come. A complex, multifactorial disease, with genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental origins, obesity raises risk of debilitating morbidity and mortality. Relying primarily on epidemiologic evidence published within the last decade, this non-exhaustive review discusses the extent of the obesity epidemic, its risk factors—known and novel—, sequelae, and economic impact across the globe. PMID:25471927

  8. Introducing Students to "The Big Picture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Business students view commercial films depicting management issues such as hostile takeover, organizational culture, and international business competition. Lectures, readings, and interviews give students background information with which to assess the films. The technique enables students to observe and understand stakeholder interactions in…

  9. The big picture: does colonoscopy work?

    PubMed

    Hewett, David G; Rex, Douglas K

    2015-04-01

    Colonoscopy for average-risk colorectal cancer screening has transformed the practice of gastrointestinal medicine in the United States. However, although the dominant screening strategy, its use is not supported by randomized controlled trials. Observational data do support a protective effect of colonoscopy and polypectomy on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, but the level of protection in the proximal colon is variable and operator-dependent. Colonoscopy by high-level detectors remains highly effective, and ongoing quality improvement initiatives should consider regulatory factors that motivate changes in physician behavior.

  10. Lunar Anorthosite Deposits: The Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. A.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, J. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Spudis, P. D.

    2000-10-01

    Evidence strongly suggests that Earth's Moon, early in its history, was covered with a deep magma ocean. As the magma cooled and crystallized, pyroxene and olivine grains settled to the bottom, and eventually plagioclase feldspar formed a floatation crust. At first, the continuing flux of impactors easily breached the thin but growing floatation crust and mixed it with magma from below. Crust thick enough to resist further penetration became underplated with pure anorthosite (rock containing at least 90 Analysis of Earth-based near-IR reflection spectra of features on the Moon's nearside has revealed the locations of outcrops of pure anorthosite that may be remnants of the flotation crust. Nearside anorthosite deposits very commonly are found on or very near basin rings. Anorthosites in the inner rings of basins such as Humorum, Grimaldi, and Orientale were derived from beneath more mafic-rich layers in the pre-impact target sites. In addition, the anorthosites associated with the outer rings of Nectaris and other basins are found in the central peaks and walls of large impact craters and were derived from layers deep beneath the crater target sites. In the early 1990s, two spacecraft, Galileo and Clementine, returned multispectral data sets that allow further investigation of the distribution of anorthosite on the Moon, including areas of the farside for which no previous multispectral data existed. Iron maps derived from these data suggest that pure anorthosite may be quite abundant on certain farside surfaces. Farside anorthosite distribution may be largely related to the emplacement of the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. Near the basin rim, thick blankets of SPA ejecta appear to cover the original crust, while in more distal regions the thinner cover of SPA ejecta (and mafic-contaminated upper crust) has been completely scattered away by subsequent impacts to reveal the underlying anorthosite.

  11. Multimedia systems overview: the big picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccomi, Alfred

    1993-01-01

    The golden opportunities represented by multimedia systems have been recognized by many. The risk and cost involved in developing the products and the markets has led to a bonanza of unlikely consortia of strange bedfellows. The premier promoter of personal computing systems, Apple Computer, has joined forces with the dominant supplier of corporate computing, IBM, to form a multimedia technology joint venture called Kaleida. The consumer electronics world's leading promoter of free trade, Sony, has joined forces with the leader of Europe's protectionist companies, Philips, to create a consumer multimedia standard called CD-I. While still paying lip service to CD-I, Sony and Philips now appear to be going their separate ways. The software world's most profitable/fastest growing firm, Microsoft, has entered into alliances with each and every multimedia competitor to create a mish mash of product classes and defacto standards. The battle for Multimedia Standards is being fought on all fronts: on standards committees, in corporate strategic marketing meetings, within industry associations, in computer retail stores, and on the streets. Early attempts to set proprietary defacto standards were fought back, but the proprietary efforts continue with renewed vigor. Standards committees were, as always, slow to define specifications, but the official standards are now known nd being implemented; ... but the proprietary efforts continue with renewed vigor. Ultimately, the buyers will decide -- like it or not. Success by the efforts to establish proprietary defacto standards could prove to be a boon to the highly creative and inventive U.S. firms, but at the cost of higher prices for consumers and slower market growth. Success by the official standards could bring lower prices for consumers and fast market growth, but force the higher-wage/higher-overhead U.S. firms to compete on a level playing field. As is always the case, you can't have your cake and eat it too.

  12. Are you in the big picture?

    PubMed

    Litzenburger, D C

    1997-01-01

    Carol Smith, an endoscopy nurse, is spending her two-week vacation as the camp nurse at the Boy Scouts Camporee. Staff from the Food and Nutrition Department volunteer to cook and serve meals at the Salvation Army soup kitchen. Linda Ward of the Distribution and Processing Department spends her vacation at Camp Quality, just one of many volunteers who brighten the faces of children who have cancer.

  13. It Offers the Appropriate Big-Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläpfer, Markus

    Every week, more than 1 million people are currently being added to cities across the globe. This unprecedented trend of urbanization, together with growing concerns over energy supply and climate change, rapidly outpaces existing approaches for the planning and design of cities. A prominent warning example is Beijing's recent failure to implement a multi-centered urban form that has led to counter-intuitive people flows, immense traffic congestion, and air pollution. Thus, a new quantitative understanding of cities is urgently needed to reduce the risks of such detrimental planning outcomes and to eventually build more sustainable and more livable urban spaces...

  14. NASA's Hyperwall Revealing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers

    2011-01-01

    NASA:s hyperwall is a sophisticated visualization tool used to display large datasets. The hyperwall, or video wall, is capable of displaying multiple high-definition data visualizations and/or images simultaneously across an arrangement of screens. Functioning as a key component at many NASA exhibits, the hyperwall is used to help explain phenomena, ideas, or examples of world change. The traveling version of the hyperwall is typically comprised of nine 42-50" flat-screen monitors arranged in a 3x3 array (as depicted below). However, it is not limited to monitor size or number; screen sizes can be as large as 52" and the arrangement of screens can include more than nine monitors. Generally, NASA satellite and model data are used to highlight particular themes in atmospheric, land, and ocean science. Many of the existing hyperwall stories reveal change across space and time, while others display large-scale still-images accompanied by descriptive, story-telling captions. Hyperwall content on a variety of Earth Science topics already exists and is made available to the public at: eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/hyperwall. Keynote and PowerPoint presentations as well as Summary of Story files are available for download on each existing topic. New hyperwall content and accompanying files will continue being developed to promote scientific literacy across a diverse group of audience members. NASA invites the use of content accessible through this website but requests the user to acknowledge any and all data sources referenced in the content being used.

  15. The Big Picture: Developing Musical Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschub, Michele; Smith, Janice P.

    2016-01-01

    Creating, performing, responding, and connecting are often central foci in the development of music education curricula. While these meta-organizers provide a sense of direction for planning instruction, greater depths of knowledge and skill could be achieved if these actions were viewed as means rather than ends in music education. The profession…

  16. Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium 12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges? Mary Maureen...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Big ...Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  17. Producing pictures.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Presented are basic instructions for non-artists about copying and adapting pictures for health education materials. In many cases, photocopied drawings from other sources can be used in communication campaigns, as long as permission to reproduce is obtained from the artist or publisher and the source is cited. Such drawings should be kept in a file divided by subject (e.g., young people, condoms). A simple procedure involving tracing paper and grids can be used to reduce or enlarge a drawing. A lack of confidence is often the most significant barrier on the part of non-artists to attempting drawing. This article offers simple guidelines for drawing people and faces.

  18. Mosaicking Mexico - the Big Picture of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, F.; Melamed, S.; Ressl, R.; Stanley, D.

    2016-06-01

    The project presented in this article is to create a completely seamless and cloud-free mosaic of Mexico at a resolution of 5m, using approximately 4,500 RapidEye images. To complete this project in a timely manner and with limited operators, a number of processing architectures were required to handle a data volume of 12 terabytes. This paper will discuss the different operations realized to complete this project, which include, preprocessing, mosaic generation and post mosaic editing. Prior to mosaic generation, it was necessary to filter the 50,000 RapidEye images captured over Mexico between 2011 and 2014 to identify the top candidate images, based on season and cloud cover. Upon selecting the top candidate images, PCI Geomatics' GXL system was used to reproject, color balance and generate seamlines for the output 1TB+ mosaic. This paper will also discuss innovative techniques used by the GXL for color balancing large volumes of imagery with substantial radiometric differences. Furthermore, post-mosaicking steps, such as, exposure correction, cloud and cloud shadow elimination will be presented.

  19. From least squares to multilevel modeling: A graphical introduction to Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This tutorial presentation will introduce some of the key ideas and techniques involved in applying Bayesian methods to problems in astrostatistics. The focus will be on the big picture: understanding the foundations (interpreting probability, Bayes's theorem, the law of total probability and marginalization), making connections to traditional methods (propagation of errors, least squares, chi-squared, maximum likelihood, Monte Carlo simulation), and highlighting problems where a Bayesian approach can be particularly powerful (Poisson processes, density estimation and curve fitting with measurement error). The "graphical" component of the title reflects an emphasis on pictorial representations of some of the math, but also on the use of graphical models (multilevel or hierarchical models) for analyzing complex data. Code for some examples from the talk will be available to participants, in Python and in the Stan probabilistic programming language.

  20. Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide to teaching graphic arts, one in a series of instructional materials for junior high industrial arts education, is designed to assist teachers as they plan and implement new courses of study and as they make revisions and improvements in existing courses in order to integrate classroom learning with real-life experiences. This graphic…

  1. Computer graphics and the graphic artist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, N. L.; Fedors, E. G.; Pinelli, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    A centralized computer graphics system is being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. This system was required to satisfy multiuser needs, ranging from presentation quality graphics prepared by a graphic artist to 16-mm movie simulations generated by engineers and scientists. While the major thrust of the central graphics system was directed toward engineering and scientific applications, hardware and software capabilities to support the graphic artists were integrated into the design. This paper briefly discusses the importance of computer graphics in research; the central graphics system in terms of systems, software, and hardware requirements; the application of computer graphics to graphic arts, discussed in terms of the requirements for a graphic arts workstation; and the problems encountered in applying computer graphics to the graphic arts. The paper concludes by presenting the status of the central graphics system.

  2. The Instructional Graphics Checklist: A Look at the Design of Graphics in Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesandrini, Kathryn

    A recent survey of 60 commercial computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs found that most of the programmed lessons used few or no graphics to communicate the main points. An Instructional Graphics Checklist was developed to reflect the research findings about the use of pictures in instruction and to serve as an informal evaluation instrument…

  3. A user's guide for DTIZE an interactive digitizing and graphical editing computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    A guide for DTIZE, a two dimensional digitizing program with graphical editing capability, is presented. DTIZE provides the capability to simultaneously create and display a picture on the display screen. Data descriptions may be permanently saved in three different formats. DTIZE creates the picture graphics in the locator mode, thus inputting one coordinate each time the terminator button is pushed. Graphic input devices (GIN) are also used to select function command menu. These menu commands and the program's interactive prompting sequences provide a complete capability for creating, editing, and permanently recording a graphical picture file. DTIZE is written in FORTRAN IV language for the Tektronix 4081 graphic system utilizing the Plot 80 Distributed Graphics Library (DGL) subroutines. The Tektronix 4953/3954 Graphic Tablet with mouse, pen, or joystick are used as graphics input devices to create picture graphics.

  4. Pictures Used With Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellowski, Anne

    1978-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of use of pictures in storytelling. Discussion focuses on scrolls and sheets used in 11th and 12th century religious ceremonies; public exhibitions of pictures in 140 B.C., picture cloths in India; Kamishibai picture cards in Japan, and picture books used in public libraries for storytelling. (JPF)

  5. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  6. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-12-01

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Design Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A mathematician, David R. Hedgley, Jr. developed a computer program that considers whether a line in a graphic model of a three-dimensional object should or should not be visible. Known as the Hidden Line Computer Code, the program automatically removes superfluous lines and displays an object from a specific viewpoint, just as the human eye would see it. An example of how one company uses the program is the experience of Birdair which specializes in production of fabric skylights and stadium covers. The fabric called SHEERFILL is a Teflon coated fiberglass material developed in cooperation with DuPont Company. SHEERFILL glazed structures are either tension structures or air-supported tension structures. Both are formed by patterned fabric sheets supported by a steel or aluminum frame or cable network. Birdair uses the Hidden Line Computer Code, to illustrate a prospective structure to an architect or owner. The program generates a three- dimensional perspective with the hidden lines removed. This program is still used by Birdair and continues to be commercially available to the public.

  8. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  9. Visual to tactile conversion of vector graphics.

    PubMed

    Krufka, Stephen E; Barner, Kenneth E; Aysal, Tuncer Can

    2007-06-01

    Methods to automatically convert graphics into raised-line images have been recently investigated. In this paper, concepts from previous research are extended to the vector graphics case, producing tactile pictures in which important features are emphasized. The proposed algorithm extracts object boundaries and employs a classification process, based on a graphic's hierarchical structure, to determine critical outlines. A single parameter is introduced into the classification process, enabling users to tailor graphics to their own preferences. The resulting outlines are printed using a Braille printer to produce tactile output. Critical outlines are embossed with raised dots of highest height while other lines and details are embossed with a lower height. Psychophysical experiments including discrimination, identification, and comprehension are utilized to evaluate and compare the proposed algorithm. Results indicate that the proposed method outperforms other methods in all three considered tasks. The results also show that emphasizing important features significantly increases comprehension of tactile graphics, validating the proposed method's effectiveness in conveying visual information.

  10. Show, Don't Tell: Graphic Novels in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The students can explore an entirely fascinating new world through graphic novels introduced into the classrooms. The graphic novels include genre fiction like superhero and horror stories that combine words and pictures, which are appealing to the students. Several titles with connections to traditional English literature are recommended.

  11. 15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Not Just Pretty Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Rebecca R.; Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    Informational texts are filled with graphics that support and extend the written text. These graphics may provide an alternate way to access important information, and sometimes they are the only entry point to that information. However, just being able to see the graphics does not ensure that readers are paying attention to, let alone…

  13. Researching with Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Describes a class activity in which students gathered pictures and wrote and recorded narration relating to the first successful flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Notes that, in the process of gathering pictures, the students were motivated to read the information accompanying the pictures. (RS)

  14. Repellency Awareness Graphic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Companies can apply to use the voluntary new graphic on product labels of skin-applied insect repellents. This graphic is intended to help consumers easily identify the protection time for mosquitoes and ticks and select appropriately.

  15. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  16. Metaphor in pictures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.

  17. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  18. IMAT graphics manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, Alan E.; Cooper, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) consists of a menu driven executive system coupled with a relational database which links commercial structures, structural dynamics and control codes. The IMAT graphics system, a key element of the software, provides a common interface for storing, retrieving, and displaying graphical information. The IMAT Graphics Manual shows users of commercial analysis codes (MATRIXx, MSC/NASTRAN and I-DEAS) how to use the IMAT graphics system to obtain high quality graphical output using familiar plotting procedures. The manual explains the key features of the IMAT graphics system, illustrates their use with simple step-by-step examples, and provides a reference for users who wish to take advantage of the flexibility of the software to customize their own applications.

  19. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  20. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  1. Priming trait inferences through pictures and moving pictures: the impact of open and closed mindsets.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Klaus; Schenck, Wolfram; Watling, Marlin; Menges, Jochen I

    2005-02-01

    A newly developed paradigm for studying spontaneous trait inferences (STI) was applied in 3 experiments. The authors primed dyadic stimulus behaviors involving a subject (S) and an object (O) person through degraded pictures or movies. An encoding task called for the verification of either a graphical feature or a semantic interpretation, which either fit or did not fit the primed behavior. Next, participants had to identify a trait word that appeared gradually behind a mask and that either matched or did not match the primed behavior. STI effects, defined as shorter identification latencies for matching than nonmatching traits, were stronger for S than for O traits, after graphical rather than semantic encoding decisions and after encoding failures. These findings can be explained by assuming that trait inferences are facilitated by open versus closed mindsets supposed to result from distracting (graphical) encoding tasks or encoding failures (involving nonfitting interpretations).

  2. Iconographic dental typography. A dental character font for computer graphics.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J

    1991-06-08

    The recent massive increase in available memory for microcomputers now allows multiple font faces to be stored in computer RAM memory for instant access to the screen and for printed output. Fonts can be constructed in which the characters are not just letters or numbers, but are miniature graphic icons--in this instance pictures of teeth. When printed on an appropriate laser printer, this produces printed graphics of publishing quality.

  3. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  4. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  5. Big bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a warm season grass native to North America, accounting for 40% of the herbaceous biomass of the tall grass prairie, and a candidate for bioenergy feedstock production. The goal of this study was to measure among and within population genetic variation of natura...

  6. Graphics mini manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Randall, Donald P.; Bowen, John T.; Johnson, Mary M.; Roland, Vincent R.; Matthews, Christine G.; Gates, Raymond L.; Skeens, Kristi M.; Nolf, Scott R.; Hammond, Dana P.

    1990-01-01

    The computer graphics capabilities available at the Center are introduced and their use is explained. More specifically, the manual identifies and describes the various graphics software and hardware components, details the interfaces between these components, and provides information concerning the use of these components at LaRC.

  7. Graphic rule for drug metabolism systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2010-05-01

    Using graphic rules to deal with kinetic systems is an elegant approach by combining the graph representation (schematic representation) and rigorous mathematical derivation. It bears the following advantages: (1) providing an intuitive picture or illuminative insights; (2) helping grasp the key points from complicated details; (3) greatly simplifying many tedious, laborious, and error-prone calculations; and (4) able to double-check the final results. In this mini review, the non-steady state graphic rule in enzyme-catalyzed kinetics and protein-folding kinetics was extended to cover drug-metabolic systems. As a demonstration, a step-by-step illustration is presented showing how to use the graphic rule to derive the concentrations of the parent drug and its metabolites vs. time for the seliciclib, vildagliptin, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (AG-024322) metabolic systems, respectively. It can be seen from these paradigms that the graphic rule is particularly useful to analyze complicated drug metabolic systems and ensure the correctness of the derived results. Meanwhile, the intuitive feature of graphic representation may facilitate analyzing and classifying drug metabolic systems; e.g., according to their directed graphs, the metabolism of seliciclib and the metabolism of vildagliptin can be categorized as 0-->5 mechanism while that of AG-024322 as 0-->4-->3 mechanism.

  8. Cancer and the Comics: Graphic Narratives and Biolegitimate Lives.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Juliet

    2016-06-01

    Cancer graphic narratives, I argue, are part of a medical imaginary that includes representations of difference and biomedical technology that engage Fassin's (2009) concept of biolegitimacy. Framed in three parts, the argument first draws on discourses about cancer graphic narratives from graphic medicine scholars and authors to demonstrate a construction of universal suffering. Second, I examine tropes of hope and difference as a biotechnical embrace. Finally, I consider biosociality within the context of this imaginary and the construction of a meaningful life. Autobiographical graphic narrative as a creative genre that seeks to give voice to individual illness experiences in the context of biomedicine raises anthropological questions about the interplay between the ordinary and biolegitmate. Cancer graphic narratives deconstruct the big events to demonstrate the ordinary ways that a life constructed as different becomes valued through access to medical technologies.

  9. Pictures in the Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brako, Elisa; Fout, James; Peltz, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The authors teach an astronomy unit in their seventh-grade course that they find never fails to motivate and stretch the imagination. The questions students ask are wonder-full: "What was here before the universe?" "If there was nothing before the Big Bang, where did energy and matter come from?" "Does the universe have a boundary, and if it does,…

  10. Perception in statistical graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderPlas, Susan Ruth

    There has been quite a bit of research on statistical graphics and visualization, generally focused on new types of graphics, new software to create graphics, interactivity, and usability studies. Our ability to interpret and use statistical graphics hinges on the interface between the graph itself and the brain that perceives and interprets it, and there is substantially less research on the interplay between graph, eye, brain, and mind than is sufficient to understand the nature of these relationships. The goal of the work presented here is to further explore the interplay between a static graph, the translation of that graph from paper to mental representation (the journey from eye to brain), and the mental processes that operate on that graph once it is transferred into memory (mind). Understanding the perception of statistical graphics should allow researchers to create more effective graphs which produce fewer distortions and viewer errors while reducing the cognitive load necessary to understand the information presented in the graph. Taken together, these experiments should lay a foundation for exploring the perception of statistical graphics. There has been considerable research into the accuracy of numerical judgments viewers make from graphs, and these studies are useful, but it is more effective to understand how errors in these judgments occur so that the root cause of the error can be addressed directly. Understanding how visual reasoning relates to the ability to make judgments from graphs allows us to tailor graphics to particular target audiences. In addition, understanding the hierarchy of salient features in statistical graphics allows us to clearly communicate the important message from data or statistical models by constructing graphics which are designed specifically for the perceptual system.

  11. Introduction to LBL graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The Computing Services Department supports a number of graphics software packages on the VAX machines, primarily on the IGM VAX. These packages will drive a large variety of different graphical devices, terminals (including various Tektronix terminals, the AED 512 color raster terminal, the IMLAC Series II vector list processor terminal and others), various styles of plotters and the DICOMED D48 film recorder. We are going to present to you the following graphic software packages: Tell-A-Graf, Cuechart, Tell-A-Plan, Data Connection, DI-3000, Contouring, Grafmaker (including Grafeasy), Grafmaster, Movie.BYU, Grafpac, IDDS, UGS/HPLOT/HBOOK, and SDL/SGL.

  12. Big-Picture Issues Confronting Co-Optima

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, John

    2016-07-12

    DOE's Office of Sustainable Transportation has joined forces with ten national laboratories to launch the New Fuels and Vehicle Systems Optima (NFVSO) research, development, and deployment (RD&D) initiative to co-optimize fuels and vehicles and bring stronger solutions to market faster. This presentation provides a brief overview of the effort.

  13. The Big Picture: Understanding Learning and Meta-Learning Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The future learning agenda is fraught with uncertainty. This opening article attempts to pose broad societal questions that determine the learning agenda-setting as well as the emergence of new knowledge paradigms. It begins with a quick overview of the futures of learning agenda. Then, it moves on to depict the value chain that departs from…

  14. Mapping the Big Picture. Integrating Curriculum & Assessment K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Heidi Hayes

    Although teachers may work in the same building for years, they usually have slight knowledge about what goes on in each other's classrooms. In a similar way, there is little knowledge at one school level about what happens at other levels. This book presents a way for teachers to make maps as a way to communicate about curriculum development.…

  15. Reexamining Echidna Physiology: The Big Picture for Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion.

    PubMed

    Barker, J M; Cooper, C E; Withers, P C; Nicol, S C

    2016-01-01

    The early divergence of monotremes and therian mammals has resulted in considerable interest in the comparative physiology of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), the most common and widespread living monotreme. However, there are many and varied interpretations of its physiology, reflecting the many and varied studies, limitations and uncertainties of aspects of some previous studies, and potential differences between the various subspecies. Consequently, we thoroughly examine here the standardized physiology of the most widely distributed subspecies of short-beaked echidna (T. aculeatus acanthion) over a wide range of ambient temperatures to definitively assess its physiology in a comparative context. We conclude that the low and variable body temperature of the short-beaked echidna is physiologically "primitive," but it also reflects adaptation to its myrmecophagous niche. Other aspects of its physiology are more typically mammalian. A low metabolic rate reflects its low body temperature, and ventilatory variables are matched to accommodate a modest gas exchange requirement. Thermal conductance is typical for a mammal of equivalent mass. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate that short-beaked echidnas can enhance evaporative water loss above thermoneutrality, like other mammals, with a similar capacity for evaporative heat loss. Cooling of their nasal blood sinus with nasal mucous may contribute to this enhanced evaporative cooling. Their capacity to evaporatively cool explains how their distribution can include habitats where ambient temperature, even in shelters, exceeds their supposed critical thermal limit.

  16. Reading the Big Picture: A Visual Literacy Curriculum for Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Karyn N.; Piedmont, Joy

    2016-01-01

    In schools around the country, students are increasingly asked to create visual representations of ideas and information. Slideshows, infographics, and websites have become nearly as common as text documents. Years are spent teaching students grammar and paragraph construction so that they can become strong written communicators, but rarely is the…

  17. Building a "big picture" of planetary atmospheres dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Peter; Wang, Yixiong

    Together with Saturn's large satellite, Titan, Earth, Mars and Venus provide four clear and increasingly well-studied examples of terrestrial-style planetary circulation systems under quite different parametric conditions. Clear trends in behaviour can be seen between these planets, especially contrasting the slowly and rapidly rotating bodies, suggesting some analogies with the studies of flow transitions and bifurcations in laboratory flow systems such as the rotating, baroclinic annulus experiment[1,2], and other simple models. This approach to comparative studies comes especially naturally to dynamicists, to whom the ability of even relatively simple, nonlinear, dynamical systems to exhibit radically different behaviours, punctuated by well characterized bifurcations as control parameters are varied, is familiar and commonplace. But is this analogy more than superficial? Does it suggest the possibility of an overarching the-oretical framework or even prototype model that could offer useful quantitative predictions of atmospheric structure, circulation and transport across a wide range of planetary parameters? If so, what are the critical parameters upon which key dynamical properties of the circulation depend? Can comparisons between the Earth and other planetary bodies provide useful insights into the Earth's circulation and climate? These questions come into even sharper focus in the light of the recent discoveries of terrestrial-style planets around other stars, about which obser-vational measurements can provide only very basic, globally integrated parameters. It is vital, therefore, to exploit and understand as fully as possible the available models of atmospheric circulation systems amenable to detailed study within our Solar System, their common aspects and key differences, and to confront them with detailed observations and measurements. In this contribution we examine ways in which numerical models of atmospheric circulation can be used to construct and explore relatively simple parameter spaces for atmospheric circulation systems, along similar lines to what is commonly done in the laboratory, without the need to compute many of the details specific to individual planetary composition, topography etc. Trends observed in such studies indicate that a common theoretical framework can account for many of the basic differences and similarities between the terrestrial planets in the Solar System, although this approach is still in its infancy. Such an approach can even enable simple predictions to be made of the style and intensity of circulation for planets (e.g. around other stars) yet to be discovered. Future work along similar lines, however, will need to take into account a wider range of possibilities than has been studied systematically hitherto, including the full range of planetary obliquity and seasonal variations, ratios of dynamical and radiative timescales, diurnal cycles and tidally-locked states. [1] R. Hide and P. J. Mason. Adv. in Phys., 24:47-99, 1975 [2] Wordsworth, R. D., Read, P. L. Yamazaki, H. Y. (2008) Phys. Fluids, 20, 126602

  18. Social and Medical Determinants of Cardiometabolic Health: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Puckrein, Gary A; Egan, Brent M; Howard, George

    2015-11-05

    Cardiometabolic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, account for >12 million years of life lost annually among Black adults in the United States. Health disparities are geographically localized, with ~80% of health disparities occurring within ~6000 (16%) of all 38,000 US ZIP codes. Socio-economic status (SES), behavioral and environmental factors (social determinants) account for ~80% of variance in health outcomes and cluster geographically. Neighborhood SES is inversely associated with prevalent diabetes and hypertension, and Blacks are four times more likely than Whites to live in lowest SES neighborhoods. In ZIP code 48235 (Detroit, 97% Black, 16.2% unemployed, income/capita $18,343, 23.6% poverty), 1082 Medicare fee-for service (FFS) beneficiaries received care for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 2012. Collectively, these beneficiaries had 1082 inpatient admissions and 839 emergency department visits, mean cost $27,759/beneficiary and mortality 2.7%. Nationally in 2011, 236,222 Black Medicare FFS beneficiaries had 213,715 inpatient admissions, 191,346 emergency department visits, mean cost $25,580/beneficiary and 2.4% mortality. In addition to more prevalent hypertension and T2D, Blacks appear more susceptible to clinical complications of risk factors than Whites, including hypertension as a contributor to stroke. Cardiometabolic health equity in African Americans requires interventions on social determinants to reduce excess risk prevalence of risk factors. Social-medical interventions to promote timely access to, delivery of and adherence with evidence-based medicine are needed to counterbalance greater disease susceptibility. Place-based interventions on social and medical determinants of health could reduce the burden of life lost to cardiometabolic diseases in Blacks.

  19. Considering the Big Picture: How Significant Are Policy Initiatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Academic and journalistic comment is prioritised by the endless flood of policy initiatives. Yet these can be seen to be determined by long term intellectual frameworks which define why some issues remain constant and others remain marginal. Thus the dominance of academic provision and neglect of the vocational dates back to the nineteenth…

  20. Losing the big picture: how religion may control visual attention.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Despite the abundance of evidence that human perception is penetrated by beliefs and expectations, scientific research so far has entirely neglected the possible impact of religious background on attention. Here we show that Dutch Calvinists and atheists, brought up in the same country and culture and controlled for race, intelligence, sex, and age, differ with respect to the way they attend to and process the global and local features of complex visual stimuli: Calvinists attend less to global aspects of perceived events, which fits with the idea that people's attentional processing style reflects possible biases rewarded by their religious belief system.

  1. Vessel traffic services - New York harbor big picture'

    SciTech Connect

    Schneeweis, W.G.

    1993-03-01

    Support for vessel traffic services (VTS) in US ports increased dramatically in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker accident. It is estimated that 90% of all marine accidents are caused by human failure and most of these occur in harbors or their approaches from sea. The first US Coast Guard VTS established in the post-Valdez era, VTS New York, now enjoys broad based support from its users and local congressional sponsors.It is the most technologically advanced system in North America, with additional upgrades planned. Prior to the Valdez accident, New York VTS struggled through disagreements with contractors, legal disputes with local residents fearing electromagnetic radiation, and lackluster user support. When recommissioned in 1990, remote equipment included 3 radars bundled together into a network, 2 communication sites, and 9 CCTV cameras at 4 sites located strategically throughout the port to provide nearly complete surveillance. Recent expansion into the seaward approaches to New York effectively doubled the VTS area of operation.

  2. Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?

    PubMed

    Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable.

  3. Getting the Big Picture: Development of Spatial Scaling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Andrea; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial scaling is an integral aspect of many spatial tasks that involve symbol-to-referent correspondences (e.g., map reading, drawing). In this study, we asked 3-6-year-olds and adults to locate objects in a two-dimensional spatial layout using information from a second spatial representation (map). We examined how scaling factor and reference…

  4. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, The Big Picture

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W Carlsen

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in the United States, has failed to deliver on its promise of cheap, abundant energy. After pioneering the science and application and becoming a primary exporter of nuclear technologies, domestic use of nuclear power fell out-of-favor with the public and has been relatively stagnant for several decades. Recently, renewed interest has generated optimism and talk of a nuclear renaissance characterized by a new generation of safe, clean nuclear plants in this country. But, as illustrated by recent policy shifts regarding closure of the fuel cycle and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, significant hurdles have yet to be overcome. Using the principles of system dynamics, this paper will take a holistic look at the nuclear industry and the interactions between the key players to explore both the intended and unintended consequences of efforts to address the issues that have impeded the growth of the industry and also to illustrate aspects which must be effectively addressed if the renaissance of our industry is to be achieved and sustained.

  5. Focusing on the big picture: urban vegetation and eco ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Trees and vegetation can be key components of urban green infrastructure and green spaces such as parks and residential yards. Large trees, characterized by broad canopies, and high leaf and stem volumes, can intercept a substantial amount of stormwater while promoting evapotranspiration and reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loads. Urban vegetation cover, height, and volume are likely to be affected not only by local climatic characteristics, but also by complex socio-economic dynamics resulting from management practices and resident’s preferences. We examine the benefits provided by private greenspace and present preliminary findings related to the climatic and socio-economic drivers correlated with structural complexity of residential urban vegetation. We use laser (LiDAR) and multispectral remotely-sensed data collected throughout 1400+ neighborhoods and 1.2+ million residential yards across 8 US cities to carry out this analysis. We discuss principles and opportunities to enhance stormwater management using residential greenspace, as well as the larger implications for decentralized stormwater management at city-wide scale. We discuss principles and opportunities to enhance stormwater management using residential greenspace, as well as the larger implications for decentralized stormwater management at city-wide scale.

  6. Developing a Big-Picture View for Parking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luz, Chris; Burgan, John

    2000-01-01

    Explores how universities and colleges can provide efficient parking and related transportation through careful analysis of current and future parking requirements in light of other institutional building plans, including the institution's master plan. Discussions include new construction versus facility renovations, an alternative to building…

  7. The Big Picture of Advocacy: Counselor, Heal Society and Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysircar, Gargi

    2009-01-01

    This article, motivational in purpose, encourages counselors to be engaged in the growing movement for social justice advocacy in counseling. Analyses of a macrolevel framework of advocacy extend to microlevel operations of recruitment, sociopolitical education, diversity management, and self-care of counselor-advocates. Case studies and exemplars…

  8. Knowledge-based graphical interfaces for presenting technical information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiner, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Designing effective presentations of technical information is extremely difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, the combination of increasing task complexity and declining job skills makes the need for high-quality technical presentations especially urgent. We believe that this need can ultimately be met through the development of knowledge-based graphical interfaces that can design and present technical information. Since much material is most naturally communicated through pictures, our work has stressed the importance of well-designed graphics, concentrating on generating pictures and laying out displays containing them. We describe APEX, a testbed picture generation system that creates sequences of pictures that depict the performance of simple actions in a world of 3D objects. Our system supports rules for determining automatically the objects to be shown in a picture, the style and level of detail with which they should be rendered, the method by which the action itself should be indicated, and the picture's camera specification. We then describe work on GRIDS, an experimental display layout system that addresses some of the problems in designing displays containing these pictures, determining the position and size of the material to be presented.

  9. Robot graphic simulation testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, George E.; Sztipanovits, Janos; Biegl, Csaba; Karsai, Gabor; Springfield, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research was twofold. First, the basic capabilities of ROBOSIM (graphical simulation system) were improved and extended by taking advantage of advanced graphic workstation technology and artificial intelligence programming techniques. Second, the scope of the graphic simulation testbed was extended to include general problems of Space Station automation. Hardware support for 3-D graphics and high processing performance make high resolution solid modeling, collision detection, and simulation of structural dynamics computationally feasible. The Space Station is a complex system with many interacting subsystems. Design and testing of automation concepts demand modeling of the affected processes, their interactions, and that of the proposed control systems. The automation testbed was designed to facilitate studies in Space Station automation concepts.

  10. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  11. Picture Books for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)

  12. Flowfield computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research include supporting the Aerothermodynamics Branch's research by developing graphical visualization tools for both the branch's adaptive grid code and flow field ray tracing code. The completed research for the reporting period includes development of a graphical user interface (GUI) and its implementation into the NAS Flowfield Analysis Software Tool kit (FAST), for both the adaptive grid code (SAGE) and the flow field ray tracing code (CISS).

  13. GRAPS: Graphical Plotting System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    stand-alone unit, but could (with a few modifications) be incorporated into a larger system; e.g., the IGUANA system (ref 3). The GRAPS system...the GRAPS software into another system (e.g., the IGUANA ) could possibly introduce additional requirements. I have simply listed those things...Graphics Utility For Army NEC Automation ( IGUANA ), May 1985. 4. Hewlett-Packard Corp., Interfacing and Programming Manual - HP 7470A Graphics Plotter

  14. Graphic Novels: A Scaffolding Strategy for Young Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Caryn

    2016-01-01

    Young readers notice details in pictures and images with great precision, yet young writers often struggle in adding enough detail to their writing. Third-grade students use a published author's scene from a graphic novel as a scaffold for storytelling. Partners notice the detail in the images; they take turns orally telling the story, and finally…

  15. Methods For Electronic 3-D Moving Pictures Without Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collender, Robert B.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes implementation approaches in image acquisition and playback for 3-D computer graphics, 3-D television and 3-D theatre movies without special glasses. Projection lamps, spatial light modulators, CRT's and dynamic scanning are all eliminated by the application of an active image array, all static components and a semi-specular screen. The resulting picture shows horizontal parallax with a wide horizontal view field (up to 360 de-grees) giving a holographic appearance in full color with smooth continuous viewing without speckle. Static component systems are compared with dynamic component systems using both linear and circular arrays. Implementation of computer graphic systems are shown that allow complex shaded color images to extend from the viewer's eyes to infinity. Large screen systems visible by hundreds of people are feasible by the use of low f-stops and high gain screens in projection. Screen geometries and special screen properties are shown. Viewing characteristics offer no restrictions in view-position over the entire view-field and have a "look-around" feature for all the categories of computer graphics, television and movies. Standard video cassettes and optical discs can also interface the system to generate a 3-D window viewable without glasses. A prognosis is given for technology application to 3-D pictures without glasses that replicate the daily viewing experience. Super-position of computer graphics on real-world pictures is shown feasible.

  16. Pictures and Anaphora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-29

    modelos mentales . Invited address, University of Salamanca, July, 1991. Glenmberg, A. M. Building mental models from text A simulation of comprehension...facilitate construction of mental models. Our experimental work has demonstrated that one way in which pictures help comprehension is by providing a framework...for the construction of a mental model, a repMese tion of what the text is about (eg., the components of a machine or the steps in a procedure) as

  17. A Graphical Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Roy C.

    2001-11-01

    There has been a desire in recent years to introduce physics to students at the middle school, or freshmen high school level. However, traditional physics courses involve a great deal of mathematics, and this makes physics unattractive to many of them. In the last few decades, courses have been developed with a focus that is more conceptual than mathematical, and is generally referred to as conceptual physics. These two types of courses emphasize two methods that physicist use to solve physics problems. However, there is a third, graphical method that is also useful, and complements mathematical and verbal reasoning. A course emphasizing graphical methods would deal with quantitative graphical diagrams, as well as qualitative diagrams. Examples of quantitative graphical diagrams are scaled force diagrams and scaled optical ray-tracing diagrams. A course based on this type of approach would involve measurements and uncertainties, and would involve active (hands-on) student participation suitable for younger students. This talk will discuss a graphical physics course, and its benefits to younger students.

  18. Graphical functions in parametric space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golz, Marcel; Panzer, Erik; Schnetz, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Graphical functions are positive functions on the punctured complex plane Csetminus {0,1} which arise in quantum field theory. We generalize a parametric integral representation for graphical functions due to Lam, Lebrun and Nakanishi, which implies the real analyticity of graphical functions. Moreover, we prove a formula that relates graphical functions of planar dual graphs.

  19. 25. Paper ready for the calender presses. This picture shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Paper ready for the calender presses. This picture shows the paper after it has been coated and dried, as shown on page 238, and it being rolled at the end of the coating-machine. It is now ready to be sent to the big presses which calender it (or iron it, as popular pariance would have it). The pictures on pages 238 and 239 show a continuous process over a single machine; but on account of the length of teh machine, the process is illustrated in sections. (p.239.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  20. Communicating with Pictures and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…

  1. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  2. Software For Animated Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F.; Bancroft, G.; Kelaita, P.

    1992-01-01

    Graphics Animation System (GAS) software package serves as easy-to-use, menu-driven program providing fast, simple viewing capabilities as well as more-complex features for rendering and animation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Displays two- and three-dimensional objects along with computed data and records animation sequences on video digital disk, videotape, and 16-mm film. Written in C.

  3. Computer Graphics Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Video processing creates technical animation sequences using studio quality equipment to realistically represent fluid flow over space shuttle surfaces, helicopter rotors, and turbine blades.Computer systems Co-op, Tim Weatherford, performing computer graphics verification. Part of Co-op brochure.

  4. Graphic Life Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Patricia

    This is a prewriting activity for personal memoir or autobiographical writing. Grade 6-8 students brainstorm for important memories, create graphics or symbols for their most important memories, and construct a life map on tag board or construction paper, connecting drawings and captions of high and low points with a highway. During four 50-minute…

  5. Comics & Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Not so many years ago, comic books in school were considered the enemy. Students caught sneaking comics between the pages of bulky--and less engaging--textbooks were likely sent to the principal. Today, however, comics, including classics such as "Superman" but also their generally more complex, nuanced cousins, graphic novels, are not only…

  6. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  7. Graphic Novels: A Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Katherine L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews graphic novels for young adults, including five titles from "The Adventures of Tintin," a French series that often uses ethnic and racial stereotypes which reflect the time in which they were published, and "Wolverine," a Marvel comic character adventure. (Contains six references.) (LRW)

  8. Graphic Design for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Technology continues to radically change how we create and consume information. Today, news, reports, and other material are often delivered quickly through pictures, colors, or other eye-catching visual elements. Words still matter, but they may be tweeted, viewed on a smartphone, or placed in a call-out box in a report. The design of these items…

  9. Graphics database creation and manipulation: HyperCard Graphics Database Toolkit and Apple Graphics Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jeffrey; Fry, David

    1990-08-01

    Because graphic files can be stored in a number ofdifferent file formats, it has traditionally been difficult to create a graphics database from which users can open, copy, and print graphic files, where each file in the database may be in one ofseverai different formats. HyperCard Graphics Database Toolkit has been designed and written by Apple Computer to enable software developers to facilitate the creation of customized graphics databases. Using a database developed with the toolkit, users can open, copy, or print a graphic transparently, without having to know or understand the complexities of file formats. In addition, the toolkit includes a graphic user interface, graphic design, on-line help, and search algorithms that enable users to locate specific graphics quickly. Currently, the toolkit handles graphics in the formats MPNT, PICT, and EPSF, and is open to supporting other formats as well. Developers can use the toolkit to alter the code, the interface, and the graphic design in order to customize their database for the needs oftheir users. This paper discusses the structure ofthe toolkit and one implementation, Apple Graphics Source (AGS). AGS contains over 2,000 graphics used in Apple's books and manuals. AGS enables users to find existing graphics of Apple products and use them for presentations, new publications, papers, and software projects.

  10. Career Opportunities in Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Victor

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the impact of computer graphics on industrial productivity. Details the computer graphics technician curriculum at Milwaukee Area Technical College and the cooperative efforts of business and industry to fund and equip the program. (SK)

  11. Space Spurred Computer Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Dicomed Corporation was asked by NASA in the early 1970s to develop processing capabilities for recording images sent from Mars by Viking spacecraft. The company produced a film recorder which increased the intensity levels and the capability for color recording. This development led to a strong technology base resulting in sophisticated computer graphics equipment. Dicomed systems are used to record CAD (computer aided design) and CAM (computer aided manufacturing) equipment, to update maps and produce computer generated animation.

  12. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  13. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identify the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.

  14. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  15. Graphic engine resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautin, Mikhail; Dwarakinath, Ashok; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2008-01-01

    Modern consumer-grade 3D graphic cards boast a computation/memory resource that can easily rival or even exceed that of standard desktop PCs. Although these cards are mainly designed for 3D gaming applications, their enormous computational power has attracted developers to port an increasing number of scientific computation programs to these cards, including matrix computation, collision detection, cryptography, database sorting, etc. As more and more applications run on 3D graphic cards, there is a need to allocate the computation/memory resource on these cards among the sharing applications more fairly and efficiently. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation and evaluation of a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) scheduler based on Deficit Round Robin scheduling that successfully allocates to every process an equal share of the GPU time regardless of their demand. This scheduler, called GERM, estimates the execution time of each GPU command group based on dynamically collected statistics, and controls each process's GPU command production rate through its CPU scheduling priority. Measurements on the first GERM prototype show that this approach can keep the maximal GPU time consumption difference among concurrent GPU processes consistently below 5% for a variety of application mixes.

  16. Genesis of the big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpher, Ralph A.; Herman, Robert

    The authors of this volume have been intimately connected with the conception of the big bang model since 1947. Following the late George Gamov's ideas in 1942 and more particularly in 1946 that the early universe was an appropriate site for the synthesis of the elements, they became deeply involved in the question of cosmic nucleosynthesis and particularly the synthesis of the light elements. In the course of this work they developed a general relativistic model of the expanding universe with physics folded in, which led in a progressive, logical sequence to our prediction of the existence of a present cosmic background radiation some seventeen years before the observation of such radiation was reported by Penzias and Wilson. In addition, they carried out with James W. Follin, Jr., a detailed study of the physics of what was then considered to be the very early universe, starting a few seconds after the big bang, which still provides a methodology for studies of light element nucleosynthesis. Because of their involvement, they bring a personal perspective to the subject. They present a picture of what is now believed to be the state of knowledge about the evolution of the expanding universe and delineate the story of the development of the big bang model as they have seen and lived it from their own unique vantage point.

  17. A big picture look at big coal: Teaching students to link societal and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The environmental impact of coal mining and burning of coal is evident and generally easy to understand. However, students often struggle to understand the social impacts of coal mining. A jigsaw activity culminating in a mock town hall meeting helps students link social, economic and environmental impacts of coal mining. Students are divided into four groups and assigned the task of researching the environmental, social, economic or health impacts of coal mining in West Virginia. When students have completed the research, they are assigned a role for the town hall. Roles include local community members, direct employees of the coal industry, business owners from industries related to coal mining, and environmentalists. One student from each research area is assigned to each role, forcing students to consider environmental, social, health and economic aspects of coal mining in choosing an appropriate position for their role. Students have 30 minutes to prepare their positions and then present for 2-5 minutes in the simulated town hall. We then have open class discussion and review the positions. Finally, students are required to write a letter to the editor of the local paper. The specific topic for the town hall and letters can be varied based on current events and could include new regulations on power plants, mine safety, government funding of alternative energy supplies or a range of other topics. This approach forces students to consider all aspects of the issue. In addition, because students have to assume a role, they are more aware of the direct impact that coal mining has on individuals' lives.

  18. Low Cost Graphics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    This manual describes the CALM TV graphics interface, a low-cost means of producing quality graphics on an ordinary TV. The system permits the output of data in graphic as well as alphanumeric form and the input of data from the face of the TV using a light pen. The integrated circuits required in the interface can be obtained from standard…

  19. Selecting Mangas and Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylund, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The decision to add graphic novels, and particularly the Japanese styled called manga, was one the author has debated for a long time. In this article, the author shares her experience when she purchased graphic novels and mangas to add to her library collection. She shares how graphic novels and mangas have revitalized the library.

  20. Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

  1. Learning with Interactive Graphical Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saljo, Roger, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The seven articles of this theme issue deal with the use of computer-based interactive graphical representations. Studying their use will bring answers to users of static graphics in traditional paper-based media and those who plan instruction using graphical representations that allow semantically direct manipulation. (SLD)

  2. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS PICTURE format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a PICTURE format one can create a series of templates for displa...

  3. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS picture format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a picture format one can create a series of templates for displ...

  4. Graphical timeline editing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Patrick E.; Jaap, John P.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP), which has been used for approximately 12 Spacelab missions, is being enhanced with the addition of a Graphical Timeline Editor. The GTE Clipboard, as it is called, was developed to demonstrate new technology which will lead the development of International Space Station Alpha's Payload Planning System and support the remaining Spacelab missions. ESP's GTE Clipboard is developed in C using MIT's X Windows System X11R5 and follows OSF/Motif Style Guide Revision 1.2.

  5. How a Picture Book Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonners, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)

  6. Jigsawing with Wordless Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardon, Douglas Jay

    Upper-level elementary classroom teachers can integrate wordless picture books (usually used only in the lower elementary grades) with the Jigsaw approach to cooperative learning. Students are first assigned to heterogeneously-balanced "home teams." Members of the home team write a story to accompany a picture book, usually in about 15…

  7. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  8. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  9. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies through the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development (DOE OTD) Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP). Graphical programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. Graphical programming uses simulation such as TELEGRIP `on-line` to program and control robots. Characterized by its model-based control architecture, integrated simulation, `point-and-click` graphical user interfaces, task and path planning software, and network communications, Sandia`s Graphical Programming systems allow operators to focus on high-level robotic tasks rather than the low-level details. Use of scripted tasks, rather than customized programs minimizes the necessity of recompiling supervisory control systems and enhances flexibility. Rapid world-modelling technologies allow Graphical Programming to be used in dynamic and unpredictable environments including digging and pipe-cutting. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia`s most advanced graphical programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Graphical programming uses 3-D graphics models as intuitive operator interfaces to program and control complex robotic systems. The goal of the paper is to help the reader understand how Sandia implements graphical programming systems and which key features in Sancho have proven to be most effective.

  10. Evaluating Texts for Graphical Literacy Instruction: The Graphic Rating Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Brugar, Kristy A.; Norman, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Graphical Rating Tool (GRT), which is designed to evaluate the graphical devices that are commonly found in content-area, non-fiction texts, in order to identify books that are well suited for teaching about those devices. We also present a "best of" list of science and social studies books, which includes…

  11. Graphic Communications--Graphic Arts. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--graphic arts. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  12. Thinking Big: A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Everything

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Marion

    2004-01-01

    The current fervor for highly specified standards for each academic discipline requires students to view reality as composed of fragmented and unrelated bits of information. In this article, the author argues that what students really need is a system for organizing and integrating what they know so that they can understand the "big picture."…

  13. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.

  14. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  15. Perception and Memory of Pictures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-20

    altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from...implicit memory , explicit memory , recognition memory , perce ’ptual fluency, priming, RSVP, fragmented pictures, connectionist models , PDP models 19...of implicit and explicit memory . A connectionist model of picture recognition which was developed and tested in collaboration with Elliot Hirshman

  16. Integration of Pictures and Discourse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    May 1991. Comprension del texto illustrado: los dibujos ayudan a crear modelos mentales . University of Salamanca, July 1991. Building mental models...progress in three areas. First, we have demonstrated that pictures are used to modify the mental representation derived from texts. When reading with...pictures, people tend to form mental models, even when reading in relatively unfamiliar domains. These mental models are representations of what the

  17. REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPHIC TEACHING MACHINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HICKEY, ALBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EXPERIMENT WAS REPORTED WHICH DEMONSTRATES THAT GRAPHICS ARE MORE EFFECTIVE THAN SYMBOLS IN ACQUIRING ALGEBRA CONCEPTS. THE SECOND PHASE OF THE STUDY DEMONSTRATED THAT GRAPHICS IN HIGH SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS WERE RELIABLY CLASSIFIED IN A MATRIX OF 480 FUNCTIONAL STIMULUS-RESPONSE CATEGORIES. SUGGESTIONS WERE MADE FOR EXTENDING THE CLASSIFICATION…

  18. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  19. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  20. Computer Graphics Evolution: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartel, Laurence M.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the field of computer graphics is discussed. In 1976 there were no institutions that offered any kind of study of computer graphics. Today electronic image-making is seen as a viable, legitimate art form, and courses are offered by many universities and colleges. (RM)

  1. Interpreting Association from Graphical Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzallen, Noleine

    2016-01-01

    Research that has explored students' interpretations of graphical representations has not extended to include how students apply understanding of particular statistical concepts related to one graphical representation to interpret different representations. This paper reports on the way in which students' understanding of covariation, evidenced…

  2. ElectroEncephaloGraphics: Making waves in computer graphics research.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Maryam; Magnor, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a novel modality for investigating perceptual graphics problems. Until recently, EEG has predominantly been used for clinical diagnosis, in psychology, and by the brain-computer-interface community. Researchers are extending it to help understand the perception of visual output from graphics applications and to create approaches based on direct neural feedback. Researchers have applied EEG to graphics to determine perceived image and video quality by detecting typical rendering artifacts, to evaluate visualization effectiveness by calculating the cognitive load, and to automatically optimize rendering parameters for images and videos on the basis of implicit neural feedback.

  3. Graphic arts techniques and equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technology utilization of NASA sponsored projects involving graphic arts techniques and equipment is discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) modification to graphics tools, (1) new graphics tools, (3) visual aids for graphics, and (4) graphic arts shop hints. Photographs and diagrams are included to support the written material.

  4. MIP- MULTIMISSION INTERACTIVE PICTURE PLANNING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, is a scientifically accurate and fast, 3D animation program for deep space. MIP is also versatile, reasonably comprehensive, portable, and will run on microcomputers. New techniques were developed to rapidly perform the calculations and transformations necessary to animate scientifically accurate 3D space. At the same time, portability is maintained, as the transformations and clipping have been written in FORTRAN 77 code. MIP was primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and the Space Telescope. It can, however, be adapted to handle other missions. The space simulation consists of a rotating body (usually a planet), any natural satellites, a spacecraft, the sun, stars, descriptive labelling, and field of view boxes. The central body and natural satellites are tri-axial wireframe representations with terminators, limbs, and landmarks. Hidden lines are removed for the central body and natural satellites, but not for the scene as a whole so that bodies may be seen behind one another. The program has considerable flexibility in its step time, observer position, viewed object, field of view, etc. Most parameters may be changed from the keyboard while the simulation is running. When MIP is executed it will ask the user for a control file, which should be prepared before execution. The control file identifies which mission MIP should simulate, the star catalog files, the ephemerides files to be used, the central body, planets, asteroids, and comets, and solar system landmarks and constants such as planets, asteroids, and comets. The control file also describes the fields of view. Control files are included to simulate the Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter and the Giotto spacecraft's flyby of Halley's comet. Data is included for Voyager 1 and 2 (all 6 planetary encounters) and Giotto. MIP was written for an IBM PC or compatibles. It requires 512K of RAM, a CGA or compatible graphics adapter, and DOS 2.0 or higher. Users

  5. A Picture Is Not Always Worth a Thousand Words: Pictures as Distractors in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Children read sets of words under three conditions: with no pictures, with related pictures, and with unrelated pictures. Results indicated that words were read more slowly whenever pictures were present; that unrelated pictures produced more interference than related pictures; and that both effects were inversely related to reading ability.…

  6. Graphical presentation of diagnostic information

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

  7. Raster graphics extensions to the core system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual model of raster graphics systems was developed. The model integrates core-like graphics package concepts with contemporary raster display architectures. The conceptual model of raster graphics introduces multiple pixel matrices with associated index tables.

  8. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  9. Look Again: Picture Books Are More than Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giff, Patricia Reilly; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three teachers discuss using picture books to cure reading problems, boost sagging self-concepts, and tutor handicapped children. Techniques for using books are described, as are follow-up activities. Examples of specific books and their uses with hearing and visually impaired children are given. (MT)

  10. Pictures as Teaching Aids: Using the Pictures in History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Matthew T.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how the pictures in history textbooks are potentially useful as teaching aids in social studies courses. Illustrations (reproductions of paintings, historical photographs, woodcuts, lithographs, and engravings, etc.) are important because they may be the only primary source materials to which students will be exposed. (Author/DB)

  11. Managing facts and concepts: computer graphics and information graphics from a graphic designer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1983-01-01

    This book emphasizes the importance of graphic design for an information-oriented society. In an environment in which many new graphic communication technologies are emerging, it raises some issues which graphic designers and managers of graphic design production should consider in using the new technology effectively. In its final sections, it gives an example of the steps taken in designing a visual narrative as a prototype for responsible information-oriented graphic design. The management of complex facts and concepts, of complex systems of ideas and issues, presented in a visual as well as verbal narrative or dialogue and conveyed through new technology will challenge the graphic design community in the coming decades. This shift to visual-verbal communication has repercussions in the educational system and the political/governance systems that go beyond the scope of this book. If there is a single goal for this book, it is to stimulate the reader and then to provide references that will help you learn more about graphic design in an era of communication when know business is show business.

  12. EPA Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Includes standards and guidance for graphics typography, layout, composition, color scheme, appropriate use of charts and graphs, logos and related symbols, and consistency with the message of accompanied content.

  13. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  14. Graphical Representation of Complex Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renka, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods and software for graphing representation of a complex function of a complex variable. Includes an application of a graphical interpretation of the complex zeros of the cubic and their properties. (PK)

  15. Graphical user interface for wireless sensor networks simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczesny, Tomasz; Paczesny, Daniel; Weremczuk, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are currently very popular area of development. It can be suited in many applications form military through environment monitoring, healthcare, home automation and others. Those networks, when working in dynamic, ad-hoc model, need effective protocols which must differ from common computer networks algorithms. Research on those protocols would be difficult without simulation tool, because real applications often use many nodes and tests on such a big networks take much effort and costs. The paper presents Graphical User Interface (GUI) for simulator which is dedicated for WSN studies, especially in routing and data link protocols evaluation.

  16. Parallel Debugging Using Graphical Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Voyeur , a prototype system for creating graphical views of parallel programs, provid(s a cost-effective way to construct such views for any parallel...programming system. We illustrate Voyeur by discussing four views created for debugging Poker programs. One is a vteneral trace facility for any Poker...Graphical views are essential for debugging parallel programs because of the large quan- tity of state information contained in parallel programs. Voyeur

  17. Hydraulics Graphics Package. Users Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Engineering Center, Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, as the origin of the program(s). IT, i HGP -3!OO Ju ’ ŕ Dlst! 3pbo.i:, HYDRAULICS GRAPHICS...Davis, California 95616 (916) 551-1748 (FTS) 460-1748 HGP Hydraulics Graphics Package Users Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Subject Page 1 Introduction...5 2.4 Use of Disk Files ........ ................ 6 3 HGP Free Format User Input 3.1 Command Language Syntax ...... ............. 8 3.2

  18. Planetary Photojournal Home Page Graphic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image is an unannotated version of the Planetary Photojournal Home Page graphic. This digital collage contains a highly stylized rendition of our solar system and points beyond. As this graphic was intended to be used as a navigation aid in searching for data within the Photojournal, certain artistic embellishments have been added (color, location, etc.). Several data sets from various planetary and astronomy missions were combined to create this image.

  19. Photojournal Home Page Graphic 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image is an unannotated version of the Photojournal Home Page graphic released in October 2007. This digital collage contains a highly stylized rendition of our solar system and points beyond. As this graphic was intended to be used as a navigation aid in searching for data within the Photojournal, certain artistic embellishments have been added (color, location, etc.). Several data sets from various planetary and astronomy missions were combined to create this image.

  20. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  1. The big deal about big data.

    PubMed

    Moore, Keith D; Eyestone, Katherine; Coddington, Dean C

    2013-08-01

    Big data is a concept that is being widely applied in the retail industries as a means to understand customers' purchasing habits and preferences for followup promotional activity. It is characterized by vast amounts of diverse and rapidly multiplying data that are available at or near real-time. Conversations with executives of leading healthcare organizations provide a barometer for understanding where the industry stands in its adoption of big data as a means to meet the critical information requirements of value-based health care.

  2. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  3. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  4. Ability, Disability, and Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    2001-01-01

    Addresses selecting materials for children who have deficits or strengths in their use of certain learning modes based on Howard Gardner's seven types of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and internal and external personal intelligence. Describes one picture book for each category. (Author/LRW)

  5. On the color dipole picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    We give a brief representation of the theoretical results from the color dipole picture, covering the total photoabsorption cross section, high-energy J/ψ photoproduction with respect to recent experimental data from the LHCb Collaboration at CERN, and ultra-high energy neutrino scattering, relevant for the ICE-CUBE experiment.

  6. Pikchul Nioki Chulda (Picture Dictionary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Joan; And Others

    Developed for students in kindergarten through second grade, this alphabet book is one in a series of picture dictionaries in the Pima language developed to instill pride in Pima students by presenting their language in print and to increase their vocabularies in both Pima and English. Introductory sections provide a brief history of the project…

  7. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  8. MPE graphics -- Scalable X11 graphics in MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Karrels, E.; Lusk, E.

    1994-12-31

    As parallel programs enter the mainstream, they need to provide the same facilities and ease-of-use features expected of uniprocessor programs. For many applications, this means that they need to provide graphical output. This talk discusses a library of routines that provide scalable X Window System graphics. These routines make use of the MPI message-passing standard to provide a safe and reliable system that can be easily used in parallel programs. At the same time they encapsulate commonly-used services to provide a convenient interface to X graphics facilities. The easiest way to provide X11 graphics to a parallel program is to allow each process to draw on the same X11 Window. That is, each process opens a connection to the X11 server and draws directly to it. In one sense, this is as scalable a system as possible, since the single graphics display is an unavoidable point of sequential access. However, in reality, an X server can only accept a relatively small number of connections. In addition, the latency associated with each transmission between a parallel process and the X Window server is relatively high. This talk addresses these issues.

  9. Emerging Digital Data Exchange Standards For The Graphic Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloud, Kennard S.

    1989-04-01

    The standardization of the interchange of color pictures between color electronic prepress systems (CEPS) and CEPS related systems or components, has been accomplished with the ratification of Digital Data Exchange Standard (DDES). Now UEF01 for the exchange of line art data is also an ANSI Standard, and User Exchange Format (UEF00). Work is nearing completion on three other fronts with formats for Geometric Art files, device exchange standards for a digital color proofing systems, and monotone image formats. These standards and other standards coordination efforts, assisted by the formation of the Committee for Graphic Arts Technical Standards (CGATS), should help tie the fragmented graphic arts industry together and improve its overall productivity.

  10. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  11. Optimized Laplacian image sharpening algorithm based on graphic processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tinghuai; Li, Lu; Ji, Sai; Wang, Xin; Tian, Yuan; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah

    2014-12-01

    In classical Laplacian image sharpening, all pixels are processed one by one, which leads to large amount of computation. Traditional Laplacian sharpening processed on CPU is considerably time-consuming especially for those large pictures. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of Laplacian sharpening based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which is a computing platform of Graphic Processing Units (GPU), and analyze the impact of picture size on performance and the relationship between the processing time of between data transfer time and parallel computing time. Further, according to different features of different memory, an improved scheme of our method is developed, which exploits shared memory in GPU instead of global memory and further increases the efficiency. Experimental results prove that two novel algorithms outperform traditional consequentially method based on OpenCV in the aspect of computing speed.

  12. Graphic and cultural aspects of pictograms: an information ergonomics viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Spinillo, Carla Galvão

    2012-01-01

    The use of pictograms is discussed considering their information content, graphic complexity and cultural dimension. The resemblance and the illusion theories are highlighted to define pictogram as a salience-based representation system, which communicational efficacy depends upon historical and cultural aspects in their interpretation. Thus, the competence in interpreting pictograms is considered relative to users' acquaintance with the pictorial system and with the referents. Pictogram as a general/neutral visual statement is questioned, pointing out the cultural and gender attributes added to pictures to represent people, professions and social events. As a result of this discussion, some critical points of the standardization of pictograms are presented.

  13. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  14. Cartooning History: Canada's Stories in Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alyson E.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, historical events, issues, and characters have been portrayed in an increasing number of non-fiction graphic texts. Similar to comics and graphic novels, graphic texts are defined as fully developed, non-fiction narratives told through panels of sequential art. Such non-fiction graphic texts are being used to teach history in…

  15. Comprehending, Composing, and Celebrating Graphic Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calo, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of graphic poetry in classrooms is encouraged as a way to engage students and motivate them to read and write poetry. This article discusses how graphic poetry can help students with their comprehension of poetry while tapping into popular culture. It is organized around three main sections--reading graphic poetry, writing graphic poetry,…

  16. Antinomies of Semiotics in Graphic Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkerson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The following paper assesses the roles played by semiotics in graphic design and in graphic design education, which both reflects and shapes practice. It identifies a series of factors; graphic design education methods and culture; semiotic theories themselves and their application to graphic design; the two wings of Peircian semiotics and…

  17. Computer Graphics. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Clyde O.

    This curriculum guide for a 1-quarter or 1-semester course in computer graphics is designed to be used with Apple II computers. Some of the topics covered include the following: computer graphics terminology and applications, operating Apple computers, graphics programming in BASIC using various programs and commands, computer graphics painting,…

  18. Discussion of medical x ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  19. Online Imagery: Finding Pictures for Business Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of America Online and CompuServe to find clip art, photos, and other images for use in desktop publishing projects. Highlights include copyright issues, different graphic formats, graphic conversion programs, compression programs, and downloading. (LRW)

  20. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  1. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  2. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation.

  3. Trend Monitoring System (TMS) graphics software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications systems, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to evaluate the bus concept is considered. A set of FORTRAN-callable graphics subroutines for the host MODCOMP comuter, and an approach to splitting graphics work between the host and the system's intelligent graphics terminals are described. The graphics software in the MODCOMP and the operating software package written for the graphics terminals are included.

  4. Collection Of Software For Computer Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, Eric A.; Makatura, George

    1990-01-01

    Ames Research Graphics System (ARCGRAPH) collection of software libraries and software utilities assisting researchers in generating, manipulating, and visualizing graphical data. Defines metafile format containing device-independent graphical data. File format used with various computer-graphics-manipulation and -animation software packages at Ames, including SURF (COSMIC Program ARC-12381) and GAS (COSMIC Program ARC-12379). Consists of two-stage "pipeline" used to put out graphical primitives. ARCGRAPH libraries developed on VAX computer running VMS.

  5. Graphic Journeys: Graphic Novels' Representations of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how immigrant experiences are represented in the narratives of three graphic novels published in the last decade: Tan's (2007) "The Arrival," Kiyama's (1931/1999) "The Four Immigrants Manga: A Japanese Experience in San Francisco, 1904-1924," and Yang's (2006) "American Born Chinese." Through a theoretical lens informed by…

  6. Real-time pulmonary graphics.

    PubMed

    Mammel, Mark C; Donn, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Real-time pulmonary graphics now enable clinicians to view lung mechanics and patient-ventilator interactions on a breath-to-breath basis. Displays of pressure, volume, and flow waveforms, pressure-volume and flow-volume loops, and trend screens enable clinicians to customize ventilator settings based on the underlying pathophysiology and responses of the individual patient. This article reviews the basic concepts of pulmonary graphics and demonstrates how they contribute to our understanding of respiratory physiology and the management of neonatal respiratory failure.

  7. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  8. Big data need big theory too.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  9. Big data need big theory too

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R.; Highfield, Roger R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their ‘depth’ and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote ‘blind’ big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698035

  10. Pictorial and conceptual representation of glimpsed pictures.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H; Potter, Mary C

    2004-06-01

    Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people at a table) or recognition of the pictures themselves. Recognition declined during testing, but initial performance was higher and the decline steeper when pictures were tested. A final experiment included test decoy pictures that were conceptually similar to but visually distinct from the original pictures. Yeses to decoys were higher than yeses to other distractors. Fleeting memory for glimpsed pictures has a strong conceptual component (conceptual short-term memory), but there is additional highly volatile pictorial memory (pictorial short-term memory) that is not tapped hy a gist title or decoy picture.

  11. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  12. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect.

  13. Graphic Communications. Career Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in graphic communications theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The program modules outlined in the guide have been grouped into four areas: printing,…

  14. Recorded Music and Graphic Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of art as an element of music-recording packaging. Describes a project in which students design a jacket for either cassette or CD using a combination of computerized and traditional rendering techniques. Reports that students have been inspired to look into careers in graphic design. (DSK)

  15. [Graphic reconstruction of anatomic surfaces].

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, O

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the graphic reconstruction of anatomic surfaces in a virtual 3D setting. Scanning technologies and soft provides a greater flexibility in the digitization of surfaces and a higher resolution and accuracy. An alternative cheap method for the reconstruction of 3D anatomic surfaces is presented in connection with some studies and international projects developed by Medical Design research team.

  16. Overview of Graphical User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulser, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of graphical user interfaces for online public access catalogs (OPACs) covers the history of OPACs; OPAC front-end design, including examples from Indiana University and the University of Illinois; and planning and implementation of a user interface. (10 references) (EA)

  17. Graphics Design Technology Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Idaho secondary education curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction intended to impart entry-level employment skills in graphics design technology. The first list states all tasks for 11 areas; separate lists for each area follow. Each task on the lists is accompanied by a…

  18. Graphic Design in Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Beverley

    To help educational television (ETV) practitioners achieve maximum clarity, economy and purposiveness, the range of techniques of television graphics is explained. Closed-circuit and broadcast ETV are compared. The design process is discussed in terms of aspect ratio, line structure, cut off, screen size, tone scales, studio apparatus, and…

  19. Graphic Novels in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Today many authors and artists adapt works of classic literature into a medium more "user friendly" to the increasingly visual student population. Stefan Petrucha and Kody Chamberlain's version of "Beowulf" is one example. The graphic novel captures the entire epic in arresting images and contrasts the darkness of the setting and characters with…

  20. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  1. Graphical fiber shaping control interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Eric T.; Ninomiya, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an improved graphical user interface for defining single-pass novel shaping techniques on glass processing machines that allows for streamlined process development. This approach offers unique modularity and debugging capability to researchers during the process development phase not usually afforded with similar scripting languages.

  2. Multi Platform Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Hal

    1992-02-21

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, device-independent, and compatible with DEC-supplied operating systems for VAXes, PDP-11s, and LSI-11s, and the DOS operating system for IBM PCs and IBM-compatible machines. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  3. The Role of Decorative Pictures in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzner, Alwine; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Müller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments with students from 7th and 8th grade were performed to investigate the effects of decorative pictures in learning as compared to instructional pictures. Pictures were considered as instructional, when they were primarily informative, and as decorative, when they were primarily aesthetically appealing. The experiments…

  4. Using Picture Books Kindergarten through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.

    A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…

  5. Creative Writing through Wordless Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    The creative writing program described in this lesson exposes middle school student to wordless picture books and helps them to develop story lines orally and in writing. During the four 45-minute lessons, students will: explore various wordless picture books; develop oral story lines for wordless picture books; develop written story lines for…

  6. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  7. Teaching graphics in technical communication classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurgeon, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphic aids convey and clarify information more efficiently and accurately than words alone therefore, most technical writing includes the use of graphics. Ways of accumulating and presenting graphics illustrations on a shoestring budget are suggested. These include collecting graphics from companies, annual reports and laminating them for workshop use or putting them on a flip chart for classroom presentation, creating overhead transparencies to demonstrate different levels of effectiveness of graphic aids, and bringing in grahic artists for question/answer periods or in class workshops. Also included are an extensive handout as an introduction to graphics, sample assignments, and a selected and annotated bibliography.

  8. Titania - Highest Resolution Voyager Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the highest-resolution picture of Titania returned by Voyager 2. The picture is a composite of two images taken Jan. 24, 1986, through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera. At the time, the spacecraft was 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) from the Uranian moon; the resolution was 13 km (8 mi). Titania is the largest satellite of Uranus, with a diameter of a little more than 1,600 km (1,000 mi). Abundant impact craters of many sizes pockmark the ancient surface. The most prominent features are fault valleys that stretch across Titania. They are up to 1,500 km (nearly 1,000 mi) long and as much as 75 km (45 mi) wide. In valleys seen at right-center, the sunward-facing walls are very bright. While this is due partly to the lighting angle, the brightness also indicates the presence of a lighter material, possibly young frost deposits. An impact crater more than 200 km (125 mi) in diameter distinguishes the very bottom of the disk; the crater is cut by a younger fault valley more than 100 km (60 mi) wide. An even larger impact crater, perhaps 300 km (180 mi) across, is visible at top. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Big Bend sees big environmental push

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-10-15

    The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

  10. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…

  11. Graphic representations: keys to disclose the codex of nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramelo, Liliana; Gonçalves, Norberto; Pereira, Mário; Soares, Armando; Naia, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Undergraduate and university level students present some difficulties to understand and interpret many of the geosciences concepts, in particular those represented by vector and scalar fields. Our experience reveals that these difficulties are associated with a lack in the development of their abstraction and mental picturing abilities. On the other hand, these students have easy access to communication and information technology software which can be used to built graphic representations of experimental data, time series and vector and scalar fields. This transformation allows an easiest extraction, interpretation and summary of the most important characteristics in the data. There is already commercial and open source software with graphical tools that can be used for this purpose but commercial software packs with user friendly interfaces but their price is not negligible. Open source software can circumvent this difficulty even if, in general, their graphical user interface hasn't reached the desirable level of the commercial ones. We will show a simple procedure to generate an image from the data that characterizes the generation of the suitable images illustrating the key concepts in study, using a freeware code, exactly as it is presented to the students in our open teaching sessions to the general student community. Our experience demonstrated that the students are very enthusiastic using this approach. Furthermore, the use of this software can easily be adopted by teachers and students of secondary schools as part of curricular activities.

  12. Big data bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia.

  13. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science.

  14. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  15. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  16. GnuForPlot Graphics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-04

    Gnuforplot Graphics is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two and three dimensional plots of data on a personal computer. The program uses calls to the open source code Gnuplot to generate the plots. Two Fortran90 programs have been written to use the Gnuplot graphics capabilities. The first program, named Plotsetup.f90 reads data from output files created by either the Stadium or LeachXS/Orchestra modeling codes and saves the data in arrays for plotting. This program then calls Gnuforplot which takes the data array along with user specified parameters to set plot specifications and issues Gnuplot commands that generate the screen plots. The user can view the plots and optionally save copies in jpeg format.

  17. Graphical Models for Ordinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Levina, Elizaveta; Michailidis, George; Zhu, Ji

    2014-01-01

    A graphical model for ordinal variables is considered, where it is assumed that the data are generated by discretizing the marginal distributions of a latent multivariate Gaussian distribution. The relationships between these ordinal variables are then described by the underlying Gaussian graphical model and can be inferred by estimating the corresponding concentration matrix. Direct estimation of the model is computationally expensive, but an approximate EM-like algorithm is developed to provide an accurate estimate of the parameters at a fraction of the computational cost. Numerical evidence based on simulation studies shows the strong performance of the algorithm, which is also illustrated on data sets on movie ratings and an educational survey. PMID:26120267

  18. Representing Learning With Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models are being used widely in artificial intelligence, for instance, in diagnosis and expert systems, as a unified qualitative and quantitative framework for representing and reasoning with probabilities and independencies. Their development and use spans several fields including artificial intelligence, decision theory and statistics, and provides an important bridge between these communities. This paper shows by way of example that these models can be extended to machine learning, neural networks and knowledge discovery by representing the notion of a sample on the graphical model. Not only does this allow a flexible variety of learning problems to be represented, it also provides the means for representing the goal of learning and opens the way for the automatic development of learning algorithms from specifications.

  19. Image reproduction with interactive graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Software application or development in optical image digital data processing requires a fast, good quality, yet inexpensive hard copy of processed images. To achieve this, a Cambo camera with an f 2.8/150-mm Xenotar lens in a Copal shutter having a Graflok back for 4 x 5 Polaroid type 57 pack-film has been interfaced to an existing Adage, AGT-30/Electro-Mechanical Research, EMR 6050 graphic computer system. Time-lapse photography in conjunction with a log to linear voltage transformation has resulted in an interactive system capable of producing a hard copy in 54 sec. The interactive aspect of the system lies in a Tektronix 4002 graphic computer terminal and its associated hard copy unit.

  20. Computer Graphics for Multimedia and Hypermedia Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses several theoretical and technical aspects of computer-graphics development that are useful for creating hypermedia and multimedia materials. Topics addressed include primary bitmap attributes in computer graphics, the jigsaw principle, and raster layering. (MSE)

  1. Computer Graphics and Administrative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reduction in prices now makes it possible for almost any institution to use computer graphics for administrative decision making and research. Current and potential uses of computer graphics in these two areas are discussed. (JN)

  2. Microcomputer Simulated CAD for Engineering Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, David L.; Myers, Roy E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a simulated computer-aided-graphics (CAD) program at The Pennsylvania State University. Rationale for the program, facilities, microcomputer equipment (Apple) used, and development of a software package for simulating applied engineering graphics are considered. (JN)

  3. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  4. Learning Graphical Models With Hubs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kean Ming; London, Palma; Mohan, Karthik; Lee, Su-In; Fazel, Maryam; Witten, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    We consider the problem of learning a high-dimensional graphical model in which there are a few hub nodes that are densely-connected to many other nodes. Many authors have studied the use of an ℓ1 penalty in order to learn a sparse graph in the high-dimensional setting. However, the ℓ1 penalty implicitly assumes that each edge is equally likely and independent of all other edges. We propose a general framework to accommodate more realistic networks with hub nodes, using a convex formulation that involves a row-column overlap norm penalty. We apply this general framework to three widely-used probabilistic graphical models: the Gaussian graphical model, the covariance graph model, and the binary Ising model. An alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is used to solve the corresponding convex optimization problems. On synthetic data, we demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms competitors that do not explicitly model hub nodes. We illustrate our proposal on a webpage data set and a gene expression data set.

  5. Graphical Language for Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonso, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A graphical language for processing data allows processing elements to be connected with virtual wires that represent data flows between processing modules. The processing of complex data, such as lidar data, requires many different algorithms to be applied. The purpose of this innovation is to automate the processing of complex data, such as LIDAR, without the need for complex scripting and programming languages. The system consists of a set of user-interface components that allow the user to drag and drop various algorithmic and processing components onto a process graph. By working graphically, the user can completely visualize the process flow and create complex diagrams. This innovation supports the nesting of graphs, such that a graph can be included in another graph as a single step for processing. In addition to the user interface components, the system includes a set of .NET classes that represent the graph internally. These classes provide the internal system representation of the graphical user interface. The system includes a graph execution component that reads the internal representation of the graph (as described above) and executes that graph. The execution of the graph follows the interpreted model of execution in that each node is traversed and executed from the original internal representation. In addition, there are components that allow external code elements, such as algorithms, to be easily integrated into the system, thus making the system infinitely expandable.

  6. Graphic arts standards update: 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, David Q.

    1996-03-01

    Color definition and data exchange continue to be dominant themes in both the US and international graphic arts standards activity. However, there is a growing understanding of the role that metrology and printing process definition play in helping define stable process conditions to which color characterization data can be related. Standards have already been published that define the requirements for color measurement and computation, scanner input characterization targets, four-color output characterization data sets, and graphic arts applications of densitometry. Work continues on standards relating to ink testing and ink color specifications. The numerical specifications of SWOP proof printing have been captured in ANSI standard CGATS.6-1995. Work has been completed, and Technical Report ANSI CGATS TR 001-1995 has been published, that relates the colorimetry of the printed sheet to the CMYK input for press proofing meeting SWOP and CGATS.6 specifications. Work is ongoing to provide similar data for other printing processes. Such color characterization data is key to the development of color profiles for standard printing conditions. Specifications for color profiles, to allow color definitions to be moved between color management systems, are being developed by the International Color Consortium. The existing graphic arts data exchange, process control, and color related standards are summarized and the current status of work in progress is reviewed. In addition, the interaction of the formal standards programs and other industry-driven specification activity is discussed.

  7. Pictures of Tethys' large crater.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This series of Voyager 2 pictures of Tethys shows its distinctive large crater, 400 kilometers (250 miles) in diameter, as it rotates toward the termination and limb of this satellite of Saturn. These images were obtained at four-hour intervals beginning late Aug. 24 and ending early the next day; the distances were 1.1 million km. (670,000 mi.), 826,000 km. (510,000 mi.) and 680,000 km. (420,000 mi.), respectively. The crater, the remnant of a large impact, has a central peak and several concentric rings. Some grooves radiating from the center may be formed of material thrown from the crater during the impact. The bottom frame, with the crater in profile, reveals that its floor has risen back to the spherical shape of the satellite, unlike the large crater seen on Tethys sister moon Mimas. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  8. GRAPHICS MANAGER (GFXMGR): An interactive graphics software program for the Advanced Electronics Design (AED) graphics controller, Model 767

    SciTech Connect

    Faculjak, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    Graphics Manager (GFXMGR) is menu-driven, user-friendly software designed to interactively create, edit, and delete graphics displays on the Advanced Electronics Design (AED) graphics controller, Model 767. The software runs on the VAX family of computers and has been used successfully in security applications to create and change site layouts (maps) of specific facilities. GFXMGR greatly benefits graphics development by minimizing display-development time, reducing tedium on the part of the user, and improving system performance. It is anticipated that GFXMGR can be used to create graphics displays for many types of applications. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Minard's Graphic of Napoleon in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of Charles Minard's graphic of Napoleon's 1812 Russian Campaign as an instructional tool in history classes. Maintains that the graphic, created in 1861, can be analyzed by students to determine six historical and geographical factors involved in Napoleon's defeat. Includes a copy of Minard's graphic. (CFR)

  10. Narrative Problems of Graphic Design History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Victor

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three major accounts (by Philip Meggs, Enric Satue and Richard Hollis) of graphic design history. Notes that these texts address the history of graphic design, but each raises questions about what material to include, as well as how graphic design is both related to and distinct from other visual practices such as typography, art…

  11. Graphic Design Is Not a Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, John Edward, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses graphic design and reviews its development from analog processes to a digital tool with the use of computers. Topics include graphical user interfaces; the need for visual communication concepts; transmedia as opposed to repurposing; and graphic design instruction in higher education. (LRW)

  12. Mathematical Creative Activity and the Graphic Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Janina

    2011-01-01

    Teaching mathematics using graphic calculators has been an issue of didactic discussions for years. Finding ways in which graphic calculators can enrich the development process of creative activity in mathematically gifted students between the ages of 16-17 is the focus of this article. Research was conducted using graphic calculators with…

  13. Information Graphic Classification, Decomposition and Alternative Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Jinglun

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work is mainly focused on two problems related to improving accessibility of information graphics for visually impaired users. The first problem is automated analysis of information graphics for information extraction and the second problem is multi-modal representations for accessibility. Information graphics are graphical…

  14. Graphic Novels in Your School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Many educators now agree that graphic novels inform as well as entertain, and to dismiss the educational potential of the graphic novel is to throw away a golden opportunity to reach out to young readers. This dynamic book takes a look at the term "graphic novel," how the format has become entwined in our culture, and the ways in which graphic…

  15. Water-level records for the Big Sioux Aquifer, Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a tabulation of water levels in wells tapping the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, S. Dak. Included is a compilation of all water levels in 43 wells measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies during the period 1957-80. The data are presented in tabular and graphic form. (USGS)

  16. 77 FR 65582 - Quad Graphics, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Quad Graphics Printing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Quad Graphics Printing Corp. and Quad Logistics Services, Effingham, IL; Amended Certification... wages reported under Quad Graphics, Inc., Quad Graphics Printing Corp., and Quad Logistics Services. The... Graphics Printing Corp. and Quad Logistics Services (TA-W-73,441H), who became totally or...

  17. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  18. Graphic Presentation: An Empirical Examination of the Graphic Novel Approach to Communicate Business Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Jeremy C.; Randolph-Seng, Brandon; McKenny, Aaron F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphic novels have been increasingly incorporated into business communication forums. Despite potential benefits, little research has examined the merits of the graphic novel approach. In response, we engage in a two-study approach. Study 1 explores the potential of graphic novels to affect learning outcomes and finds that the graphic novel was…

  19. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  20. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  1. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The…

  2. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  3. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major…

  4. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  5. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  6. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  7. SETI as a part of Big History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Big History is an emerging academic discipline which examines history scientifically from the Big Bang to the present. It uses a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It is taught at some universities. In a series of recent papers ([11] through [15] and [17] through [18]) and in a book [16], we developed a new mathematical model embracing Darwinian Evolution (RNA to Humans, see, in particular, [17] and Human History (Aztecs to USA, see [16]) and then we extrapolated even that into the future up to ten million years (see 18), the minimum time requested for a civilization to expand to the whole Milky Way (Fermi paradox). In this paper, we further extend that model in the past so as to let it start at the Big Bang (13.8 billion years ago) thus merging Big History, Evolution on Earth and SETI (the modern Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) into a single body of knowledge of a statistical type. Our idea is that the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM), so far used as the key stochastic process of financial mathematics (Black-Sholes models and related 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics!) may be successfully applied to the whole of Big History. In particular, in this paper we derive Big History Theory based on GBMs: just as the GBM is the “movie” unfolding in time, so the Statistical Drake Equation is its “still picture”, static in time, and the GBM is the time-extension of the Drake Equation. Darwinian Evolution on Earth may be easily described as an increasing GBM in the number of living species on Earth over the last 3.5 billion years. The first of them was RNA 3.5 billion years ago, and now 50

  8. A graphical language for reliability model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Sandra V.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    A graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) is described. The graphics-oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault tree gates, including sequence dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. With this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing.

  9. Introducing the Big Knowledge to Use (BK2U) challenge.

    PubMed

    Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Halper, Michael; Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the Big Data to Knowledge initiative is to develop methods for discovering new knowledge from large amounts of data. However, if the resulting knowledge is so large that it resists comprehension, referred to here as Big Knowledge (BK), how can it be used properly and creatively? We call this secondary challenge, Big Knowledge to Use. Without a high-level mental representation of the kinds of knowledge in a BK knowledgebase, effective or innovative use of the knowledge may be limited. We describe summarization and visualization techniques that capture the big picture of a BK knowledgebase, possibly created from Big Data. In this research, we distinguish between assertion BK and rule-based BK (rule BK) and demonstrate the usefulness of summarization and visualization techniques of assertion BK for clinical phenotyping. As an example, we illustrate how a summary of many intracranial bleeding concepts can improve phenotyping, compared to the traditional approach. We also demonstrate the usefulness of summarization and visualization techniques of rule BK for drug-drug interaction discovery.

  10. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  11. Picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are extremely versatile systems that facilitate the transfer of digital images and patient data throughout a healthcare enterprise. PACS are most commonly used in radiology departments to process images from diagnostic imaging modalities, such as digital radiography devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. In this article, we evaluate three such systems from three of the largest PACS suppliers--the Agfa IMPAX, GE PathSpeed, and Siemens Sienet. The ultimate goal of any PACS is to improve workflow within the enterprise. Our testing focused on whether, and to what degree, the systems could meet this goal. We found that all three PACS are fairly complete and able to support image distribution and improve workflow compared with film-based processes. However, we did identify significant differences--along with some noteworthy limitations--with respect to system design and operation, external integration capabilities, and supplier support and professional services. We have ranked the systems for each of these factors to help healthcare facilities identify the system that will best meet their needs. Also in this Evaluation, we present an overview of the technology, a Glossary of PACS terminology (see page 400), selection guidance, and discussions of PACS-related topics, including data compression options, the role of the DICOM standard, and concerns about data security in many of today's systems.

  12. Ariel - Highest Resolution Color Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The complex terrain of Ariel is viewed in this image, the best Voyager 2 color picture of the Uranian moon. The individual photos used to construct this composite were taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 170,000 kilometers (105,000 miles. Voyager captured this view of Ariel's southern hemisphere through the green, blue and violet filters of the narrow-angle camera; the resolution is about 3 km (2 mi). Most of the visible surface consists of relatively intensely cratered terrain transected by fault scarps and fault-bounded valleys (graben). Some of the largest valleys, which can be seen near the terminator (at right), are partly filled with younger deposits that are less heavily cratered. Bright spots near the limb and toward the left are chiefly the rims of small craters. Most of the brightly rimmed craters are too small to be resolved here, although one about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter can be easily distinguished near the center. These bright-rim craters, though the youngest features on Ariel, probably have formed over a long span of geological time. Although Ariel has a diameter of only about 1,200 km (750 mi), it has clearly experienced a great deal of geological activity in the past. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  14. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  15. Graphical programming at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.J.; Palmquist, R.D.; Desjarlais, L.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia has developed an advanced operational control system approach, called Graphical Programming, to design, program, and operate robotic systems. The Graphical Programming approach produces robot systems that are faster to develop and use, safer in operation, and cheaper overall than altemative teleoperation or autonomous robot control systems. Graphical Programming also provides an efficient and easy-to-use interface to traditional robot systems for use in setup and programming tasks. This paper provides an overview of the Graphical Programming approach and lists key features of Graphical Programming systems. Graphical Programming uses 3-D visualization and simulation software with intuitive operator interfaces for the programming and control of complex robotic systems. Graphical Programming Supervisor software modules allow an operator to command and simulate complex tasks in a graphic preview mode and, when acceptable, command the actual robots and monitor their motions with the graphic system. Graphical Programming Supervisors maintain registration with the real world and allow the robot to perform tasks that cannot be accurately represented with models alone by using a combination of model and sensor-based control.

  16. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  17. A holographic big bang?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, N.; Mann, R. B.; Pourhasan, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a cosmological model in which the Universe emerges out of the collapse of a five-dimensional (5D) star as a spherical three-brane. The initial singularity of the big bang becomes hidden behind a causal horizon. Near scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations can be induced on the brane via a thermal atmosphere that is in equilibrium with the brane, circumventing the need for a separate inflationary process and providing an important test of the model.

  18. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  19. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  20. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  1. Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

  2. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  3. Power Picture Books: Tools for Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Cathleen

    2008-01-01

    The picture book is a simple yet profound tool for teaching peace. Picture books are nearly pieces of art--with rich text accompanied by illustrations, paintings, and photographs that speak to the spirit of the child. They are an ideal peace resource, in part because they are readily accessible for all age levels. Books can be borrowed through…

  4. Pictorial and Conceptual Representation of Glimpsed Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people…

  5. The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

  6. Postmodern Picture Books in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    In this lesson plan, middle school students analyze the structure of a postmodern picture book to uncover how authors form relationships between words and illustrations. An online teacher resource explains the intent of the picture book "Black and White" and provides background information and suggestions for classroom discussion. During one…

  7. Children's Inductive Reasoning Performance on Picture Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, William F., Jr.; Fletcher, Harold J.

    Eighty subjects 4, 6, 8, and 10 years of age inductively identified partially uncovered silhouettes of three simple pictures. Subjects removed as few as possible covering pieces, according to their own strategies, to correctly name the pictures. Performance generally improved with increased age on the two dependent measures, inductively inferring…

  8. Picture Chunking Effects in Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.

    Thirty-three second graders participated in a study to discover the value of teaching concepts using picture attribute chunking (PAC). It was hypothesized that PAC would yield superior concept learning performances compared to a picture attribute list (PAL) treatment and a word-alone treatment. The children, selected on the basis of a pretest that…

  9. Attitudes toward Motion Pictures among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Several reasons for studying motion pictures and patrons' attitudes toward them include the following: (1) current data show that motion pictures account for 53% of the total United States spectator amusement expenditures; (2) the average weekly United States movie attendance has plummeted by more than half since 1930; (3) despite this decline,…

  10. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  11. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  12. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  13. Teaching Picture Reading as an Enabling Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…

  14. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  15. Semantic classification of pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Taikh, Alex; Hargreaves, Ian S; Yap, Melvin J; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    We provide new behavioural norms for semantic classification of pictures and words. The picture stimuli are 288 black and white line drawings from the International Picture Naming Project ([Székely, A., Jacobsen, T., D'Amico, S., Devescovi, A., Andonova, E., Herron, D., et al. (2004). A new on-line resource for psycholinguistic studies. Journal of Memory & Language, 51, 247-250]). We presented these pictures for classification in a living/nonliving decision, and in a separate version of the task presented the corresponding word labels for classification. We analyzed behavioural responses to a subset of the stimuli in order to explore questions about semantic processing. We found multiple semantic richness effects for both picture and word classification. Further, while lexical-level factors were related to semantic classification of words, they were not related to semantic classification of pictures. We argue that these results are consistent with privileged semantic access for pictures, and point to ways in which these data could be used to address other questions about picture processing and semantic memory.

  16. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  17. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma.

  18. Parallel processing for digital picture comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. D.; Kou, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    In picture processing an important problem is to identify two digital pictures of the same scene taken under different lighting conditions. This kind of problem can be found in remote sensing, satellite signal processing and the related areas. The identification can be done by transforming the gray levels so that the gray level histograms of the two pictures are closely matched. The transformation problem can be solved by using the packing method. Researchers propose a VLSI architecture consisting of m x n processing elements with extensive parallel and pipelining computation capabilities to speed up the transformation with the time complexity 0(max(m,n)), where m and n are the numbers of the gray levels of the input picture and the reference picture respectively. If using uniprocessor and a dynamic programming algorithm, the time complexity will be 0(m(3)xn). The algorithm partition problem, as an important issue in VLSI design, is discussed. Verification of the proposed architecture is also given.

  19. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  20. Graphical tools for macromolecular crystallography in PHENIX

    PubMed Central

    Echols, Nathaniel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Chen, Vincent B.; Headd, Jeffrey J.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Read, Randy J.; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    A new Python-based graphical user interface for the PHENIX suite of crystallography software is described. This interface unifies the command-line programs and their graphical displays, simplifying the development of new interfaces and avoiding duplication of function. With careful design, graphical interfaces can be displayed automatically, instead of being manually constructed. The resulting package is easily maintained and extended as new programs are added or modified. PMID:22675231

  1. General-Purpose Graphics-Library Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) computer program is general-purpose graphics-library program for use with many computer-based-engineering and management application programs. Software offers many features providing user with flexibility in creating graphics. Includes two- and three-dimensional plotting, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve-thickness control, and multiple text fonts. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  2. Laserprinter applications in a medical graphics department.

    PubMed

    Lynch, P J

    1987-01-01

    Our experience with the Apple Macintosh and LaserWriter equipment has convinced us that lasergraphics holds much current and future promise in the creation of line graphics and typography for the biomedical community. Although we continue to use other computer graphics equipment to produce color slides and an occasional pen-plotter graphic, the most rapidly growing segment of our graphics workload is in material well-suited to production on the Macintosh/LaserWriter system. At present our goal is to integrate all of our computer graphics production (color slides, video paint graphics and monochrome print graphics) into a single Macintosh-based system within the next two years. The software and hardware currently available are capable of producing a wide range of science graphics very quickly and inexpensively. The cost-effectiveness, versatility and relatively low initial investment required to install this equipment make it an attractive alternative for cost-recovery departments just entering the field of computer graphics.

  3. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  4. Raster Graphics in Support of Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, C. S.; Glass, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief review of approaches available for the creation of computer-driven graphic displays, a raster graphics method was selected for further description. The components of this system include: a host computer; an intelligent terminal containing imaging RAM as well as a graphics interpreter in ROM; and a medium-resolution, color, video monitor. Three illustrations with appropriate program fragments to demonstrate coding technique are presented: a simple flowchart, a figure for an article, and a teaching display. The examples selected are progressively more sophisticated and demonstrate many of the features of the computer language ReGIS (Remote Graphics Instruction Set) developed by the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).

  5. Pictures open unexpected horizons in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Walker, D A

    1986-01-01

    Picture literacy constitutes one of the main accomplishments of Nepal's nonformal education program. Although program participants had little difficulty initially in identifying pictured objects, they were unable to understand the meaning or intended message of an illustration. In classroom discussions, participants were asked to analyze pictures, relate them to their own experiences, and read more meaning into illustrations. As the literacy curriculum was developed and tested, it became clear that the use of pictures greatly increased the number of meaningful ideas that could be communicated in the lessons. Comics were especially valuable in introducing social issues in a dramatic, exciting way that could not be achieved through stories with a limited vocabulary. While the written story must be coherent, the comic can be fragmentary and more ground can be covered. The pictures make the page less formidable and reinforce the written word. Once pictures and comics had been introduced into the literacy curriculum, experimentation with other uses was possible. For example, participants role-played the comics and created their own stories around discussion pictures. All these activities proved to be educationally sound and appropriate to the cultural setting.

  6. [Priming effects in picture problems: preliminary solutions].

    PubMed

    Wippich, W; Mecklenbräuker, S; Weidmann, K; Reichert, A

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments explored whether picture puzzles are an adequate instrument to investigate implicit memory for pictorial information. During the testing phase, the subjects had to identify hidden figures in picture puzzles. In a preceding learning phase, the priming conditions were varied systematically. In the first experiment, some subjects had to solve picture puzzles in the learning phase, whereas others made esthetic judgments (global processing) or estimated the number of triangles in the picture puzzles (local processing). In the second experiment, the subjects inspected copies of figures that were hidden at testing, modified versions of these figures, or their names in the learning phase. In the first experiment, the subjects of the different encoding conditions showed comparable priming effects. Picture puzzles that had already been processed or seen during learning were solved more often than new ones. Interview data revealed that subjects in the local or global processing conditions did not identify hidden figures at encoding. Furthermore, these subjects could not discriminate between old and new picture puzzles in a final explicit test of recognition. Thus, nonconscious storage of perceptual information that is not semantically interpreted may be sufficient to evoke priming effects. In the second experiment, the subjects in the different encoding conditions showed reliable priming effects, too. The presentation of the duplicates at encoding produced the greatest amount of priming. Effects of verbal priming, however, indicate that the solution of picture puzzles is not based solely on perceptual information. Depending on the priming conditions at learning, the solution of picture puzzles may be based primarily on data-driven processing or may be guided more heavily by conceptual information. It is concluded that perceptual, lexical, and/or conceptual information can contribute to the solution of picture puzzles.

  7. Current and future graphics requirements for LaRC and proposed future graphics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, N. L.; Bowen, J. T.; Randall, D. P.; Gates, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The findings of an investigation to assess the current and future graphics requirements of the LaRC researchers with respect to both hardware and software are presented. A graphics system designed to meet these requirements is proposed.

  8. A computer graphics system for visualizing spacecraft in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyles, Don E.

    1989-01-01

    To carry out unanticipated operations with resources already in space is part of the rationale for a permanently manned space station in Earth orbit. The astronauts aboard a space station will require an on-board, spatial display tool to assist the planning and rehearsal of upcoming operations. Such a tool can also help astronauts to monitor and control such operations as they occur, especially in cases where first-hand visibility is not possible. A computer graphics visualization system designed for such an application and currently implemented as part of a ground-based simulation is described. The visualization system presents to the user the spatial information available in the spacecraft's computers by drawing a dynamic picture containing the planet Earth, the Sun, a star field, and up to two spacecraft. The point of view within the picture can be controlled by the user to obtain a number of specific visualization functions. The elements of the display, the methods used to control the display's point of view, and some of the ways in which the system can be used are described.

  9. Graphics hardware accelerated panorama builder for mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordallo López, Miguel; Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, Olli; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2009-02-01

    Modern mobile communication devices frequently contain built-in cameras allowing users to capture highresolution still images, but at the same time the imaging applications are facing both usability and throughput bottlenecks. The difficulties in taking ad hoc pictures of printed paper documents with multi-megapixel cellular phone cameras on a common business use case, illustrate these problems for anyone. The result can be examined only after several seconds, and is often blurry, so a new picture is needed, although the view-finder image had looked good. The process can be a frustrating one with waits and the user not being able to predict the quality beforehand. The problems can be traced to the processor speed and camera resolution mismatch, and application interactivity demands. In this context we analyze building mosaic images of printed documents from frames selected from VGA resolution (640x480 pixel) video. High interactivity is achieved by providing real-time feedback on the quality, while simultaneously guiding the user actions. The graphics processing unit of the mobile device can be used to speed up the reconstruction computations. To demonstrate the viability of the concept, we present an interactive document scanning application implemented on a Nokia N95 mobile phone.

  10. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  11. Using Picture Books to Support Young Children's Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…

  12. Adolescents' Motivations for Viewing Graphic Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies four motivations adolescents report for viewing graphic horror films: gore watching, thrill watching, independent watching, and problem watching. Argues that viewing motivations are predictors of responses to graphic horror. Finds that viewing motivations were related to viewers' cognitive and affective responses and a tendency to…

  13. Teaching Graphics in Technical Communication Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurgeon, Kristene C.

    Perhaps because the United States is undergoing a video revolution, perhaps because of its increasing sales of goods to non-English speaking markets where graphics can help explain the products, perhaps because of the decreasing communication skills of the work force, graphic aids are becoming more and more widely used and more and more important.…

  14. Graphical Models via Univariate Exponential Family Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunho; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Allen, Genevera I.; Liu, Zhandong

    2016-01-01

    Undirected graphical models, or Markov networks, are a popular class of statistical models, used in a wide variety of applications. Popular instances of this class include Gaussian graphical models and Ising models. In many settings, however, it might not be clear which subclass of graphical models to use, particularly for non-Gaussian and non-categorical data. In this paper, we consider a general sub-class of graphical models where the node-wise conditional distributions arise from exponential families. This allows us to derive multivariate graphical model distributions from univariate exponential family distributions, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and exponential distributions. Our key contributions include a class of M-estimators to fit these graphical model distributions; and rigorous statistical analysis showing that these M-estimators recover the true graphical model structure exactly, with high probability. We provide examples of genomic and proteomic networks learned via instances of our class of graphical models derived from Poisson and exponential distributions. PMID:27570498

  15. Computer Graphics in ChE Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reklaitis, G. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines current uses and future possibilities of computer graphics in chemical engineering, discussing equipment needs, maintenance/manpower costs, and plan to implement computer graphics into existing programs. The plan involves matching fund equipment grants, grants for development of computer assisted instructional (CAI) software, chemical…

  16. Interpreting Graphic Versions of Shakespearean Plays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Paula; Kleijwegt, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of quality multimodal texts such as graphic novels may provide new vistas that allow adolescents access to more complex readings of difficult texts. This is especially true for the large number of graphic versions of Shakespearean text that have recently come on the market. However, it is still unclear as to what students actually…

  17. Using Graphic Organizers in Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Graphic organizers are instruments of representation, illustration and modeling of information. In the educational practice they are used for building, and systematization of knowledge. Graphic organizers are instruments that addressed mostly visual learning style, but their use is beneficial to all learners. In this paper we illustrate the use of…

  18. 40 CFR 211.106 - Graphical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Graphical requirements. 211.106 Section 211.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.106 Graphical requirements. (a) Color. Unless...

  19. Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Ellen; Miller, J. Abbott

    1994-01-01

    Considers the reception and use of deconstruction in the recent history of graphic design. Considers the place of graphics within the theory of deconstruction in the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida. Argues that deconstruction is not a style but a mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions and…

  20. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  1. Q-Technique and Graphics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Roger R.

    Because Q-technique is as appropriate for use with visual and design items as for use with words, it is not stymied by the topics one is likely to encounter in graphics research. In particular Q-technique is suitable for studying the so-called "congeniality" of typography, for various copytesting usages, and for multivariate graphics research. The…

  2. Program For Editing Graphical Displays Of Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulnix, Cassie L.; Miller, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    XOPPS is window-based software tool from graphics providing easy and fast "what you see is what you get" (WYSIWYG) on-screen editing capabilities. Provides area, analogous to canvas, displaying full image of schedule being edited. Canvas contains header area (for test) and schedule area (for plotting graphical representations of milestone objects in flexible time line). Written in C language.

  3. Performing Remarkable Feats with Presentation Graphics Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1994-01-01

    Describes easy-to-use, easy-to-learn dedicated graphics packages for developing slide presentations shown directly from computers. A general description of the features of five packages and suggestions for software selection are provided. A sidebar provides graphics tips, such as the use of color, typefaces, and formatting, for developing…

  4. Is There Computer Graphics after Multimedia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Kellogg S.

    Computer graphics has been driven by the desire to generate real-time imagery subject to constraints imposed by the human visual system. The future of computer graphics, when off-the-shelf systems have full multimedia capability and when standard computing engines render imagery faster than real-time, remains to be seen. A dedicated pipeline for…

  5. Teaching Media Literacy with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnin, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Background: A current problem in media literacy studies is whether or not to categorize graphic novels as media literacy texts. Thus, this article begins with a review of current media literacy research and its emphasis on defining media literacy texts as texts that rely on both print literacies and image literacies. Because graphic novels rely on…

  6. Printing (Graphic Arts): Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Intended for use by all printing (graphic arts) instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the printing (graphic arts) program. General course objectives are then listed.…

  7. Exploring Literary Devices in Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of graphic novels with young readers. During the 2009-2010 school year, while working with four fifth-grade students, the author examined the question "In what ways do readers engage while reading a graphic novel?" The fifth graders took part in book discussions and one-on-one interviews after reading two…

  8. 40 CFR 211.106 - Graphical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Graphical requirements. 211.106 Section 211.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.106 Graphical requirements. (a) Color. Unless...

  9. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  10. 40 CFR 211.106 - Graphical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Graphical requirements. 211.106 Section 211.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.106 Graphical requirements. (a) Color. Unless...

  11. 40 CFR 211.106 - Graphical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Graphical requirements. 211.106 Section 211.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.106 Graphical requirements. (a) Color. Unless...

  12. 40 CFR 211.106 - Graphical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Graphical requirements. 211.106 Section 211.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.106 Graphical requirements. (a) Color. Unless EPA...

  13. Graphic Organizers: Outlets for Your Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1998-01-01

    Graphs, bars, charts, and diagrams have been used by designers, writers, and scientists to communicate. Now, research suggests that graphic organizers benefit teaching and learning. This article describes graphic organizers: sequential, conceptual, hierarchical, cyclical, Venn, fishbone or Ishikawa, squeeze and stretch, why-why, t-chart, KWL…

  14. Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Ababneh, Ziad Waleed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education through the analysis of the theoretical basis and previous studies related to this subject. This study has identified the list of standards of Multimedia, Graphic Design, each of which has a set indicator through which the quality of Multimedia can be evaluated in…

  15. A Laboratory Application of Microcomputer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Kalle B.; Moore, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A PASCAL graphics and instrument interface program for a Z80/S-100 based microcomputer was developed. The computer interfaces to a stopped-flow spectrophotometer replacing a storage oscilloscope and polaroid camera. Applications of this system are discussed, indicating that graphics and analog-to-digital boards have transformed the computer into…

  16. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  17. Making Art Connections with Graphic Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam; Hermus, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Posters, slide shows, videos, diagrams, charts, written or illustrated class notes, daily logs, to do lists, and written instructions are all helpful modes of teaching for visual learners. Another form of instruction that is helpful for visual learners is the graphic organizers. Sometimes called "mind maps", graphic organizers are illustrative…

  18. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria in Uganda NLM's ... Services Division collaborated on the project through the Internet. "We wanted to see if such a 'health ...

  19. An evaluation of dietary guidance graphic alternatives: the evolution of the eating right pyramid.

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    The pyramid graphic was found to be most effective in conveying the messages of moderation and proportionality. The pyramid design might be further strengthened in conveying the total moderation message by including both FOS pictures and symbols in the same graphic. The pyramid also has considerable strength in promoting the message of variety. More important, the pyramid graphic did not convey misinformation about variety, proportionality, and moderation or about the importance of consuming foods in adequate amounts from all the major food groups to achieve a healthful diet. The bowl design was found to be far less effective in promoting the moderation and proportionality messages, but did illustrate the variety message somewhat better than the pyramid. Although respondents indicated a preference for the bowel shape, it is important to note that even in the groups where preference for the bowl was the strongest (i.e., younger, less educated, ethnic minority, and low-income respondents), the pyramid was more likely to be identified as the graphic that suggested the moderation-of-fat message most clearly. Further, preference for the bowl was not linked to effectiveness of intended messages in those groups. In this study, the shape a respondent preferred was of less importance to policy development than the amount of intended information conveyed by each graphic.

  20. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  1. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  2. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  3. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance.

  4. "Big Events" and Networks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel; Rossi, Diana; Flom, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    Some, but not all, "big events" such as wars, revolutions, socioeconomic transitions, economic collapses, and ecological disasters in recent years seem to lead to large-scale HIV outbreaks (Friedman et al, in press; Hankins et al 2002). This was true of transitions in the USSR, South Africa and Indonesia, for example, but not those in the Philippines or (so far) in Argentina. It has been hypothesized that whether or not HIV outbreaks occur is shaped in part by the nature and extent of changes in the numbers of voluntary or involuntary risk-takers, which itself may be related to the growth of roles such as sex-sellers or drug sellers; the riskiness of the behaviors engaged in by risk-takers; and changes in sexual and injection networks and other "mixing patterns" variables. Each of these potential causal processes, in turn, is shaped by the nature of pre-existing social networks and the patterns and content of normative regulation and communication that happen within these social networks-and on how these social networks and their characteristics are changed by the "big event" in question. We will present ideas about what research is needed to help understand these events and to help guide both indigenous community-based efforts to prevent HIV outbreaks and also to guide those who organize external intervention efforts and aid.

  5. An MEG study of picture naming.

    PubMed

    Levelt, W J; Praamstra, P; Meyer, A S; Helenius, P; Salmelin, R

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate a psycholinguistic processing model of picture naming to the dynamics of cortical activation during picture naming. The activation was recorded from eight Dutch subjects with a whole-head neuromagnetometer. The processing model, based on extensive naming latency studies, is a stage model. In preparing a picture"s name, the speaker performs a chain of specific operations. They are, in this order, computing the visual percept, activating an appropriate lexical concept, selecting the target word from the mental lexicon, phonological encoding, phonetic encoding, and initiation of articulation. The time windows for each of these operations are reasonably well known and could be related to the peak activity of dipole sources in the individual magnetic response patterns. The analyses showed a clear progression over these time windows from early occipital activation, via parietal and temporal to frontal activation. The major specific findings were that (1) a region in the left posterior temporal lobe, agreeing with the location of Wernicke"s area, showed prominent activation starting about 200 msec after picture onset and peaking at about 350 msec (i.e., within the stage of phonological encoding), and (2) a consistent activation was found in the right parietal cortex, peaking at about 230 msec after picture onset, thus preceding and partly overlapping with the left temporal response. An interpretation in terms of the management of visual attention is proposed.

  6. Putting Ourselves in the Big Picture: A Sustainable Approach to Project Management for e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, Janet

    2010-01-01

    In a case study of a large Australian university the metaphor of panarchy is used as a means of describing and understanding the complex interrelationships of multi-scale institutional projects and the influences of a variety factors on the potential success of e-learning initiatives. The concept of para-analysis is introduced as a management…

  7. Seeing the Big Picture: Size Perception Is More Context Sensitive in the Presence of Others

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Prada, Marília; Fonseca, Ricardo; Hagá, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that social presence influences size perception by increasing context sensitivity. Consistent with Allport’s prediction, we expected to find greater context sensitivity in participants who perform a visual task in the presence of other people (i.e., in co-action) than in participants who perform the task in isolation. Supporting this hypothesis, participants performing an Ebbinghaus illusion-based task in co-action showed greater size illusions than those performing the task in isolation. Specifically, participants in a social context had greater difficulty perceiving the correct size of a target circle and ignoring its surroundings. Analyses of delta plot functions suggest a mechanism of interference monitoring, since that when individuals take longer to respond, they are better able to ignore the surrounding circles. However, this type of monitoring interference was not moderated by social presence. We discuss how this lack of moderation might be the reason why the impact of social presence on context sensitivity is able to be detected in tasks such as the Ebbinghaus illusion. PMID:26562518

  8. Primed for Patron-Driven Acquisition: A Look at the Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The development of patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a viable collections practice is encouraging many academic libraries to be proactive about sharing significant collection development responsibilities with their patrons. The adoption of PDA represents a challenge to some long-held understandings about libraries and collections, however, and…

  9. Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology.

    PubMed

    Burnside, William R; Brown, James H; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J; Moses, Melanie; Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2012-02-01

    Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach-using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach.

  10. Seeing the Big Picture: Deaf Adults' Development of Summarization through Book Discussion in American Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.; Rosenthal, Lore Lyon

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom-based project that examines whether three deaf adults enrolled in an adult literacy program could use American Sign Language to access English and improve their literacy skills. The project focused on their first attempt at reading and discussing a novel. Describes a three-step process that guided the learners toward…

  11. The big picture: effects of surround on immersion and size perception.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Andreas M; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fear of the entertainment industry that illegal downloads of films might ruin their business, going to the movies continues to be a popular leisure activity. One reason why people prefer to watch movies in cinemas may be the surround of the movie screen or its physically huge size. To disentangle the factors that might contribute to the size impression, we tested several measures of subjective size and immersion in different viewing environments. For this purpose we built a model cinema that provided visual angle information comparable with that of a real cinema. Subjects watched identical movie clips in a real cinema, a model cinema, and on a display monitor in isolation. Whereas the isolated display monitor was inferior, the addition of a contextual model improved the viewing immersion to the extent that it was comparable with the movie theater experience, provided the viewing angle remained the same. In a further study we built an identical but even smaller model cinema to unconfound visual angle and viewing distance. Both model cinemas produced similar results. There was a trend for the larger screen to be more immersive; however, viewing angle did not play a role in how the movie was evaluated.

  12. The Big Picture and What Can Be Done to Improve It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leighton C.; Cooper, Stewart E.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter presents answers to the twenty questions asked at the beginning of this volume, articulates a number of generally poor current practices of pharmacotherapy, makes suggestions for improvement in treatments combining medication and psychotherapy, and proposes important research at colleges and universities to gain understanding of use…

  13. How relevant is opportunistic Bd sampling: are we ready for the big picture?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Pedersen, Britt Spurre; Pedersen, Finn Spurre

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of chytridiomycosis, both at global and local scales, is important to controlling its impacts on host species (e.g., biocontrol or eradication) and to managing host amphibian populations (e.g., reintroduction and habitat management). In response to this, efforts to map observations of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) are underway to better understand its distribution and impact on amphibian populations (e.g., www.spatialepidemiology.net/Bd).

  14. Micro to the Macro Biome: Can Biology Affect the Big Picture Through Small Changes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Life has had a profound impact on the geological history of our planet, which in turn has had a profound impact back on the evolution of life. Life has been able to adapt and spread into every planetary nook and cranny. At this point in history, life is becoming able to engineer itself, with extreme consequences we are only dimly able to foresee. One probable outcome will be the facilitation of the expansion of the range of life to beyond our planetary cradle, an evolutionary step as profound as the ancient transition from sea to land. Current efforts at NASA and aboard the International Space Station will be discussed in this context.

  15. Micro to the Macro Biome Can Biology Affect the Big Picture Through Small Changes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Life has had a profound impact on the geological history of our planet, which in turn has had a profound impact back on the evolution of life. Life has been able to adapt and spread into every planetary nook and cranny. At this point in history, life is becoming able to engineer itself, with extreme consequences we are only dimly able to foresee. One probable outcome will be the facilitation of the expansion of the range of life to beyond our planetary cradle, an evolutionary step as profound as the ancient transition from sea to land. Current efforts at NASA and aboard the International Space Station will be discussed in this context.

  16. The Big Picture, Polar Ambassadors, and Polar Days; International Outreach and Education During and Beyond IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, R. A.; Zicus, S.; Pauls, M.; McCaffrey, M.; Carlson, D.; Huffman, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-8 has begun, and it's not just for scientists. Teachers, artists, students, polar visitors, explorers, young scientists, arctic residents, journalists, photographers, and film-makers are all interested. IPY is an incredible opportunity to involve the public with polar science and raise awareness about critical issues facing the polar regions. An overview of the IPY international education and outreach strategy will be presented highlighting activities that encourage polar scientists to work directly with the global community to raise awareness about the polar regions, and the importance of their research. Examples include International Polar Days, IPY in Google Earth, and the Polar Ambassador Programme.

  17. Looking for the Big Picture: Macrostrategies for L2 Teacher Observation and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Mercado, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive body of literature in TESOL studies the different paradigms that drive second language (L2) teachers' conceptualizations of their professional identities and practice, there is still a need for more research into how L2 supervisors construct the realities of supervision and how their interpretations of those realities inform…

  18. Cellular and molecular modifier pathways in tauopathies: the big picture from screening invertebrate models.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes including, but not limited to, phosphorylation, cytoskeleton organization, axonal transport, regulation of cellular proteostasis, transcription, RNA metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. We discuss the utility and application of invertebrate models in elucidating the cellular and molecular functions of novel and uncharacterized disease modifiers identified in large-scale screens as well as for investigating the function of genes identified as risk factors in genome-wide association studies from human patients in the post-genomic era. In this review, we combined and summarized several large-scale modifier screens performed in invertebrate models to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. A summary of the screens show that diverse cellular processes are implicated in the modification of tau toxicity. Kinases and phosphatases are the most predominant class of modifiers followed by components required for cellular proteostasis and axonal transport and cytoskeleton elements.

  19. Curriculum Development Based on the Big Picture Assessment of the Mechanical Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabri, Mohd Anas Mohd; Khamis, Nor Kamaliana; Tahir, Mohd Faizal Mat; Wahid, Zaliha; Kamal, Ahmad; Ihsan, Ariffin Mohd; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Abdullah, Shahrum

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns of the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) is the need for an effective monitoring and evaluation of program outcome domains that can be associated with courses taught under the Mechanical Engineering program. However, an effective monitoring method that can determine the results of each program outcome using Bloom's…

  20. Detecting Bias in Meta-Analyses of Distance Education Research: Big Pictures We Can Rely On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two interrelated purposes. The first is to explain how various forms of bias, if introduced during any stage of a meta-analysis, can provide the consumer with a misimpression of the state of a research literature. Five of the most important bias-producing aspects of a meta-analysis are presented and discussed. Second, armed with…

  1. Getting Focused without Cropping the Big Picture: The System Office in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard C.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the system office for community college institutional research in California. As the system IR office for the largest community college system in the nation, it is often looked to as a leader for other states and community college IR systems. The author notes the office's administrative environment, its staffing and…

  2. Grasping the Big Sociological Picture Shaping the Moral Lives of College Students Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the character and moral lives of college students today, it is necessary to set an examination within a larger framework of the macrosocial and cultural forces that have developed emerging adulthood as a relatively new and important phase of the American life course. Also helpful are identifying some of the key…

  3. Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell.

    PubMed

    Skaper, Stephen D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-12-05

    The psychoactive component of the cannabis resin and flowers, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was first isolated in 1964, and at least 70 other structurally related 'phytocannabinoid' compounds have since been identified. The serendipitous identification of a G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor at which THC is active in the brain heralded an explosion in cannabinoid research. Elements of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprise the cannabinoid receptors, a family of nascent lipid ligands, the 'endocannabinoids' and the machinery for their biosynthesis and metabolism. The function of the ECS is thus defined by modulation of these receptors, in particular, by two of the best-described ligands, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). Research on the ECS has recently aroused enormous interest not only for the physiological functions, but also for the promising therapeutic potentials of drugs interfering with the activity of cannabinoid receptors. Many of the former relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Among other functions, the ECS is involved in neuroprotection, modulation of nociception, regulation of motor activity, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and the control of certain phases of memory processing. In addition, the ECS acts to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses and to maintain a positive energy balance. This theme issue aims to provide the reader with an overview of ECS pharmacology, followed by discussions on the pivotal role of this system in the modulation of neurogenesis in the developing and adult organism, memory processes and synaptic plasticity, as well as in pathological pain and brain ageing. The volume will conclude with discussions that address the proposed therapeutic applications of targeting the ECS for the treatment of neurodegeneration, pain and mental illness.

  4. Thinking Big Picture: Meeting the Needs of Researchers in Northern Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamtora, Jayshree

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increase in research activity at Charles Darwin University in recent years, the Library created the position of Research Services Coordinator to meet researcher needs. Eighteen months after the new staff member was in place, an online survey was carried out to gauge the success of the new services and resources provided, and thereby…

  5. Seeing the Big Picture: Size Perception Is More Context Sensitive in the Presence of Others.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Prada, Marília; Fonseca, Ricardo; Hagá, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that social presence influences size perception by increasing context sensitivity. Consistent with Allport's prediction, we expected to find greater context sensitivity in participants who perform a visual task in the presence of other people (i.e., in co-action) than in participants who perform the task in isolation. Supporting this hypothesis, participants performing an Ebbinghaus illusion-based task in co-action showed greater size illusions than those performing the task in isolation. Specifically, participants in a social context had greater difficulty perceiving the correct size of a target circle and ignoring its surroundings. Analyses of delta plot functions suggest a mechanism of interference monitoring, since that when individuals take longer to respond, they are better able to ignore the surrounding circles. However, this type of monitoring interference was not moderated by social presence. We discuss how this lack of moderation might be the reason why the impact of social presence on context sensitivity is able to be detected in tasks such as the Ebbinghaus illusion.

  6. Taking a Big Picture Look @ Technology, Learning and the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David, Ed.; Miles, Cindy L., Ed.

    This book describes trends in technology and learning that are influencing community colleges. Chapter 1, presenting results from a 3-year, 700 college study, concludes that colleges will become more learning-centered, find it difficult to maintain services and open access as student demands increase and resources shrink, form more partnerships,…

  7. NOW SHOWING! The Big Picture -- Putting the SCR Sample in Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, T. J.; Subasavage, J. P.; Jao, W.; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; RECONS Team

    2009-01-01

    Numerous white, red, and brown dwarfs are being discovered in the solar neighborhood by a number of groups using proper motion and photometric surveys, literature trawls, and parallax programs. Through a combination of novel searches for previously unidentified nearby stars and comprehensive assessments of previous survey work, the RECONS group has been one of the most productive programs in discovering the Sun's neighbors, in particular those in the southern hemisphere. Searches utilizing the SuperCOSMOS electronic archives of photographic plates have proven to be a successful discovery method for our team, yielding 108 red dwarf SCR (SuperCOSMOS RECONS) systems. Distance estimates are first made using plate photometry combined with 2MASS JHK data to assess proximity. Promising targets within 25 pc are then observed for VRI photometry, which is also combined with 2MASS JHK data to improve the distance estimates (average errors only 15%). To date, 75% of those originally predicted to be nearer than 25 pc using the photographic magnitudes remain within that horizon using the more accurate CCD photometry. Stars within 15 pc are then targeted for trigonometric parallaxes as part of the long-term CTIO Parallax Investigation carried out at the CTIO 0.9m. These new nearby systems bolster the statistics needed to understand the true population of stars near the Sun, as well as providing compelling binaries for objects with masses near the end of the stellar main sequence. Our discoveries constitute a significant contribution to the existing solar community and move us closer to a comprehensive census of the solar neighborhood. This work is supported by NSF grant AST 05-07711, NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, the SMARTS Consortium, and Georgia State University.

  8. Ice Sheets from Space: The Big Picture View (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughin, I. R.

    2012-04-01

    Instead of heroic efforts to acquire a few dozen field-based measurements of ice-flow velocity at some of the Earth's most remote locations, computer servers now crunch satellite data to spew out millions of measurements, providing a whole new perspective on how ice sheets function. Prior to such observations, outlet glaciers and ice streams were perceived to respond slowly to climate change, with little change at timescales of months to decades. While some glaciers flow at steady rates, a remarkable number have responded to recent warming with large variations in speed over periods as short as seconds. A wide variety of behavior is observed with some glaciers steadily gaining speed, others accelerating and then leveling off, and a handful varying substantially with no clear trend. While in the minority, a few glaciers have steadily decelerated over the last decade. As examples ofrecent change, two of the most rapidly changing glaciers are examined: Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland and Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica. In addition to documenting the dramatic changes on these glaciers, satellite observations provide important new spatio-temporal data sets with which to understand such change, particularly when used in conjunction with ice sheet models. Although models constrained by these data reveal that ice-shelf buttressing is an important control on ice-sheet flow, the actual speedups are a complex response to the loss of buttressing, involving several other feedbacks that contribute to the acceleration.Although satellite observations have produced tremendous progress in understanding ice sheets, so far these data have raised more questions than they have answered. The contribution that ice dynamics will make to future sea level remains poorly understood and remains a grand challenge for glaciology. The ongoing record of spaceborne measurements is and will remain a key component in addressing this challenge.

  9. The Big Picture of Individual Differences in Physical Activity Behavior Change: A Transdisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Nilsson, Renea; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Magnan, Renee E; Marcus, Bess H; Hutchison, Kent E

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.

  10. Understand the Big Picture So You Can Plan for Network Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses network security for libraries. It indicates that there were only six exploit (security exposure) problems, worldwide, reported to the CERT Coordination Center back in 1988. In that year, the CERT had just been established to provide a clearinghouse for exchanging information about network security problems. By 2003, the…

  11. The Big Money Question: Action Research Projects Give District a Clear Picture of Professional Learning's Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill-Varga, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    How do districts know if the resources they have allocated to support professional learning in their school district are actually improving the quality of teaching and impacting student performance? In an increasingly challenging financial environment, this is important to know. In this article, a Chicago-area district facing a budget deficit…

  12. Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell

    PubMed Central

    Skaper, Stephen D.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The psychoactive component of the cannabis resin and flowers, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was first isolated in 1964, and at least 70 other structurally related ‘phytocannabinoid’ compounds have since been identified. The serendipitous identification of a G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor at which THC is active in the brain heralded an explosion in cannabinoid research. Elements of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprise the cannabinoid receptors, a family of nascent lipid ligands, the ‘endocannabinoids’ and the machinery for their biosynthesis and metabolism. The function of the ECS is thus defined by modulation of these receptors, in particular, by two of the best-described ligands, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). Research on the ECS has recently aroused enormous interest not only for the physiological functions, but also for the promising therapeutic potentials of drugs interfering with the activity of cannabinoid receptors. Many of the former relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Among other functions, the ECS is involved in neuroprotection, modulation of nociception, regulation of motor activity, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and the control of certain phases of memory processing. In addition, the ECS acts to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses and to maintain a positive energy balance. This theme issue aims to provide the reader with an overview of ECS pharmacology, followed by discussions on the pivotal role of this system in the modulation of neurogenesis in the developing and adult organism, memory processes and synaptic plasticity, as well as in pathological pain and brain ageing. The volume will conclude with discussions that address the proposed therapeutic applications of targeting the ECS for the treatment of neurodegeneration, pain and mental illness. PMID:23108539

  13. The Big Picture: Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of "Expert" Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Merryn; Perara, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This study adapted the Draw-A-Science-Teacher Test to compare 22 pre-service teachers' perceptions of their own strengths as science teachers against their perceived strengths of expert science teachers. The drawings identified a disconnection between theory and practice that we revisit in the literature. Our findings from this pilot study are…

  14. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  15. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry.

  16. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog: Sequence design and picture coverage, volume 2, addendum 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    This addendum to the Mariner Mars 1971 Television Picture Catalog, Volume 2 (for abstract, see N73-20850) contains data for the Mariner 9 TV pictures taken after Rev 262. Some of the data presented in Volume 2 is brought up to date. The new provisional mapping pole is discussed, and tables provide the latitude and longitude with respect to the new pole, prime meridian, and rotation rate for the centerpoints of all the Mariner 9 TV pictures.

  17. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  18. Graphical workstation capability for reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to computational capabilities, software tools for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant digital computer systems must also provide a means of interfacing with the user. Described here is the new graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP), a software package that implements advanced reliability modeling techniques. The graphics oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault-tree gates, including sequence-dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. By using this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain, which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the graphical kernal system (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing stages.

  19. Process and representation in graphical displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Lewis, Robert; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    How people comprehend graphics is examined. Graphical comprehension involves the cognitive representation of information from a graphic display and the processing strategies that people apply to answer questions about graphics. Research on representation has examined both the features present in a graphic display and the cognitive representation of the graphic. The key features include the physical components of a graph, the relation between the figure and its axes, and the information in the graph. Tests of people's memory for graphs indicate that both the physical and informational aspect of a graph are important in the cognitive representation of a graph. However, the physical (or perceptual) features overshadow the information to a large degree. Processing strategies also involve a perception-information distinction. In order to answer simple questions (e.g., determining the value of a variable, comparing several variables, and determining the mean of a set of variables), people switch between two information processing strategies: (1) an arithmetic, look-up strategy in which they use a graph much like a table, looking up values and performing arithmetic calculations; and (2) a perceptual strategy in which they use the spatial characteristics of the graph to make comparisons and estimations. The user's choice of strategies depends on the task and the characteristics of the graph. A theory of graphic comprehension is presented.

  20. Operations for Learning with Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a multidisciplinary review of empirical, statistical learning from a graphical model perspective. Well-known examples of graphical models include Bayesian net- works, directed graphs representing a Markov chain, and undirected networks representing a Markov field. These graphical models are extended to model data analysis and empirical learning using the notation of plates. Graphical operations for simplifying and manipulating a problem are provided including decomposition, differentiation, and the manipulation of probability models from the exponential family. These operations adapt existing techniques from statistics and automatic differentiation to graphs. Two standard algorithm schemes for learning are reviewed in a graphical framework: Gibbs sampling and the expectation maximization algorithm. Some algorithms are developed in this graphical framework including a generalized version of linear regression, techniques for feed-forward networks, and learning Gaussian and discrete Bayesian networks from data. The paper concludes by sketching some implications for data analysis and summarizing some popular algorithms that fall within the framework presented. The main original contributions here are the decomposition techniques and the demonstration that graphical models provide a framework for understanding and developing complex learning algorithms.

  1. Quantifying Visual Similarity in Clinical Iconic Graphics

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Starren, Justin B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The use of icons and other graphical components in user interfaces has become nearly ubiquitous. The interpretation of such icons is based on the assumption that different users perceive the shapes similarly. At the most basic level, different users must agree on which shapes are similar and which are different. If this similarity can be measured, it may be usable as the basis to design better icons. Design: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel method for categorizing the visual similarity of graphical primitives, called Presentation Discovery, in the domain of mammography. Six domain experts were given 50 common textual mammography findings and asked to draw how they would represent those findings graphically. Nondomain experts sorted the resulting graphics into groups based on their visual characteristics. The resulting groups were then analyzed using traditional statistics and hypothesis discovery tools. Strength of agreement was evaluated using computational simulations of sorting behavior. Measurements: Sorter agreement was measured at both the individual graphical and concept-group levels using a novel simulation-based method. “Consensus clusters” of graphics were derived using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Results: The multiple sorters were able to reliably group graphics into similar groups that strongly correlated with underlying domain concepts. Visual inspection of the resulting consensus clusters indicated that graphical primitives that could be informative in the design of icons were present. Conclusion: The method described provides a rigorous alternative to intuitive design processes frequently employed in the design of icons and other graphical interface components. PMID:15684136

  2. BIG DATA AND STATISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Rossell, David

    2016-01-01

    Big Data brings unprecedented power to address scientific, economic and societal issues, but also amplifies the possibility of certain pitfalls. These include using purely data-driven approaches that disregard understanding the phenomenon under study, aiming at a dynamically moving target, ignoring critical data collection issues, summarizing or preprocessing the data inadequately and mistaking noise for signal. We review some success stories and illustrate how statistical principles can help obtain more reliable information from data. We also touch upon current challenges that require active methodological research, such as strategies for efficient computation, integration of heterogeneous data, extending the underlying theory to increasingly complex questions and, perhaps most importantly, training a new generation of scientists to develop and deploy these strategies. PMID:27722040

  3. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  4. The Last Big Bang

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Austin D.; Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  5. 77 FR 8287 - Quad/Graphics, a Subdivision of Quad Graphics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From SPS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quad/Graphics, a Subdivision of Quad Graphics, Inc., Including On-Site... filed on March 15, 2011, on behalf of workers of Quad/Graphics, a Subdivision of Quad Graphics, Inc... (TA-W-73,441G) applicable to workers and former workers of Quad Graphics, Inc., a...

  6. OAP- OFFICE AUTOMATION PILOT GRAPHICS DATABASE SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerson, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Office Automation Pilot (OAP) Graphics Database system offers the IBM PC user assistance in producing a wide variety of graphs and charts. OAP uses a convenient database system, called a chartbase, for creating and maintaining data associated with the charts, and twelve different graphics packages are available to the OAP user. Each of the graphics capabilities is accessed in a similar manner. The user chooses creation, revision, or chartbase/slide show maintenance options from an initial menu. The user may then enter or modify data displayed on a graphic chart. The cursor moves through the chart in a "circular" fashion to facilitate data entries and changes. Various "help" functions and on-screen instructions are available to aid the user. The user data is used to generate the graphics portion of the chart. Completed charts may be displayed in monotone or color, printed, plotted, or stored in the chartbase on the IBM PC. Once completed, the charts may be put in a vector format and plotted for color viewgraphs. The twelve graphics capabilities are divided into three groups: Forms, Structured Charts, and Block Diagrams. There are eight Forms available: 1) Bar/Line Charts, 2) Pie Charts, 3) Milestone Charts, 4) Resources Charts, 5) Earned Value Analysis Charts, 6) Progress/Effort Charts, 7) Travel/Training Charts, and 8) Trend Analysis Charts. There are three Structured Charts available: 1) Bullet Charts, 2) Organization Charts, and 3) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Charts. The Block Diagram available is an N x N Chart. Each graphics capability supports a chartbase. The OAP graphics database system provides the IBM PC user with an effective means of managing data which is best interpreted as a graphic display. The OAP graphics database system is written in IBM PASCAL 2.0 and assembler for interactive execution on an IBM PC or XT with at least 384K of memory, and a color graphics adapter and monitor. Printed charts require an Epson, IBM, OKIDATA, or HP Laser

  7. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-04-15

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  8. Graphical explanation in an expert system for Space Station Freedom rack integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, F. G.; Cutts, D. E.; Fennel, T. R.; Purves, B.

    1990-01-01

    The rationale and methodology used to incorporate graphics into explanations provided by an expert system for Space Station Freedom rack integration is examined. The rack integration task is typical of a class of constraint satisfaction problems for large programs where expertise from several areas is required. Graphically oriented approaches are used to explain the conclusions made by the system, the knowledge base content, and even at more abstract levels the control strategies employed by the system. The implemented architecture combines hypermedia and inference engine capabilities. The advantages of this architecture include: closer integration of user interface, explanation system, and knowledge base; the ability to embed links to deeper knowledge underlying the compiled knowledge used in the knowledge base; and allowing for more direct control of explanation depth and duration by the user. The graphical techniques employed range from simple statis presentation of schematics to dynamic creation of a series of pictures presented motion picture style. User models control the type, amount, and order of information presented.

  9. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures. PMID:27242621

  10. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č.

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism. PMID:28197113

  11. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    PubMed

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism.

  12. Graphics Tablets: How to Draw on a New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Margie; Mason, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes the graphics tablet, a microcomputer peripheral device used to develop graphics, together with its uses and specific classroom applications. Six currently available graphics tablets are discussed, and ten points to consider before purchasing one are provided. (MBR)

  13. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    PubMed

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Moon illusion in pictures: a multimechanism approach.

    PubMed

    Coren, S; Aks, D J

    1990-05-01

    The existence of the moon illusion in pictorial representations was demonstrated in 6 experiments. Ss either judged the size of the moon in pictures, depicted as on the horizon or high in the sky, or drew horizon and elevated moons. The horizon moon was consistently judged to be larger than the elevated moon, independent of the angle at which the pictures are viewed. The distance paradox usually observed with the moon illusion (horizon moon apparently closer than the elevated moon) also exists in pictures. The magnitude of both size and distance effects depends on the salience of depicted depth cues. The pattern of results suggests that the moon illusion is caused by several interacting mechanisms and that use of pictorial stimuli may allow the separation of various cognitive from physiological contributions to the illusion.

  15. Word reading and picture naming in Italian.

    PubMed

    Bates, E; Burani, C; D'Amico, S; Barca, L

    2001-10-01

    Results from two separate norming studies of lexical access in Italian were merged, permitting a comparison of word-reading and picture-naming latencies and the factors that predict each one for an overlapping subsample of 128 common nouns. Factor analysis of shared lexical predictors yielded four latent variables: a frequency factor, a semantic factor, a length factor, and a final factor dominated by frication on the initial phoneme. Age of acquisition (AoA) loaded highly on the first two factors, suggesting that it can be split into separate sources of variance. Regression analyses using factor scores as predictors showed that word reading and picture naming are both influenced by the frequency/AoA factor. The semantics/AoA factor influenced only picture naming, whereas the length and frication factors influenced only word reading. Generalizability of these results to other languages is discussed, including potential effects of cross-language differences in orthographic transparency.

  16. How to Apply for Protection Time Graphic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We will review insect repellent products that voluntarily apply to use the repellency awareness graphic to ensure that their scientific data meet current testing protocols and standard evaluation processes.

  17. Exhaustible Resource Depletion: A Modified Graphical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisato, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Presents a graphical analysis of the exhaustible resource depletion problem. Applies Hotelling's "r percent rule" as a new approach that operates in an "N"-period context. Includes two figures illustrating the approach. (CFR)

  18. Computation and graphics in mathematical research

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

    1992-08-13

    This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

  19. Some Recent Advances in Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitted, Turner

    1982-01-01

    General principles of computer graphics are reviewed, including discussions of display hardware, geometric modeling, algorithms, and applications in science, computer-aided design, flight training, communications, business, art, and entertainment. (JN)

  20. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

  1. Considerations in Choosing a Microcomputer for Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gerald J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents the options and limitations available in microcomputer-based graphic systems. Factors that must be considered when selecting a system--resolution, color, video-compatibility, and cost--and the relationship between these factors are discussed. (MBR)

  2. Graphics With Special Interfaces For Disabled People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronconi, A.; Billi, M.; Boscaleri, A.; Graziani, P.; Susini, C.

    1988-12-01

    Some physically impaired persons are unable to use standard drawing tools (pencil, eraser, paper, etc.). An effective way to deal with the problem is to create a graphic environment with features that motor disabled can control. A motor disabled person can use some commercial graphic program by means the special interface (working as mouse emulator), that we developed. Special software oriented to provide mentally impaired children with some computer graphic capabilities can be developed. This software can be useful when the commercial available software is unsuitable. We are developing special software that provide physically impaired children with the capability of graphical represention of three-dimensional scenes. This software can be controlled by means some different special input interface including a speech recognition system.

  3. Realtime multi-plot graphics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipkowski, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The increased complexity of test operations and customer requirements at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) surpassed the capabilities of the initial realtime graphics system. The analysis of existing hardware and software and the enhancements made to develop a new realtime graphics system are described. The result of this effort is a cost effective system, based on hardware already in place, that support high speed, high resolution, generation and display of multiple realtime plots. The enhanced graphics system (EGS) meets the current and foreseeable future realtime graphics requirements of the NTF. While this system was developed to support wind tunnel operations, the overall design and capability of the system is applicable to other realtime data acquisition systems that have realtime plot requirements.

  4. Program For Graphical Presentation Of Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Susan C.; Guerrero, Ana Maria

    1992-01-01

    OPPS is window-based graphics software tool providing easy and fast onscreen editing capabilities. Software object-oriented, but capable of creating objects having date attributes. Each object treated as unit for moving and editing. Written in C.

  5. Graphics Flip Cube for Supercomputing 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Chris; Reid, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Flip cube (constructed of heavy plastic) displays 11 graphics representing current projects or demos from 5 NASA centers participating in Supercomputing '98 (SC98). Included with the images are the URLS and names of the NASA centers.

  6. Applications of computer graphics to aircraft synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. L.; Putnam, R.

    1975-01-01

    The history of the development of an aircraft configuration synthesis program using interactive computer graphics was described. A system based on time-sharing was compared to two different concepts based on distributed computing.

  7. DIGLIB. PC-DOS Graphics Subroutine Library

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, H.R.

    1989-02-01

    DIGLIB is a collection of general graphics subroutines. It was designed to be small, reasonably fast, and device-independent. The software is readily usable by casual programmers for two-dimensional plotting.

  8. Using PROLOG with Graphics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Derek

    1984-01-01

    PROLOG is a relatively new programing language with graphics capability. In addition, the language has a declarative rather than a procedural structure. Two programs illustrating use of the language in the mathematics classroom are presented. (JN)

  9. Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    There is a balance between Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime in the universe. Also some scientists considered there is an anti-Big Bang who could produce the antimatter. And the paper supposes there is a structure balance between Einstein field equation and negative Einstein field equation, a balance between massenergy structure and spacetime structure, a balance between an energy of nucleus of the stellar matter and a dark energy of nucleus of the dark matter-dark energy, and a balance between the particle and the wave-a balance system between massenergy (particle) and spacetime (wave). It should explain of the problems of the Big Bang. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR16/Session/M13.8

  10. The Role of Pictures in Picture Books on Children's Cognitive Engagement with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Georgiou, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the…

  11. Picture This: A Multicultural Feminist Analysis of Picture Books for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger; Fink, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The authors provide a multicultural feminist analysis of picture books for children by looking at the illustrations and listening carefully to themes of oppression and resistance in 33 picture books that focus on characters that are on the powerless side of some powerless/powerful social dichotomy. The authors find many images that either depict…

  12. Picture or Text First? Explaining Sequence Effects When Learning with Pictures and Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…

  13. Acquisition Reform: Three Big Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Three Acq Reform Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 2 (1) Competing Capability Needs Among Services...to sponsor and users • Not required to be an acquisition expert • Tenure not as important Summary: 3 Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 19 (1) Competing...Acquisition Reform Three Big Ideas The provocative views expressed here are not those of the Department of Defense, DAU, or perhaps even the

  14. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  15. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  16. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  17. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  18. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  19. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 2: Sequence design and picture coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.

  20. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  1. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  2. Polygon Pictures in QuarkXPress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity where students draw and fill simple and complex shapes by utilizing the polygon tool in QuarkXPress to create graphics. Explains that this activity enables students to learn how to use a variety of functions in the QuarkXPress program. (CMK)

  3. Perception of tactile graphics: embossings versus cutouts.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Amy; Hopkins, Rose; Jin, David; Yazzolino, Lindsay; Verma, Svena; Merabet, Lotfi; Phillips, Flip; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical information, such as illustrations, graphs, and diagrams, are an essential complement to text for conveying knowledge about the world. Although graphics can be communicated well via the visual modality, conveying this information via touch has proven to be challenging. The lack of easily comprehensible tactile graphics poses a problem for the blind. In this paper, we advance a hypothesis for the limited effectiveness of tactile graphics. The hypothesis contends that conventional graphics that rely upon embossings on two-dimensional surfaces do not allow the deployment of tactile exploratory procedures that are crucial for assessing global shape. Besides potentially accounting for some of the shortcomings of current approaches, this hypothesis also serves a prescriptive purpose by suggesting a different strategy for conveying graphical information via touch, one based on cutouts. We describe experiments demonstrating the greater effectiveness of this approach for conveying shape and identity information. These results hold the potential for creating more comprehensible tactile drawings for the visually impaired while also providing insights into shape estimation processes in the tactile modality.

  4. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  5. Span graphics display utilities handbook, first edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Newman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a computer network connecting scientific institutions throughout the United States. This network provides an avenue for timely, correlative research between investigators, in a multidisciplinary approach to space physics studies. An objective in the development of SPAN is to make available direct and simplified procedures that scientists can use, without specialized training, to exchange information over the network. Information exchanges include raw and processes data, analysis programs, correspondence, documents, and graphite images. This handbook details procedures that can be used to exchange graphic images over SPAN. The intent is to periodically update this handbook to reflect the constantly changing facilities available on SPAN. The utilities described within reflect an earnest attempt to provide useful descriptions of working utilities that can be used to transfer graphic images across the network. Whether graphic images are representative of satellite servations or theoretical modeling and whether graphics images are of device dependent or independent type, the SPAN graphics display utilities handbook will be the users guide to graphic image exchange.

  6. Big Data and Perioperative Nursing.

    PubMed

    Westra, Bonnie L; Peterson, Jessica J

    2016-10-01

    Big data are large volumes of digital data that can be collected from disparate sources and are challenging to analyze. These data are often described with the five "Vs": volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Perioperative nurses contribute to big data through documentation in the electronic health record during routine surgical care, and these data have implications for clinical decision making, administrative decisions, quality improvement, and big data science. This article explores methods to improve the quality of perioperative nursing data and provides examples of how these data can be combined with broader nursing data for quality improvement. We also discuss a national action plan for nursing knowledge and big data science and how perioperative nurses can engage in collaborative actions to transform health care. Standardized perioperative nursing data has the potential to affect care far beyond the original patient.

  7. The BigBOSS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  8. Strategy Shifts during Learning from Texts and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Ludewig, Ulrich; Ullrich, Mark; Horz, Holger; McElvany, Nele; Baumert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Reading for learning frequently requires integrating text and picture information into coherent knowledge structures. This article presents an experimental study aimed at analyzing the strategies used by students for integrating text and picture information. Four combinations of texts and pictures (text-picture units) were selected from textbooks…

  9. Individual Differences in Distraction by Pictures in a Reading Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Good, normal, and poor third grade readers were required to read easy, moderate, and difficult one-syllable nouns under three conditions: control condition with no pictures, identifying-picture condition, and unrelated-picture condition. Reading performance of poor readers was influenced by pictures under all conditions. Individual differences…

  10. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  11. A synthesis of research on color, typography and graphics as they relate to readability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoreaux, M. E.

    1985-09-01

    A foundation for future research on the use of color, typography, and graphics to improve readability is provided. Articles from the broad fields of education and psychology, as well as from the fields of journalism and printing, have been reviewed for research relating color, typography, and graphics to reading ease, speed, or comprehension. The most relevant articles reviewed are presented in an annoated bibliography; the remaining articles are also presented in bibliographic format. This literature review indicates that recognition and recall of printed material may be improved through the use of headings, underlining, color, and, especially, illustrations. Current research suggests that individuals can remember pictures far longer than past research indicates. However, researchers are divided on the usefulness of illustrations to improve reading comprehension. On the other hand, reading comprehension can be improved through the use of statistical graphs and tables if the reader is properly trained in the use of these devices.

  12. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisi, Stephen, Jr.; Yu, Kristina; Lambertson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The old adage that a picture is worth a thousand words also holds true in cell biology. Much of the knowledge that we have of the structures and functions of cells has been acquired by biologists peering through the eyepieces of microscopes. The point of this lesson is to provide an opportunity for students to observe cell biological data while…

  13. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  14. Learning about Environmental Print through Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes picture books that contain environmental print (print found in the natural environment of a child, such as logos, billboards, and road signs) and how they can be used in the classroom. Includes "ABC Drive!" by Naomi Howland (1994), "The Signmaker's Assistant" by Tedd Arnold (1992), and four others. Also provides a…

  15. Canadian Picture Books in Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of children's literature in social studies instruction and addresses the nature of Canadian children's literature. Provides an annotated list of 14 picture books representing different geographical regions in Canada, reflecting various historical periods, and presenting information on Canadian experiences. Offers Canadian…

  16. Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

  17. Perseverant Responding in Children's Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Josephine; Vitkovitch, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of children were given pictures of animals to name as quickly as they could. The groups comprised 40 nursery aged children (mean age 3 ; 11) and 40 Year 2 children (mean age 6 ; 9) attending primary school in London. The 30 animals were presented one by one, on cards, and any errors made by the children were noted. Consistent with a…

  18. Many Ways to Picture a Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    Some innovations in the images of cells and molecules that keep changing for new techniques and as a result of using new approaches to old methods are explored and new ways of illustrating cell and molecular structures are discussed. The three elements that play an important role in any biological image are aesthetic factors such as picture style…

  19. Aesthetics and Children's Picture-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…

  20. Constructing Meaning in Interaction through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugossy, Réka

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…

  1. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  2. Motion Picture and Videotape Analysis of Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Geoffrey C.; Duvall, David

    1983-01-01

    Use of motion pictures and videotape recordings to analyze animal behavior is described. Indicates that accuracy/amount of data available is greatly increased and that simultaneous behaviors of different animals can be studied or individual behavior patterns increased/decreased, providing observers with temporal perceptions similar to the animals…

  3. Track Picture Book. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; And Others

    This picture book was designed to be used with an Elementary Science Study unit that provides opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Shown within this book are numerous examples of tracks, including those of tires, human beings, animal tracks, and others in various media, such as snow, sand, mud, dust, and cement. (CS)

  4. Teach Physical Science--with Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how teachers in early childhood education and care settings can use children's picture books to teach physical science concepts. Presents activities for toddlers and preschoolers related to the areas of light and optics, sound and music, and machines and power. Includes for each activity a list of materials and instructions for teachers.…

  5. Stimulus Picture Identification in Articulation Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Patricia A.; Whitehead, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Compared with 20 normal speaking and 20 articulation defective Ss (7 and 8 years old) was the percent of correct initial identification of stimulus pictures on the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation with the percent correct identification on the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale. (Author/IM)

  6. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  7. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  8. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  9. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  10. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  11. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced film. (4) Imply endorsement of a product. (5) Permit the use of official Navy seals. (c) Navy... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  12. The Work of the Motion Picture Cameraman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Freddie; Petzold, Paul

    Meant to serve as an authoritative source of information on camera work in large scale feature productions, this book attempts to give some basic understanding of the problems of motion picture photography, the working conditions and artistry of lighting for mood and dramatic effect, budget problems for making films, and facts about working with a…

  13. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  14. Helping Kids Draw & Write Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Emily; Thurman, Mark

    The eight stages of storyboarding described in this book will help children design original picture books with illustrations and creative stories. The 24-frame storyboarding technique described in the book forces the young author/illustrator to jump right into the story, select only the most essential aspects of the plot, and describe the actions…

  15. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  16. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  17. Powering Big Data for Nursing Through Partnership.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ellen M; Parkerson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data Principles Workgroup (Workgroup) was established with support of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Building on the Triple Aim challenge, the Workgroup sought to identify Big Data principles, barriers, and challenges to nurse-sensitive data inclusion into Big Data sets. The product of this pioneering partnership Workgroup was the "Guiding Principles for Big Data in Nursing-Using Big Data to Improve the Quality of Care and Outcomes."

  18. Medical workstation design: enhancing graphical interface with 3D anatomical atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Grant, Ellen

    1997-05-01

    The huge data archive of the UCSF Hospital Integrated Picture Archiving and Communication System gives healthcare providers access to diverse kinds of images and text for diagnosis and patient management. Given the mass of information accessible, however, conventional graphical user interface (GUI) approach overwhelms the user with forms, menus, fields, lists, and other widgets and causes 'information overloading.' This article describes a new approach that complements the conventional GUI with 3D anatomical atlases and presents the usefulness of this approach with a clinical neuroimaging application.

  19. Data Analysis with Graphical Models: Software Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models (directed and undirected Markov fields, and combined in chain graphs) are used widely in expert systems, image processing and other areas as a framework for representing and reasoning with probabilities. They come with corresponding algorithms for performing probabilistic inference. This paper discusses an extension to these models by Spiegelhalter and Gilks, plates, used to graphically model the notion of a sample. This offers a graphical specification language for representing data analysis problems. When combined with general methods for statistical inference, this also offers a unifying framework for prototyping and/or generating data analysis algorithms from graphical specifications. This paper outlines the framework and then presents some basic tools for the task: a graphical version of the Pitman-Koopman Theorem for the exponential family, problem decomposition, and the calculation of exact Bayes factors. Other tools already developed, such as automatic differentiation, Gibbs sampling, and use of the EM algorithm, make this a broad basis for the generation of data analysis software.

  20. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-04-15

    We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

  1. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or..., graphic, or sculptural authorship. (b) A claim to copyright cannot be registered in a print or...

  2. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or..., graphic, or sculptural authorship. (b) A claim to copyright cannot be registered in a print or...

  3. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or..., graphic, or sculptural authorship. (b) A claim to copyright cannot be registered in a print or...

  4. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or..., graphic, or sculptural authorship. (b) A claim to copyright cannot be registered in a print or...

  5. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or..., graphic, or sculptural authorship. (b) A claim to copyright cannot be registered in a print or...

  6. Engineering Design Graphics: Into the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Meyers, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Graphical plans for construction of machinery and architecture have evolved over the last 6,000 years beginning from hieroglyphics to drawings on printable media, from the "Golden Age" of engineering graphics to the innovation of computer graphics and prototyping. The evolution of engineering design graphics as a profession has also evolved. Years…

  7. A Framework for Mathematics Graphical Tasks: The Influence of the Graphic Element on Student Sense Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.; Logan, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Graphical tasks have become a prominent aspect of mathematics assessment. From a conceptual stance, the purpose of this study was to better understand the composition of graphical tasks commonly used to assess students' mathematics understandings. Through an iterative design, the investigation described the sense making of 11-12-year-olds as they…

  8. Creating Graphic Displays on Non-Graphics Terminals. Technical Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Ken; Heines, Jessie M.

    The interactive system for creating graphic displays that is described is presented as one solution to the problem created by the lack of complementary firmware or software to make the graphic capabilities of many current terminals easily accessible to the instructional programmer. The use of this system by the Digital Equipment Corporation's…

  9. Graphic Novels as Great Books: A Grounded Theory Study of Faculty Teaching Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Boniecki, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    This Glaserian grounded theory study, through conceptual coding of interviews and course syllabi, aimed at exploring the motivations and aspirations university professors had when they offered courses dedicated to the study of graphic novels. As a result, the emergence of the graphic novel as a vital literary influence in 21st-century academia was…

  10. [The importance of full graphic display in a graphic organizer to facilitate discourse comprehension].

    PubMed

    Akio, Suzuki; Shunji, Awazu

    2010-04-01

    In order to examine the importance of fully representing graphic information items in graphic aids to facilitate comprehension of explanatory texts, we established and randomly assigned fifty university students into the following four groups: (a) participants who study the text without the aid, (b) participants who study the text with the aid, whose literal (key words) and graphic (arrows, boxes, etc.) information items are fully displayed, (c) participants who study the text with the aid, whose graphic information items are fully displayed but whose literal information items are partially displayed, and (d) participants who study the text with the aid, whose literal and graphic information items are partially displayed. The results of two kinds of comprehension tests "textbase and situation model" revealed that groups (b) and (c) outperformed groups (a) and (d). These findings suggest that graphic aids can facilitate students' text comprehension when graphic information items are fully displayed and literal information items are displayed either fully or partially; however, the aid cannot facilitate comprehension when both literal and graphic elements are displayed partially.

  11. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.

  12. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  13. Different time course of emotion regulation towards odors and pictures: are odors more potent than pictures?

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed emotion regulation in response to chemosensory and visual stimuli. Using cognitive reappraisal, 40 female participants regulated their emotions in response to disgusting pictures and odors, while the startle reflex was elicited and emotion ratings were assessed. Participants reported feeling less negative, and less aroused, while down-regulating their emotions towards both odors and pictures. Although being rated as equally negative and arousing, odor presentations were accompanied by larger startle responses than picture presentations. Furthermore, as compared to pictures emotion regulation towards odors followed a strikingly different time course suggesting less effective emotion regulation in response to disgusting odors. Questionnaire data show that differences between emotion regulation outcome towards odors was not attributable to different regulation strategies used. Thus, the current data suggest a unique role of olfaction in emotion perception, and show that cognitive emotion regulation - although being generally effective - may also be limited.

  14. Interactive computer graphics: the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    By using interactive computer graphics (ICG) it is possible to discuss the numerical aspects of some arms race issues with more specificity and in a visual way. The number of variables involved in these issues can be quite large; computers operated in the interactive, graphical mode, can allow exploration of the variables, leading to a greater understanding of the issues. This paper will examine some examples of interactive computer graphics: (1) the relationship between silo hardening and the accuracy, yield, and reliability of ICBMs; (2) target vulnerability (Minuteman, Dense Pack); (3) counterforce vs. countervalue weapons; (4) civil defense; (5) gravitational bias error; (6) MIRV; (7) national vulnerability to a preemptive first strike; (8) radioactive fallout; (9) digital-image processing with charge-coupled devices. 17 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  15. Process and representation in graphical displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Lewis, Robert; Rudisill, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    Our initial model of graphic comprehension has focused on statistical graphs. Like other models of human-computer interaction, models of graphical comprehension can be used by human-computer interface designers and developers to create interfaces that present information in an efficient and usable manner. Our investigation of graph comprehension addresses two primary questions: how do people represent the information contained in a data graph?; and how do they process information from the graph? The topics of focus for graphic representation concern the features into which people decompose a graph and the representations of the graph in memory. The issue of processing can be further analyzed as two questions: what overall processing strategies do people use?; and what are the specific processing skills required?

  16. Interactive graphics for functional data analyses.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Julia; Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana Maria; Goldsmith, Jeff

    Although there are established graphics that accompany the most common functional data analyses, generating these graphics for each dataset and analysis can be cumbersome and time consuming. Often, the barriers to visualization inhibit useful exploratory data analyses and prevent the development of intuition for a method and its application to a particular dataset. The refund.shiny package was developed to address these issues for several of the most common functional data analyses. After conducting an analysis, the plot shiny() function is used to generate an interactive visualization environment that contains several distinct graphics, many of which are updated in response to user input. These visualizations reduce the burden of exploratory analyses and can serve as a useful tool for the communication of results to non-statisticians.

  17. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. General-Purpose Software For Computer Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) is general-purpose computer-graphics package for computer-based engineering and management applications which gives opportunity to translate data into effective graphical displays for presentation. Features include two- and three-dimensional plotting, spline and polynomial interpolation, control of blanking of areas, multiple log and/or linear axes, control of legends and text, control of thicknesses of curves, and multiple text fonts. Included are subroutines for definition of areas and axes of plots; setup and display of text; blanking of areas; setup of style, interpolation, and plotting of lines; control of patterns and of shading of colors; control of legends, blocks of text, and characters; initialization of devices; and setting of mixed alphabets. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  19. Graphics supercomputer for computational fluid dynamics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Goang S.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this project is to purchase a state-of-the-art graphics supercomputer to improve the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) research capability at Alabama A & M University (AAMU) and to support the Air Force research projects. A cutting-edge graphics supercomputer system, Onyx VTX, from Silicon Graphics Computer Systems (SGI), was purchased and installed. Other equipment including a desktop personal computer, PC-486 DX2 with a built-in 10-BaseT Ethernet card, a 10-BaseT hub, an Apple Laser Printer Select 360, and a notebook computer from Zenith were also purchased. A reading room has been converted to a research computer lab by adding some furniture and an air conditioning unit in order to provide an appropriate working environments for researchers and the purchase equipment. All the purchased equipment were successfully installed and are fully functional. Several research projects, including two existing Air Force projects, are being performed using these facilities.

  20. Interactive computer graphics applications for compressible aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Three computer applications have been developed to solve inviscid compressible fluids problems using interactive computer graphics. The first application is a compressible flow calculator which solves for isentropic flow, normal shocks, and oblique shocks or centered expansions produced by two dimensional ramps. The second application couples the solutions generated by the first application to a more graphical presentation of the results to produce a desk top simulator of three compressible flow problems: 1) flow past a single compression ramp; 2) flow past two ramps in series; and 3) flow past two opposed ramps. The third application extends the results of the second to produce a design tool which solves for the flow through supersonic external or mixed compression inlets. The applications were originally developed to run on SGI or IBM workstations running GL graphics. They are currently being extended to solve additional types of flow problems and modified to operate on any X-based workstation.

  1. Graphical Model Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William B.

    2002-12-08

    Information processing in sensor networks, with many small processors, demands a theory of computation that allows the minimization of processing effort, and the distribution of this effort throughout the network. Graphical model theory provides a probabilistic theory of computation that explicitly addresses complexity and decentralization for optimizing network computation. The junction tree algorithm, for decentralized inference on graphical probability models, can be instantiated in a variety of applications useful for wireless sensor networks, including: sensor validation and fusion; data compression and channel coding; expert systems, with decentralized data structures, and efficient local queries; pattern classification, and machine learning. Graphical models for these applications are sketched, and a model of dynamic sensor validation and fusion is presented in more depth, to illustrate the junction tree algorithm.

  2. Design considerations for parallel graphics libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Applications which run on parallel supercomputers are often characterized by massive datasets. Converting these vast collections of numbers to visual form has proven to be a powerful aid to comprehension. For a variety of reasons, it may be desirable to provide this visual feedback at runtime. One way to accomplish this is to exploit the available parallelism to perform graphics operations in place. In order to do this, we need appropriate parallel rendering algorithms and library interfaces. This paper provides a tutorial introduction to some of the issues which arise in designing parallel graphics libraries and their underlying rendering algorithms. The focus is on polygon rendering for distributed memory message-passing systems. We illustrate our discussion with examples from PGL, a parallel graphics library which has been developed on the Intel family of parallel systems.

  3. Discussion of medical x-ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  4. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution.

  5. Effect of ambiguities on SAR picture quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korwar, V. N.; Lipes, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The degradation of picture quality is studied for a high-resolution, large-swath SAR mapping system subjected to speckle, additive white Gaussian noise, and range and azimuthal ambiguities occurring because of the non-finite antenna pattern produced by a square aperture antenna. The effect of the azimuth antenna pattern was accounted for by calculating the aximuth ambiguity function. Range ambiguities were accounted for by adding appropriate pixels at a range separation corresponding to one pulse repetition period, but attenuated by the antenna pattern. A method of estimating the range defocussing effect which arises from the azimuth matched filter being a function of range is shown. The resulting simulated picture was compared with one degraded by speckle and noise but no ambiguities. It is concluded that azimuth ambiguities don't cause any noticeable degradation but range ambiguities might.

  6. Restored pictures of ganymede, moon of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Frieden, B R; Swindell, W

    1976-03-26

    Restored pictures of Ganymede have been produced that have some identifiably reliable features and some identifiable artifacts. The latter arise from artifacts in parts of the red image data. Among the presumably reliable features are some mare-like objects (perhaps with some internal structure), and a few rather large, bright rings. Whether the latter are ice, or arise from near-specular reflection from smooth surface features, is left for future investigation. One of the restoring methods used, maximum entropy, has been shown to be applicable to moderately extended images. In view of its short time requirements (30 seconds per picture), the method should be applicable to moderately larger images, for example with twice the given number of data points.

  7. Restored pictures of Ganymede, moon of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieden, B. R.; Swindell, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses results of an attempt to restore two blurred pictures of Ganymede taken by Pioneer 10 through a blue filter and a red filter. The mathematical formulation of the restoration problem is outlined, it is noted that both conventional linear filtering and the maximum-entropy algorithm were employed as restoration techniques, and the two methods are described. The original blurred pictures are reproduced along with the two restorations of each image. The restored images are found to exhibit some mare-like features as well as a few large bright rings, possibly ice ridges. The results obtained with the two restoration techniques are compared, and it is concluded that the maximum-entropy method is more advantageous than linear methods in applications to moderately extended images.

  8. Considerations on Geospatial Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Zhen; GUO, Huadong; WANG, Changlin

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial data, as a significant portion of big data, has recently gained the full attention of researchers. However, few researchers focus on the evolution of geospatial data and its scientific research methodologies. When entering into the big data era, fully understanding the changing research paradigm associated with geospatial data will definitely benefit future research on big data. In this paper, we look deep into these issues by examining the components and features of geospatial big data, reviewing relevant scientific research methodologies, and examining the evolving pattern of geospatial data in the scope of the four ‘science paradigms’. This paper proposes that geospatial big data has significantly shifted the scientific research methodology from ‘hypothesis to data’ to ‘data to questions’ and it is important to explore the generality of growing geospatial data ‘from bottom to top’. Particularly, four research areas that mostly reflect data-driven geospatial research are proposed: spatial correlation, spatial analytics, spatial visualization, and scientific knowledge discovery. It is also pointed out that privacy and quality issues of geospatial data may require more attention in the future. Also, some challenges and thoughts are raised for future discussion.

  9. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  10. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  11. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  12. Software for Data Analysis with Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Roy, H. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models are being used widely in artificial intelligence and statistics, for instance, in diagnosis and expert systems, as a framework for representing and reasoning with probabilities and independencies. They come with corresponding algorithms for performing statistical inference. This offers a unifying framework for prototyping and/or generating data analysis algorithms from graphical specifications. This paper illustrates the framework with an example and then presents some basic techniques for the task: problem decomposition and the calculation of exact Bayes factors. Other tools already developed, such as automatic differentiation, Gibbs sampling, and use of the EM algorithm, make this a broad basis for the generation of data analysis software.

  13. Software Package For Real-Time Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1991-01-01

    Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

  14. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.

  15. Model-based reasoning for system and software engineering: The Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sydney; Paterra, Frank; Henderson, Scott; Truszkowski, Walt

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of current work in the area of graphical modeling and model-based reasoning being undertaken by the Automation Technology Section, Code 522.3, at Goddard. The work was initially motivated by the growing realization that the knowledge acquisition process was a major bottleneck in the generation of fault detection, isolation, and repair (FDIR) systems for application in automated Mission Operations. As with most research activities this work started out with a simple objective: to develop a proof-of-concept system demonstrating that a draft rule-base for a FDIR system could be automatically realized by reasoning from a graphical representation of the system to be monitored. This work was called Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) (Truszkowski et. al. 1992). As the work has successfully progressed the KFP tool has become an environment populated by a set of tools that support a more comprehensive approach to model-based reasoning. This paper continues by giving an overview of the graphical modeling objectives of the work, describing the three tools that now populate the KFP environment, briefly presenting a discussion of related work in the field, and by indicating future directions for the KFP environment.

  16. A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

  17. Ray picture for prism-film coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.; van't Spijker, J. C.; Koerkamp, H. M. M. Klein

    1993-10-01

    Tien and Ulrich introduced a description of the prism-film coupler, with use of the ray picture. The model given is discussed, and it is argued that the effect of the Goss-Hanchen shift cannot be neglected in general. Relatively simple expressions are given for the computation of the coupling efficiency of a prism-loaded planar structure as a function of the angle of incidence of the incoming beam. Computational results are presented and compared with those of other methods.

  18. Childhood Picture of Dr. von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1912-01-01

    This is a childhood picture of Dr. von Braun (center) with his brothers. Dr. Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, Germany, March 23, 1912. His childhood dreams of marned space flight were fulfilled when giant Saturn rockets, developed under his direction at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, boosted the manned Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. His life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.

  19. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  20. Deceiving the brain: pictures and visual perception.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Pictures deceive the brain: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between pictorial images (the contents of pictures) and objects are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from a pictorial image, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between image and object. Pictorial images can be spatialized or stylized; spatialized images (like photographs) generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also images but they do not resemble the objects they represent--they are stylized or conventional. Pictures can also be illusions--deceptions of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Most of visual science is now concerned with pictorial images--two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of deception?