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Sample records for graphite design gatlinburg

  1. 15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon Forge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. Gatlinburg conference: barometer of progress in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shults, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the field of analytical chemistry over the past twenty-five years. The AEC-ERDA-DOE family of laboratories contributed greatly to this progress. It is not surprising then to find a close correlation between program content of past Gatlinburg conferences and developments in analytical methodology. These conferences have proved to be a barometer of technical status.

  3. AESOP XX: summary of proceedings. [Gatlinburg, Tennessee, April 24 to 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    The 20th meeting of the Association for Energy Systems, Operations, and Programming (AESOP) was held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, on April 24 to 26, 1979. Representatives of DOE Headquarters discussed the effects that new security and privacy regulations will have on automatic data processing operations. The status and future possibilities of the Business Management Information System (BMIS) were also discussed. Then representatives of various DOE offices and contractors presented reports on various topics. This report contains two-page summaries of the papers presented at the meeting. Session topics and titles of papers were as follows: Washington report (New ADP issues; BMIS: the Business Management Information System; Nuclear weapons and the computer); Improving the productivity of the computing analyst/programer (What productivity improvement tools are available; Rocky Flats experience with SDM/70; Albuquerque Operations Office experience with SDM/70; Planning and project management; Minicomputer standards and programer productivity; MRC productivity gains through applications development tools); User viewpoints and expectations of data processing (User perspectives on computer applications; User viewpoints on environmental studies; Planning and implementing a procurement system; Two sides of the DP coin); Data base management (Use of data base systems within DOE; Future trends in data base hardware; Future trends in data base software; Toward automating the data base design process); and Management discussions. Complete versions of three of the papers have already been cited in ERA. These can be located by reference to the entry CONF-790431-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  4. Design for a Unitary Graphite Composite Instrument Boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Wes; Carlos, Rene; Sturm, James; Rossoni, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development of a Unitary graphite composite instrument boom that incorporates carpenter-tape like hinges for stowage. While light and stiff, graphite composite is not ordinarily thought of as a flexible material. This design has taken advantage of the stiffness of the composite in tubular geometry, yet leveraged its thin- section behavior to place flexibility at the required locations. Key is the proprietary layup, which results in a tough yet flexible hinge capable of rotating over 90 degrees in each direction. When the boom deploys, there is enough torque to overcome parasitic resistance from harness, etc. It will snap to the fully extended, rigid shape. The design has addressed materials issues such as out-of-plane bending, edge cracking, and interlaminar ply separation.

  5. Development of design data for graphite reinforced epoxy and polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheck, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques and design data were characterized for a graphite/epoxy composite system that is useful from 75 K to 450 K, and a graphite/polyimide composite system that is useful from 75 K to 589 K. The Monsanto 710 polyimide resin was selected as the resin to be characterized and used with the graphite fiber reinforcement. Material was purchased using the prepreg specification for the design data generation for both the HT-S/710 and HM-S/710 graphite/polyimide composite system. Lamina and laminate properties were determined at 75 K, 297 K, and 589 K. The test results obtained on the skin-stringer components proved that graphite/polyimide composites can be reliably designed and analyzed much like graphite/epoxy composites. The design data generated in the program includes the standard static mechanical properties, biaxial strain data, creep, fatigue, aging, and thick laminate data.

  6. Designing a TAC thermometer from a VHTR graphite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.; Kotter, Dale; Garrett, Steven L.; Ali, Randall A.

    2015-03-01

    The interior of a nuclear reactor presents a particularly harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to high temperatures and high fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles among the radioactive decay products. Very High Temperature Reactors are pushing the in core temperatures even higher. A unique sensing approach will be discussed to address the necessary high temperature measurements. Thermoacoustic thermometry exploits high temperatures and uses materials that are immune to the effects of ionizing radiation to create a temperature sensor that is self-powered and wireless. In addition, the form-factor for the Thermoacoustic Thermometer (TACT) can be designed to be integrated within common in-pile structures. There are no physical moving parts required for TACT and the sensor is self-powered, as it uses the nuclear fuel for its heat source. TACT data will be presented from a laboratory prototype mimicking the design necessary for a VHTR graphite structure.

  7. Designing a TAC thermometer from a VHTR graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James A. Kotter, Dale; Garrett, Steven L.; Ali, Randall A.

    2015-03-31

    The interior of a nuclear reactor presents a particularly harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to high temperatures and high fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles among the radioactive decay products. Very High Temperature Reactors are pushing the in core temperatures even higher. A unique sensing approach will be discussed to address the necessary high temperature measurements. Thermoacoustic thermometry exploits high temperatures and uses materials that are immune to the effects of ionizing radiation to create a temperature sensor that is self-powered and wireless. In addition, the form-factor for the Thermoacoustic Thermometer (TACT) can be designed to be integrated within common in-pile structures. There are no physical moving parts required for TACT and the sensor is self-powered, as it uses the nuclear fuel for its heat source. TACT data will be presented from a laboratory prototype mimicking the design necessary for a VHTR graphite structure.

  8. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite.

    PubMed

    Strativnov, Eugene V

    2015-12-01

    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  9. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strativnov, Eugene V.

    2015-05-01

    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  10. Development of design allowable data for Celion 6000/LARC-160, graphite/polyimide composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, R. M.; Scanlan, P. R.; Rosen, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 6000/LARC-160 graphite polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Tension, compression, in-plane shear and short beam shear properties were determined for uniaxial, quasi-isotropic and + or - 45 deg laminates. Effects of thermal aging and moisture saturation on mechanical properties were also evaluated. Celion 6000/LARC-160 graphite/polyimide can be considered an acceptable material system for structural applications to 589 K (600 F).

  11. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/epoxy metering truss structure components, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design, materials, tooling, manufacturing processes, quality control, test procedures, and results associated with the fabrication and test of graphite/epoxy metering truss structure components exhibiting a near zero coefficient of thermal expansion are described. Analytical methods were utilized, with the aid of a computer program, to define the most efficient laminate configurations in terms of thermal behavior and structural requirements. This was followed by an extensive material characterization and selection program, conducted for several graphite/graphite/hybrid laminate systems to obtain experimental data in support of the analytical predictions. Mechanical property tests as well as the coefficient of thermal expansion tests were run on each laminate under study, the results of which were used as the selection criteria for the single most promising laminate. Further coefficient of thermal expansion measurement was successfully performed on three subcomponent tubes utilizing the selected laminate.

  12. Saturated Fractional Design of Experiments: Toughness and Graphite Phase Optimizing in Nihard Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Lozano, J.; Álvarez-Antolín, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to identify the manufacturing factors that exert an active influence on the graphite phase formation in mottled Nihard cast irons constituting the roll shells of duplex work rolls processed by the double pour method during centrifugal casting. The studied rolls, referred to as alloy indefinite chill, were processed at industrial scale and had a core consisting of spheroidal graphite cast iron with a matrix of ferrite and pearlite. An additional aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and extent of these factors on the dynamic toughness response of the roll shell material. The research methodology employed consisted of the application of a saturated design of experiments with seven factors, eight experiments, and resolution III. The measured responses for graphite were: the volume fraction, count number per unit area, and morphology, determined by quantitative metallography. Impact testing was characterized by Charpy tests on U-notched specimens at 350 °C. The manufacturing factors studied were: the final weight percent of silicon, sulfur, and manganese; the liquidus and the casting temperatures; and, finally, inoculation with SiCaMn and A-type FeSi (with Zr). The statistical experimental method conducted allowed us to confirm the significance of factors such as the %Si, the liquidus temperature and inoculation with SiCaMn on the precipitation of graphite in a white cast iron such as the Nihard irons used in the roll shell, in agreement with the precipitation of graphite in gray cast irons widely reported in the literature. It was also shown that the development of lamellar graphite shapes were favored by an increase in the total equivalent carbon and also by the increase in the amount of A-type FeSi added. Furthermore, the impact toughness was shown to improve with the increase in both the %Si and the liquidus temperature.

  13. Analysis on Thermal Conductivity of Graphite/Al Composite by Experimental and Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, C.; Bai, H.; Tao, P. F.; Jiang, N.; Wang, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphite/Al composites were fabricated by vacuum hot pressing technology in this study. The main factors affecting the thermal conductivity (TC) of graphite/Al composites were deeply investigated by experimental and modeling study. The results showed that the TC of graphite/Al composite can be improved via designing the preferred orientation of graphite flakes, selecting graphite flakes with large diameter, increasing the content of graphite flakes in graphite/Al composite and solving the poor wettability between Al and graphite. The modified model can well predict the heat transfer behavior of graphite/Al composite.

  14. Brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Graphite is joined to graphite by employing both fine molybdenum powder as the brazing material and an annealing step that together produce a virtually metal-free joint exhibiting properties similar to those found in the parent graphite. Molybdenum powder is placed between the faying surfaces of two graphite parts and melted to form molybdenum carbide. The joint area is thereafter subjected to an annealing operation which diffuses the carbide away from the joint and into the graphite parts. Graphite dissolved by the dispersed molybdenum carbide precipitates into the joint area, replacing the molybdenum carbide to provide a joint of virtually graphite.

  15. Design, fabrication, and test of a graphite/epoxy metering truss. [as applied to the LST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; Skoumal, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A graphite/epoxy metering truss as applied to the large space telescope was investigated. A full-scale truss was designed, fabricated and tested. Tests included static limit loadings, a modal survey and thermal-vacuum distortion evaluation. The most critical requirement was the demonstration of the dimensional stability provided by the graphite/epoxy truss concept. Crucial to the attainment of this objective was the ability to make very sophisticated thermal growth measurements which was provided by a seven beam laser interferometer. The design of the basic truss elements were tuned to provide the high degree of dimensional stability and stiffness required by the truss. The struts and spider assembly were fabricated with Fiberite's AS/934 and HMS/934 broadgoods. The rings utilized T300 graphite fabricate with the same materials. The predicted performance of the truss was developed using the NASTRAN program. These results showed conformance with the critical stiffness and thermal distortion requirements and correlated well with the test results.

  16. Conceptual design of a high throughput electrorefining of a uranium by using graphite cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; Kang, Y.H.; Hwang, S.C.; Park, S.B.; Shim, J.B.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, E.H.; Park, S.W.

    2007-07-01

    Conceptual designing of a high throughput electro-refiner was performed by using basic experimental data and a commercial computational fluid dynamic code, CFX. An electro-refiner concept equipped with a graphite cathode bundle was designed to recover a high purity uranium product continuously without a noble metal contamination. The performance of the process for a decontamination of a noble metal in a uranium product was evaluated as a function of the process parameters such as the rotation speeds of the stirrer and the anode basket. (authors)

  17. Controlling the number of graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite by designed normal loading and frictional motion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2014-07-14

    We use molecular dynamics to study the exfoliation of patterned nanometer-sized graphite under various normal loading conditions for friction-induced exfoliation. Using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as both amorphous and crystalline SiO{sub 2} substrate as example systems, we show that the exfoliation process is attributed to the corrugation of the HOPG surface and the atomistic roughness of the substrate when they contact under normal loading. The critical normal strain, at which the exfoliation occurs, is higher on a crystalline substrate than on an amorphous substrate. This effect is related to the atomistic flatness and stiffness of the crystalline surface. We observe that an increase of the van der Waals interaction between the graphite and the substrate results in a decrease of the critical normal strain for exfoliation. We find that the magnitude of the normal strain can effectively control the number of exfoliated graphene layers. This mechanism suggests a promising approach of applying designed normal loading while sliding to pattern controlled number of graphene layers or other two-dimensional materials on a substrate surface.

  18. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints is reported. The program consists of two concurrent tasks: (1) design and test of specific built up attachments; and (2) evaluation of standard advanced bonded joint concepts. A data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550 deg F)) to design concepts for specific joining applications, and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints are evaluated. Data for design and build GR/PI of lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Results for compression and interlaminar shear strengths of Celion 6000/PMR-15 laminates are given. Static discriminator test results for type 3 and type 4 bonded and bolted joints and final joint designs for TASK 1.4 scale up fabrication and testing are presented.

  19. Design and fabrication of graphite-epoxy bolted wing skin splice specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy bolted joint specimens were designed and fabricated. These specimens were to be representative of a side-of-body wing skin splice with a 20-year life expectancy in a commercial transport environment. Preliminary tests were performed to determine design values of bearing and net tension stresses. Based upon the information developed, a three-fastener-wide representative wing skin splice was designed for a load of 2627 KN/m (15,000 lbf/in.). One joint specimen was fabricated and tested at NASA. The wing skin splice failed at 106 percent of design ultimate load. This joint design achieved all static load objectives. Fabrication of six specimens, together with their loading fixtures, was completed, and the specimens were delivered to NASA-LRC.

  20. Design fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI) bolted and bonded joints were investigated. Possible failure modes and the design loads for the four generic joint types are discussed. Preliminary sizing of a type 1 joint, bonded and bolted configuration is described, including assumptions regarding material properties and sizing methodology. A general purpose finite element computer code is described that was formulated to analyze single and double lap joints, with and without tapered adherends, and with user-controlled variable element size arrangements. An initial order of Celion 6000/PMR-15 prepreg was received and characterized.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Ring-Stiffened Graphite-Epoxy Corrugated Cylindrical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Design and fabrication of supplement test panels that represent key portions of the cylinder are described, as are supporting tests of coupons, sample joints, and stiffening ring elements. The cylindrical shell is a ring-stiffened, open corrugation design that uses T300/5208 graphite-epoxy tape as the basic material for the shell wall and stiffening rings. The test cylinder is designed to withstand bending loads producing the relatively low maximum load intensity in the shell wall of 1,576 N/cm. The resulting shell wall weight, including stiffening rings and fasteners, is 0.0156 kg/m. The shell weight achieved in the graphite-epoxy cylinder represents a weight saving of approximately 23 percent, compared to a comparable aluminum shell. A unique fabrication approach was used in which the cylinder wall was built in three flat segments, which were then wrapped to the cylindrical shape. Such an approach, made possible by the flexibility of the thin corrugated wall in a radial direction, proved to be a simple approach to building the test cylinder. Based on tooling and fabrication methods in this program, the projected costs of a production run of 100 units are reported.

  2. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  3. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  4. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments. [spacecraft control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design, analysis, and testing performed to develop four types of graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI) bonded and bolted composite joints for lightly loaded control surfaces on advanced space transportation systems that operate at temperatures up to 561 K (550 F) are summarized. Material properties and small specimen tests were conducted to establish design data and to evaluate specific design details. Static discriminator tests were conducted on preliminary designs to verify structural adequacy. Scaled up specimens of the final joint designs, representative of production size requirements, were subjected to a series of static and fatigue tests to evaluate joint strength. Effects of environmental conditioning were determined by testing aged (125 hours at 589 K (600 F)) and thermal cycled (116 K to 589 K (-250 F to 600 F), 125 times) specimens. It is concluded Gr/PI joints can be designed and fabricated to carry the specified loads. Test results also indicate a possible resin loss or degradation of laminates after exposure to 589 K (600 F) for 125 hours.

  5. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polymide composite joints and attachments: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The design, analysis and testing performed to develop four types of graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI) bonded and bolted composite joints for lightly loaded control surfaces on advanced space transportation systems that operate at temperatures up to 561K (550 F) are summarized. Material properties and 'small specimen' tests were conducted to establish design data and to evaluate specific design details. 'Static discriminator' tests were conducted on preliminary designs to verify structural adequacy. Scaled up specimens of the final joint designs, representative of production size requirements, were subjected to a series of static and fatigue tests to evaluate joint strength. Effects of environmental conditioning were determined by testing aged (125 hours 589K (600 F)) and thermal cycled (116K to 589K (-250 F to 600 F), 125 times) specimens. It is concluded Gr/PI joints can be designed and fabricated to carry the specified loads. Test results also indicate a possible resin loss or degradation of laminates after exposure to 589K (600 F) for 125 hours.

  6. Molecular design driving tetraporphyrin self-assembly on graphite: a joint STM, electrochemical and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Garah, M.; Santana Bonilla, A.; Ciesielski, A.; Gualandi, A.; Mengozzi, L.; Fiorani, A.; Iurlo, M.; Marcaccio, M.; Gutierrez, R.; Rapino, S.; Calvaresi, M.; Zerbetto, F.; Cuniberti, G.; Cozzi, P. G.; Paolucci, F.; Samorì, P.

    2016-07-01

    Tuning the intermolecular interactions among suitably designed molecules forming highly ordered self-assembled monolayers is a viable approach to control their organization at the supramolecular level. Such a tuning is particularly important when applied to sophisticated molecules combining functional units which possess specific electronic properties, such as electron/energy transfer, in order to develop multifunctional systems. Here we have synthesized two tetraferrocene-porphyrin derivatives that by design can selectively self-assemble at the graphite/liquid interface into either face-on or edge-on monolayer-thick architectures. The former supramolecular arrangement consists of two-dimensional planar networks based on hydrogen bonding among adjacent molecules whereas the latter relies on columnar assembly generated through intermolecular van der Waals interactions. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) at the solid-liquid interface has been corroborated by cyclic voltammetry measurements and assessed by theoretical calculations to gain multiscale insight into the arrangement of the molecule with respect to the basal plane of the surface. The STM analysis allowed the visualization of these assemblies with a sub-nanometer resolution, and cyclic voltammetry measurements provided direct evidence of the interactions of porphyrin and ferrocene with the graphite surface and offered also insight into the dynamics within the face-on and edge-on assemblies. The experimental findings were supported by theoretical calculations to shed light on the electronic and other physical properties of both assemblies. The capability to engineer the functional nanopatterns through self-assembly of porphyrins containing ferrocene units is a key step toward the bottom-up construction of multifunctional molecular nanostructures and nanodevices.Tuning the intermolecular interactions among suitably designed molecules forming highly ordered self-assembled monolayers is a viable approach to

  7. Molecular design driving tetraporphyrin self-assembly on graphite: a joint STM, electrochemical and computational study.

    PubMed

    El Garah, M; Santana Bonilla, A; Ciesielski, A; Gualandi, A; Mengozzi, L; Fiorani, A; Iurlo, M; Marcaccio, M; Gutierrez, R; Rapino, S; Calvaresi, M; Zerbetto, F; Cuniberti, G; Cozzi, P G; Paolucci, F; Samorì, P

    2016-07-14

    Tuning the intermolecular interactions among suitably designed molecules forming highly ordered self-assembled monolayers is a viable approach to control their organization at the supramolecular level. Such a tuning is particularly important when applied to sophisticated molecules combining functional units which possess specific electronic properties, such as electron/energy transfer, in order to develop multifunctional systems. Here we have synthesized two tetraferrocene-porphyrin derivatives that by design can selectively self-assemble at the graphite/liquid interface into either face-on or edge-on monolayer-thick architectures. The former supramolecular arrangement consists of two-dimensional planar networks based on hydrogen bonding among adjacent molecules whereas the latter relies on columnar assembly generated through intermolecular van der Waals interactions. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) at the solid-liquid interface has been corroborated by cyclic voltammetry measurements and assessed by theoretical calculations to gain multiscale insight into the arrangement of the molecule with respect to the basal plane of the surface. The STM analysis allowed the visualization of these assemblies with a sub-nanometer resolution, and cyclic voltammetry measurements provided direct evidence of the interactions of porphyrin and ferrocene with the graphite surface and offered also insight into the dynamics within the face-on and edge-on assemblies. The experimental findings were supported by theoretical calculations to shed light on the electronic and other physical properties of both assemblies. The capability to engineer the functional nanopatterns through self-assembly of porphyrins containing ferrocene units is a key step toward the bottom-up construction of multifunctional molecular nanostructures and nanodevices.

  8. Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any

  9. Design Allowables Test Program, Celion 3000/PMR-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15, Graphite/Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.

    1982-01-01

    A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 3000/PRM-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Effects of aging, thermal cycling and moisture were also evaluated. Tension, compression and in plane shear properties were determined for uniaxial, pseudoisotropic and +45 laminates. Test results show sufficient strength and stiffness to substantiate graphite/polyimide composites as an acceptable structural material for high temperature structural applications.

  10. Design and test of a graphite target system for in-flight fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. G.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2014-07-01

    A graphite target system to produce rare isotope beams using in-flight fragmentation method has been designed for the rare isotope science project in Korea. A main primary beam to bombard the target is 238U in the energy of 200 MeV/u with a maximum power of 400 kW, in which the beam power deposit on the target amounts up to 100 kW. A multi-slice target concept was adopted to enhance radiation cooling effect. A finite element program ANSYS was used to analyze thermo-mechanical behavior of a single and multi-slice targets. To validate the design, an electron beam at the energy of 50 keV was used to test a single slice target. A good agreement of the hot spot temperature was achieved between the simulation and measurement. For multi-slice targets a series of ANSYS analysis was performed in search of the optimal design. Target design parameters for the isotope beam production, which can sustain an incident 400-kW 238U beam, have been found.

  11. Neutronic analysis of graphite-moderated solid breeder design for INTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of the INTOR tritium-production-blanket design is presented. A ternary system of solid silicate breeder, lead neutron multiplier, and graphite moderator is explored primary from safety and blanket tritium-inventory considerations. Lithium-silicate (Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/) breeder systems are studied along with water (H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O) and Type 316 stainless steel as coolant and structural material, respectively. The analysis examines the neutronics effects on tritium-production regarding: (1) coolant choice; (2) moderator choice; (3) moderator location; (4) multiplier thickness; (5) /sup 6/Li enrichment; and (6) /sup 6/Li burnup. The tritium-breeding-blanket modules are located at the top, outboard, and bottom (outer) parts of the torus, resulting in a breeding coverage of approx. 60% at the first-wall surface. It is found that the reference INTOR design yields, based on a three-dimensional analysis, a net tritium breeding ratio (BR) of approx. 0.65 at the beginning of reactor operation, satisfying the design criterion of BR > 0.6.

  12. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

  13. Material Based Structure Design: Numerical Analysis Thermodynamic Response of Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite /Al Sandwich Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxia; Yan, Shilin; Yu, Dingshan

    2016-12-01

    Amine-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based thermally conductive adhesive (TCA) was studied in the previous paper and applied here in thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG)/Al radiator due to its high thermal conductivity, toughness and cohesiveness. In this paper, in an attempt to confirm the application of TCA to TPG/Al sandwich radiator, the thermodynamic response in TPG/Al sandwich composites associated with key material properties and structural design was investigated using finite element simulation with commercial available ANSYS software. The induced thermal stress in TCA layer is substantial due to the thermal expansion mismatch between Al plate and TPG. The maximum thermal stress is located near the edge of TCA layer with the von Mises stress value of 4.02 MPa and the shear stress value of 1.66 MPa. The reasonable adjustment of physical-mechanical properties including thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young,s modulus and the thickness of TCA layer, Al plate and TPG are beneficial for reducing the temperature of the top surface of the upper skin and their effects on the reduction of thermal structural response in some ways. These findings will highlight the structural optimization of TPG/Al radiator for future application.

  14. Visible-Light-Responsive Graphitic Carbon Nitride: Rational Design and Photocatalytic Applications for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qinmin; Durkin, David P; Elenewski, Justin E; Sun, Yingxue; Banek, Nathan A; Hua, Likun; Chen, Hanning; Wagner, Michael J; Zhang, Wen; Shuai, Danmeng

    2016-12-06

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has recently emerged as a promising visible-light-responsive polymeric photocatalyst; however, a molecular-level understanding of material properties and its application for water purification were underexplored. In this study, we rationally designed nonmetal doped, supramolecule-based g-C3N4 with improved surface area and charge separation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations indicated that carbon-doped g-C3N4 showed a thermodynamically stable structure, promoted charge separation, and had suitable energy levels of conduction and valence bands for photocatalytic oxidation compared to phosphorus-doped g-C3N4. The optimized carbon-doped, supramolecule-based g-C3N4 showed a reaction rate enhancement of 2.3-10.5-fold for the degradation of phenol and persistent organic micropollutants compared to that of conventional, melamine-based g-C3N4 in a model buffer system under the irradiation of simulated visible sunlight. Carbon-doping but not phosphorus-doping improved reactivity for contaminant degradation in agreement with DFT simulation results. Selective contaminant degradation was observed on g-C3N4, likely due to differences in reactive oxygen species production and/or contaminant-photocatalyst interfacial interactions on different g-C3N4 samples. Moreover, g-C3N4 is a robust photocatalyst for contaminant degradation in raw natural water and (partially) treated water and wastewater. In summary, DFT simulations are a viable tool to predict photocatalyst properties and oxidation performance for contaminant removal, and they guide the rational design, fabrication, and implementation of visible-light-responsive g-C3N4 for efficient, robust, and sustainable water treatment.

  15. Graphite on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    We propose potential geometry for fabrication of the graphite sheets with atomically smooth edges. For such sheets with Bernal stacking, the electron-electron interaction and topology should cause sufficiently high density of states resulting in the high temperature of either spin ordering or superconducting pairing.

  16. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  17. Design and Fabrication of E-Glass /carbon/graphite epoxy hybrid composite leaf spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.; Raja, M.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Gnanavel, C.

    2017-03-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown increase interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of composite leaf spring. Substituting composite materials for conventional metallic materials has many advantages because of higher specific stiffness, strength and fatigue resistance etc. This work deals with the replacement of conventional steel leaf spring with a hybrid Composite leaf spring using E -Glass/Carbon/Graphite/Epoxy. The hybrid composite is obtained by introducing more than one fiber in the reinforcement phase. The hybrid composite is fabricated by the vacuum bag technique. The result shows that introduction of carbon and graphite fiber in the reinforcement phase increases the stiffness of the composite.

  18. Design, fabrication and performance of small, graphite electrode, multistage depressed collectors with 200-W, CW, 8- to 18-GHz traveling-wave tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Ramins, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Small multistage depressed collectors (MDC's) which used pyrolytic graphite, ion-beam-textured pyrolytic graphite, and isotropic graphite electrodes were designed, fabricated, and evaluated in conjuntion with 200-W, continuous wave (CW), 8- to 18-GHz traveling-wave tubes (TWT's). The design, construction, and performance of the MDC's are described. The bakeout performance of the collectors, in terms of gas evolution, was indistinguishable from that of typical production tubes with copper collectors. However, preliminary results indicate that some additional radiofrequency (RF) and dc beam processing time (and/or longer or higher temperature bakeouts) may be needed beyond that of typical copper electrode collectors. This is particularly true for pyrolytic graphite electrodes and for TWT's without appendage ion pumps. Extended testing indicated good long-term stability of the textured pyrolytic graphite and isotropic graphite electrode surfaces. The isotropic graphite in particular showed considerable promise as an MDC electrode material because of its high purity, low cost, simple construction, potential for very compact overall size, and relatively low secondary electron emission yield characteristics in the as-machined state. However, considerably more testing experience is required before definitive conclusions on its suitability for electronic countermeasure systems and space TWT's can be made.

  19. Optimum design of swept-forward high-aspect-ration graphite-epoxy wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Campbell, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical investigation of a swept-forward high-aspect-ratio graphite-epoxy transport wing is described. The objectives of this investigation are to illustrate an effective usage of the unique properties of composite materials by exploiting material tailoring and to demonstrate an integrated multidisciplinary approach for conducting this investigation.

  20. Self-assembled monolayers of shape-persistent macrocycles on graphite: interior design and conformational polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vollmeyer, Joscha; Eberhagen, Friederike; Höger, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three shape-persistent naphthylene–phenylene–acetylene macrocycles of identical backbone structures and extraannular substitution patterns but different (empty, apolar, polar) nanopore fillings are self-assembled at the solid/liquid interface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. Submolecularly resolved images of the resulting two-dimensional (2D) crystalline monolayer patterns are obtained by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. A concentration-dependent conformational polymorphism is found, and open and more dense packing motifs are observed. For all three compounds alike lattice parameters are found, therefore the intermolecular macrocycle distances are mainly determined by their size and symmetry. This is an excellent example that the graphite acts as a template for the macrocycle organization independent from their specific interior. PMID:25550743

  1. GRAPHITE EXTRUSIONS

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, T.M.

    1959-01-20

    A new lubricant for graphite extrusion is described. In the past, graphite extrusion mixtures have bcen composed of coke or carbon black, together with a carbonaceous binder such as coal tar pitch, and a lubricant such as petrolatum or a colloidal suspension of graphite in glycerin or oil. Sinee sueh a lubricant is not soluble in, or compatible with the biiider liquid, such mixtures were difficult to extrude, and thc formed pieees lacked strength. This patent teaches tbe use of fatty acids as graphite extrusion lubricants and definite improvemcnts are realized thereby since the fatty acids are soluble in the binder liquid.

  2. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; R. Bratton

    2007-09-01

    This technology development plan is designed to provide a clear understanding of the research and development direction necessary for the qualification of nuclear grade graphite for use within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor. The NGNP will be a helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Considerable effort will be required to ensure that the graphite performance is not compromised during operation. Based upon the perceived requirements the major data needs are outlined and justified from the perspective of reactor design, reatcor performance, or the reactor safety case. The path forward for technology development can then be easily determined for each data need. How the data will be obtained and the inter-relationships between the experimental and modeling activities will define the technology development for graphite R&D. Finally, the variables affecting this R&D program are discussed from a general perspective. Factors that can significantly affect the R&D program such as funding, schedules, available resources, multiple reactor designs, and graphite acquisition are analyzed.

  3. Design, fabrication, and test of a Graphite/Epoxy Metering Shell (GEMS). [for the large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A program to design, fabricate and test a dimensionally stable metering structure in support of the large space telescope (LST) program is discussed. Graphite/epoxy was the material selected as the only viable candidate material which can meet the stringent thermal expansion criteria of the LST. A metering shell was designed and fabricated, with emphasis on dimensional stability in conjunction with low cost. Thermal expansion test coupons extracted from the layups of the skin panels indicated the attainment of a coefficient of thermal expansion of 0.0666 micrometers/m K. Subsequent thermal vacuum chamber tests on the complete metering shell demonstrated an expansion of the 2.95-meter overall length of 0.27 micrometers/K. Static and dynamics tests, which demonstrated adequacy with respect to limit loads and stiffness, were also accomplished.

  4. Graphite Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, B. T.

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory measurements are used to constrain the dielectric tensor for graphite, from microwave to X-ray frequencies. The dielectric tensor is strongly anisotropic even at X-ray energies. The discrete dipole approximation is employed for accurate calculations of absorption and scattering by single-crystal graphite spheres and spheroids. For randomly oriented single-crystal grains, the so-called 1/3{--}2/3 approximation for calculating absorption and scattering cross sections is exact in the limit a/λ \\to 0 and provides better than ∼10% accuracy in the optical and UV even when a/λ is not small, but becomes increasingly inaccurate at infrared wavelengths, with errors as large as ∼40% at λ =10 μ {{m}}. For turbostratic graphite grains, the Bruggeman and Maxwell Garnett treatments yield similar cross sections in the optical and ultraviolet, but diverge in the infrared, with predicted cross sections differing by over an order of magnitude in the far-infrared. It is argued that the Maxwell Garnett estimate is likely to be more realistic, and is recommended. The out-of-plane lattice resonance of graphite near 11.5 μm may be observable in absorption with the MIRI spectrograph on James Webb Space Telescope. Aligned graphite grains, if present in the interstellar medium, could produce polarized X-ray absorption and polarized X-ray scattering near the carbon K edge.

  5. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Principal program activities dealt with the literature survey, design of joint concepts, assessment of GR/PI material quality, fabrication of test panels and specimens, and small specimen testing. Bonded and bolted designs are presented for each of the four major attachment types. Quality control data are presented for prepreg Lots 2W4651 and 3W2020. Preliminary design allowables test results for tension tests and compression tests of laminates are also presented.

  6. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koumal, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The design and evaluation of built-up attachments and bonded joint concepts for use at elevated temperatures is documented. Joint concept screening, verification of GR/PI material, fabrication of design allowables panels, definition of test matrices, and analysis of bonded and bolted joints are among the tasks completed. The results provide data for the design and fabrication of lightly loaded components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft.

  7. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  8. Design, Fabrication and Test of Graphite/Polyimide Composite Joints and Attachments for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Standard and advanced bonded joint concepts were evaluated to develop a data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550F)). Design concepts for specific joint applications and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints were identified. Test results are presented for rail shear and sandwich beam compression tests and tension tests of moisture conditioned specimens and bonded on "T" sections. Coefficients of thermal expansion data are presented for A7F (LARC 13 Amide-imide modified) adhesion. Static discriminator test results for type 1 and type 2 bonded and bolted preliminary attachment concepts are presented and discussed.

  9. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoumal, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Bonded and bolted designs are presented for each of four major attachment types. Prepreg processing problems are discussed and quality control data are given for lots 2W4604, 2W4632 and 2W4643. Preliminary design allowables test results for tension tests and compression tests of laminates are included. The final small specimen test matrix is defined and the configuration of symmetric step-lap joint specimens are shown. Finite element modeling studies of a double lap joint were performed to evaluate the number of elements required through the adhesive thickness to assess effects of various joint parameters on stress distributions. Results of finite element analyses assessing the effect of an adhesive fillet on the stress distribution in a double lap joint are examined.

  10. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  11. Graphitic design: prospects of graphene-based nanocomposites for solar energy conversion, storage, and sensing.

    PubMed

    Lightcap, Ian V; Kamat, Prashant V

    2013-10-15

    Graphene not only possesses interesting electrochemical behavior but also has a remarkable surface area and mechanical strength and is naturally abundant, all advantageous properties for the design of tailored composite materials. Graphene-semiconductor or -metal nanoparticle composites have the potential to function as efficient, multifunctional materials for energy conversion and storage. These next-generation composite systems could possess the capability to integrate conversion and storage of solar energy, detection, and selective destruction of trace environmental contaminants or achieve single-substrate, multistep heterogeneous catalysis. These advanced materials may soon become a reality, based on encouraging results in the key areas of energy conversion and sensing using graphene oxide as a support structure. Through recent advances, chemists can now integrate such processes on a single substrate while using synthetic designs that combine simplicity with a high degree of structural and composition selectivity. This progress represents the beginning of a transformative movement leveraging the advancements of single-purpose chemistry toward the creation of composites designed to address whole-process applications. The promising field of graphene nanocomposites for sensing and energy applications is based on fundamental studies that explain the electronic interactions between semiconductor or metal nanoparticles and graphene. In particular, reduced graphene oxide is a suitable composite substrate because of its two-dimensional structure, outstanding surface area, and electrical conductivity. In this Account, we describe common assembly methods for graphene composite materials and examine key studies that characterize its excited state interactions. We also discuss strategies to develop graphene composites and control electron capture and transport through the 2D carbon network. In addition, we provide a brief overview of advances in sensing, energy conversion

  12. Design and Development of Expanded Graphite-Based Non-metallic and Flexible Metamaterial Absorber for X-band Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Dipangkar; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using expanded graphite instead of a metallic layer as unit cells and ground planes for metamaterial absorbers in X-band is investigated. A metamaterial absorber was fabricated on a flexible linear low-density polyethylene substrate using an expanded graphite-based circular ring as the unit cell structure. The unit cell was simulated and optimized for which the metamaterial absorber exhibited 98.9% absorption at 11.22 GHz. The fabricated expanded graphite-based absorber showed a reflection loss of -24.51 dB at 11.56 GHz with -10 dB bandwidth of 0.39 GHz (3.37%). The performance of the same structure with copper was also measured. The expanded graphite-based metamaterial absorber showed enhanced performance as compared to the copper-based metamaterial absorber. The width of the ring was varied to tune the reflection loss. The proposed expanded graphite-based metamaterial absorber possesses the advantages of being ultra-thin, flexible and non-corrosive.

  13. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  14. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  15. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  16. Nuclear graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Mercuri, R. A.; Criscione, J. M.

    1985-07-02

    A high strength, high coefficient of thermal expansion fine-grained isotropic graphite article produced from 30% to 70% of attritor milled gilsonite coke or other high CTE carbon filler particles and minor amounts of a binder such a coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch, the article being formed by warm isostatic molding at a temperature of between 50/sup 0/ C. and 70/sup 0/ C. under a pressure between 100 and 1000 psi for a time between 1 and 10 minutes. The particle size of the fillers ranges up to 150 microns.

  17. NGNP Graphite Selection and Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.; Bratton, R.; Windes, W.

    2007-09-30

    The nuclear graphite (H-451) previously used in the United States for High-Temperature Reactors (HTRs) is no longer available. New graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A complete properties database for these new, available, candidate grades of graphite must be developed to support the design and licensing of NGNP core components. Data are required for the physical, mechanical (including radiation-induced creep), and oxidation properties of graphites. Moreover, the data must be statistically sound and take account of in-billet, between billets, and lot-to-lot variations of properties. These data are needed to support the ongoing development1 of the risk-derived American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) graphite design code (a consensus code being prepared under the jurisdiction of the ASME by gas-cooled reactor and NGNP stakeholders including the vendors). The earlier Fort St. Vrain design of High-Temperature Reactor (HTRs) used deterministic performance models for H-451, while the NGNP will use new graphite grades and risk-derived (probabilistic) performance models and design codes, such as that being developed by the ASME. A radiation effects database must be developed for the currently available graphite materials, and this requires a substantial graphite irradiation program. The graphite Technology Development Plan (TDP)2 describes the data needed and the experiments planned to acquire these data in a timely fashion to support NGNP design, construction, and licensing. The strategy for the selection of appropriate grades of graphite for the NGNP is discussed here. The final selection of graphite grades depends upon the chosen reactor type and vendor because the reactor type (pebble bed or prismatic block) has a major influence on the graphite chosen by the designer. However, the time required to obtain the needed irradiation data for the selected NGNP graphite is sufficiently

  18. Preparation of graphitic articles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Nemer, Martin; Weigle, John C.

    2010-05-11

    Graphitic structures have been prepared by exposing templates (metal, metal-coated ceramic, graphite, for example) to a gaseous mixture that includes hydrocarbons and oxygen. When the template is metal, subsequent acid treatment removes the metal to yield monoliths, hollow graphitic structures, and other products. The shapes of the coated and hollow graphitic structures mimic the shapes of the templates.

  19. Superlubricity of Fullerene Intercalated Graphite Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouji; Tsuda, Daisuke; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo

    2007-08-01

    A novel superlubric system of fullerene intercalated graphite composite is reported. First, it is clarified that fullerene intercalated graphite films exhibit an ultralow average friction force and an excellent friction coefficient μ <0.001 smaller than μ <0.002 for MoS2 and μ\\cong 0.001 for graphite. Next, it is demonstrated that superlubricity can be controlled by changing the intercalant species. The C60 intercalated graphite film shows much less maximum static friction force than the C70 intercalated graphite film. Finally, we propose one of the simple guidelines on designing a practical superlubric system-reduction in the contact area between the intercalated fullerene and the graphite sheet to the pointlike contact. Our newly developed superlubric system will contribute to solving energy and environmental problems.

  20. Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranhão, Tatiane De A.; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2007-09-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 °C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 °C for Pb and 800 °C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 μg Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L- 1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

  1. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  2. Chapter 20: Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

  3. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  4. WE-AB-BRB-01: Development of a Probe-Format Graphite Calorimeter for Practical Clinical Dosimetry: Numerical Design Optimization, Prototyping, and Experimental Proof-Of-Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, J; Seuntjens, J; Sarfehnia, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this work, the feasibility of performing absolute dose to water measurements using a constant temperature graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) in a clinical environment is established. Methods: A numerical design optimization study was conducted by simulating the heat transfer in the GPC resulting from irradiation using a finite element method software package. The choice of device shape, dimensions, and materials was made to minimize the heat loss in the sensitive volume of the GPC. The resulting design, which incorporates a novel aerogel-based thermal insulator, and 15 temperature sensitive resistors capable of both Joule heating and measuring temperature, was constructed in house. A software based process controller was developed to stabilize the temperatures of the GPC’s constituent graphite components to within a few 10’s of µK. This control system enables the GPC to operate in either the quasi-adiabatic or isothermal mode, two well-known, and independent calorimetry techniques. Absorbed dose to water measurements were made using these two methods under standard conditions in a 6 MV 1000 MU/min photon beam and subsequently compared against TG-51 derived values. Results: Compared to an expected dose to water of 76.9 cGy/100 MU, the average GPC-measured doses were 76.5 ± 0.5 and 76.9 ± 0.5 cGy/100 MU for the adiabatic and isothermal modes, respectively. The Monte Carlo calculated graphite to water dose conversion was 1.013, and the adiabatic heat loss correction was 1.003. With an overall uncertainty of about 1%, the most significant contributions were the specific heat capacity (type B, 0.8%) and the repeatability (type A, 0.6%). Conclusion: While the quasi-adiabatic mode of operation had been validated in previous work, this is the first time that the GPC has been successfully used isothermally. This proof-of-concept will serve as the basis for further study into the GPC’s application to small fields and MRI-linac dosimetry. This work has been

  5. Design and synthesis of palladium/graphitic carbon nitride/carbon black hybrids as high-performance catalysts for formic acid and methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Huayu; Huang, Huajie; Wang, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Here we report a facile two-step method to synthesize high-performance palladium/graphitic carbon nitride/carbon black (Pd/g-C3N4/carbon black) hybrids for electrooxidizing formic acid and methanol. The coating of g-C3N4 on carbon black surface is realized by a low-temperature heating treatment, followed by the uniform deposition of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) via a wet chemistry route. Owning to the significant synergistic effects of the individual components, the preferred Pd/g-C3N4/carbon black electrocatalyst exhibits exceptional forward peak current densities as high as 2155 and 1720 mA mg-1Pd for formic acid oxidation in acid media and methanol oxidation in alkaline media, respectively, far outperforming the commercial Pd-C catalyst. The catalyst also shows reliable stability, demonstrating that the newly-designed hybrids have great promise in constructing high-performance portable fuel cell systems.

  6. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  7. Modelleing the Multiaxial Strength of Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Yahr, Terry; Battiste, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The core of a prismatic High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is constructed from an array of nuclear graphite components including replaceable fuel blocks, replaceable and permanent moderator blocks, and core support posts. Similarly, the core of a Pebble Bed Reactor is confined by large graphite blocks which define the (annular) core geometry. In both HTR designs (prismatic and pebble bed) the large graphite components act as neutron moderator and reflector as well as providing mechanical support to the active core. During reactor operation the graphite components of the core are subjected to complex stress states arising from structural loads, thermal gradients, neutron irradiation damage, and seismic events. Structural design of HTR cores requires that the designer have a suitable theory of failure. Both deterministic (e.g. maximum principal stress theory) and probabilistic (e.g., Weibull failure theory) have been considered as candidates. To test candidate theories a multiaxial testing program was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on grade H-451 graphite, the fuel element and moderator graphite used in the Fort St. Vrain high temperature reactor in the USA. Large test specimens ({approx}27 cm length) were subjected to combined axial stress (both tension and compression) and internal pressure. A total of 59 specimens were tested at 9 stress ratios in the first and fourth stress quadrants. In a parallel effort a physically based fracture model of graphite was developed. The model used a fracture mechanics based failure criteria and has been shown to predict the tensile failure probability of several graphites of widely ranging texture. Here we report the basis and performance of the fracture model and multiaxial strength data for grade H-451 graphite. Moreover, we report the successful extension of the model to predict the failure envelope for H-451 graphite in the first and fourth multiaxial quadrants. The model's predictions are compared to experimental

  8. Fiber release characteristics of graphite hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers different material concepts that can be fabricated of hybridized composites which demonstrate improved graphite fiber retention capability in a severe fire without significant reduction to the composite properties. More than 30 panels were fabricated for mechanical and fire tests, the details and results of which are presented. Methods of composite hybridization investigated included the addition of oxidation resistant fillers to the resin, mechanically interlocking the graphite fibers by the use of woven fabrics, and the addition of glass fibers and glass additives designed to melt and fuse the graphite fibers together. It is concluded that a woven fabric with a serving of glass around each graphite tow is by far the superior of those evaluated: not only is there a coalescing effect in each graphite layer, but there is also a definite adhesion of each layer to its neighbor.

  9. A new type of porous graphite foams and their integrated composites with oxide/polymer core/shell nanowires for supercapacitors: structural design, fabrication, and full supercapacitor demonstrations.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinhui; Chao, Dongliang; Fan, Zhanxi; Guan, Cao; Cao, Xiehong; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-03-12

    We attempt to meet the general design requirements for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes by combining the strategies of lightweight substrate, porous nanostructure design, and conductivity modification. We fabricate a new type of 3D porous and thin graphite foams (GF) and use as the light and conductive substrates for the growth of metal oxide core/shell nanowire arrays to form integrated electrodes. The nanowire core is Co3O4, and the shell is a composite of conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) and metal oxide (MnO2). To show the advantage of this integrated electrode design (viz., GF + Co3O4/PEDOT-MnO2 core/shell nanowire arrays), three other different less-integrated electrodes are also prepared for comparison. Full supercapacitor devices based on the GF + Co3O4/PEDOT-MnO2 as positive electrodes exhibit the best performance compared to other three counterparts due to an optimal design of structure and a synergistic effect.

  10. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  11. The Treatment of PPCP-Containing Sewage in an Anoxic/Aerobic Reactor Coupled with a Novel Design of Solid Plain Graphite-Plates Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Ting-Chieh; Wei, Da-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic sewage containing high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs, mg/L level) was treated using an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor coupled with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h. A novel design of solid plain graphite plates (SPGRPs) was used for the high surface area biodegradation of the PPCP-containing sewage and for the generation of electricity. The average CODCr and total nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved were 97.20% and 83.75%, respectively. High removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals, including acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole, were also obtained and ranged from 98.21% to 99.89%. A maximum power density of 532.61 mW/cm2 and a maximum coulombic efficiency of 25.20% were measured for the SPGRP MFC at the anode. Distinct differences in the bacterial community were presented at various locations including the mixed liquor suspended solids and biofilms. The bacterial groups involved in PPCP biodegradation were identified as Dechloromonas spp., Sphingomonas sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This design, which couples an A/O reactor with a novel design of SPGRP MFC, allows the simultaneous removal of PPCPs and successful electricity production. PMID:25197659

  12. The treatment of PPCP-containing sewage in an anoxic/aerobic reactor coupled with a novel design of solid plain graphite-plates microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Ting-Chieh; Wei, Da-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic sewage containing high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs, mg/L level) was treated using an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor coupled with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h. A novel design of solid plain graphite plates (SPGRPs) was used for the high surface area biodegradation of the PPCP-containing sewage and for the generation of electricity. The average CODCr and total nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved were 97.20% and 83.75%, respectively. High removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals, including acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole, were also obtained and ranged from 98.21% to 99.89%. A maximum power density of 532.61 mW/cm(2) and a maximum coulombic efficiency of 25.20% were measured for the SPGRP MFC at the anode. Distinct differences in the bacterial community were presented at various locations including the mixed liquor suspended solids and biofilms. The bacterial groups involved in PPCP biodegradation were identified as Dechloromonas spp., Sphingomonas sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This design, which couples an A/O reactor with a novel design of SPGRP MFC, allows the simultaneous removal of PPCPs and successful electricity production.

  13. Graphite-metal brazing for thermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Koski, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Various plasma facing components are being designed and fabricated to support Magnetic Fusion Energy experiments. They typically consist of graphite tiles mechanically or metallurgically attached to metallic cooling substrates. This paper will discuss the active brazing of isotropic and pyrolytic graphite to oxygen free, high conductivity (OFHC) Cu and an alumina-dispersion strengthened Cu with a Ag-Cu-Ti active filler metal. The Ti constituent promotes direct wetting of graphite with the formation of a thin TiC reaction layer. Joint design and materials selection are critical factors since graphite and Cu have large thermal expansion differences that affect residual stresses after brazing and subsequent component thermal performance. Low thermal expansion Mo and compliant Cu interlayers were introduced to lower the residual stresses and extend the thermal life of prototype graphite-Cu braze joints. Although the interlayers showed evidence of reducing the incidence of graphite cracking and spalling under thermal loading when brazed to the dispersion-stengthened Cu, the best graphite braze joints were produced with the more ductile OFHC Cu substrates and no interlayer. These latter joints survived simulated tokamak surface high heat fluxes of 30 MW{center dot}m{sup {minus}2} or greater, while comparable dispersion strengthened Cu samples failed at 10 MW{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Graphite-metal brazing for thermal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, F. M.; Koski, J. A.

    Various plasma facing components are being designed and fabricated to support Magnetic Fusion Energy experiments. They typically consist of graphite tiles mechanically or metallurgically attached to metallic cooling substrates. This paper will discuss the active brazing of isotropic and pyrolytic graphite to oxygen free, high conductivity (OFHC) Cu and an alumina-dispersion strengthened Cu with a Ag-Cu-Ti active filler metal. The Ti constituent promotes direct wetting of graphite with the formation of a thin TiC reaction layer. Joint design and materials selection are critical factors since graphite and Cu have large thermal expansion differences that affect residual stresses after brazing and subsequent component thermal performance. Low thermal expansion Mo and compliant Cu interlayers were introduced to lower the residual stresses and extend the thermal life of prototype graphite-Cu braze joints. Although the interlayers showed evidence of reducing the incidence of graphite cracking and spalling under thermal loading when brazed to the dispersion stengthened Cu, the best graphite braze joints were produced with the more ductile OFHC Cu substrates and no interlayer. These latter joints survived simulated tokamak surface high heat fluxes of 30 MW x m(exp -2) or greater, while comparable dispersion strengthened Cu samples failed at 10 MW x m(exp -2)

  15. THE NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT GRAPHITE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Windes; Timothy D. Burchell; Robert L. Bratton

    2008-09-01

    Developing new nuclear grades of graphite used in the core of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the critical development activities being pursued within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. Graphite’s thermal stability (in an inert gas environment), high compressive strength, fabricability, and cost effective price make it an ideal core structural material for the HTGR reactor design. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermo-mechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. The NGNP graphite R&D program has selected a handful of commercially available types for research and development activities necessary to qualify this nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor. These activities fall within five primary areas; 1) material property characterization, 2) irradiated material property characterization, 3) modeling, and 4) ASTM test development, and 5) ASME code development efforts. Individual research and development activities within each area are being pursued with the ultimate goal of obtaining a commercial operating license for the nuclear graphite from the US NRC.

  16. Verification of computer-aided designs of traveling-wave tubes utilizing novel dynamic refocusers and graphite electrodes for the multistage depressed collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramins, P.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Force, D. A.; Palmer, R. W.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A computational procedure for the design of TWT-refocuser-MDC systems was used to design a short dynamic refocusing system and highly efficient four-stage depressed collector for a 200-W, 8- to 18-GHz, TWT. The computations were carried out with advanced, multidimensional computer programs which model the electron beam as a series of disks of charge and follow their trajectories from the RF input of the TWT, through the slow-wave structure and refocusing section, to their points of impact in the depressed collector. Secondary emission losses in the MDC were treated semi-quantitatively by injecting a representative beam of secondary electrons into the MDC analysis at the point of impact of each primary beam. A comparison of computed and measured TWT and MDC performance showed very good agreement. The electrodes of the MDC were fabricated from a particular form of isotropic graphite that was selected for its low secondary electron yield, ease of machinability, and vacuum properties. This MDC was tested (at CW) for more than 1000 hr with negligible degradation in TWT and MDC performances.

  17. Producing graphite with desired properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. M.; Imprescia, R. J.; Reiswig, R. D.; Smith, M. C.

    1971-01-01

    Isotropic or anisotropic graphite is synthesized with precise control of particle size, distribution, and shape. The isotropic graphites are nearly perfectly isotropic, with thermal expansion coefficients two or three times those of ordinary graphites. The anisotropic graphites approach the anisotropy of pyrolytic graphite.

  18. Graphite for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Virgiliev, Yu.S.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    Relative dimensional changes and physical properties of structural graphites - {Gamma}p-280 (nuclear graphite) and {Gamma}p{Pi}-2 (modificated variety of nuclear graphite for the rings of elastic contact) irradiated at temperatures ranging from 320 to 1900K with a fluence of about 2.5.10{sup 22}nvt (E {ge} 0.18 MeV) are represented. In order to ensure a long-time serviceability of the VGM - reactor blocks the high-strength graphite of {Gamma}p-1 grade are developed. The properties and its irradiation changes of {Gamma}p-1 graphite are represented. A secondary swelling of the graphite develops similar to the swelling of metals, alloys and high-melting compounds.

  19. Radiation Effects in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

  20. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  1. Induction graphitizing furnace acceptance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The induction furnace was designed to provide the controlled temperature and environment required for the post-cure, carbonization and graphitization processes for the fabrication of a fibrous graphite NERVA nozzle extension. The acceptance testing required six tests and a total operating time of 298 hrs. Low temperature mode operations, 120 to 850 C, were completed in one test run. High temperature mode operations, 120 to 2750 C, were completed during five tests.

  2. Baseline Graphite Initial Mechanical Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Carroll; Randy Lloyd

    2009-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. One of the major fundamental objectives of the project is establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing of

  3. Graphite nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki

    , or carbon blacks. The exfoliated graphite flakes reached the percolation threshold at 1.93 wt% (1.13 vol%) in an epoxy system and the resistivity of the composite showed 39 ohm•cm with 7 wt% of exfoliated graphite, which is comparable to the high-grade carbon black based systems. The vapor grown carbon fiber based composites showed higher resistivity at the same filler contents while the conventional carbon fiber composites showed much higher resistivity and percolation threshold. Stress distribution analysis by Finite Element Method revealed the stress concentration condition of composite systems is affected by factors such as shape of the reinforcements, aspect ratio, and geological arrangements. Based on these results, an optimal morphology design of nanocomposite system was proposed. Market research revealed that there is a realistic possibility for applying the new process and material in commercial products and a venture business plan was proposed based on this new technology. The venture plan won "The Most Innovative Design" award at the 2002 Michigan Collegiate Entrepreneur's Conference.

  4. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  5. Modelling the graphite fracture mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquemoud, C.; Marie, S.; Nedelec, M.

    2012-07-01

    In order to define a design criterion for graphite components, it is important to identify the physical phenomena responsible for the graphite fracture, to include them in a more effective modelling. In a first step, a large panel of experiments have been realised in order to build up an important database; results of tensile tests, 3 and 4 point bending tests on smooth and notched specimens have been analysed and have demonstrated an important geometry related effects on the behavior up to fracture. Then, first simulations with an elastic or an elastoplastic bilinear constitutive law have not made it possible to simulate the experimental fracture stress variations with the specimen geometry, the fracture mechanisms of the graphite being at the microstructural scale. That is the reason why a specific F.E. model of the graphite structure has been developed in which every graphite grain has been meshed independently, the crack initiation along the basal plane of the particles as well as the crack propagation and coalescence have been modelled too. This specific model has been used to test two different approaches for fracture initiation: a critical stress criterion and two criteria of fracture mechanic type. They are all based on crystallographic considerations as a global critical stress criterion gave unsatisfactory results. The criteria of fracture mechanic type being extremely unstable and unable to represent the graphite global behaviour up to the final collapse, the critical stress criterion has been preferred to predict the results of the large range of available experiments, on both smooth and notched specimens. In so doing, the experimental observations have been correctly simulated: the geometry related effects on the experimental fracture stress dispersion, the specimen volume effects on the macroscopic fracture stress and the crack propagation at a constant stress intensity factor. In addition, the parameters of the criterion have been related to

  6. A Taiji-principle-designed magnetic porous C-doped graphitic carbon nitride for environment-friendly solid phase extraction of pollutants from water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Yuan, Hao; Deng, Wenjing; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi

    2015-09-18

    A new magnetic porous carbon-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite and experimental strategies were environment-friendly designed for solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants from water sample. The easily synthesized and low cost nanocomposite was characterized using techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, elemental analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The large surface area and enhanced interactions of this nanocomposite with its adsorption behavior in Taiji principle (a balance of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) in aqueous phase benefit the extraction. Magnetic solid phase extraction has advantages such as low solvent consumption and reusability of the sorbent, and was therefore employed in this study. In addition, a quicker and less laborious statistical method, known as response surface methodology, was used to investigate and optimize some crucial factors that affected the adsorption. The combined use of this new nanocomposite and experimental strategy showed excellent precision (2.7-5.2%) and sensitivity (limits of detection (S/N=3): 0.1-0.2 μg L(-1)). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples giving good spiked recoveries over the range of 92.4-99.8%. This research provides an environment-friendly strategy to prepare suitable sorbents for extraction or adsorption of various compounds within different matrices.

  7. Preparation of graphite oxide by sodium cholate intercalation and sonication from Indonesian natural graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Maulana, Ayu Oktama; Rianto, Anton; Joni, I. Made

    2016-02-01

    Graphite oxide is widely use in renewable energy application such as solar cells, fuel-cells, battery electrodes, catalyst support, etc. This paper reports the preparation of graphite oxide from Indonesian natural graphite by sodium cholate intercalation. The enrichment process of as received graphite with carbon content of 60% was carried out by using acid leaching (HF) method. The enrichment process successfully obtained graphite with carbon content 95.61% with contaminant minerals observed by EDS were magnesium and aluminum. Purified graphite was then intercalated by sodium cholate at various concentration and sonication time. The XRD results shows that preparation with concentration of sodium cholate 2 Wt.% and sonication 10 hours formed a peak characteristic of graphite oxide at 2θ=15°. In addition, the successful oxidation process designated by the C/O ratio of 15.75 observed from EDS and supported by the present of functional C-H and C-O obtained from the FTIR observation. It is concluded that the graphite oxide successfully prepared by intercalation using sodium cholate and sonication.

  8. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    DOEpatents

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  9. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  10. Coating method for graphite

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-06

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  11. Postbuckling behavior of graphite-epoxy panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, J. H., Jr.; Dickson, J. N.; Rouse, M.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient fuselage panels are often designed to allow buckling to occur at applied loads below ultimate. Interest in applying graphite-epoxy materials to fuselage primary structure led to several studies of the post-buckling behavior of graphite-epoxy structural components. Studies of the postbuckling behavior of flat and curved, unstiffened and stiffened graphite-epoxy panels loaded in compression and shear were summarized. The response and failure characteristics of specimens studied experimentally were described, and analytical and experimental results were compared. The specimens tested in the studies described were fabricated from commercially available 0.005-inch-thick unidirectional graphite-fiber tapes preimpregnated with 350 F cure thermosetting epoxy resins.

  12. Status of ASME Section III Task Group on Graphite Support Core Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim D. Burchell

    2005-08-01

    This report outlines the roadmap that the ASME Project Team on Graphite Core Supports is pursuing to establish design codes for unirradiated and irradiated graphite core components during its first year of operation. It discusses the deficiencies in the proposed Section III, Division 2, Subsection CE graphite design code and the different approaches the Project Team has taken to address those deficiencies.

  13. Three-dimensional architecture of lithium-anodes made from graphite fibers coated with thin-films of silicon oxycarbide: Design, performance and manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ibrahim; Raj, Rishi

    2016-04-01

    Silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) is an amorphous molecular network of Sisbnd Csbnd O tetrahedra anchored to graphene-like carbon. The graphene forms a three dimensional cellular network with a domain size of ∼5 nm. Therefore nanometer thick films of SiCO grown on graphite may be expected to have unusual behavior. We grow these films on a bed of commercially available graphite fibers that serve the dual function of a current collector. The electrochemical behavior of the composite is measured as a function of the thickness of the SiCO films. Thick films approach the typical behavior of bulk SiCO (which has three times the capacity of graphite, but suffers from poor first cycle efficiency). However, films, approximately 100 nm thick, show high first cycle efficiency as well as high capacity. The composite performs better than the prediction from the rule-of-mixtures, which further substantiates the unusual behavior of the thin-film architecture. The Raman spectra of these thin films also differ from bulk SiCO. The development of thin graphite fibers, with a high surface to volume ratio that have the same capacity as the current graphite-powder technology, coupled with manufacturing of these thin-films by a liquid-polymer precursor based process, can propel these results toward commercialization.

  14. NEW METHOD OF GRAPHITE PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Harper, W.T.

    1961-08-29

    BS>A method is described for producing graphite objects comprising mixing coal tar pitch, carbon black, and a material selected from the class comprising raw coke, calcined coke, and graphite flour. The mixture is placed in a graphite mold, pressurized to at least 1200 psi, and baked and graphitized by heating to about 2500 deg C while maintaining such pressure. (AEC)

  15. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source. (JDH)

  16. Superlubricity of graphite.

    PubMed

    Dienwiebel, Martin; Verhoeven, Gertjan S; Pradeep, Namboodiri; Frenken, Joost W M; Heimberg, Jennifer A; Zandbergen, Henny W

    2004-03-26

    Using a home-built frictional force microscope that is able to detect forces in three dimensions with a lateral force resolution down to 15 pN, we have studied the energy dissipation between a tungsten tip sliding over a graphite surface in dry contact. By measuring atomic-scale friction as a function of the rotational angle between two contacting bodies, we show that the origin of the ultralow friction of graphite lies in the incommensurability between rotated graphite layers, an effect proposed under the name of "superlubricity" [Phys. Rev. B 41, 11 837 (1990)

  17. Silicon on graphite cloth

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E.; Thomas, C.J.; Ingram, A.E.; Bai, Y.B.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    A new polycrystalline silicon solar cell has been developed that utilizes commercially available graphite cloth as a substrate. This solar cell has achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 13.4% (AM1.5G). It is believed that this is a record efficiency for a silicon solar cell formed on a graphite substrate. The silicon-on-fabric structure is comprised of a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon grown directly on the graphite fabric substrate. The structure is fabricated by a low-cost ribbon process that avoids the expense and waste of wafering. The fabric substrate gives structural support to the thin device. Critical to the achievement of device quality silicon layers is control over impurities in the graphite fabric. The silicon-on-fabric technology has the potential to supply lightweight, low-cost solar cells to weight-sensitive markets at a fraction of the cost of conventionally thinned wafers.

  18. Intercalated graphite electrical conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    For years NASA has wanted to reduce the weight of spacecraft and aircraft. Experiments are conducted to find a lightweight synthetic metal to replace copper. The subject of this paper, intercalated graphite, is such a material. Intercalated graphite is made by heating petroleum or coal to remove the hydrogen and to form more covalent bonds, thus increasing the molecular weight. The coal or petroleum eventually turns to pitch, which can then be drawn into a fiber. With continued heating the pitch-based fiber releases hydrogen and forms a carbon fiber. The carbon fiber, if heated sufficiently, becomes more organized in parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms in the form of graphite. A conductor of intercalated graphite is potentially useful for spacecraft or aircraft applications because of its low weight.

  19. Carbon-14 Graphitization Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Collon, Philippe; Laverne, Jay

    2014-09-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a process that allows for the analysis of mass of certain materials. It is a powerful process because it results in the ability to separate rare isotopes with very low abundances from a large background, which was previously impossible. Another advantage of AMS is that it only requires very small amounts of material for measurements. An important application of this process is radiocarbon dating because the rare 14C isotopes can be separated from the stable 14N background that is 10 to 13 orders of magnitude larger, and only small amounts of the old and fragile organic samples are necessary for measurement. Our group focuses on this radiocarbon dating through AMS. When performing AMS, the sample needs to be loaded into a cathode at the back of an ion source in order to produce a beam from the material to be analyzed. For carbon samples, the material must first be converted into graphite in order to be loaded into the cathode. My role in the group is to convert the organic substances into graphite. In order to graphitize the samples, a sample is first combusted to form carbon dioxide gas and then purified and reduced into the graphite form. After a couple weeks of research and with the help of various Physics professors, I developed a plan and began to construct the setup necessary to perform the graphitization. Once the apparatus is fully completed, the carbon samples will be graphitized and loaded into the AMS machine for analysis.

  20. AFRPL Graphite Performance Prediction Program. Improved Capability for the Design and Ablation Performance Prediction of Advanced Air Force Solid Propellant Rocket Nozzles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    additional verifications are required since in several cases only one motor tiring was used to validate the kinetic expressions for a particular...thennosetting resin. Graphitization between densification cycles was conducted at 2800’C. The final thermal treatment was a 10000C pyrolysis . No definition

  1. Fission Product Sorptivity in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan; Ghosh, Tushar; Viswanath, Dabir; Walton, Kyle; Haffner, Robert

    2015-04-01

    graduate student meant that data acquisition with the packed bed systems ended up competing for the graduate student’s available time with the electrodynamic balance redesign and assembly portions of the project. This competition for available time was eventually mitigated to some extent by the later recruitment of an undergraduate student to help with data collection using the packed bed system. It was only the recruitment of the second student that allowed the single particle balance design and construction efforts to proceed as far as they did during the project period. It should be added that some significant time was also spent by the graduate student cataloging previous work involving graphite. This eventually resulted in a review paper being submitted and accepted (“Adsorption of Iodine on Graphite in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems: A Review,” Kyle L. Walton, Tushar K. Ghosh, Dabir S. Viswanath, Sudarshan K. Loyalka, Robert V. Tompson). Our specific revised objectives in this project were as follows: Experimentally obtain isotherms of Iodine for reactor grade IG-110 samples of graphite particles over a range of temperatures and pressures using an EDB and a temperature controlled EDB; Experimentally obtain isotherms of Iodine for reactor grade IG-110 samples of graphite particles over a range of temperatures and pressures using a packed column bed apparatus; Explore the effect that charge has on the adsorption isotherms of iodine by varying the charges on and the voltages used to suspend the microscopic particles in the EDB; and To interpret these results in terms of the existing models (Langmuir, BET, Freundlich, and others) which we will modify as necessary to include charge related effects.

  2. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  3. Transition from glass to graphite in manufacture of composite aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, H. E.; Thompson, V. S.

    1978-01-01

    The transition from fiberglass reinforced plastic composites to graphite reinforced plastic composites is described. Structural fiberglass design and manufacturing background are summarized. How this experience provides a technology base for moving into graphite composite secondary structure and then to composite primary structure is considered. The technical requirements that must be fulfilled in the transition from glass to graphite composite structure are also included.

  4. Vibratory compaction tests on graphite powders for neutron shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.C.

    1982-05-01

    Mistures of three size ranges of graphite powders have been vibratory packed to densities as high as 1.40 gm/cm/sup 3/, which is 87.5 percent of the design density for the graphte segment of the FMIT test cell shield. Ultrasonic resonance vibration of the particles was determined to be an impractical method for achieving the required density. Possible options for fabricating the shield are: (1) revert to solid graphite, rather than vibratory packed powder, or (2) develop the mechanical vibratory compaction method, which would require (a) designing for the higher heat-load attendant with the reduced graphite density, or (b) increasing the thickness of the graphite segment by 15 percent or (c) seeking a new source of graphite powder with higher particle density.

  5. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  6. Graphite Gamma Scan Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mark W. Drigert

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the measurement and data analysis of the radio isotopic content for a series of graphite specimens irradiated in the first Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, AGC-1. This is the first of a series of six capsules planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphites. The AGC-1 capsule was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL at approximately 700 degrees C and to a peak dose of 7 dpa (displacements per atom). Details of the irradiation conditions and other characterization measurements performed on specimens in the AGC-1 capsule can be found in “AGC-1 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Report” ORNL/TM 2013/242. Two specimens from six different graphite types are analyzed here. Each specimen is 12.7 mm in diameter by 25.4 mm long. The isotope with the highest activity was 60Co. Graphite type NBG-18 had the highest content of 60Co with an activity of 142.89 µCi at a measurement distance of 47 cm.

  7. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  8. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  9. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  10. Superlubricity of Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienwiebel, Martin; Verhoeven, Gertjan S.; Pradeep, Namboodiri; Frenken, Joost W.; Heimberg, Jennifer A.; Zandbergen, Henny W.

    2004-03-01

    Using a home-built frictional force microscope that is able to detect forces in three dimensions with a lateral force resolution down to 15 pN, we have studied the energy dissipation between a tungsten tip sliding over a graphite surface in dry contact. By measuring atomic-scale friction as a function of the rotational angle between two contacting bodies, we show that the origin of the ultralow friction of graphite lies in the incommensurability between rotated graphite layers, an effect proposed under the name of “superlubricity” [

    M. Hirano and K. Shinjo, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO0163-1829 41, 11 837 (1990)10.1103/PhysRevB.41.11837
    ].

  11. Modeling the Multiaxial Strength of H-451 Nuclear Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Yahr, Terry; Battiste, Rick

    2007-01-01

    The core of a prismatic High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is constructed from an array of nuclear graphite components. Similarly, the core of a Pebble Bed HTR is confined by large graphite blocks which define the (annular) core geometry. In both HTR designs the large graphite components act as neutron moderator and reflector as well as providing mechanical support to the active core. During reactor operation the graphite components of the core are subjected to complex stress states. Consequently, core designers need a suitable theory of failure. Both deterministic (e.g., maximum principal stress theory) and probabilistic (e.g., Weibull failure theory) have been considered. To test candidate failure theories a multiaxial testing program was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on H-451 graphite. Large specimens ({approx}27 cm length) were subjected to combined axial stress (tension and compression) and internal pressure. A total of 59 specimens were tested at 9 stress ratios in the first and fourth stress quadrants. Here, we report the basis and performance of a microstructurally based graphite fracture model and multiaxial strength data for grade H-451 graphite, along with the application of the model to predict the failure envelope for H-451 graphite in the first and fourth multiaxial quadrants.

  12. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  13. Graphite as a structural material in HTR plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theymann, W.; Schmidt, A.

    1990-04-01

    Graphite has been selected as a structural material in HTR plants because of its favourable characteristics. The low ductility and the low tensile strength of this material as well as its behaviour under the impact of fast neutron irradiation require special construction directives and design criteria. It is demonstrated that by an appropriate structural design it is possible to separate the tasks and functions of the individual graphite components, which permits a classification of each component into one of three classes of qualitity assurance. Adequate stress criteria have been developed for the graphite internals of HTR based on probabilistic methods.

  14. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Readiness to Receive Irradiated Graphite Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A. Moore

    2011-05-01

    The Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research conducted in this laboratory will support the Advanced Graphite Creep experiments—a major series of material irradiation experiments within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, silicon-carbide composite, and ceramic materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials. Major infrastructural modifications were undertaken to support this new radiological facility at Idaho National Laboratory. Facility modifications are complete, equipment has been installed, radiological controls and operating procedures have been established and work management documents have been created to place the CCL in readiness to receive irradiated graphite samples.

  15. Development and fabrication of a graphite polyimide box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, M. A.; Darms, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of graphite/polyimide structures was evaluated and key design and fabrication issues to be considered in future hardware programs are defined. The fabrication and testing at 500 F of a graphite/polyimide center wing box beam using OV-10A aircraft criteria was accomplished. The baseline design of this box was developed in a series of studies of other advanced composite materials: glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and boron/polyimide. The use of this basic design permits ready comparison of the performance of graphite/polyimide with these materials. Modifications to the baseline composite design were made only in those areas effected by the change of materials. Processing studies of graphite fiber polyimide resins systems resulted in the selection of a Modmor II/Gemon L material.

  16. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  17. GRAPHITE BONDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1964-02-25

    A process for bonding or joining graphite members together in which a thin platinum foil is placed between the members, heated in an inert atmosphere to a temperature of 1800 deg C, and then cooled to room temperature is described. (AEC)

  18. Structural graphitic carbon foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, K.M.; Anderson, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    Graphitic carbon foams are a unique material form with very high structural and thermal properties at a light weight. A process has been developed to produce microcellular, open-celled graphitic foams. The process includes heating a mesophase pitch preform above the pitch melting temperature in a pressurized reactor. At the appropriate time, the pressure is released, the gas nucleates bubbles, and these bubbles grow forming the pitch into the foam structure. The resultant foamed pitch is then stabilized in an oxygen environment. At this point a rigid structure exists with some mechanical integrity. The foam is then carbonized to 800 C followed by a graphitization to 2700 C. The shear action from the growing bubbles aligns the graphitic planes along the foam struts to provide the ideal structure for good mechanical properties. Some of these properties have been characterized for some of the foam materials. It is known that variations of the blowing temperature, blowing pressure and saturation time result in foams of variously sized with mostly open pores; however, the mechanism of bubble nucleation is not known. Therefore foams were blown with various gases to begin to determine the nucleation method. These gases are comprised of a variety of molecular weights as well as a range of various solubility levels. By examining the resultant structures of the foam, differences were noted to develop an explanation of the foaming mechanism.

  19. Coatings for Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

  20. Magnetic frustration of graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon

    2017-03-01

    Delocalized π electrons in aromatic ring structures generally induce diamagnetism. In graphite oxide, however, π electrons develop ferromagnetism due to the unique structure of the material. The π electrons are only mobile in the graphitic regions of graphite oxide, which are dispersed and surrounded by sp3-hybridized carbon atoms. The spin-glass behavior of graphite oxide is corroborated by the frequency dependence of its AC susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility data exhibit a negative Curie temperature, field irreversibility, and slow relaxation. The overall results indicate that magnetic moments in graphite oxide slowly interact and develop magnetic frustration.

  1. Magnetic frustration of graphite oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    Delocalized π electrons in aromatic ring structures generally induce diamagnetism. In graphite oxide, however, π electrons develop ferromagnetism due to the unique structure of the material. The π electrons are only mobile in the graphitic regions of graphite oxide, which are dispersed and surrounded by sp3-hybridized carbon atoms. The spin-glass behavior of graphite oxide is corroborated by the frequency dependence of its AC susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility data exhibit a negative Curie temperature, field irreversibility, and slow relaxation. The overall results indicate that magnetic moments in graphite oxide slowly interact and develop magnetic frustration. PMID:28327606

  2. A graphite-lined regeneratively cooled thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    Design concepts, based on use of graphite as a thermal barrier for regeneratively cooled FLOX-methane thrust chambers, have been screened and concepts selected for detailed thermodynamic, stress, and fabrication analyses. A single design employing AGCarb-101, a fibrous graphite composite material, for a thermal barrier liner and an electroformed nickel structure with integral coolant passages was selected for fabrication and testing. The fabrication processes and the test results are described and illustrated.

  3. Intercalated Graphite Fiber Conductor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Lightweight electrical conductors were developed from graphitic fibers inter- calated with highly electrophilic intercalants. Conductance increases of...intercalated with highly electrophilic molecules ("intercalants") to en- hance their electrical conductivity. Evaluation of the elec- trical resistance of two...corrosion resistant to fluorine containing chemicals. Since the moisture permeability of the TFE is much less than that of the FEP, attempts were made to

  4. Improved Graphite Fiber Adhesion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    determined from a variety of surface analysis techniques , the oxygen-containing functional groups on commercial AS-i graphite fiber are predominantly...heterogenity within the fiber itself or experimental errors within the technique . In the limited time devoted to this work we did not devise a procedure...samples. Drzal optically measured the diameter of each fiber tested. Figure 6 shows the linear regression analysis plot used to determine the polar and

  5. Microcracks in nuclear graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Keyun; Marrow, James; Marsden, Barry

    2008-10-01

    Microcracks with varied length and width are observed in nuclear grade graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by transmission electron microscopy. In situ observations show that these cracks tend to close up on heating the sample. The crystal dimensional change from in situ electron-irradiation also causes the closure of the cracks. Although some of the cracks may be identifiable as accommodation porosity (i.e. Mrozowski cracks), others appear to have already formed prior to carbonization and graphitization.

  6. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Li; Fan, Zheyong; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the thermoelectric properties of ultrathin graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilms based on first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. Staircase-like densities of states induced by quantum confinement in the nanofilms give rise to improved Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities. The optimized figure of merit for the single-layer graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilm is estimated to be 0.6 at 300 K, which is about 120 times larger than that of bulk ZnO (0.005). Our results suggest that the graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilms can be designed for high performance thermoelectric applications.

  7. Specific heat of pristine and brominated graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers and brominated P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and brominated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from bromine fibers.

  8. METHOD OF FABRICATING A GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kratz, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    S>A nuclear reactor formed of spaced bodies of uranium and graphite blocks is improved by diffusing helium through the graphite blocks in order to replace the air in the pores of the graphite with helium. The helium-impregnated graphite conducts heat better, and absorbs neutrons less, than the original air- impregnated graphite. (AEC)

  9. CMB-13 research on carbon and graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results of the research on carbon and graphite accomplished during this report period are presented. Included are: particle characteristics of Santa Maria fillers, compositions and density data for hot-molded Santa Maria graphites, properties of hot-molded Santa Maria graphites, and properties of hot-molded anisotropic graphites. Ablation-resistant graphites are also discussed.

  10. Industrial Applications of Graphite Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Kucera, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Based on fluorination technology developed during 1934 to 1959, and the fiber technology developed during the 1970s, a new process was developed to produce graphite fluoride fibers. In the process, pitch based graphitized carbon fibers are at first intercalated and deintercalated several times by bromine and iodine, followed by several cycles of nitrogen heating and fluorination at 350 to 370 C. Electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of this fiber depend on the fluorination process and the fluorine content of the graphite fluoride product. However, these properties are between those of graphite and those of PTFE (Teflon). Therefore, it is considered to be a semiplastic. The physical properties suggest that this new material may have many new and unexplored applications. For example, it can be a thermally conductive electrical insulator. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be adjusted to match that of silicon, and therefore, it can be a heat sinking printed circuit board which is CTE compatible with silicon. Using these fibers in printed circuit boards may provide improved electrical performance and reliability of the electronics on the board over existing designs. Also, since it releases fluorine at 300 C or higher, it can be used as a material to store fluorine and to conduct fluorination. This application may simplify the fluorination process and reduce the risk of handling fluorine.

  11. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOEpatents

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  12. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  13. Metallic Coatings for Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Aero Structures Dept -. Radomes Section B-2 DISTRIBUTION (cont.)K COPIES * U. S. Army Air Mobility R&D Laboratory 1II 1Fort Eustis, VA ATTN: SAVDL-EU...for graphite/epoxy laminated aircraft structures were developed to provide protection against moisture penetration, electro’)- magnetic interference...performance * aircraft. Utilization of advanced composite structures to their design limits neces- sitates the protection of these structures against

  14. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  15. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  16. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  17. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  18. Graphite fluoride fibers and their applications in the space industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Long, Martin; Dever, Therese

    1990-01-01

    Characterization and potential space applications of graphite fluoride fibers from commercially available graphitized carbon fibers are presented. Graphite fluoride fibers with fluorine to carbon ratios of 0.65 and 0.68 were found to have electrical resistivity values of 10(exp 4) and 10(exp 11) Ohms-cm, respectively, and thermal conductivity values of 24 and 5 W/m-K, respectively. At this fluorine content range, the fibers have tensile strength of 0.25 + or - 0.10 GPa (36 + or - 14 ksi), Young's modulus of 170 + or - 30 GPa (25 + or - 5 Msi). The coefficient of thermal expansion value of a sample with fluorine to carbon ratio of 0.61 was found to be 7 ppm/C. These properties change and approach the graphite value as the fluorine content approach 0. Electrically insulative graphite fluoride fiber is at least five times more thermally conductive than fiberglass. Therefore, it can be used as a heat sinking printed circuit board material for low temperature, long life power electronics in spacecraft. Also, partially fluorinated fiber with tailor-made physical properties to meet the requirements of certain engineering design can be produced. For example, a partially fluorinated fiber could have a predetermined CTE value in -1.5 to 7 ppm/C range and would be suitable for use in solar concentrators in solar dynamic power systems. It could also have a predetermined electrical resistivity value suitable for use as a low observable material. Experimental data indicate that slightly fluorinated graphite fibers are more durable in the atomic oxygen environment than pristine graphite. Therefore, fluorination of graphite used in the construction of spacecraft that would be exposed to the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen may protect defect sites in atomic oxygen protective coatings and therefore decrease the rate of degradation of graphite.

  19. Graphite fluoride fibers and their applications in the space industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chingchen; Long, M.; Dever, T.

    1990-08-01

    Characterization and potential space applications of graphite fluoride fibers from commercially available graphitized carbon fibers are presented. Graphite fluoride fibers with fluorine to carbon ratios of 0.65 and 0.68 were found to have electrical resistivity values of 10(exp 4) and 10(exp 11) Ohms-cm, respectively, and thermal conductivity values of 24 and 5 W/m-K, respectively. At this fluorine content range, the fibers have tensile strength of 0.25 + or - 0.10 GPa (36 + or - 14 ksi), Young's modulus of 170 + or - 30 GPa (25 + or - 5 Msi). The coefficient of thermal expansion value of a sample with fluorine to carbon ratio of 0.61 was found to be 7 ppm/C. These properties change and approach the graphite value as the fluorine content approach 0. Electrically insulative graphite fluoride fiber is at least five times more thermally conductive than fiberglass. Therefore, it can be used as a heat sinking printed circuit board material for low temperature, long life power electronics in spacecraft. Also, partially fluorinated fiber with tailor-made physical properties to meet the requirements of certain engineering design can be produced. For example, a partially fluorinated fiber could have a predetermined CTE value in -1.5 to 7 ppm/C range and would be suitable for use in solar concentrators in solar dynamic power systems. It could also have a predetermined electrical resistivity value suitable for use as a low observable material. Experimental data indicate that slightly fluorinated graphite fibers are more durable in the atomic oxygen environment than pristine graphite. Therefore, fluorination of graphite used in the construction of spacecraft that would be exposed to the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen may protect defect sites in atomic oxygen protective coatings and therefore decrease the rate of degradation of graphite.

  20. REFRACTORY COATING FOR GRAPHITE MOLDS

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.

    1958-06-24

    Refractory coating for graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is described. The coating is an alumino-silicate refractory composition which may be used as a mold surface in solid form or as a coating applied to the graphite mold. The composition consists of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, alumina cement, alumina, water, sodium silicate, and sodium carbonate.

  1. Cryotribology of diamond and graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Yukikazu; Ashaboglu, A.F.; Rabinowicz, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental study was carried out on the tribological behavior of materials of interest in cryogenic applications, focusing on diamond and graphite. Both natural diamond (referred in the text as diamond) and chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond (CVD-diamond) were used. The experiment was carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures, from 4.2 to 293 K. Two basic scenarios of testing were used: (1) frictional coefficient ({mu}) vs velocity (v) characteristics at constant temperatures; (2) {mu} vs temperature (T) behavior at fixed sliding speeds. For diamond/CVD-diamond, graphite/CVD-diamond, stainless steel/CVD-diamond pairs, {mu}`s are virtually velocity independent. For each of diamond/graphite, alumina/graphite, and graphite/graphite pairs, the {partial_derivative}{mu}/{partial_derivative}v characteristic is favorable, i.e., positive. For diamond/CVD-diamond and graphite/CVD-diamond pairs, {mu}`s are nearly temperature independent between in the range 77 - 293 K. Each {mu} vs T plot for pin materials sliding on graphite disks has a peak at a temperature in the range 100 - 200 K.

  2. Review of thermal properties of graphite composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtides, D.A.

    1987-12-01

    Flammability, thermal, and selected mechanical properties of composites fabricated with epoxy and other thermally stable resin matrices are described. Properties which were measured included limiting-oxygen index, smoke evolution, thermal degradation products, total-heat release, heat-release rates, mass loss, flame spread, ignition resistance, thermogravimetric analysis, and selected mechanical properties. The properties of 8 different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: XU71775/H795, a blend of vinyl polystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; H795, a bismaleimide; Cycom 6162, a phenolic; and PSP 6022M, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that the blend of vinyl polystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide (XU71775/H795) with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  3. Review of thermal properties of graphite composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Flammability, thermal, and selected mechanical properties of composites fabricated with epoxy and other thermally stable resin matrices are described. Properties which were measured included limiting-oxygen index, smoke evolution, thermal degradation products, total-heat release, heat-release rates, mass loss, flame spread, ignition resistance, thermogravimetric analysis, and selected mechanical properties. The properties of 8 different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: XU71775/H795, a blend of vinyl polystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; H795, a bismaleimide; Cycom 6162, a phenolic; and PSP 6022M, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that the blend of vinyl polystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide (XU71775/H795) with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  4. Pristine graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Dimiev, Ayrat; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Alemany, Lawrence B; Chaguine, Pavel; Tour, James M

    2012-02-08

    Graphite oxide (GO) is a lamellar substance with an ambiguous structure due to material complexity. Recently published GO-related studies employ only one out of several existing models to interpret the experimental data. Because the models are different, this leads to confusion in understanding the nature of the observed phenomena. Lessening the structural ambiguity would lead to further developments in functionalization and use of GO. Here, we show that the structure and properties of GO depend significantly on the quenching and purification procedures, rather than, as is commonly thought, on the type of graphite used or oxidation protocol. We introduce a new purification protocol that produces a product that we refer to as pristine GO (pGO) in contrast to the commonly known material that we will refer to as conventional GO (cGO). We explain the differences between pGO and cGO by transformations caused by reaction with water. We produce ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic, thermogravimetric, and scanning electron microscopic analytical evidence for the structure of pGO. This work provides a new explanation for the acidity of GO solutions and allows us to add critical details to existing GO models.

  5. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  6. Graphitic heat shields for solar probe missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundell, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using a graphitic heat-shield system on a solar probe going to within 4 solar radii of the center of the sun is investigated. An analysis of graphite vaporization, with commonly used vaporization coefficients, indicates that the maximum mass-loss rate from a conical shield as large as 4 m in diameter can be kept low enough to avoid interference with measurements of the solar environment. In addition to the mass-loss problem, the problem of protecting the payload from the high-temperature (up to 2300 K) primary shield must be solved. An analysis of radiation exchange between concentric disks provides a technique for designing the intermediate shielding. The technique is applied to the design of a system for the Starprobe spacecraft, and it is found that a system with 10 shields and a payload surface temperature of 600 K will have a payload diameter of 2.45 m. Since this is 61% of the 4-m diameter of the primary shield, it is concluded that a graphitic heat-shield system is feasible for the Starprobe mission.

  7. Graphite thermal expansion reference for high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaal, P. S.

    1974-01-01

    The design requirements of the aerospace and high-temperature nuclear reactor industries necessitate reliable thermal expansion data for graphite and other carbonaceous materials. The feasibility of an acceptable reference for calibration of expansion measuring systems that operate in carbon-rich atmospheres at temperatures ranging to 2500 C is the prime subject of this work. Present-day graphite technology provides acceptable materials for stable, reproducible references, as reflected by some of the candidate materials. The repeatability for a single specimen in a given expansion measuring system was found to be plus or minus 1%, while the combined results of several tests made on a number of samples fell within a plus or minus 2.5% band.

  8. Design optimization of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells based on simulation and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appiah, Williams Agyei; Park, Joonam; Song, Seonghyun; Byun, Seoungwoo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-07-01

    LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes of different thicknesses and porosities are prepared and tested, in order to optimize the design of lithium-ion cells. A mathematical model for simulating multiple types of particles with different contact resistances in a single electrode is adopted to study the effects of the different cathode thicknesses and porosities on lithium-ion transport using the nonlinear least squares technique. The model is used to optimize the design of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells by employing it to generate a number of Ragone plots. The cells are optimized for cathode porosity and thickness, while the anode porosity, anode-to-cathode capacity ratio, thickness and porosity of separator, and electrolyte salt concentration are held constant. Optimization is performed for discharge times ranging from 10 h to 5 min. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt method as a fitting technique, accounting for multiple particles with different contact resistances, and employing a rate-dependent solid-phase diffusion coefficient results in there being good agreement between the simulated and experimentally determined discharge curves. The optimized parameters obtained from this study should serve as a guide for the battery industry as well as for researchers for determining the optimal cell design for different applications.

  9. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  10. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: graphite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents facts about graphite ideal for industrial applications. Among the characteristics of graphite are its metallic luster, softness, perfect basal cleavage and electrical conductivity. Batteries, brake linings and powdered metals are some of the products that make use of graphite. It attributes the potential applications for graphite in high-technology fields to innovations in thermal technology and acid-leaching techniques.

  12. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  13. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  14. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  15. Development of lead-free copper alloy-graphite casting. Annual report, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1996-02-01

    Water model experiments were conducted to develop a two-stage stirring method for obtaining higher yields and a more uniform distribution of particles in copper alloys. This was followed by several melts for synthesis of copper-graphite alloys in which T1 was used as a wetting agent to improve the wettability of graphite in the copper melt. In the first stage, a vortex method was employed to facilitate the suction of graphite particles into the copper melt. In the second stage, the specially designed stirrer was used to avoid the formation of vortex in melt. The two stage stirring was found to considerably improve the recovery of graphite, over those obtained with the prior practice of single stage stirring. In addition, graphite recoveries increased with increasing Ti content. Flotation, fluidity, and directional solidification experiments were also conducted on copper-graphite alloys synthesized in this study. Tests showed that the spiral fluidity length of the yellow brass alloy increased with temperature and decreased with graphite. The fluidity of copper-graphite alloys investigated to date remained adequate to make a variety of castings. The observations of microstructure of directional solidification and flotation showed that in certain castings the graphite particles were agglomerated and they float to the upper part of the castings where they reduced the size of grains. However, in the agglomerated form, the graphite particles improved the machinability of copper alloys in a manner similar to lead. The result of the first years work provide an improved method of synthesis of lead free copper graphite alloys with improved machinability and adequate fluidity. Future work will continue to further improve the distribution of graphite particles in casting while retaining adequate fluidity and improved machinability. Techniques like centrifugal casting will be developed to concentrate graphite in regions where it is required for machinability in bearings.

  16. Bonded and Bolted Graphite/Polyimide Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoumal, D. E.; Cushman, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of high-temperature joints designed for control surfaces. Design, analysis, and testing performed to develop four types of graphite/polyimide bonded and bolted composite joints for lightly loaded control surfaces on advanced transportation systems that operate at temperatures up to 550 degrees F (288 degrees C).

  17. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Haiqing L.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  18. Microstructural characterisation of nuclear grade graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. N.; Hall, G. N.; Joyce, M.; Hodgkins, A.; Wen, K.; Marrow, T. J.; Marsden, B. J.

    2008-10-01

    Field emission and transmission electron microscopy are used to characterise the microstructure and morphology of baked carbon block and graphitized grades (from the same carbon block stock) of nuclear graphite. Quantitative analysis using Raman and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the decrease of crystallinity with graphitization and sample purity. Both baked carbon and graphitized nuclear graphites show no sensitivity of the Raman band shift to strain, consistent with strain accommodation by the porous structure.

  19. Role of nuclear grade graphite in controlling oxidation in modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, Willaim; Strydom, G.; Kane, J.; Smith, R.

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  20. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  1. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  2. Graphite-reinforced bone cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Chopped graphite fibers added to surgical bone cement form bonding agent with mechanical properties closely matched to those of bone. Curing reaction produces less heat, resulting in reduced traumatization of body tissues. Stiffness is increased without affecting flexural strength.

  3. Graphite for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Fuller, E.L.; Romanoski, G.R.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite finds applications in both fission and fusion reactors. Fission reactors harness the energy liberated when heavy elements, such as uranium or plutonium, fragment or fission''. Reactors of this type have existed for nearly 50 years. The first nuclear fission reactor, Chicago Pile No. 1, was constructed of graphite under a football stand at Stagg Field, University of Chicago. Fusion energy devices will produce power by utilizing the energy produced when isotopes of the element hydrogen are fused together to form helium, the same reaction that powers our sun. The role of graphite is very different in these two reactor systems. Here we summarize the function of the graphite in fission and fusion reactors, detailing the reasons for their selection and discussing some of the challenges associated with their application in nuclear fission and fusion reactors. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Electrostatic properties of graphitic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbahar, Dogan

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanostructures are considered to be one of the most important candidates of circuit elements for future nanoelectronics. However, being one of the main issues of conventional circuitry used today, charge accumulation on circuit elements can also be expected to have important effects on the performance of the nanoscale devices. In this work we investigated charge accumulation on various graphitic systems by simulated charge doping. We report ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electrostatically charged multilayered carbon nano structures. We investigate the effect of total and background charge on charge distribution profiles on the systems under consideration varying from multilayered graphene to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We show that the charge distribution profile on the inner layers are mainly induced from the background charge which is imposed by the code on periodic systems. Our population anaylsis indicates that the outermost two layers effectively shields the inner layers electrostatically. Illuminating the typical skin depth of those systems our results could give important insights for designing the nanocircuit elements.

  5. Graphite to Inconel brazing using active filler metal

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.; Baity, F.W.; Walls, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas are designed to supply large amounts of auxiliary heating power to fusion-grade plasmas in the Toroidal Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Tore Supra fusion energy experiments. A single Faraday shield structure protects a pair of resonant double loops which are designed to launch up to 2 MW of power per loop. The shield consists of two tiers of actively cooled Inconel alloy tubes with the front tier being covered with semicircular graphite tiles. Successful operation of the antenna requires the making of high integrity bonds between the Inconel tubes and graphite tiles by brazing. This paper discusses this process.

  6. Machining graphite composites with polycrystalline diamond end mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohkonen, Kent E.; Anderson, Scott; Strong, A. B.

    One area of focus in developing light-strong materials has been the development of graphite/epoxy composites. The graphite/epoxy materials have created challenges in the area of fabrication and machining. The research objective was to determine if cutting tool material and style of cutting edge showed any significant differences in tool life. The cutting tool materials and cutter styles included helical carbide-end mills and straight and helical polycrystalline diamond-end mill cutters. The experimental design was developed using a fractional factorial design running twelve tests. Results were taken from cutting tool flank edge wear, composite part surface finish, and visual delamination of the part.

  7. Effects of temperature on internal friction of Graphit-iC graphite-like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhi-yong; Shi, Wen; Wan, Zi; Yuan, Jun-feng; Li, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    Graphit-iC graphite-like carbon coatings were deposited on SDC90 cold work die steel by using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering technology. Effects of the temperature on microstructure and internal friction of the carbon coatings were characterized by Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and a low-frequency mechanical analyzer (LMA-1) testing system. The results indicate that the internal friction of the two-side deposited carbon coatings is small (2.17×10-4), being higher than one of the substrate (1.63×10-4), and increases with temperature. However, there is an internal friction peak at 250°C accompanied with partial sp3 transferred to sp2 and increasing the intensity ratio ID/IG. There is gradual graphitization tendency of the carbon coatings as temperatures increase from 25°C to 350 °C. This would be progressive transformation from amorphous to crystalline.

  8. Ferric chloride graphite intercalation compounds prepared from graphite fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp3 electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp2 electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2*2H2O, others contain FeF3 in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearing of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol %), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are heated to 800 C in quartz tube, they lost most of its halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber. This iron-oxide-covered fiber may be useful in making carbon-fiber/ceramic-matrix composites with strong bonding at the fiber-ceramic interface.

  9. Ferrix Chloride-Graphite Intercalation Compounds Prepared From Graphite Flouride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1995-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp(sup 3) electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp(sup 2) electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first-stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2 (center dot) 2H2O, others contain FeF3, in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearance of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol%), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are exposed to 800 C N2, in a quartz tube, they lost most of their halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber.

  10. Drilling Holes in Graphite/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minlionica, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Relatively long-lived bit produces high-quality holes. Effective combination of cutting-tool design, feed, and speed determined for drilling 3/16-and-1/4-in. (0.48-and 0.65-cm) diameter holes in 0.18 in. (0.46cm) thick GM3013A or equivalent graphite/epoxy corrugated spar without backup material and without coolant. Developed to produce holes in blind areas, optimal techniques yielded holes of high quality, with minimal or acceptable delamination and/or fiber extension on drill-exit side.

  11. Seam bonding of graphite reinforced composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D.; Fox, Robert L.; Tyeryar, James R.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and operating characteristics of a method for the joining of composite parts, at a rate of 2 to 6 inches/min, in which the heating process responsible for adhesive flow at 800 F is focused upon the overlapped seam. The heating element is a self-tuning solid state power oscillator whose ferrite's toroid geometry generates a uniform, concentrated magnetic flux in the component to be bonded. Specimens cut from graphite/epoxy panels bonded with epoxy-phenolic adhesive by this process have exhibited average lap-shear strengths of the order of 3400 lbs/sq in.

  12. Kinetics of Chronic Oxidation of NBG-17 Nuclear Graphite by Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Burchell, Timothy D; Mee, Robert

    2015-05-01

    This report presents the results of kinetic measurements during accelerated oxidation tests of NBG-17 nuclear graphite by low concentration of water vapor and hydrogen in ultra-high purity helium. The objective is to determine the parameters in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) equation describing the oxidation kinetics of nuclear graphite in the helium coolant of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). Although the helium coolant chemistry is strictly controlled during normal operating conditions, trace amounts of moisture (predictably < 0.2 ppm) cannot be avoided. Prolonged exposure of graphite components to water vapor at high temperature will cause very slow (chronic) oxidation over the lifetime of graphite components. This behavior must be understood and predicted for the design and safe operation of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The results reported here show that, in general, oxidation by water of graphite NBG-17 obeys the L-H mechanism, previously documented for other graphite grades. However, the characteristic kinetic parameters that best describe oxidation rates measured for graphite NBG-17 are different than those reported previously for grades H-451 (General Atomics, 1978) and PCEA (ORNL, 2013). In some specific conditions, certain deviations from the generally accepted L-H model were observed for graphite NBG-17. This graphite is manufactured in Germany by SGL Carbon Group and is a possible candidate for the fuel elements and reflector blocks of HTGR.

  13. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  14. NGNP Graphite Testing and Qualification Specimen Selection Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bratton

    2005-05-01

    The available grades of graphite for the NGNP are reviewed. A selection matrix is presented outlining the available grades for the NGNP graphite irradiation program based upon input from potential NGNP vendors, graphite manufactures, and graphite experts.

  15. Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite Enhanced Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardesty, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thermally conductive composite material, a thermal transfer device made of the material, and a method for making the material are disclosed. Apertures or depressions are formed in aluminum or aluminum alloy. Plugs are formed of thermal pyrolytic graphite. An amount of silicon sufficient for liquid interface diffusion bonding is applied, for example by vapor deposition or use of aluminum silicon alloy foil. The plugs are inserted in the apertures or depressions. Bonding energy is applied, for example by applying pressure and heat using a hot isostatic press. The thermal pyrolytic graphite, aluminum or aluminum alloy and silicon form a eutectic alloy. As a result, the plugs are bonded into the apertures or depressions. The composite material can be machined to produce finished devices such as the thermal transfer device. Thermally conductive planes of the thermal pyrolytic graphite plugs may be aligned in parallel to present a thermal conduction path.

  16. The irradiation dimensional changes of grade TSX graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C R; Woodruff, E M

    1988-01-01

    Grade TSX graphite is used as a moderator in the N Reactor which has operated since 1963. This reactor, designed for a 25-year life, is under study to determine the possibility of significantly extending the operating life. One limiting factor is dimensional growth of the graphite lattice making up the core of the reactor. Since the original demands (25-year life) were modest, the dimensional change behavior was derived from a compendium of irradiation data from other grades and only confirmed by a few low-exposure irradiation experiments. Therefore, to generate actual dimensional change data for grade TSX to exposures relevant to the life extension plans, a series of irradiations of TSX graphite were run in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge. This report contains experimental results of such testing. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poesch, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Lightweight graphite/polyimide composite honeycomb core and sandwich panels were fabricated and tested. Honeycomb cores of 1/4-in. and 3/8-in. cell sizes of hexagonal configuration were produced from thin plus or minus 45 deg cross plied sheets of prepreg producing core weights between 1.8 and 3.6 lb/cu ft. Thin gauge prepreg using Hercules graphite tow and Monsanto Skybond 710 polyimide resin were manufactured to produce cured ply thicknesses of 0.001 to 0.002 in. Graphite core properties measured at temperatures from -150 to 600 F are reported. Core properties which are superior to available materials were obtained. Sandwich panels weighing less than 0.5 lb/sq ft were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  18. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  19. Method of Joining Graphite Fibers to a Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor); Caron, Mark E. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor); Gleason, Brian P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of assembling a metallic-graphite structure includes forming a wetted graphite subassembly by arranging one or more layers of graphite fiber material including a plurality of graphite fibers and applying a layer of metallization material to ends of the plurality of graphite fibers. At least one metallic substrate is secured to the wetted graphite subassembly via the layer of metallization material.

  20. Graphite filament wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Damico, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Filament wound NOL rings, 4-inch and 8-inch diameter closed-end vessels involving three epoxy resin systems and three graphite fibers were tested to develop property data and fabrication technology for filament wound graphite/epoxy pressure vessels. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst tests at room temperature. Manufacturing parameters were established for tooling, winding, and curing that resulted in the development of a pressure/vessel performance factor (pressure x volume/weight) or more than 900,000 in. for an oblate spheroid specimen.

  1. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  2. Synthetic Metals from Intercalated Graphite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-09

    Studies of the Structure of SbCl 5Graphite Inter- calation Compounds", L.E. McNeil, J. Steinbeck, L. Salamanca- Riba and G. Dresselhaus, Bull. APS 29...Graphite Intercalation Compounds", L.E. McNeil, J. Steinbeck, L. Salamanca- Riba and G. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B31, 2451 (1985). 12. "Non-Ohmic Transport...Boston (1984), p. 149. 16. "High Resolution Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Studies on SbCI5 - GIC", G. Roth, L. Salamanca- Riba , A.R. Kortan, G

  3. RECOVERY OF VALUABLE MATERIAL FROM GRAPHITE BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Fromm, L.W. Jr.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process for recovering uranium from a graphite fuel element is described. The uraniumcontaining graphite body is disposed as the anode of a cell containing a nitric acid electrolyte and a 5 amp/cm/sup 2/ current passed to induce a progressive disintegration of the graphite body. The dissolved uranium is quickly and easily separated from the resulting graphite particles by simple mechanical means, such as centrifugation, filtration, and decontamination.

  4. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Helena; Divine Khan, Ngwashi; Faccio, Ricardo; Araújo-Moreira, F. M.; Fernández-Werner, Luciana; Makarova, Tatiana; Mombrú, Álvaro W.

    2012-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm-1 showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  5. Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Albert J.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a brazing material for joining graphite structures that can be used at temperatures up to about 2800.degree. C. The brazing material formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600.degree. C. with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800.degree. C. so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. This brazing temperature for hafnium carbide is considerably less than the eutectic temperature of hafnium carbide of about 3150.degree. C. The brazing composition also incorporates the thermosetting resin so that during the brazing operation the graphite structures may be temporarily bonded together by thermosetting the resin so that machining of the structures to final dimensions may be completed prior to the completion of the brazing operation. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures joined thereby and also provides a joint of sufficient integrity so as to at least correspond with the strength and other properties of the graphite.

  6. Reinforcement of cement-based matrices with graphite nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Maqbool

    micro-scale fibers were used for comparison purposes at different volume fractions. Replicated mixes and tests were considered to provide the basis for statistically reliable inferences. Theoretical studies were conducted in order to develop insight into the reinforcement mechanisms of properly functionalized graphite nanomaterials. The results suggested that modified graphite nanomaterials improve the mechanical performance of cement-based matrices primarily through control of microcrack size and propagation, relying on their close spacing within matrix and dissipation of substantial energy by debonding and frictional pullout over their enormous surface areas. The gains in barrier qualities of cement-based materials with introduction of modified graphite nanomaterials could be attributed to the increased tortuosity of diffusion paths in the presence of closely spaced nanomaterials. Experimental investigations were designed and implemented towards identification of the optimum (nano- and micro-scale) reinforcement systems for high-performance concrete through RSA (Response Surface Analysis). A comprehensive experimental data base was developed on the mechanical, physical and durability characteristics as well as the structure and composition of high-performance cementitious nanocomposites reinforced with modified graphite nanomaterials and/ or different micro-fibers.

  7. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite from French Bugey Reactor - 13424

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas; Poncet, Bernard

    2013-07-01

    Beginning in 2009, in order to determine an alternative to direct disposal for decommissioned irradiated graphite from EDF's Bugey NPP, Studsvik and EDF began a test program to determine if graphite decontamination and destruction were practicable using Studsvik's thermal organic reduction (THOR) technology. The testing program focused primarily on the release of C-14, H-3, and Cl-36 and also monitored graphite mass loss. For said testing, a bench-scale steam reformer (BSSR) was constructed with the capability of flowing various compositions of gases at temperatures up to 1300 deg. C over uniformly sized particles of graphite for fixed amounts of time. The BSSR was followed by a condenser, thermal oxidizer, and NaOH bubbler system designed to capture H-3 and C-14. Also, in a separate series of testing, high concentration acid and peroxide solutions were used to soak the graphite and leach out and measure Cl-36. A series of gasification tests were performed to scope gas compositions and temperatures for graphite gasification using steam and oxygen. Results suggested higher temperature steam (1100 deg. C vs. 900 deg. C) yielded a practicable gasification rate but that lower temperature (900 deg. C) gasification was also a practicable treatment alternative if oxygen is fed into the process. A series of decontamination tests were performed to determine the release behavior of and extent to which C-14 and H-3 were released from graphite in a high temperature (900-1300 deg. C), low flow roasting gas environment. In general, testing determined that higher temperatures and longer roasting times were efficacious for releasing H-3 completely and the majority (80%) of C-14. Manipulating oxidizing and reducing gas environments was also found to limit graphite mass loss. A series of soaking tests was performed to measure the amount of Cl-36 in the samples of graphite before and after roasting in the BSSR. Similar to C-14 release, these soaking tests revealed that 70-80% Cl-36

  8. High speed hydrogen/graphite interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Hamman, R.; Sharma, O. P.; Harrje, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of a research program on high speed hydrogen/graphite interaction are presented. Major areas discussed are: (1) theoretical predictions of hydrogen/graphite erosion rates; (2) high temperature, nonequilibrium hydrogen flow in a nozzle; and (3) molecular beam studies of hydrogen/graphite erosion.

  9. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  10. CMB-13 research on carbon and graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    The research on graphite and carbon for this period is reported. Topics discussed include: effects of grinding on the Santa Marie graphites, properties and purities of coal-tar, resin-bonded graphite, carbonization of resin components, and glass-like carbon filler.

  11. Graphitization behaviour of chemically derived graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Long, Donghui; Li, Wei; Qiao, Wenming; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao; Ling, Licheng

    2011-09-01

    Graphene sheets were prepared via chemical reduction of graphite oxides and then graphitized at 2800 °C. The structure changes from pristine graphite to graphitized graphene sheets were monitored using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the graphitized graphene sheets exhibited relatively low degree of graphitization and high level of structural defects. XPS spectra revealed that oxygen functionalities could be completely eliminated after graphitization. Morphology observations indicated that graphitization could induce the coalescence and connection of the crumpled graphene agglomerations into compressed grains. The connections included the joint of graphitic sheets along the c-axis with van der Waals force between graphitic sheets and the joint of sheets in the in-plane with covalent bond between carbon atoms. New structures such as the formation of loop at the tip of graphene sheets and the formation of 3D concentric graphene nanoparticles occurred in the graphitized graphene sheets, as a result of self-organization to achieve their lowest potential energy. Our findings should provide some experimental implications for understanding of graphitization behaviour and thermal stability of strictly 2D graphene monolayers.

  12. Progress in Developing Finite Element Models Replicating Flexural Graphite Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bratton

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the status of flexural strength evaluations from current ASTM procedures and of developing finite element models predicting the probability of failure. This work is covered under QLD REC-00030. Flexural testing procedures of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) assume a linear elastic material that has the same moduli for tension and compression. Contrary to this assumption, graphite is known to have different moduli for tension and compression. A finite element model was developed and demonstrated that accounts for the difference in moduli tension and compression. Brittle materials such as graphite exhibit significant scatter in tensile strength, so probabilistic design approaches must be used when designing components fabricated from brittle materials. ASTM procedures predicting probability of failure in ceramics were compared to methods from the current version of the ASME graphite core components rules predicting probability of failure. Using the ASTM procedures yields failure curves at lower applied forces than the ASME rules. A journal paper was published in the Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design exploring the statistical models of fracture in graphite.

  13. Ag-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown on transferable graphite flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob; Kanne, Thomas; Sestoft, Joachim E.; Gejl, Aske; Zeng, Lunjie; Johnson, Erik; Olsson, Eva; Nygård, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Semiconducting nanowires grown by quasi-van-der-Waals epitaxy on graphite flakes are a new class of hybrid materials that hold promise for scalable nanostructured devices within opto-electronics. Here we report on high aspect ratio and stacking fault free Ag-seeded InAs nanowires grown on exfoliated graphite flakes by molecular beam epitaxy. Ag catalyzes the InAs nanowire growth selectively on the graphite flakes and not on the underlying InAs substrates. This allows for easy transfer of the flexible graphite flakes with as-grown nanowire ensembles to arbitrary substrates by a micro-needle manipulator. Besides the possibilities for fabricating novel nanostructure device designs, we show how this method is used to study the parasitic growth and bicrystal match between the graphite flake and the nanowires by transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Fabrication of Reticulated Graphitic Foam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    mesophase pitch (MP). Mesophase pitch is...goes through several heat treatments to stabilize the mesophase pitch , burn out the polyurethane, carbonize and finally graphitize the foam, all the while maintaining the same morphology as the initial polyurethane foam....struts gives some initial molecular orientation. The dipped foam is dried, leaving behind a the polyurethane foam coated with the pitch . The foam

  15. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-16

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.

  16. Igneous Graphite in Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Igneous graphite. a rare constituent in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. occurs in three EH and one EL enstatite chondrite impact-melt breccias as 2-150 Ilm long euhedrallaths. some with pyramidal terminations. In contrast. graphite in most enstatite chondrites exsolved from metallic Fe-Ni as polygonal. rounded or irregular aggregates. Literature data for five EH chondrites on C combusting at high temperatures show that Abee contains the most homogeneous C isotopes (i.e. delta(sup 13)C = -8.1+/-2.1%); in addition. Abee's mean delta(sup l3)C value is the same as the average high-temperature C value for the set of five EH chondrites. This suggests that Abee scavenged C from a plurality of sources on its parent body and homogenized the C during a large-scale melting event. Whereas igneous graphite in terrestrial rocks typically forms at relatively high pressure and only moderately low oxygen fugacity (e.g., approx. 5 kbar. logfO2, approx. -10 at 1200 C ). igneous graphite in asteroidal meteorites formed at much lower pressures and oxygen fugacities.

  17. Catalytic properties of lamellar compounds of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Yu. N.; Vol'pin, M. E.

    1981-05-01

    In heterogenous catalysis, the supports derived from graphite and carbon-graphite materials constitute a unique and exceptionally attractive group. The lamellar compounds of graphite with various kinds of electron acceptors and donors show catalytic activities on the following reactions: the oxidation of organic compounds with molecular oxygen, many sorts of polymerization, alcohol and formic acid dehydrogenation, hydrogenation and isomerization of olefins and acetylenes, ammonia synthesis from nitrogen and hydrogen, and also CO hydrogenation. Furthermore, the transition metal lamellar compounds of graphite are highly active catalysts in the process of the graphite-to-diamond conversion.

  18. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  19. On the superconductivity of graphite interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquinazi, P.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Lysogorskiy, Y. V.; Tayurskii, D. A.; Volovik, G. E.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an explanation for the appearance of superconductivity at the interfaces of graphite with Bernal stacking order. A network of line defects with flat bands appears at the interfaces between two slightly twisted graphite structures. Due to the flat band the probability to find high temperature superconductivity at these quasi one-dimensional corridors is strongly enhanced. When the network of superconducting lines is dense it becomes effectively two-dimensional. The model provides an explanation for several reports on the observation of superconductivity up to room temperature in different oriented graphite samples, graphite powders as well as graphite-composite samples published in the past.

  20. Optimized Conditioning of Activated Reactor Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Tress, G.; Doehring, L.; Pauli, H.; Beer, H.-F.

    2002-02-25

    The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was decommissioned in 1993 and is now being dismantled. One of the materials to be conditioned is activated reactor graphite, approximately 45 tons. A cost effective conditioning method has been developed. The graphite is crushed to less than 6 mm and added to concrete and grout. This graphite concrete is used as matrix for embedding dismantling waste in containers. The waste containers that would have been needed for separate conditioning and disposal of activated reactor graphite are thus saved. Applying the new method, the cost can be reduced from about 55 SFr/kg to about 17 SFr/kg graphite.

  1. Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, A.J.; Dykes, N.L.

    1982-08-10

    A brazing material is described for joining graphite structures that can be used up to 2800/sup 0/C. The brazing material is formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600/sup 0/C with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800/sup 0/C so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures.

  2. Graphite Foam Heat Exchangers for Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, J.W.

    2004-06-07

    Improved thermal management is needed to increase the power density of electronic and more effectively cool electronic enclosures that are envisioned in future aircraft, spacecraft and surface ships. Typically, heat exchanger cores must increase in size to more effectively dissipate increased heat loads, this would be impossible in many cases, thus improved heat exchanger cores will be required. In this Phase I investigation, MRi aimed to demonstrate improved thermal management using graphite foam (Gr-foam) core heat exchangers. The proposed design was to combine Gr-foams from POCO with MRi's innovative low temperature, active metal joining process (S-Bond{trademark}) to bond Gr-foam to aluminum, copper and aluminum/SiC composite faceplates. The results were very favorable, so a Phase II SBIR with the MDA was initiated. This had primarily 5 tasks: (1) bonding, (2) thermal modeling, (3) cooling chip scale packages, (4) evaporative cooling techniques and (5) IGBT cold plate development. The bonding tests showed that the ''reflow'' technique with S-Bond{reg_sign}-220 resulted in the best and most consistent bond. Then, thermal modeling was used to design different chip scale packages and IGBT cold plates. These designs were used to fabricate many finned graphite foam heat sinks specifically for two standard type IC packages, the 423 and 478 pin chips. These results demonstrated several advantages with the foam. First, the heat sinks with the foam were lighter than the copper/aluminum sinks used as standards. The sinks for the 423 design made from foam were not as good as the standard sinks. However, the sinks made from foam for the 478 pin chips were better than the standard heat sinks used today. However, this improvement was marginal (in the 10-20% better regime). However, another important note was that the epoxy bonding technique resulted in heat sinks with similar results as that with the S-bond{reg_sign}, slightly worse than the S-bond{reg_sign}, but still

  3. Evidence of graphitic AB stacking order of graphite oxides.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae-Kyung; Lee, Yun Pyo; Lahaye, Rob J W E; Park, Min-Ho; An, Kay Hyeok; Kim, Ick Jun; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Park, Chong Yun; Ruoff, Rodney S; Lee, Young Hee

    2008-01-30

    Graphite oxide (GO) samples were prepared by a simplified Brodie method. Hydroxyl, epoxide, carboxyl, and some alkyl functional groups are present in the GO, as identified by solid-state 13C NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Starting with pyrolytic graphite (interlayer separation 3.36 A), the average interlayer distance after 1 h of reaction, as determined by X-ray diffraction, increased to 5.62 A and then increased with further oxidation to 7.37 A after 24 h. A smaller signal in 13C CPMAS NMR compared to that in 13C NMR suggests that carboxyl and alkyl groups are at the edges of the flakes of graphite oxide. Other aspects of the chemical bonding were assessed from the NMR and XPS data and are discussed. AB stacking of the layers in the GO was inferred from an electron diffraction study. The elemental composition of GO prepared using this simplified Brodie method is further discussed.

  4. Initial Comparison of Baseline Physical and Mechanical Properties for the VHTR Candidate Graphite Grades

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark C.

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is establishing accurate as-manufactured mechanical and physical property distributions in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding

  5. Thermal charging study of compressed expanded natural graphite/phase change material composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, Anne; Abdelaziz, Omar; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2016-08-12

    The thermal charging performance of paraffin wax combined with compressed expanded natural graphite foam was studied for different graphite bulk densities. Constant heat fluxes between 0.39 W/cm2 and 1.55 W/cm2 were applied, as well as a constant boundary temperature of 60 °C. Thermal charging experiments indicate that, in the design of thermal batteries, thermal conductivity of the composite alone is an insufficient metric to determine the influence of the graphite foam on the thermal energy storage. By dividing the latent heat of the composite by the time to end of melt for each applied boundary condition, the energy storage performance was calculated to show the effects of composite thermal conductivity, graphite bulk density, and latent heat capacity. For the experimental volume, the addition of graphite beyond a graphite bulk density of 100 kg/m3 showed limited benefit on the energy storage performance due to the decrease in latent heat storage capacity. These experimental results are used to validate a numerical model to predict the time to melt and for future use in the design of heat exchangers with graphite-foam based phase change material composites. As a result, size scale effects are explored parametrically with the validated model.

  6. Thermal charging study of compressed expanded natural graphite/phase change material composites

    DOE PAGES

    Mallow, Anne; Abdelaziz, Omar; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2016-08-12

    The thermal charging performance of paraffin wax combined with compressed expanded natural graphite foam was studied for different graphite bulk densities. Constant heat fluxes between 0.39 W/cm2 and 1.55 W/cm2 were applied, as well as a constant boundary temperature of 60 °C. Thermal charging experiments indicate that, in the design of thermal batteries, thermal conductivity of the composite alone is an insufficient metric to determine the influence of the graphite foam on the thermal energy storage. By dividing the latent heat of the composite by the time to end of melt for each applied boundary condition, the energy storage performancemore » was calculated to show the effects of composite thermal conductivity, graphite bulk density, and latent heat capacity. For the experimental volume, the addition of graphite beyond a graphite bulk density of 100 kg/m3 showed limited benefit on the energy storage performance due to the decrease in latent heat storage capacity. These experimental results are used to validate a numerical model to predict the time to melt and for future use in the design of heat exchangers with graphite-foam based phase change material composites. As a result, size scale effects are explored parametrically with the validated model.« less

  7. 3He on preplated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2016-10-01

    By using the diffusion Monte Carlo method, we obtained the full phase diagram of 3He on top of graphite preplated with a solid layer of 4He. All the 4He atoms of the substrate were explicitly considered and allowed to move during the simulation. We found that the ground state is a liquid of density 0.007 ±0.001 Å-2, in good agreement with available experimental data. This is significantly different from the case of 3He on clean graphite, in which both theory and experiment agree on the existence of a gas-liquid transition at low densities. Upon an increase in 3He density, we predict a first-order phase transition between a dense liquid and a registered 7/12 phase, the 4/7 phase being found metastable in our calculations. At larger second-layer densities, a final transition is produced to an incommensurate triangular phase.

  8. Graphite moderated (252)Cf source.

    PubMed

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Barros, Haydn; Greaves, Eduardo D; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-06-01

    The Thorium molten-salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid-fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a (252)Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the (252)Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator.

  9. Dispersive interactions in graphitic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Popescu, A.; Drosdoff, D.; Bondarev, I. V.

    2013-02-01

    The Casimir interaction between graphitic nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets, is investigated at the quantum mechanical limit (T = 0 K) using a quantum electrodynamical approach for absorbing and dispersive media. It is found that the nanotube/nanotube interaction in a double wall carbon nanotube configuration is profoundly affected by the collective low frequency excitations of individual nanotubes. It is shown that pronounced, low frequency peaks in the nanotube electron energy loss spectra are a main factor contributing to the strength of the intertube attraction. The graphene/graphene force is also investigated. It is obtained that the graphene optical transparency is the main reason for the reduced attraction as compared to the one for perfect metals. This study presents a unified approach for electromagnetic interactions in graphitic nanostructures, which is able to account for their unique electronic and response properties and geometry configurations.

  10. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  11. Poco Graphite Mirror Metrology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently a lightweight mirror technology was tested at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optic Manufacturing Technology Center (MSFC, SOMTC). The mirror is a Poco Graphite CVD Si clad SiC substrate. It was tested for cryogenic (cryo) survivability to 20deg Kelvin in SOMTC's X-ray Calibration and Cryogenic Test Facility. The surface figure of the mirror was measured before and after cry0 cycling. The test technique and results are discussed.

  12. Preliminary economic evaluation of the use of graphite composite materials in surface transportation, phase 1 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Composite materials are discussed with emphasis on the identification of the characteristics of those materials that make them attractive for use in surface transportation. Potential uses of graphite composites are given including automotive applications and the effects of materials substitution on vehicle characteristics and performance. Preliminary estimates of the economic effects of the use of graphite composite materials on vehicle manufacturers and consumers are included. The combined impact on the national economy of vehicle design changes to meet mandated fuel efficiency requirements and the extensive use of graphite composite materials in the automotive industry is considered.

  13. Graphite Nanoreinforcements for Aerospace Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2005-01-01

    New advances in the reinforcement of polymer matrix composite materials are critical for advancement of the aerospace industry. Reinforcements are required to have good mechanical and thermal properties, large aspect ratio, excellent adhesion to the matrix, and cost effectiveness. To fulfill the requirements, nanocomposites in which the matrix is filled with nanoscopic reinforcing phases having dimensions typically in the range of 1nm to 100 nm show considerably higher strength and modulus with far lower reinforcement content than their conventional counterparts. Graphite is a layered material whose layers have dimensions in the nanometer range and are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Once these layers are exfoliated and dispersed in a polymer matrix as nano platelets, they have large aspect ratios. Graphite has an elastic modulus that is equal to the stiffest carbon fiber and 10-15 times that of other inorganic reinforcements, and it is also electrically and thermally conductive. If the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with excellent mechanical properties, superior thermal stability, and very good electrical and thermal properties at very low reinforcement loadings.

  14. Development of polyphenylquinoxaline graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggatt, J. T.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Shdo, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The potential of polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ)/graphite composites to serve as structural material at 316 C (600 F)has been demonstrated using a block copolymer, BlCo(13), PPQ derivative. Initially, thirteen polyphenylquinoxalines were evaluated. From this work, four candidate polymers were selected for preliminary evaluation as matrices for HMS graphite fiber reinforced composites. The preliminary composite evaluation enabled selection of one of the four polymers for advanced composite preparation and testing. Using an experimentally established cure schedule for each of the four polymers, preliminary laminates of 50% resin volume content, prepared without postcure, were tested for flexure strength and modulus, interlaminar shear strength (short beam), and tensile strength and modulus at ambient temperature. A block copolymer (Bl Co 13) derived from one mole p-bis (phenylglyoxalyl) benzene, one fourth mole 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and three-fourths mole 3,3', 4,4'-tetraminobenzophenone was selected for extensive study. Tensile, flexural, and interlaminar shear values were obtained after aging and testing postcured BlCo(13) laminates at 316 C (600 F). The potential of PPQ/graphite laminates to serve as short term structural materials at temperatures up to 371 C (700 F) was demonstrated through weight loss experiments.

  15. Pyrolytic graphite film thermal straps: Characterization testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Ian M.; Smith, Colin H.; Ramsey, Perry G.; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports on the experimentally-measured conductance, stiffness, and particulate contamination of pyrolytic graphite film thermal straps. This work was aimed at assessing the feasibility of replacing standard aluminum foil in thermal straps with graphite film, which is more conductive and lighter. Four different U-shaped straps with similar cross-sections and terminals were tested in the study. Three of the straps had a three-inch long flexible section. One of these was made from aluminum 1100 foil, and two were made from Pyrovo pyrolytic graphite film (PGF). One of the PGF straps was fabricated with an aluminized mylar blanket that was sealed at the terminals. The last strap was made from PGF, was blanketed, and was six inches long. The conductance of each strap was measured as a function of mean strap temperature ranging from 60 K to 300 K. The peak measured conductance of the three-inch PGF and aluminum straps were 1.0 W/K at 162 K and 0.28 W/K at 64 K, respectively. The conductance of all straps converged to around 0.3 W/K as the mean strap temperature approached 60 K. In addition, the peak conductance of the six-inch PGF strap was 0.83 W/K at 150 K. The fact that its peak conductance was near the conductance of the three-inch PGF strap indicated that the thermal resistance of the terminals in the PGF straps was significant. For a given temperature, the conductance varied by as much as 15% for two units of the same strap design. One of the straps was thermally cycled from 300 K to 60 K ten times. Its conductance was unchanged by the thermal cycling. Furthermore, one of the six-inch long PGF straps was subjected to random vibration. The random vibration spectrum was designed so that one terminal achieved a maximum displacement of ± 0.25 in. from its neutral position in three orthogonal axes while the other was held stationary. The conductance of this strap was unaffected by the random vibration test. The straps were also tested for the level of

  16. Measurement of damping of graphite epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an experiment to measure the damping of a cylindrical graphite-epoxy specimen with a three point support and a knife edge support is described as well as equipment used in tests conducted to determine the influence of the support at the two ends of the specimen and to simulate an idealized free-free boundary condition at the two edges. A curve fitting technique is being used to process the frequency response data obtained. Experiments conducted on the thin plate specimen also reveal the influence of the end support condition on the damping ratio of the specimen. The damping ratio values measured for both specimens appear to be strongly influenced by the shape of the specimen and appear to depend on length and fiber orientation as well as the presence of discontinuities such as sharp bends, corners, and notches.

  17. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  18. A Comparison of the Irradiation Creep Behavior of Several Graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2016-01-01

    Graphite creep strain data from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep-1 (AGC-1) are reported. This capsule was the first (prototype) of a series of five or six capsules planned as part of the AGC experiment, which was designed to fully characterize the effects of neutron irradiation and the radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite. The creep strain data and analysis are reported for the six graphite grades incorporated in the capsule. The AGC-1 capsule was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at approximately 700 C and to a peak dose of 7 dpa (displacements per atom). The specimen s final dose, temperature, and stress conditions have been reported by INL and were used during this analysis. The derived creep coefficients (K) were calculated for each grade and were found to compare well to literature data for the creep coefficient, even under the wide range of AGC-1 specimen temperatures. Comparisons were made between AGC-1 data and historical grade data for creep coefficients.

  19. Reversible Intercalation of Fluoride-Anion Receptor Complexes in Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Leifer, Nicole; Greenbaum, Steve; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Blanco, Mario; Narayanan, S. R.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a route to reversibly intercalate fluoride-anion receptor complexes in graphite via a nonaqueous electrochemical process. This approach may find application for a rechargeable lithium-fluoride dual-ion intercalating battery with high specific energy. The cell chemistry presented here uses graphite cathodes with LiF dissolved in a nonaqueous solvent through the aid of anion receptors. Cells have been demonstrated with reversible cathode specific capacity of approximately 80 mAh/g at discharge plateaus of upward of 4.8 V, with graphite staging of the intercalant observed via in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during charging. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and B-11 nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that cointercalation of the anion receptor with the fluoride occurs during charging, which likely limits the cathode specific capacity. The anion receptor type dictates the extent of graphite fluorination, and must be further optimized to realize high theoretical fluorination levels. To find these optimal anion receptors, we have designed an ab initio calculations-based scheme aimed at identifying receptors with favorable fluoride binding and release properties.

  20. Electrochemical Ultracapacitors Using Graphitic Nanostacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marotta, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical ultracapacitors (ECs) have been developed using graphitic nanostacks as the electrode material. The advantages of this technology will be the reduction of device size due to superior power densities and relative powers compared to traditional activated carbon electrodes. External testing showed that these materials display reduced discharge response times compared to state-of-the-art materials. Such applications are advantageous for pulsed power applications such as burst communications (satellites, cell phones), electromechanical actuators, and battery load leveling in electric vehicles. These carbon nanostructures are highly conductive and offer an ordered mesopore network. These attributes will provide more complete electrolyte wetting, and faster release of stored charge compared to activated carbon. Electrochemical capacitor (EC) electrode materials were developed using commercially available nanomaterials and modifying them to exploit their energy storage properties. These materials would be an improvement over current ECs that employ activated carbon as the electrode material. Commercially available graphite nanofibers (GNFs) are used as precursor materials for the synthesis of graphitic nanostacks (GNSs). These materials offer much greater surface area than graphite flakes. Additionally, these materials offer a superior electrical conductivity and a greater average pore size compared to activated carbon electrodes. The state of the art in EC development uses activated carbon (AC) as the electrode material. AC has a high surface area, but its small average pore size inhibits electrolyte ingress/egress. Additionally, AC has a higher resistivity, which generates parasitic heating in high-power applications. This work focuses on fabricating EC from carbon that has a very different structure by increasing the surface area of the GNF by intercalation or exfoliation of the graphitic basal planes. Additionally, various functionalities to the GNS

  1. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  2. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  3. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH METALLIC CARBIDES

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1960-03-22

    A method for producing refractory coatings of metallic carbides on graphite was developed. In particular, the graphite piece to be coated is immersed in a molten solution of 4 to 5% by weight of zirconium, titanium, or niobium dissolved in tin. The solution is heated in an argon atmosphere to above 1400 deg C, whereby the refractory metal reacts with the surface of the graphite to form a layer of metalic carbide. The molten solution is cooled to 300 to 400 deg C, and the graphite piece is removed. Excess tin is wiped from the graphite, which is then heated in vacuum to above 2300 deg C. The tin vaporizes from the graphite surface, leaving the surface coated with a tenacious layer of refractory metallic carbide.

  4. Removal of carbon-14 from irradiated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Smith, Tara E.

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. On of the isotopes of great concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (14C), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates 14C is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented here is to develop a practical method by which 14C can be removed. In parallel with these efforts, the same irradiated graphite material is being characterized to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam®, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of 14C precursor) and neutron-irradiated (1013 neutrons/cm2/s). During post-irradiation thermal treatment, graphite samples were heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without the addition of an oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon only were performed at 900 °C and 1400 °C to evaluate the selective removal of 14C. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% oxygen at temperatures 700 °C and 1400 °C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of 14C. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient 14C removal.

  5. Formation of self-supporting porous graphite structures by Spark Plasma Sintering of nickel-amorphous carbon mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhonov, Boris B.; Dudina, Dina V.; Ukhina, Arina V.; Korchagin, Michail A.; Bulina, Natalia V.; Mali, Vyacheslav I.; Anisimov, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Graphitization of amorphous carbon in the presence of nickel has been reported for various configurations of the metal-carbon interface; however, no study has been performed to evaluate a possibility of forming self-supporting networks by sintering of the in situ formed graphite. In this work, we have shown that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of nickel-amorphous carbon mixtures containing 50 vol% of Ni at 1000 °C results in the formation of networks formed by sintered graphite platelets 50-200 nm thick and 0.3-2 μm in diameter. Upon selective dissolution of nickel, a self-supporting porous 3D skeleton was revealed in 20 mm-diameter compacts. Starting from the mechanically milled Ni-C mixture, porous graphite of uniform microstructure and containing submicron pores was obtained. A model study has been performed, in which a thin amorphous carbon film graphitized during annealing and formed a continuous graphite film with micron-sized grains covering an area of 2 cm×2 cm of the surface of a Ni foil. We discuss the role of the in situ formation of graphite by nickel-assisted graphitization in the formation of networks consisting of well sintered platelets during the SPS and the design possibilities of porous carbon materials produced by phase separation in nickel-graphite composites.

  6. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Kane, J.S.; Carpenter, J.H.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1962-01-16

    A method is given for coating graphite with a hard, tenacious layer of niobium carbide up to 30 mils or more thick. The method makes use of the discovery that niobium metal, if degassed and heated rapidly below the carburization temperature in contact with graphite, spreads, wets, and penetrates the graphite without carburization. The method includes the obvious steps of physically contacting niobium powders or other physical forms of niobium with graphite, degassing the assembly below the niobium melting point, e.g., 1400 deg C, heating to about 2200 to 2400 deg C within about 15 minutes while outgassing at a high volume throughput, and thereafter carburizing the niobium. (AEC)

  7. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  8. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  9. Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-28

    A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

  10. Anisotropic Tuning of Graphite Thermal Conductivity by Lithium Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xin; Gu, Xiaokun; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Yang, Ronggui

    2016-11-17

    Understanding thermal transport in lithium intercalated layered materials is not only important for managing heat generation and dissipation in lithium ion batteries but also the understanding potentially provides a novel way to design materials with reversibly tunable thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal conductivity of lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (LixC6) is calculated using molecular dynamics simulations as a function of the amount of lithium intercalated. We found that intercalation of lithium has an anisotropic effect on tuning the thermal conductivity: the thermal conductivity in the basal plane decreases monotonically from 1232 W/m·K of pristine graphite to 444 W/m·K of the fully lithiated LiC6, while the thermal conductivity along the c-axis decreases first from 6.5 W/m·K for graphite to 1.3 W/m·K for LiC18 and then increases to 5.0 W/m·K for LiC6 as the lithium composition increases. More importantly, we provide the very first atomic-scale insight into the effect of lithium intercalation on the spectral phonon properties of graphite. The intercalated lithium ions are found to suppress the phonon lifetime and to reduce the group velocity of phonons parallel to the basal plane but significantly to increase the phonon group velocity along the c-axis, which anisotropically tunes the thermal conductivity of lithiated graphite compounds. This work could shed some light on the search for tunable thermal conductivity materials and might have strong impacts on the thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

  11. AMS-C14 analysis of graphite obtained with an Automated Graphitization Equipment (AGE III) from aerosol collected on quartz filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, C.; Chávez, E.; Ortiz, M. E.; Andrade, E.; Ortíz, E.; Szidat, S.; Wacker, L.

    2015-10-01

    AMS-14C applications often require the analysis of small samples. Such is the case of atmospheric aerosols where frequently only a small amount of sample is available. The ion beam physics group at the ETH, Zurich, has designed an Automated Graphitization Equipment (AGE III) for routine graphite production for AMS analysis from organic samples of approximately 1 mg. In this study, we explore the potential use of the AGE III for graphitization of particulate carbon collected in quartz filters. In order to test the methodology, samples of reference materials and blanks with different sizes were prepared in the AGE III and the graphite was analyzed in a MICADAS AMS (ETH) system. The graphite samples prepared in the AGE III showed recovery yields higher than 80% and reproducible 14C values for masses ranging from 50 to 300 μg. Also, reproducible radiocarbon values were obtained for aerosol filters of small sizes that had been graphitized in the AGE III. As a study case, the tested methodology was applied to PM10 samples collected in two urban cities in Mexico in order to compare the source apportionment of biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The obtained 14C data showed that carbonaceous aerosols from Mexico City have much lower biogenic signature than the smaller city of Cuernavaca.

  12. The action of macrosounds on graphite ore and derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradeteanu, C.; Dragan, O.

    1974-01-01

    A suspension of graphite ore, floated graphite, and the gangue left over from flotation were subjected to the action of macrosounds under determinant conditions. The following was found: (1) The graphite ore undergoes an efficient settling action. (2) The floated graphite is strongly crushed down to the dimensions of colloidal graphite. (3) The gangue left over from flotation can be further processed to recuperate graphite from its nuclei.

  13. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  14. Synthetic Metals from Intercalated Graphite.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    34, L. Salamanca- Riba and M.S. Dres- selhaus, Carbon, (in press) (1986). 16. "High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy on KH.-GICs", L. Salaman...ca- Riba , N.C. Yeh, M.S. Dresselhaus, M. Endo and T. Enoki, J. of Mat. Res. (in press) (1986). 11 04 -.4* 17. "Electron Beam Induced Damage and...Structure of SbCl5 Graphite Intercalation Compounds", L. Salamanca- Riba , G. Roth, J.M. Gibson, A.R. Kortan, G. Dresselhaus and - R.J. Birgeneau, Phys. Rev

  15. The Effect of Neutron Irradiation Damage on the Properties of Grade NBG-10 Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Block Graphite-10 (NBG-10) is a medium-grain, near-isotropic graphite manufactured by SGL Carbon Company at their plant in Chedde, France. NBG-10 graphite was developed as a candidate core structural material for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) currently being designed in South Africa, and for prismatic reactor concepts being developed in the USA and Europe. NBG-10 is one of several graphites included in the US-DOE Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program. Thirty-six NBG-10 graphite flexure bars have been successfully irradiated in a series of eighteen HFIR PTT capsules at ORNL. The capsule irradiation temperatures were 294 25, 360 25 and 691 25 C. The peak doses attained were 4.93, 6.67, and 6.69 x 1025 n/m2 [E>0.1 MeV] at ~294, ~360, and ~691 C, respectively. The high temperature irradiation volume and dimensional change behavior, and flexure strength and elastic modulus changes of NBG-10 were similar to other extruded, near-isotropic grades, such as H-451, which has been irradiated previously at ORNL. The low temperature (~294 C) irradiation volume and dimensional change behavior was also as expected for extruded graphites, i.e., exhibiting low dose swelling prior to shrinkage. This behavior was attributed to the relaxation of internal stress arising from the graphite manufacturing process and specimen machining. While the data reported here do not represent a complete database for NBG-10 graphite, they give a measure of confidence that the current generation of nuclear graphites will behave in a familiar and well understood manner.

  16. The effect of neutron irradiation damage on the properties of grade NBG-10 graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2007-09-01

    Nuclear block graphite-10 (NBG-10) is a medium-grain, near-isotropic graphite manufactured by SGL Carbon Company at their plant in Chedde, France. NBG-10 graphite was developed as a candidate core structural material for the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) currently being designed in South Africa, and for prismatic reactor concepts being developed in the USA and Europe. NBG-10 is one of several graphites included in the US-DOE Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program. Thirty-six NBG-10 graphite flexure bars have been successfully irradiated in a series of 18 HFIR PTT capsules at ORNL. The capsule irradiation temperatures were 294 ± 25, 360 ± 25 and 691 ± 25 °C. The peak doses attained were 4.93, 6.67, and 6.69 × 10 25 n/m 2 [ E > 0.1 MeV] at ˜294, ˜360, and ˜691 °C, respectively. The high temperature irradiation volume and dimensional change behavior, and flexure strength and elastic modulus changes of NBG-10 were similar to other extruded, near-isotropic grades, such as H-451, which has been irradiated previously at ORNL. The low temperature (˜294 °C) irradiation volume and dimensional change behavior was also as expected for extruded graphites, i.e., exhibiting low dose swelling prior to shrinkage. This behavior was attributed to the relaxation of internal stress arising from the graphite manufacturing process and specimen machining. While the data reported here do not represent a complete database for NBG-10 graphite, they give a measure of confidence that the current generation of nuclear graphites will behave in a familiar and well understood manner.

  17. Effect of graphite surface structure on initial irreversible reaction in graphite anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kimihito; Hamada, Takeshi; Sugiura, Tsutomu

    1999-03-01

    The initial irreversible reaction that occurs in graphite anodes during the first lithium intercalation in lithium rechargeable batteries was studied in view of graphite surface structure. Graphitized mesophase spheres and pitch-based carbon fibers, which show low irreversible capacity, were shown to have turbostatic surface regions and highly graphitized cores using Ar-ion laser Raman spectroscopy. Burning off these surface regions resulted in remarkable increases of initial irreversible capacity. Those results can be explained by a proposed model that a turbostatic structure of the graphite surface region resists drastic swelling of interlayer spaces arising from cointercalation of solvated ions and depresses the side reaction.

  18. Analysis of Wigner energy release process in graphite stack of shut-down uranium-graphite reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespala, E. V.; Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.

    2015-10-01

    Data, which finding during thermal differential analysis of sampled irradiated graphite are presented. Results of computational modeling of Winger energy release process from irradiated graphite staking are demonstrated. It's shown, that spontaneous combustion of graphite possible only in adiabatic case.

  19. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.

    2011-12-01

    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  20. Mineral Resource of the Month: Graphite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    Graphite, a grayish black opaque mineral with a metallic luster, is one of four forms of pure crystalline carbon (the others are carbon nanotubes, diamonds and fullerenes). It is one of the softest minerals and it exhibits perfect basal (one-plane) cleavage. Graphite is the most electrically and thermally conductive of the nonmetals, and it is chemically inert.

  1. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  2. Seismic study of high-temperature engineering test reactor core graphite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Iyoku, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Shiozawa, S. . Oarai Research Establishment); Nishiguchi, I. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper discusses the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) a 30-MW (thermal) helium gas-cooled reactor with a core composed of prismatic graphite blocks piled on core support structures. Safety analyses have been made for the seismic design of the HTTR core using a two-dimensional seismic analysis code called SONATINA-2V, which was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. To evaluate the validity of the SONATINA-2V code and confirm the structural integrity of the core graphite blocks, large-scale seismic tests are conducted using a half-scale vertical section model and a full-scale seven-column model of the core graphite blocks and the core support structures. The test results are in good agreement with the analytical ones, and the validity of the analysis code is confirmed. The structural integrity of the core graphite blocks is confirmed by both analytical and test results.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Bratton, Rob; Marsden, Barry; Srinivasan, Makuteswara; Penfield, Scott; Mitchell, Mark; Windes, Will

    2008-03-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  4. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.; Tan, C.D.; Hidalgo, R.; Baker, R.T.K.; Rodriguez, N.M.

    1998-08-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNF) are a type of material that is produced by the decomposition of carbon containing gases over metal catalyst particles at temperatures around 600 C. These molecularly engineered structures consist of graphene sheets perfectly arranged in a parallel, perpendicular or at angle orientation with respect to the fiber axis. The most important feature of the material is that only edges are exposed. Such an arrangement imparts the material with unique properties for gas adsorption because the evenly separated layers constitute the most ordered set of nanopores that can accommodate an adsorbate in the most efficient manner. In addition, the non-rigid pore walls can also expand so as to accommodate hydrogen in a multilayer conformation. Of the many varieties of structures that can be produced the authors have discovered that when gram quantities of a selected number of GNF are exposed to hydrogen at pressures of {approximately} 2,000 psi, they are capable of adsorbing and storing up to 40 wt% of hydrogen. It is believed that a strong interaction is established between hydrogen and the delocalized p-electrons present in the graphite layers and therefore a new type of chemistry is occurring within these confined structures.

  5. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  6. Status of Graphite Oxidation Work

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Smith

    2010-05-01

    Data were developed to compare the extent of structural damage associated with high temperature exposure to an air leak. Two materials, NBG-18 graphite and unpurified PCEA graphite have been tested as of this report. The scope was limited to isothermal oxidation at a single temperature, 750°C. Ambient post-oxidation compression strength testing was performed for three levels of burn off (1%, 5%, and 10% mass loss) for two leak scenarios: 100% air and 10% air in helium. Temperature, gas flow, and dynamic mass loss oxidation conditions were monitored and recorded for each sample. The oxidation period was controlled with flow of inert gas during the thermal ramp and upon cool down with a constant 10 liter per minute flow maintained throughout furnace operation. Compressive strengths of parallel un-oxidized samples were tested to assess the relative mass loss effects. In addition to baseline samples matching the un-oxidized dimensions of the oxidized samples, two sets of mechanically reduced samples were prepared. One set was trimmed to achieve the desired mass loss by removing an effectively uniform depth from the geometric surface of the sample. The other set was cored to produce a full penetration axial hole down the center of each sample.

  7. Development of polyphenylquinoxaline graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggatt, J. T.; Hill, S. G.; Shdo, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    This exploratory program was divided into four basic tasks. The initial phase was devoted toward investigating processing variables associated with previously developed PPO resins. These polymers were derived from p-bis(phenyl glyoxalyl)benzene reacted with 3,3'-diamino benzidine and/or 3,3',4,4'-tetramino benzophenone. Four new phenyl quinoxaline polymers were synthesized and characterized in Tasks 2 and 3. These consisted of a hydroxyl group containing PPQ synthesized from 3,3'-diamino benzidine (DAB), m-bis(phenyl glyoxal)benzene and m-bis(p'-hydroxy phenyl glyoxalyl) benzene; a cyano group containing PPQ from the reaction of DAB and p-bis(p'-cyano phenoxy phenyl glyoxalyl)benzene; an end-capped block copolymer; and a polymer from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-tetraamino benzo phenone and m-bis(phenyl glyoxalyl)benzene. The latter two polymers were chosen for composite studies in the latter two tasks of the program. Mechanical properties of the graphite reinforced PPQ composites were determined over the temperature range of +21 C to 316 C. Flexural strengths of the HMS graphite fiber composites were in excess of 8.97 X 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (130,000 psi) at +21 C (70 F) with over 50% strength retention at +316 C.

  8. Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik Chinnathambi; Joshua Kane; Darryl P. Butt; William E. Windes; Rick Ubic

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

  9. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  10. Structure of different grades of nuclear graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, B. E.; Westwood, A. V. K.; Scott, A. J.; Brydson, R.; Jones, A. N.

    2012-07-01

    Owing to its low neutron absorption cross-section, large scattering cross section and thermal and chemical stability, graphite is a key component of operational nuclear reactors where it is used as a moderator, reflector and as major structural component for 90% of current UK nuclear plants. It is also of interest for use in developing the future high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The properties of the nuclear graphite are influenced by its structural characteristics, which change as a function of neutron irradiation, temperature and oxidation. The principal structural changes during neutron irradiation that affect the integrity and dimensions of nuclear graphite components, thereby affecting service lifetime, are that the a-axis contracts and the c-axis expands in the crystallites. Characterization of virgin graphite structure and of the damage evolution after irradiation of nuclear graphite has an important role to play in the understanding and development of materials used in current and future nuclear reactors, respectively.

  11. Microstructural characterization of next generation nuclear graphites.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Chinnathambi; Kane, Joshua; Butt, Darryl P; Windes, William E; Ubic, Rick

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

  12. Model experiments of superlubricity of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienwiebel, Martin; Pradeep, Namboodiri; Verhoeven, Gertjan S.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Frenken, Joost W. M.

    2005-02-01

    Graphite is known to be a good solid lubricant. The low-friction behavior is traditionally ascribed to the low resistance to shear. We have recently observed that the ultra-low friction found in friction force microscopy experiments on graphite is due to a effect called superlubricity [M. Dienwiebel, G. S. Verhoeven, N. Pradeep, J.W.M. Frenken, J.A. Heimberg, H.W. Zandbergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004) 126101]. Here, we provide additional experimental evidence that superlubricity has been taken place between a small graphite flake attached to the scanning tip and the graphite surface. Finally, we speculate about the significance of this for the lubricating properties of graphite.

  13. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  14. Statistical Comparison of the Baseline Mechanical Properties of NBG-18 and PCEA Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; David T. Rohrbaugh

    2013-08-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled design that is capable of producing process heat for power generation and for industrial process that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a comprehensive comparison between these values in different nuclear grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons and variations between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between the two grades of graphite that were initially favored in the two main VHTR designs. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration, while PCEA, a smaller grain, petroleum coke, extruded graphite from GrafTech was favored for the prismatic configuration. An analysis of the comparison between these two grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  15. Evaluation of failure criterion for graphite/epoxy fabric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Wharram, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development and application of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is described. Emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Narmco Rigidite 5208-WT300, a plain weave fabric of Thornel 300 Graphite fibers impregnated with Narmco 5208 Resin. The quadratic-failure criterion with F sub 12=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the graphite/epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was recast into an operationally easier form, providing design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from orthotropic woven fabric prepregs. In the form presented, no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exist at present to generalize this approach for all prepreg constructions, and its use must be restricted to the generic materials and configurations investigated to date.

  16. Aging behavior and life prediction of graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Raasch, David

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data from two independent tests, designed to determine the long-term reliability of composite materials. The technique of accelerated aging at elevated temperatures is employed. In the first set, graphite fiber, epoxy composites in five ply layups are manufactured and tested in the standard short-beam shear mode. In the second set, Nomex honeycomb, graphite fiber/epoxy composite face and rear sheet sandwich coupons are tested. After satisfying simple consistency checks, data interpretation is attempted within the framework of an Arrhenius degradation model. The elevated temperature is assumed to influence the degradation according to this temperature-dependent rate law. From these tests on five-ply composites and honeycomb sandwiches, it is concluded that aging is not a serious problem.

  17. Heptagraphene: Tunable Dirac Cones in a Graphitic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2016-09-01

    We predict the existence and dynamical stability of heptagraphene, a new graphitic structure formed of rings of 10 carbon atoms bridged by carbene groups yielding seven-membered rings. Despite the rectangular unit cell, the band structure is topologically equivalent to that of strongly distorted graphene. Density-functional-theory calculations demonstrate that heptagraphene has Dirac cones on symmetry lines that are robust against biaxial strain but which open a gap under shear. At high deformation values bond reconstructions lead to different electronic band arrangements in dynamically stable configurations. Within a tight-binding framework this richness of the electronic behavior is identified as a direct consequence of the symmetry breaking within the cell which, unlike other graphitic structures, leads to band gap opening. A combined approach of chemical and physical modification of graphene unit cell unfurls the opportunity to design carbon-based systems in which one aims to tune an electronic band gap.

  18. Heptagraphene: Tunable Dirac Cones in a Graphitic Structure.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B

    2016-09-13

    We predict the existence and dynamical stability of heptagraphene, a new graphitic structure formed of rings of 10 carbon atoms bridged by carbene groups yielding seven-membered rings. Despite the rectangular unit cell, the band structure is topologically equivalent to that of strongly distorted graphene. Density-functional-theory calculations demonstrate that heptagraphene has Dirac cones on symmetry lines that are robust against biaxial strain but which open a gap under shear. At high deformation values bond reconstructions lead to different electronic band arrangements in dynamically stable configurations. Within a tight-binding framework this richness of the electronic behavior is identified as a direct consequence of the symmetry breaking within the cell which, unlike other graphitic structures, leads to band gap opening. A combined approach of chemical and physical modification of graphene unit cell unfurls the opportunity to design carbon-based systems in which one aims to tune an electronic band gap.

  19. Heptagraphene: Tunable Dirac Cones in a Graphitic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    We predict the existence and dynamical stability of heptagraphene, a new graphitic structure formed of rings of 10 carbon atoms bridged by carbene groups yielding seven-membered rings. Despite the rectangular unit cell, the band structure is topologically equivalent to that of strongly distorted graphene. Density-functional-theory calculations demonstrate that heptagraphene has Dirac cones on symmetry lines that are robust against biaxial strain but which open a gap under shear. At high deformation values bond reconstructions lead to different electronic band arrangements in dynamically stable configurations. Within a tight-binding framework this richness of the electronic behavior is identified as a direct consequence of the symmetry breaking within the cell which, unlike other graphitic structures, leads to band gap opening. A combined approach of chemical and physical modification of graphene unit cell unfurls the opportunity to design carbon-based systems in which one aims to tune an electronic band gap. PMID:27622775

  20. A technique for brazing graphite/graphite and stainless steel/high-carbon steel joints

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, H.; Kawashiri, K. . Dept. of Metals and Inorganic Materials); Yoshida, T. . Vehicle Machine Engineering Dept.); Yoshimoto, O. . Quality Control Dept.)

    1994-10-01

    A new brazing technique for joining graphite to itself or to metals such as Mo, W, or Cu, with conventional brazing filler metals has been developed. Essentially, it is impossible to braze graphite with Cu filler metal because no wetting occurs. However, when a graphite base material is combined with an Fe base metal in Cu brazing, the Fe base metal dissolves in molten Cu. Simultaneously, the dissolved Fe grows as part of a columnar Fe-9 [approximately] 6Cu-1.6C alloy phase at the graphite interface at a constant brazing temperature, that is, the dissolution and deposit of base metal takes place. By placing an Fe foil insert between both graphite base materials, therefore, the columnar phase is formed at both graphite faces and grows toward the Fe foil during heating. As a result, both graphite base materials are united by the columnar phase through the Fe foil. In the same way, a graphite/Mo or /W joint can be produced. Moreover, when using BAu-1, which has a lower melting point than that of BCu-1, it is also possible to braze graphite to Cu. The shear strength of a graphite/graphite joint with a 0.12-mm thick Fe foil at room temperature was about 32 MPa. Further, the bending strength of the graphite/graphite and /Cu joints at 873 K (1,112 F), as measured using the four-point bending test, was 35 and 11 MPa, respectively. In addition, the technique can be applied to the brazing of AISI 304 stainless steel to high-C steel with BCu-1 where, normally, Cr[sub 23]C[sub 6] and Cr[sub 7]C[sub 3] layers are formed at the high-C steel braze interface; these carbide layers result in the loss of mechanical properties of the joint.

  1. Polymeric photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaowen; Low, Jingxiang; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is considered to be an attractive way for solving the worldwide energy shortage and environmental pollution issues. Since the pioneering work in 2009 on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting, g-C3N4 -based photocatalysis has become a very hot research topic. This review summarizes the recent progress regarding the design and preparation of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts, including the fabrication and nanostructure design of pristine g-C3N4 , bandgap engineering through atomic-level doping and molecular-level modification, and the preparation of g-C3N4 -based semiconductor composites. Also, the photo-catalytic applications of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts in the fields of water splitting, CO2 reduction, pollutant degradation, organic syntheses, and bacterial disinfection are reviewed, with emphasis on photocatalysis promoted by carbon materials, non-noble-metal cocatalysts, and Z-scheme heterojunctions. Finally, the concluding remarks are presented and some perspectives regarding the future development of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted.

  2. Graphite Composite Booms with Integral Hinges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Wes; Carlos, Rene; Rossoni, Peter; Sturm, James

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses lightweight instrument booms under development for use aboard spacecraft. A boom of this type comprises a thin-walled graphite fiber/ matrix composite tube with an integral hinge that can be bent for stowage and later allowed to spring back to straighten the boom for deployment in outer space. The boom design takes advantage of both the stiffness of the composite in tubular geometry and the flexibility of thin sections of the composite. The hinge is formed by machining windows in the tube at diametrically opposite locations so that there remain two opposing cylindrical strips resembling measuring tapes. Essential to the design is a proprietary composite layup that renders the hinge tough yet flexible enough to be bendable as much as 90 in either of two opposite directions. When the boom is released for deployment, the torque exerted by the bent hinge suffices to overcome parasitic resistance from harnesses and other equipment, so that the two sections of the hinge snap to a straight, rigid condition in the same manner as that of measuring tapes. Issues addressed in development thus far include selection of materials, out-of-plane bending, edge cracking, and separation of plies.

  3. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

  4. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; ...

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore » and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  5. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  6. Development of polyphenylquinoxaline graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shdo, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Six polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) containing pendant cyano (CN) groups were synthesized. The polymers were characterized in terms of inherent viscosity, glass transition temperature, softening temperature and weight loss due to aging in air at 316 C (600 F). The potential for crosslinking PPQs by trimerization of pendant CN groups was investigated. A polymer derived from 1 mole 3,3,4,4 -tetraaminobenzophenone, .2 mole p-bis(p -cyanophenoxyphenylglyoxalyl)benzene and .8 mole p-bis(phenylglyoxalyl)benzene was selected for more extensive characterization in HM-S graphite fiber-reinforced composites. Mechanical properties were determined using composites made from HM-S fiber and polymer and composites made from HM-S fiber, polymer and a potential CN group trimerization catalyst. Composite mechanical properties, inter-laminar shear strength and flexure properties, were determined over the temperature range of +21 C to 316 C.

  7. The characterization of fluorinated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, E.W.; Gakh, A.A.; Annis, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    The characterization of solid fossil fuels by chemical and spectroscopic methods requires extensive modelling in less complex systems for chemical proof of principle and technique development. In previous work coal was fluorinated with dilute, elemental fluorine under conditions that were expected to lead to materials that contain only fluoromethine moieties. The solid state, cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) {sup 13}C NMR spectra of the fluorinated coal are complex, indicating more chemical modification than originally anticipated. Our goal in the coal derivatization was to sequentially increase the severity of the fluorination and observe by {sup 19}F and {sup 13}C NMR the type and concentration of fluorine functional groups created in the coal milieu. This requires the ability to discriminate between C, CF, CF{sub 2}, and CF, moieties in the coal matrix. The task can be accomplished by implementing the spectral editing technique of Wu and Zilm which distinguishes different kinds of carbon resonances, especially CH and CH{sub 2} resonances. These experiments utilize cross polarization (CP) and polarization inversion (PI) to effect the discrimination. Our version of this experiment is a triple resonance experiment that incorporates {sup 19}F-{sup 13}C CP, PI, and simultaneous {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F dipolar decoupling. In order to evaluate the elemental fluorine chemistry in a matrix simpler than coal, fluorinated graphite was prepared. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface species, i.e., count CF, CF{sub 2} and CF{sub 3} species. These well-characterized samples are the models we will use to test the NIVIR editing experiments. The XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM) data on the first fluorinated graphites we have prepared are reported in this paper.

  8. Graphite/Larc-160 technology demonstration segment test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, W. H.; Graves, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    A structural test program was conducted on a Celion/LARC-160 graphite/polyimide technology demonstration segment (TDS) to verify the technology. The 137 x 152 cm (54 x 60 in.) TDS simulates a full-scale section of the orbiter composite body flap design incorporating three ribs and extending from the forward cove back to the rear spar. The TDS was successfully subjected to mechanical loads and thermal environments (-170 to 316 C) simulating 100 shuttle orbiter missions. Successful completion of the test program verified the design, analysis, and fabrication methodology for bonded Gr/PI honeycomb sandwich structure and demonstration that Gr/PI composite technology readiness is established.

  9. Ion irradiation of 37Cl implanted nuclear graphite: Effect of the energy deposition on the chlorine behavior and consequences for the mobility of 36Cl in irradiated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Bérerd, N.; Pipon, Y.; Blondel, A.; Galy, N.; Sainsot, P.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Deldicque, D.

    2015-09-01

    Graphite is used in many types of nuclear reactors due to its ability to slow down fast neutrons without capturing them. Whatever the reactor design, the irradiated graphite waste management has to be faced sooner or later regarding the production of long lived or dose determining radioactive species such as 14C, 3H or 36Cl. The first carbon dioxide cooled, graphite moderated nuclear reactors resulted in a huge quantity of irradiated graphite waste for which the management needs a previous assessment of the radioactive inventory and the radionuclide's location and speciation. As the detection limits of usual spectroscopic methods are generally not adequate to detect the low concentration levels (<1 ppm) of the radionuclides, we used an indirect approach based on the implantation of 37Cl, to simulate the presence of 36Cl. Our previous studies show that temperature is one of the main factors to be considered regarding the structural evolution of nuclear graphite and chlorine mobility during reactor operation. However, thermal release of chlorine cannot be solely responsible for the depletion of the 36Cl inventory. We propose in this paper to study the impact of irradiation and its synergetic effects with temperature on chlorine release. Indeed, the collision of the impinging neutrons with the graphite matrix carbon atoms induces mainly ballistic collisions. However, a small part of the recoil carbon atom energy is also transferred to the lattice through electronic excitation. This paper aims at elucidating the effects of the different irradiation regimes (ballistic and electronic) using ion irradiation, on the mobility of implanted 37Cl, taking into account the initial disorder level of the nuclear graphite.

  10. Method for molding threads in graphite panels

    DOEpatents

    Short, W.W.; Spencer, C.

    1994-11-29

    A graphite panel with a hole having a damaged thread is repaired by drilling the hole to remove all of the thread and making a new hole of larger diameter. A bolt with a lubricated thread is placed in the new hole and the hole is packed with graphite cement to fill the hole and the thread on the bolt. The graphite cement is cured, and the bolt is unscrewed therefrom to leave a thread in the cement which is at least as strong as that of the original thread. 8 figures.

  11. Method for molding threads in graphite panels

    DOEpatents

    Short, William W.; Spencer, Cecil

    1994-01-01

    A graphite panel (10) with a hole (11) having a damaged thread (12) is repaired by drilling the hole (11) to remove all of the thread and make a new hole (13) of larger diameter. A bolt (14) with a lubricated thread (17) is placed in the new hole (13) and the hole (13) is packed with graphite cement (16) to fill the hole and the thread on the bolt. The graphite cement (16) is cured, and the bolt is unscrewed therefrom to leave a thread (20) in the cement (16) which is at least as strong as that of the original thread (12).

  12. Graphite Fluoride Fiber Composites For Heat Sinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Long, Martin; Stahl, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Graphite fluoride fiber/polymer composite materials consist of graphite fluoride fibers in epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene, or polyimide resin. Combines high electrical resistivity with high thermal conductivity and solves heat-transfer problems of many electrical systems. Commercially available in powder form, for use as dry lubricant or cathode material in lithium batteries. Produced by direct fluorination of graphite powder at temperature of 400 to 650 degree C. Applications include printed-circuit boards for high-density power electronics, insulators for magnetic-field cores like those found in alternators and transformers, substrates for thin-film resistors, and electrical-protection layers in aircraft de-icers.

  13. Synthesis of soluble graphite and graphene.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K F; Billups, W E

    2013-01-15

    Because of graphene's anticipated applications in electronics and its thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, many scientists and engineers are interested in this material. Graphene is an isolated layer of the π-stacked hexagonal allotrope of carbon known as graphite. The interlayer cohesive energy of graphite, or exfoliation energy, that results from van der Waals attractions over the interlayer spacing distance of 3.34 Å (61 meV/C atom) is many times weaker than the intralayer covalent bonding. Since graphene itself does not occur naturally, scientists and engineers are still learning how to isolate and manipulate individual layers of graphene. Some researchers have relied on the physical separation of the sheets, a process that can sometimes be as simple as peeling of sheets from crystalline graphite using Scotch tape. Other researchers have taken an ensemble approach, where they exploit the chemical conversion of graphite to the individual layers. The typical intermediary state is graphite oxide, which is often produced using strong oxidants under acidic conditions. Structurally, researchers hypothesize that acidic functional groups functionalize the oxidized material at the edges and a network of epoxy groups cover the sp(2)-bonded carbon network. The exfoliated material formed under these conditions can be used to form dispersions that are usually unstable. However, more importantly, irreversible defects form in the basal plane during oxidation and remain even after reduction of graphite oxide back to graphene-like material. As part of our interest in the dissolution of carbon nanomaterials, we have explored the derivatization of graphite following the same procedures that preserve the sp(2) bonding and the associated unique physical and electronic properties in the chemical processing of single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this Account, we describe efficient routes to exfoliate graphite either into graphitic nanoparticles or into graphene without

  14. Status of Chronic Oxidation Studies of Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I.; Mee, Robert W.

    2016-05-01

    Graphite will undergo extremely slow, but continuous oxidation by traces of moisture that will be present, albeit at very low levels, in the helium coolant of HTGR. This chronic oxidation may cause degradation of mechanical strength and thermal properties of graphite components if a porous oxidation layer penetrates deep enough in the bulk of graphite components during the lifetime of the reactor. The current research on graphite chronic oxidation is motivated by the acute need to understand the behavior of each graphite grade during prolonged exposure to high temperature chemical attack by moisture. The goal is to provide the elements needed to develop predictive models for long-time oxidation behavior of graphite components in the cooling helium of HTGR. The tasks derived from this goal are: (1) Oxidation rate measurements in order to determine and validate a comprehensive kinetic model suitable for prediction of intrinsic oxidation rates as a function of temperature and oxidant gas composition; (2) Characterization of effective diffusivity of water vapor in the graphite pore system in order to account for the in-pore transport of moisture; and (3) Development and validation of a predictive model for the penetration depth of the oxidized layer, in order to assess the risk of oxidation caused damage of particular graphite grades after prolonged exposure to the environment of helium coolant in HTGR. The most important and most time consuming of these tasks is the measurement of oxidation rates in accelerated oxidation tests (but still under kinetic control) and the development of a reliable kinetic model. This report summarizes the status of chronic oxidation studies on graphite, and then focuses on model development activities, progress of kinetic measurements, validation of results, and improvement of the kinetic models. Analysis of current and past results obtained with three grades of showed that the classical Langmuir-Hinshelwood model cannot reproduce all

  15. Adsorption of lead over graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-01-24

    The adsorption efficiency and kinetics of removal of lead in presence of graphite oxide (GO) was determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The GO was prepared by the chemical oxidation of graphite and characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption efficiency of GO for the solution containing 50, 100 and 150 ppm of Pb(2+) was found to be 98%, 91% and 71% respectively. The adsorption ability of GO was found to be higher than graphite. Therefore, the oxidation of activated carbon in removal of heavy metals may be a viable option to reduce pollution in portable water.

  16. High electrical resistivity carbon/graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, F. L.; Forsman, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon/graphite fibers were chemically oxidized in the liquid phase to fibers of graphite oxide. Resistivity increases as high as 10,000 times were obtained, the oxidized fiber decomposed on exposure to atmosphere. A factor of 1,000 remained as a stable increment. The largest change observed was 1,000,000 times. Best results were obtained on the most highly graphitized fibers. Electrochemical oxidation yielded a lower increase--about 10 times, but provided a controllable method of synthesis and insight to the mechanism of reaction. Tensile tests indicated that the strength of the fiber on oxidation was decreased by no more than 25 percent.

  17. Self-Retracting Motion of Graphite Microflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quanshui; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Shoupeng; Weng, Yuxiang; Lu, Li; Xue, Qikun; Zhu, Jing; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lianmao

    2008-02-01

    We report the observation of a novel phenomenon, the self-retracting motion of graphite, in which tiny flakes of graphite, after being displaced to various suspended positions from islands of highly orientated pyrolytic graphite, retract back onto the islands under no external influences. Reports of this phenomenon have not been found in the literature for single crystals of any kind. Models that include the van der Waals force, electrostatic force, and shear strengths were considered to explain the observed phenomenon. These findings may conduce to create nanoelectromechanical systems with a wide range of mechanical frequency from megahertz to gigahertz.

  18. Fabrication of graphite/polyimide composite structures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varlas, M.

    1972-01-01

    Selection of graphite/polyimide composite as a prime candidate for high-temperature structural applications involving long-duration temperature environments of 400 to 600 F. A variety of complex graphite/polyimide components has been fabricated, using a match-metal die approach developed for making fiber-reinforced resin composites. Parts produced include sections of a missile adapter skin flange, skin frame section, and I-beam and hat-section stringers, as well as unidirectional (0 deg) and plus or minus 45 deg oriented graphite/polyimide tubes in one-, two-, and six-inch diameters.

  19. Ultrahigh Surface Area Three-Dimensional Porous Graphitic Carbon from Conjugated Polymeric Molecular Framework

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Porous graphitic carbon is essential for many applications such as energy storage devices, catalysts, and sorbents. However, current graphitic carbons are limited by low conductivity, low surface area, and ineffective pore structure. Here we report a scalable synthesis of porous graphitic carbons using a conjugated polymeric molecular framework as precursor. The multivalent cross-linker and rigid conjugated framework help to maintain micro- and mesoporous structures, while promoting graphitization during carbonization and chemical activation. The above unique design results in a class of highly graphitic carbons at temperature as low as 800 °C with record-high surface area (4073 m2 g–1), large pore volume (2.26 cm–3), and hierarchical pore architecture. Such carbons simultaneously exhibit electrical conductivity >3 times more than activated carbons, very high electrochemical activity at high mass loading, and high stability, as demonstrated by supercapacitors and lithium–sulfur batteries with excellent performance. Moreover, the synthesis can be readily tuned to make a broad range of graphitic carbons with desired structures and compositions for many applications. PMID:27162953

  20. Nanoscale electrochemical patterning reveals the active sites for catechol oxidation at graphite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha N; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-12-19

    Graphite-based electrodes (graphite, graphene, and nanotubes) are used widely in electrochemistry, and there is a long-standing view that graphite step edges are needed to catalyze many reactions, with the basal surface considered to be inert. In the present work, this model was tested directly for the first time using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy reactive patterning and shown to be incorrect. For the electro-oxidation of dopamine as a model process, the reaction rate was measured at high spatial resolution across a surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Oxidation products left behind in a pattern defined by the scanned electrochemical cell served as surface-site markers, allowing the electrochemical activity to be correlated directly with the graphite structure on the nanoscale. This process produced tens of thousands of electrochemical measurements at different locations across the basal surface, unambiguously revealing it to be highly electrochemically active, with step edges providing no enhanced activity. This new model of graphite electrodes has significant implications for the design of carbon-based biosensors, and the results are additionally important for understanding electrochemical processes on related sp(2)-hybridized materials such as pristine graphene and nanotubes.

  1. ICP-MS measurement of iodine diffusion in IG-110 graphite for HTGR/VHTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Brockman, J. D.; Robertson, J. D.; Loyalka, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphite functions as a structural material and as a barrier to fission product release in HTGR/VHTR designs, and elucidation of transport parameters for fission products in reactor-grade graphite is thus required for reactor source terms calculations. We measured iodine diffusion in spheres of IG-110 graphite using a release method based on Fickain diffusion kinetics. Two sources of iodine were loaded into the graphite spheres; molecular iodine (I2) and cesium iodide (CsI). Measurements of the diffusion coefficient were made over a temperature range of 873-1293 K. We have obtained the following Arrhenius expressions for iodine diffusion:DI , CsI infused =(6 ×10-12 2/s) exp(30,000 J/mol RT) And,DI , I2 infused =(4 ×10-10 m2/s) exp(-11,000 J/mol RT ) The results indicate that iodine diffusion in IG-110 graphite is not well-described by Fickan diffusion kinetics. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of iodine diffusion in IG-110 graphite.

  2. Electrical resistivity studies on graphite at high pressure and low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure is shown to give a valuable insight into the intrinsic c-axis resistivity of Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG). For the purpose of improving the understanding of the fundamental behavior of this technologically important material, additional forms of graphitic material such as Grafoil, Single Crystal Graphite (SCG) and polycrystalline natural graphite were explored for a comparative analysis. A novel technique utilizing a gasketed diamond-anvil cell is described that permits four probe resistivity measurements at pressures of up to 40 kbar and temperatures extending down to 2 K while maintaining the integrity of samples as fragile as graphite. The four-lead arrangement is designed to avoid contact and lead-wire resistances which might otherwise obscure the comparatively small resistance changes of interest typical of highly conductive materials. The data on HOPG can be fitted well to a model describing conduction along the c-axis as composed of two components acting in parallel: an ordinary metallic one and a tunnelling conduction between crystallites. The total conductivity was found to be a superposition of both conductivities, and their respective weights depend on the quality of the graphite material.

  3. Monolithic porous graphitic carbons obtained through catalytic graphitization of carbon xerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiciński, Wojciech; Norek, Małgorzata; Bystrzejewski, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis of organic xerogels accompanied by catalytic graphitization and followed by selective-combustion purification was used to produce porous graphitic carbons. Organic gels impregnated with iron(III) chloride or nickel(II) acetate were obtained through polymerization of resorcinol and furfural. During the pyrolysis stage graphitization of the gel matrix occurs, which in turn develops mesoporosity of the obtained carbons. The evolution of the carbon into graphitic structures is strongly dependent on the concentrations of the transition metal. Pyrolysis leads to monoliths of carbon xerogel characterized by substantially enhanced mesoporosity resulting in specific surface areas up to 400 m2/g. Removal of the amorphous carbon by selective-combustion purification reduces the xerogels' mesoporosity, occasionally causing loss of their mechanical strength. The graphitized carbon xerogels were investigated by means of SEM, XRD, Raman scattering, TG-DTA and N2 physisorption. Through this procedure well graphitized carbonaceous materials can be obtained as bulk pieces.

  4. Stable dispersions of polymer-coated graphitic nanoplatelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Nguyen, Sonbinh T. (Inventor); Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of making a dispersion of reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets involves providing a dispersion of graphite oxide nanoplatelets and reducing the graphite oxide nanoplatelets in the dispersion in the presence of a reducing agent and a polymer. The reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets are reduced to an extent to provide a higher C/O ratio than graphite oxide. A stable dispersion having polymer-treated reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets dispersed in a dispersing medium, such as water or organic liquid is provided. The polymer-treated, reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets can be distributed in a polymer matrix to provide a composite material.

  5. Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids by electrochemical exfoliation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Shih-Ming; Lai, Wei-Hao; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2013-08-14

    Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids are obtained by electrochemical exfoliation with hydrophobic graphite electrodes. Such counterintuitive characteristics are caused by partial oxidation and investigated by examining both graphite electrodes and exfoliated particles after electrolysis. The extent of surface oxidation can be explored through contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, electrical sheet resistance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta-potential analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-visible, and Raman spectroscopy. The degree of wettability of the graphite anode can be altered by the electrolytic current and time. The water contact angle declines generally with increasing the electrolytic current or time. After a sufficient time, the graphite anode becomes superhydrophilic and its hydrophobicity can be recovered by peeling with adhesive tape. This consequence reveals that the anodic graphite is oxidized by oxygen bubbles but the oxidation just occurs at the outer layers of the graphite sheet. Moreover, the characteristics of oxidation revealed by UV peak shift, peak ratio between D and G bands, and negative zeta-potential indicate the presence of graphite oxide on the outer shell of the exfoliated colloids. However, thermogravimetric analysis for the extent of decomposition of oxygen functional groups verifies that the amount of oxygen groups is significantly less than that of graphite oxide prepared via Hummer method. The structure of this partially oxidized graphite may consist of a graphite core covered with an oxidized shell. The properties of the exfoliated colloids are also influenced by pH of the electrolytic solution. As pH is increased, the extent of oxidation descends and the thickness of oxidized shell decreases. Those results reveal that the degree of oxidation of exfoliated nanoparticles can be manipulated simply by controlling pH.

  6. Overview of SBIR Phase II Work on Hollow Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Michael; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ultra-Lightweight materials are enabling for producing space based optical components and support structures. Heretofore, innovative designs using existing materials has been the approach to produce lighter-weight optical systems. Graphite fiber reinforced composites, because of their light weight, have been a material of frequent choice to produce space based optical components. Hollow graphite fibers would be lighter than standard solid graphite fibers and, thus, would save weight in optical components. The Phase I SBIR program demonstrated it is possible to produce hollow carbon fibers that have strengths up to 4.2 GPa which are equivalent to commercial fibers, and composites made from the hollow fibers had substantially equivalent composite strengths as commercial fiber composites at a 46% weight savings. The Phase II SBIR program will optimize processing and properties of the hollow carbon fiber and scale-up processing to produce sufficient fiber for fabricating a large ultra-lightweight mirror for delivery to NASA. Information presented here includes an overview of the strength of some preliminary hollow fibers, photographs of those fibers, and a short discussion of future plans.

  7. Tungsten Deposition on Graphite using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Uttam; Chauhan, Sachin S.; Sharma, Jayshree; Sanyasi, A. K.; Ghosh, J.; Choudhary, K. K.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    The tokamak concept is the frontrunner for achieving controlled thermonuclear reaction on earth, an environment friendly way to solve future energy crisis. Although much progress has been made in controlling the heated fusion plasmas (temperature ∼ 150 million degrees) in tokamaks, technological issues related to plasma wall interaction topic still need focused attention. In future, reactor grade tokamak operational scenarios, the reactor wall and target plates are expected to experience a heat load of 10 MW/m2 and even more during the unfortunate events of ELM's and disruptions. Tungsten remains a suitable choice for the wall and target plates. It can withstand high temperatures, its ductile to brittle temperature is fairly low and it has low sputtering yield and low fuel retention capabilities. However, it is difficult to machine tungsten and hence usages of tungsten coated surfaces are mostly desirable. To produce tungsten coated graphite tiles for the above-mentioned purpose, a coating reactor has been designed, developed and made operational at the SVITS, Indore. Tungsten coating on graphite has been attempted and successfully carried out by using radio frequency induced plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (rf -PECVD) for the first time in India. Tungsten hexa-fluoride has been used as a pre-cursor gas. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) clearly showed the presence of tungsten coating on the graphite samples. This paper presents the details of successful operation and achievement of tungsten coating in the reactor at SVITS.

  8. FennoFlakes: a project for identifying flake graphite ores in the Fennoscandian shield and utilizing graphite in different applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, Jenny; Eklund, O.; Raunio, S.; Lindfors, T.; Latonen, R.-M.; Peltonen, J.; Smått, J.-H.; Kauppila, J.; Lund, S.; Sjöberg-Eerola, P.; Blomqvist, R.; Marmo, J.

    2016-04-01

    Natural graphite is a strategic mineral, since the European Commission stated (Report on critical raw materials for the EU (2014)) that graphite is one of the 20 most critical materials for the European Union. The EU consumed 13% of all flake graphite in the world but produced only 3%, which stresses the demand of the material. Flake graphite, which is a flaky version of graphite, forms under high metamorphic conditions. Flake graphite is important in different applications like batteries, carbon brushes, heat sinks etc. Graphene (a single layer of graphite) can be produced from graphite and is commonly used in many nanotechnological applications, e.g. in electronics and sensors. The steps to obtain pure graphene from graphite ore include fragmentation, flotation and exfoliation, which can be cumbersome and resulting in damaging the graphene layers. We have started a project named FennoFlakes, which is a co-operation between geologists and chemists to fill the whole value chain from graphite to graphene: 1. Exploration of graphite ores (geological and geophysical methods). 2. Petrological and geochemical analyses on the ores. 3. Development of fragmentation methods for graphite ores. 4. Chemical exfoliation of the enriched flake graphite to separate flake graphite into single and multilayer graphene. 5. Test the quality of the produced material in several high-end applications with totally environmental friendly and disposable material combinations. Preliminary results show that flake graphite in high metamorphic areas has better qualities compared to synthetic graphite produced in laboratories.

  9. Bonding changes in compressed superhard graphite.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wendy L; Mao, Ho-kwang; Eng, Peter J; Trainor, Thomas P; Newville, Matthew; Kao, Chi-chang; Heinz, Dion L; Shu, Jinfu; Meng, Yue; Hemley, Russell J

    2003-10-17

    Compressed under ambient temperature, graphite undergoes a transition at approximately 17 gigapascals. The near K-edge spectroscopy of carbon using synchrotron x-ray inelastic scattering reveals that half of the pi-bonds between graphite layers convert to sigma-bonds, whereas the other half remain as pi-bonds in the high-pressure form. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the high-pressure form is consistent with a distorted graphite structure in which bridging carbon atoms between graphite layers pair and form sigma-bonds, whereas the nonbridging carbon atoms remain unpaired with pi-bonds. The high-pressure form is superhard, capable of indenting cubic-diamond single crystals.

  10. Feasibility of intercalated graphite railgun armatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Gooden, Clarence E.; Yashan, Doreen; Naud, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Graphite intercalation compounds may provide an excellent material for the fabrication of electro-magnetic railgun armatures. As a pulse of power is fed into the armature the intercalate could be excited into the plasma state around the edges of the armature, while the bulk of the current would be carried through the graphite block. Such an armature would have the desirable characteristics of both diffuse plasma armatures and bulk conduction armatures. In addition, the highly anisotropic nature of these materials could enable the electrical and thermal conductivity to be tailored to meet the specific requirements of electromagnetic railgun armatures. Preliminary investigations were performed in an attempt to determine the feasibility of using graphite intercalation compounds as railgun armatures. Issues of fabrication, resistivity, stability, and electrical current spreading are addressed for the case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  11. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-04-06

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report.

  12. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  13. Decay of neutron pulses in graphite assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, U.; Kothari, L.S.

    1982-09-01

    A new neutron scattering kernel for graphite has been developed with the frequency distribution function generated by the authors using the unfolding technique. This has been used to study the decay of neutron pulses in different graphite assemblies. This kernel (with theta /SUB D/ = 2000 K) can give a slightly better explanation of the experimental results than those based on the Krumhansl and Brooks model or the Young and Koppel model of lattice vibrations.

  14. Tribology of alumina-graphite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chih-Yuan

    Alumina-graphite composites, which combine high wear resistance and self-lubricity, are a potential and promising candidate for advanced tribological applications. The processing, mechanical properties and tribology of alumina-graphite composites are discussed. Full density is difficult to achieve by a pressureless sintering route. Porosity of the composites increases with graphite content which causes the strength, modulus of elasticity, and hardness of the composites to decrease. The increased porosity does cause the fracture toughness to slightly increases. Tribology of alumina-graphite composites was studied with a pin-on-disk tribometer with emphasis on the following aspects: the graphite content in both pin and disk, the graphite flake size and the orientation of the graphite flakes. Scan electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction are utilized to examine and characterize the wear debris and the worn surface. Results confirmed that it is necessary to optimize the structure and the supply of lubricant to improve the tribological behavior and that the arrangements of sliding couples also affect the tribology of self-lubricated ceramic composites. Continuous measurements of the friction coefficients were collected at high frequency in an attempt to correlate the tribology of alumina-graphite composites to vibrations introduced by friction. While these measurements indicate that the time frequency behavior of tribology is an important area of study, conclusions regarding the frequency response of different sliding couples could not be definitively stated. Finally, a new concept connecting instantaneous wear coefficient and instantaneous contact stress is proposed for prediction of wear behavior of brittle materials.

  15. GRAPHITE PRODUCTION UTILIZING URANYL NITRATE HEXAHYDRATE CATALYST

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Armstrong, J.R.; Schell, D.H.

    1964-03-10

    ABS>The graphitizing of a mixture composed of furfuryl alcohol binder and uranyl nitrate hexahydrate hardener and the subsequent curing, baking, and graphitizing with pressure being initially applied prior to curing are described. The pressure step may be carried out by extrusion, methyl cellulose being added to the mixture before the completion of extrusion. Uranium oxide may be added to the graphitizable mixture prior to the heating and pressure steps. The graphitizable mixture may consist of discrete layers of different compositions. (AEC)

  16. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A F; Cao, Chao; Cheng, H P

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br2). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br2 molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br2 molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  17. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  18. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Dai, Shuyang; Li, Xide; Yang, Jiarui; Srolovitz, David J.; Zheng, Quanshui

    2015-01-01

    The basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m−2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitive to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m−2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches. PMID:26314373

  19. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  20. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  1. Lithium-Graphite Secondary Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    C") co - P u j >C 0 w- 0 - .5- ap ...J i F-- t.. to 0 0 i OIL 0 0L 0s Cr-j it4 000 M. to %0 %0 0 00r-r - ;r -d WO 0 0 w - Z;fl 3 :zwV)Z...0 r 4 I. 4 0 0 0 VA 0- u m. 0 V + w 01.- _j 9L .. J to 5 I p Po. oi c co 4J Li 4-𔃽 U) Z 0 +. "t 0. CM CW qr ~ ~ .C .O4 J f U~ 4’ Co 0JUC 3 03 41 m...mixture of graphite and teflon moulding 17 N L. It ir 4j 4A 0. 0 0 CUL C - 0 %0- 41 w In 2~ P 0’U-. z Lo zr J-i -. 00H U0 w....ff .o .2 4-cu 00 C 4JE -GJ

  2. Thermal cycling graphite-polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Hagaman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of repetitive thermal cycling on the temperature-thermal deformation relation of graphite-polyimide were determined. The bending and axial strains, measured with strain gages, of unsymmetric 0 deg sub 2/90 deg sub 2 and 0 deg sub 4/90 deg sub 4 laminates were used as an indication of thermal deformation. The strains were measured as a function of temperature and two temperature ranges were used, room temperature to 180 C and room temperature to 315 C. Five cycles were run in each temperature range and the cycling was done in quasistatic fashion. The response of a flat 0 deg sub 8 laminate was measured as were the effects of repetitive cycling on the strain gages themselves. A piece-wise linear theory, based on classical lamination theory and using the variation of mechanical and thermal expansion properties with temperature, was compared with the experimental results. The correlation between theoretical predictions and experimental results for the thinner laminate was poor.

  3. New insights into graphite paper as electrocatalytic substrate for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jinyan; Zhao, Wankun; Wu, Lili; Li, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Ye, Qinglan; Xu, Xuetang; Wang, Fan

    2017-02-01

    Designing highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction is important to meet the requirement of various renewable energy storage and conversion devices. Generally, the performance of OER catalysts can be significantly improved by synergistic action of the underlying conductive substrate. In this work, a commercial graphite paper was used as a facile substrate with catalytic activity. Graphite paper produced 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 447 mV with a Tafel slope of 62 mV dec-1. By depositing NiFe hydroxide or Mn oxide film onto the graphite paper, the electrode presented a superior activity for water oxidation, which was believed to be synergistically contributed by their available electrochemically active sites associated with the deposited film and the active substrate. High activities were also accompanied by remarkable durability at large current density levels. Our results illustrated a guideline to the design of inexpensive and highly active composite electrode for water oxidation.

  4. Novel graphite salts of high oxidizing potential

    SciTech Connect

    McCarron, E.M. III

    1980-08-01

    The intercalation of graphite by the third-transition-series metal hexafluorides has yielded the graphite salts, C/sub 8//sup +/OsF/sub 6//sup -/, C/sub 8//sup +/IrF/sub 6//sup -/ and C/sub 12//sup 2 +/PtF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. The fluoroplatinate salt represents the highest electron withdrawal from the graphite network yet achieved. Analogues to the Os and Ir salts have been obtained both by fluorination of Group V pentaflouride intercalates, C/sub 8/MF/sub 5/ (M = As, Sb), and by the interaction of the dioxygenyl salts with graphite (8C + O/sub 2/MF/sub 6/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/MF/sub 6/ + O/sub 2/+). Non-intercalating binary fluorides have been observed to intercalate in the presence of a fluorine-rich environment (e.g., 8C + PF/sub 5/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/PF/sub 6/). GeF/sub 4/, which also does not spontaneously intercalate graphite, has been observed to interact with graphite in the presence of 2 atmospheres of fluorine overpressure to give the fluoroplatinate salt analogue, C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. This material is in equilibrium with the pentafluorogermanate at ordinary pressures and temperatures. C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/ ..-->.. C/sub 12//sup +/GeF/sub 5//sup -/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/. C/sub 12/GeF/sub 6/ must have an oxidizing potential close to that of fluorine itself. The graphite fluorometallate salts are both electronic and ionic (F/sup -/) conductors. For the C/sub 8//sup +/MF/sub 6//sup -/ salts, a maximum electronic conductivity an order of magnitude greater than the parent graphite has been observed for stage two. The high oxidizing potential, coupled with the fluoride ion transport capability of the graphite salts, has been exploited in the construction of solid-state galvanic cells. These cells use the graphite fluorometallate salts as electrode materials in combination with a superionic fluoride-ion-conducting solid electrolyte.

  5. First principles study of oxidation behavior of irradiated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Dong, Limin; Wang, Chen; Liang, Tongxiang; Lai, Wensheng

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between nuclear graphite microstructure and its oxidation resistance underlines the importance of comprehensive oxidation characterization studies of the new grades of nuclear graphite. Periodic DFT calculations are performed to model oxidation behavior of irradiated graphite. O2 molecules adsorbed on perfect and defective graphite surfaces are calculated. The adsorptive energy of O2 on defective graphite adsorption site with one carbon atom missing is approximately 10 times as strong as that on a defect-free perfect graphite surface. Monovacancy and divacancy on graphite surface can easily chemisorb O2 molecule compared to perfect surface. Two oxidation processes including CO and CO2 formation steps are analyzed. For symmetric monovacancy defect, three dangling C atoms are unsaturated and exhibit high adsorption ability, as well as reconstructed monovacancy and divacancy defects. These vacancy defects in irradiated graphite decrease oxidation resistance of nuclear graphite.

  6. Internal features of graphite in cast irons. Confocal microscopy: useful tool for graphite growth imaging.

    PubMed

    Llorca-Isern, N; Tartera, J; Espanol, M; Marsal, M; Bertran, G; Castel, S

    2002-01-01

    Spherulitic crystallisation is a mode of growth of crystals from the melt. Considerable attention has been given to spheroidal graphite formation, providing detailed information about the internal microstructure of the spherulites in spheroidal (SG irons) and compacted graphite irons (CG irons) (Stefanescu, D., 1990. Cast Irons. ASM Handbook, 10th ed., vol. 1). Nevertheless, the mechanisms responsible for this mode of crystallisation are not fully understood. This study deals with the inoculation mechanisms, with particular emphasis on the study of the inclusions for the heterogeneous nucleation of graphite. It is shown that the graphite nuclei are sulfide products of the nodularizing treatment. It has been observed that when rare-earth treatment is applied, the central nucleus consists of a core and an envelope from which the graphite grows. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM), in reflection mode, was used to study the internal features of the spheroidal graphite growth. Confocal reflection imaging, which has a capacity for optical sectioning of the sample, provides high-resolution images of surface and subsurface regions of interest contained within a semi-transparent sample. Furthermore, three-dimensional reconstruction of these optical sections can provide insight into the mechanism of graphite growth mechanism interpretation. With CSLM the radial growth of graphite was seen. Other techniques, such as TEM, SEM-EDS, WDS, AES and SAM were also used to corroborate the results.

  7. Graphene prepared by thermal reduction–exfoliation of graphite oxide: Effect of raw graphite particle size on the properties of graphite oxide and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Trung Dung; Jeong, Han Mo

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Effect of raw graphite particle size on properties of GO and graphene is reported. • Size of raw graphite affects oxidation degree and chemical structure of GO. • Highly oxidized GO results in small-sized but well-exfoliated graphene. • GO properties affect reduction degree, structure, and conductivity of graphene. - Abstract: We report the effect of raw graphite size on the properties of graphite oxide and graphene prepared by thermal reduction–exfoliation of graphite oxide. Transmission electron microscope analysis shows that the lateral size of graphene becomes smaller when smaller size graphite is used. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that graphite with smaller size is more effectively oxidized, resulting in a more effective subsequent exfoliation of the obtained graphite oxide toward graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that reduction of the graphite oxide derived from smaller size graphite into graphene is more efficient. However, Raman analysis suggests that the average size of the in-plane sp{sup 2}-carbon domains on graphene is smaller when smaller size graphite is used. The enhanced reduction degree and the reduced size of sp{sup 2}-carbon domains contribute contradictively to the electrical conductivity of graphene when the particle size of raw graphite reduces.

  8. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  9. Formation mechanism of graphite hexagonal pyramids by argon plasma etching of graphite substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glad, X.; de Poucques, L.; Bougdira, J.

    2015-12-01

    A new graphite crystal morphology has been recently reported, namely the graphite hexagonal pyramids (GHPs). They are hexagonally-shaped crystals with diameters ranging from 50 to 800 nm and a constant apex angle of 40°. These nanostructures are formed from graphite substrates (flexible graphite and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite) in low pressure helicon coupling radiofrequency argon plasma at 25 eV ion energy and, purportedly, due to a physical etching process. In this paper, the occurrence of peculiar crystals is shown, presenting two hexagonal orientations obtained on both types of samples, which confirms such a formation mechanism. Moreover, by applying a pretreatment step with different time durations of inductive coupling radiofrequency argon plasma, for which the incident ion energy decreases at 12 eV, uniform coverage of the surface can be achieved with an influence on the density and size of the GHPs.

  10. Microwave absorption properties of graphite flakes-phenolic resin composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Jyoti P.; Gogoi, Pragyan J.; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, microwave absorption properties of a conductor back single layer designed on graphite flakes (GF)-novolac phenolic resin (NPR) composites is studied. The complex permittivity of the developed composite enhance for higher GF percentages. The reflection loss(RL) measured using E8362C VNA shows a maximum RL values -25 dB at 9.8 GHz for 7 wt. % composition with -10 dB bandwidth of 0.3 GHz. The developed composites are being light weight and cost effective shows potential to be used as dielectric absorber.

  11. Research on Graphite Reinforced Glass Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    This report contains the results obtained in the first twelve months of research under NASA Langley Contract NAS1-14346 for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites. Included in the report is a summary of the research by other investigators in this area. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a C.G.W. 7740 (Pyrex) glass matrix. The graphite fibers used included Hercules HMS, Hercules HTS, Thornel 300S, and Celanese DG-102 and, of these, the Hercules HMS and Celanese DG-102 graphite fibers in C.G.W. 7740 gave the most interesting but widely different results. Hercules HMS fiber in C.G.W. 7740 glass (Pyrex) showed an average four-point flexural strength of 848 MPa or 127,300 psi. As the test temperature was raised from room temperature to 560 C in argon or vacuum, the strength was higher by 50 percent. However, in air, similar tests at 560 C gave a severe loss in strength. These composites also have good thermal cycle properties in argon or vacuum, greatly increased toughness compared to glass, and no loss in strength in a 100 cycle fatigue test. Celanese DG-102 fiber in C.G.W. 7740 glass (Pyrex) had a much lower flexural strength but did not suffer any loss in this strength when samples were heated to 560 C in air for 4 hrs.

  12. Method for producing thin graphite flakes with large aspect ratios

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, L. Roy

    1993-01-01

    A method for making graphite flakes of high aspect ratio by the steps of providing a strong concentrated acid and heating the graphite in the presence of the acid for a time and at a temperature effective to intercalate the acid in the graphite; heating the intercalated graphite at a rate and to a temperature effective to exfoliate the graphite in discrete layers; subjecting the graphite layers to ultrasonic energy, mechanical shear forces, or freezing in an amount effective to separate the layes into discrete flakes.

  13. Chemical modification of graphite surfaces using chitosan as a mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Hatley, M.E.; Albahadily, F.N.

    1995-12-01

    Several techniques for modifying graphite surfaces have been utilized the last two decades. Some of these techniques have a few limitations which include monolayer coverage and nonspecific binding to the graphite surfaces. In this report, we describe a novel approach to modify graphite surfaces using chitosan. The graphite is coated with an acidic chitosan solution. After drying, a chitosan film is formed on the graphite surfaces. Glutaraldehyde is attached to the chitosan through an amide linkage. The desired modifiers which contain amine groups are then attached to the free end of the glutaraldehyde. Utilization of the modified graphite surfaces in paste electrodes will be discussed.

  14. Influence of Metal-Coated Graphite Powders on Microstructure and Properties of the Bronze-Matrix/Graphite Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Li, Pu; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yan-qing; He, Jian-sheng; He, Ke

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the bronze-matrix/x-graphite (x = 0, 1, 3 and 5%) composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy route by using Cu-coated graphite, Ni-coated graphite and pure graphite, respectively. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosive behaviors of bronze/Cu-coated-graphite (BCG), bronze/Ni-coated-graphite (BNG) and bronze/pure-graphite (BPG) were characterized and investigated. Results show that the Cu-coated and Ni-coated graphite could definitely increase the bonding quality between the bronze matrix and graphite. In general, with the increase in graphite content in bronze-matrix/graphite composites, the friction coefficients, ultimate density and wear rates of BPG, BCG and BNG composites all went down. However, the Vickers microhardness of the BNG composite would increase as the graphite content increased, which was contrary to the BPG and BCG composites. When the graphite content was 3%, the friction coefficient of BNG composite was more stable than that of BCG and BPG composites, indicating that BNG composite had a better tribological performance than the others. Under all the values of applied loads (10, 20, 40 and 60N), the BCG and BNG composites exhibited a lower wear rate than BPG composite. What is more, the existence of nickel in graphite powders could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the BNG composite.

  15. Influence of Metal-Coated Graphite Powders on Microstructure and Properties of the Bronze-Matrix/Graphite Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Li, Pu; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yan-qing; He, Jian-sheng; He, Ke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the bronze-matrix/x-graphite (x = 0, 1, 3 and 5%) composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy route by using Cu-coated graphite, Ni-coated graphite and pure graphite, respectively. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosive behaviors of bronze/Cu-coated-graphite (BCG), bronze/Ni-coated-graphite (BNG) and bronze/pure-graphite (BPG) were characterized and investigated. Results show that the Cu-coated and Ni-coated graphite could definitely increase the bonding quality between the bronze matrix and graphite. In general, with the increase in graphite content in bronze-matrix/graphite composites, the friction coefficients, ultimate density and wear rates of BPG, BCG and BNG composites all went down. However, the Vickers microhardness of the BNG composite would increase as the graphite content increased, which was contrary to the BPG and BCG composites. When the graphite content was 3%, the friction coefficient of BNG composite was more stable than that of BCG and BPG composites, indicating that BNG composite had a better tribological performance than the others. Under all the values of applied loads (10, 20, 40 and 60N), the BCG and BNG composites exhibited a lower wear rate than BPG composite. What is more, the existence of nickel in graphite powders could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the BNG composite.

  16. Nuclear Graphite - Fracture Behavior and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Battiste, Rick; Strizak, Joe P

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for the graphite fracture mechanism is reviewed and discussed. The roles of certain microstructural features in the graphite fracture process are reported. The Burchell fracture model is described and its derivation reported. The successful application of the fracture model to uniaxial tensile data from several graphites with widely ranging structure and texture is reported. The extension of the model to multiaxial loading scenarios using two criteria is discussed. Initially, multiaxial strength data for H-451 graphite were modeled using the fracture model and the Principle of Independent Action. The predicted 4th stress quadrant failure envelope was satisfactory but the 1st quadrant predictions were not conservative and thus were unsatisfactory. Multiaxial strength data from the 1st and 4th stress quadrant for NBG-18 graphite are reported. To improve the conservatism of the predicted 1st quadrant failure envelope for NBG-18 the Shetty criterion has been applied to obtain the equivalent critical stress intensity factor, KIc (Equi), for each applied biaxial stress ratio. The equivalent KIc value is used in the Burchell fracture model to predict the failure envelope. The predicted 1st stress quadrant failure envelope is conservative and thus more satisfactory than achieved previously using the fracture model combined with the Principle of Independent Action.

  17. EMI Shields made from intercalated graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Terry, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding typically makes up about twenty percent of the mass of a spacecraft power system. Graphite fiber/polymer composites have significantly lower densities and higher strengths than aluminum, the present material of choice for EMI shields, but they lack the electrical conductivity that enables acceptable shielding effectiveness. Bromine intercalated pitch-based graphite/epoxy composites have conductivities fifty times higher than conventional structural graphite fibers. Calculations are presented which indicate that EMI shields made from such composites can have sufficient shielding at less than 20% of the mass of conventional aluminum shields. EMI shields provide many functions other than EMI shielding including physical protection, thermal management, and shielding from ionizing radiation. Intercalated graphite composites perform well in these areas also. Mechanically, they have much higher specific strength and modulus than aluminum. They also have shorter half thicknesses for x-rays and gamma radiation than aluminum. Thermally, they distribute infra-red radiation by absorbing and re-radiating it rather than concentrating it by reflection as aluminum does. The prospects for intercalated graphite fiber/polymer composites for EMI shielding are encouraging.

  18. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchington, David

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  19. Process development and fabrication of space station type aluminum-clad graphite epoxy struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    The manufacture of aluminum-clad graphite epoxy struts, designed for application to the Space Station truss structure, is described. The strut requirements are identified, and the strut material selection rationale is discussed. The manufacturing procedure is described, and shop documents describing the details are included. Dry graphite fiber, Pitch-75, is pulled between two concentric aluminum tubes. Epoxy resin is then injected and cured. After reduction of the aluminum wall thickness by chemical milling the end fittings are bonded on the tubes. A discussion of the characteristics of the manufactured struts, i.e., geometry, weight, and any anomalies of the individual struts is included.

  20. Use of graphite epoxy composites in the Solar-A Soft X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of composite materials in the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT). One of the primary structural members of the telescope is a graphite epoxy metering tube. The metering tube maintains the structural stability of the telescope during launch as well as the focal length through various environmental conditions. The graphite epoxy metering tube is designed to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion to compensate for the positive expansion of titanium structural supports. The focus is maintained to + or - 0.001 inch by matching the CTE of the composite tube to the remaining structural elements.

  1. Characterization of structural defects in nuclear graphite IG-110 and NBG-18

    SciTech Connect

    Guiqiu Zheng; Peng Xu; Kumar Sridharan; Todd Allen

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear graphite IG-110 and NBG-18 were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) to understand the structure and microstructure of nuclear graphite. The lattice parameter (a), degree of graphitization ( ), crystallite size parallel and perpendicular to c-direction (Lc and L ), anisotropy (B), as well as in-plane crystallite size (La) were calculated and compared based on XRD patterns and Raman spectra. Results indicate that IG-110 has a larger crystallite size and higher degree of graphitization, but lower anisotropy than NBG-18. These differences are attributed to the properties of coke source and manufacturing processes. Additionally, the shape of the pores and crystallized filler particles, the interface between binders and fillers, Mrozowski cracks and nano-cracks, and the defects of disclination were observed and characterized from SEM and HR-TEM images. The similarities and differences in microstructure between IG-110 and NBG-18 are discussed. The results in this work provide useful information to guide selection of nuclear graphite for the design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNP).

  2. Thermal Charging Study of Compressed Expanded Natural Graphite/Phase Change Material Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, Anne M; Abdelaziz, Omar; Graham, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The thermal charging performance of phase change materials, specifically paraffin wax, combined with compressed expanded natural graphite foam is studied under constant heat flux and constant temperature conditions. By varying the heat flux between 0.39 W/cm2 and 1.55 W/cm2 or maintaining a boundary temperature of 60 C for four graphite foam bulk densities, the impact on the rate of thermal energy storage is discussed. Thermal charging experiments indicate that thermal conductivity of the composite is an insufficient metric to compare the influence of graphite foam on the rate of thermal energy storage of the PCM composite. By dividing the latent heat of the composite by the time to melt for various boundary conditions and graphite foam bulk densities, it is determined that bulk density selection is dependent on the applied boundary condition. A greater bulk density is advantageous for samples exposed to a constant temperature near the melting temperature as compared to constant heat flux conditions where a lower bulk density is adequate. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of graphite foam bulk densities greater than 50 kg/m3 is shown to have an insignificant impact on the rate of thermal charging. These experimental results are used to validate a computational model for future use in the design of thermal batteries for waste heat recovery.

  3. Graphite/Polyimide Composites. [conference on Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B. (Editor); Davis, J. G., Jr. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed under the Composites for Advanced Space Transportation System Project is reported. Specific topics covered include fabrication, adhesives, test methods, structural integrity, design and analysis, advanced technology developments, high temperature polymer research, and the state of the art of graphite/polyimide composites.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-01

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  6. Graphite oxidation modeling for application in MELCOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbard, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The Arrhenius parameters for graphite oxidation in air are reviewed and compared. One-dimensional models of graphite oxidation coupled with mass transfer of oxidant are presented in dimensionless form for rectangular and spherical geometries. A single dimensionless group is shown to encapsulate the coupled phenomena, and is used to determine the effective reaction rate when mass transfer can impede the oxidation process. For integer reaction order kinetics, analytical expressions are presented for the effective reaction rate. For noninteger reaction orders, a numerical solution is developed and compared to data for oxidation of a graphite sphere in air. Very good agreement is obtained with the data without any adjustable parameters. An analytical model for surface burn-off is also presented, and results from the model are within an order of magnitude of the measurements of burn-off in air and in steam.

  7. Thermal percolation in stable graphite suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Feng, Shien-Ping; Ohtani, Hiroko; Wang, Jinbo; Chen, Gang

    2012-01-11

    Different from the electrical conductivity of conductive composites, the thermal conductivity usually does not have distinctive percolation characteristics. Here we report that graphite suspensions show distinct behavior in the thermal conductivity at the electrical percolation threshold, including a sharp kink at the percolation threshold, below which thermal conductivity increases rapidly while above which the rate of increase is smaller, contrary to the electrical percolation behavior. Based on microstructural and alternating current impedance spectroscopy studies, we interpret this behavior as a result of the change of interaction forces between graphite flakes when isolated clusters of graphite flakes form percolated structures. Our results shed light on the thermal conductivity enhancement mechanisms in nanofluids and have potential applications in energy systems.

  8. Understanding the nature of "superhard graphite".

    PubMed

    Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Oganov, Artem R; Leoni, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Numerous experiments showed that on cold compression graphite transforms into a new superhard and transparent allotrope. Several structures with different topologies have been proposed for this phase. While experimental data are compatible with most of these models, the only way to solve this puzzle is to find which structure is kinetically easiest to form. Using state-of-the-art molecular-dynamics transition path sampling simulations, we investigate kinetic pathways of the pressure-induced transformation of graphite to various superhard candidate structures. Unlike hitherto applied methods for elucidating nature of superhard graphite, transition path sampling realistically models nucleation events necessary for physically meaningful transformation kinetics. We demonstrate that nucleation mechanism and kinetics lead to M-carbon as the final product. W-carbon, initially competitor to M-carbon, is ruled out by phase growth. Bct-C₄ structure is not expected to be produced by cold compression due to less probable nucleation and higher barrier of formation.

  9. Aerosol and graphitic carbon content of snow

    SciTech Connect

    Chy-acute-accentlek, P.; Srivastava, V.; Cahenzli, L.; Pinnick, R.G.; Dod, R.L.; Novakov, T.; Cook, T.L.; Hinds, B.D.

    1987-08-20

    Snow samples from southern New Mexico, west Texas, Antarctica, and Greenland were analyzed for aerosol and graphitic carbon. Graphitic carbon contents were found to be between 2.2 and 25 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ of snow meltwater; water-insoluble aerosol content varied between 0.62 and 8.5 mg L/sup -1/. For comparison, two samples of Camp Century, Greenland, ice core, having approximate ages of 4,000 and 6,000 years, were also analyzed. Ice core graphitic carbon contents were found to be 2.5 and 1.1 ..mu..g L/sup -1/. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  10. Capacitive behavior of highly-oxidized graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszewski, Mateusz; Mianowski, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Capacitive behavior of a highly-oxidized graphite is presented in this paper. The graphite oxide was synthesized using an oxidizing mixture of potassium chlorate and concentrated fuming nitric acid. As-oxidized graphite was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with respect to the oxygen content and the species of oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements were performed in a two-electrode symmetric cell using KOH electrolyte. It was shown that prolonged oxidation causes an increase in the oxygen content while the interlayer distance remains constant. Specific capacitance increased with oxygen content in the electrode as a result of pseudo-capacitive effects, from 0.47 to 0.54 F/g for a scan rate of 20 mV/s and 0.67 to 1.15 F/g for a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Better cyclability was observed for the electrode with a higher oxygen amount.

  11. Observation of Microscale Superlubricity in Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Yang, Jiarui; Grey, Francois; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Yibing; Yang, Yanlian; Cheng, Yao; Zheng, Quanshui

    2012-05-01

    Upon shearing a microscale lithographically defined graphite mesa, the sheared section retracts spontaneously to minimize interface energy. Here, we demonstrate a sixfold symmetry of the self-retraction and provide a first experimental estimate of the frictional force involved, as direct evidence that the self-retraction is due to superlubricity, where ultralow friction occurs between incommensurate surfaces. The effect is remarkable because it occurs reproducibly under ambient conditions and over a contact area of up to 10×10μm2, more than 7 orders of magnitude larger than previous scanning-probe-based studies of superlubricity in graphite. By analyzing the sheared interface, we show how the grain structure of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite determines the probability of self-retraction. Our results demonstrate that such self-retraction provides a novel probe of superlubricity, and the robustness of the phenomenon opens the way for practical applications of superlubricity in micromechanical systems.

  12. Observation of microscale superlubricity in graphite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Yang, Jiarui; Grey, Francois; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Yibing; Yang, Yanlian; Cheng, Yao; Zheng, Quanshui

    2012-05-18

    Upon shearing a microscale lithographically defined graphite mesa, the sheared section retracts spontaneously to minimize interface energy. Here, we demonstrate a sixfold symmetry of the self-retraction and provide a first experimental estimate of the frictional force involved, as direct evidence that the self-retraction is due to superlubricity, where ultralow friction occurs between incommensurate surfaces. The effect is remarkable because it occurs reproducibly under ambient conditions and over a contact area of up to 10×10  μm2, more than 7 orders of magnitude larger than previous scanning-probe-based studies of superlubricity in graphite. By analyzing the sheared interface, we show how the grain structure of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite determines the probability of self-retraction. Our results demonstrate that such self-retraction provides a novel probe of superlubricity, and the robustness of the phenomenon opens the way for practical applications of superlubricity in micromechanical systems.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  14. 1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  15. TEM Study of Internal Crystals in Supernova Graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. K.; Bernatowicz, T.; Stadermann, F. J.; Messenger, S.; Amari, S.

    2003-03-01

    A coordinated TEM and isotopic study of ten supernova (SN) graphites from the Murchison meteorite has revealed many internal grains, mostly titanium carbides (TiCs) and TiC-kamacite composite grains, which were accreted during the graphite growth.

  16. NOVEL GRAPHITE SALTS AND THEIR ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, N.; McCarron, E.M.; McQuillan, B.W.; Thompson, T.E.

    1980-02-01

    A set of novel first stage graphite salts of general formula C{sub 8}{sup +}MF{sub 6}{sup -} has been prepared (M = Os, Ir, As). Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these salts are hexagonal with a {approx} 4.9 and c {approx} 8.1 {angstrom}. The unit cell volume indicates that the anions are closely packed in the galleries. Platinum hexafluoride, which is the most powerful oxidizer of the third transition series, forms a first stage compound, which analytical, structural, and magnetic studies establish as C{sub 12}{sup 2+}PtF{sub 6}{sup 2-}. In this salt the anions are not close packed, but the electron withdrawal from the graphite planes is greater than for the C{sub 8}{sup +}MF{sub 6}{sup -} series. The variation in the electrical conductivity (in the a-b plane), as a function of composition, has been investigated with the OsF{sub 6}, IrF{sub 6}, PtF{sub 6} and AsF{sub 5} intercalates. For OsF{sub 6} and IrF{sub 6}, the conductance per plane of graphite is found to be a maximum at approximately C{sub 24}MF{sub 6} (second stage); the conductivity being an order of magnitude greater than that of the parent material. Intercalation beyond C{sub 24}MF{sub 6} leads to a marked decrease in conductivity. C{sub 8}MF{sub 6} is comparable in conductivity with the parent graphite. This behavior contrasts with the graphite/AsF{sub 5} system in which a steady increase in conductance per graphite plane with increasing AsF{sub 5} content is observed. For the PtF{sub 6} system, the second as well as the first stage materials are poorly conducting.

  17. Crack growth resistance in nuclear graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagne, Pierre; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian

    2002-05-01

    Crack growth resistance curves for the non-linear fracture parameters KR, JR and R were measured for unirradiated PGA and IM1-24 graphites that are used as moderators in British Magnox and AGR nuclear reactors respectively. All the curves show an initial rising part, followed by a plateau region where the measured parameter is independent of crack length. JR and R decreased at large crack lengths. The initial rising curves were attributed to development of crack bridges in the wake of the crack front, while, in the plateau region, the crack bridging zone and the frontal process zone, ahead of the crack tip, reached steady state values. The decreases at large crack lengths were attributed to interaction of the frontal zone with the specimen end face. Microscopical evidence for graphite fragments acting as crack bridges showed that they were much smaller than filler particles, indicating that the graphite fragments are broken down during crack propagation. There was also evidence for friction points in the crack wake zone and shear cracking of some larger fragments. Inspection of KR curves showed that crack bridging contributed ~0.4 MPa m0.5 to the fracture toughness of the graphites. An analysis of JR and R curves showed that the development of the crack bridging zone in the rising part of the curves contributed ~20% to the total work of fracture. Energies absorbed during development of crack bridges and steady state crack propagation were greater for PGA than for IM1-24 graphite. These differences reflect the greater extent of irreversible processes occurring during cracking in the coarser microtexture of PGA graphite.

  18. Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Controlled Catalytic Graphitization of Nanoporous Carbons

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Zhang, Huabin; Malgras, Victor; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tominaka, Satoshi; Ide, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Single metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), constructed from the coordination between one-fold metal ions and organic linkers, show limited functionalities when used as precursors for nanoporous carbon materials. Herein, we propose to merge the advantages of zinc and cobalt metals ions into one single MOF crystal (i.e., bimetallic MOFs). The organic linkers that coordinate with cobalt ions tend to yield graphitic carbons after carbonization, unlike those bridging with zinc ions, due to the controlled catalytic graphitization by the cobalt nanoparticles. In this work, we demonstrate a feasible method to achieve nanoporous carbon materials with tailored properties, including specific surface area, pore size distribution, degree of graphitization, and content of heteroatoms. The bimetallic-MOF-derived nanoporous carbon are systematically characterized, highlighting the importance of precisely controlling the properties of the carbon materials. This can be done by finely tuning the components in the bimetallic MOF precursors, and thus designing optimal carbon materials for specific applications. PMID:27471193

  19. Heat Exchangers for Heavy Vehicles Utilizing High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Foams

    SciTech Connect

    James Klett, Ron Ott; April McMillan

    2000-06-19

    Approximately two thirds of the world's energy consumption is wasted as heat. In an attempt to reduce heat losses, heat exchangers are utilized to recover some of the energy. A unique graphite foam developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and licensed to Poco Graphite, Inc., promises to allow for novel, more efficient heat exchanger designs. This graphite foam, Figure 1, has a density between 0.2 and 0.6 g/cm 3 and a bulk thermal conductivity between 40 and 187 W/m{center_dot}K. Because the foam has a very accessible surface area (> 4 m 2 /g) and is open celled, the overall heat transfer coefficients of foam-based heat exchangers can be up to two orders of magnitude greater than conventional heat exchangers. As a result, foam-based heat exchangers could be dramatically smaller and lighter.

  20. Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Controlled Catalytic Graphitization of Nanoporous Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Zhang, Huabin; Malgras, Victor; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tominaka, Satoshi; Ide, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    Single metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), constructed from the coordination between one-fold metal ions and organic linkers, show limited functionalities when used as precursors for nanoporous carbon materials. Herein, we propose to merge the advantages of zinc and cobalt metals ions into one single MOF crystal (i.e., bimetallic MOFs). The organic linkers that coordinate with cobalt ions tend to yield graphitic carbons after carbonization, unlike those bridging with zinc ions, due to the controlled catalytic graphitization by the cobalt nanoparticles. In this work, we demonstrate a feasible method to achieve nanoporous carbon materials with tailored properties, including specific surface area, pore size distribution, degree of graphitization, and content of heteroatoms. The bimetallic-MOF-derived nanoporous carbon are systematically characterized, highlighting the importance of precisely controlling the properties of the carbon materials. This can be done by finely tuning the components in the bimetallic MOF precursors, and thus designing optimal carbon materials for specific applications.

  1. Selection process for trade study: Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable unpressurized graphite composite structures and material selections is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of payload bay, wing, and thrust structure full scale test articles representing segments of the prototype structures. The selection process for this TA 2 trade study is the same as that for the TA 1 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  2. Large Scale Reduction of Graphite Oxide Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos; Mackey, Paul; Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop an optical method to reduce graphite oxide into graphene efficiently and in larger formats than currently available. Current reduction methods are expensive, time-consuming or restricted to small, limited formats. Graphene has potential uses in ultracapacitors, energy storage, solar cells, flexible and light-weight circuits, touch screens, and chemical sensors. In addition, graphite oxide is a sustainable material that can be produced from any form of carbon, making this method environmentally friendly and adaptable for in-situ reduction.

  3. Thermal Properties of G-348 Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, Donald; Swank, W. David; Cottle, David L.; Valentin, Francisco I.

    2016-05-01

    Fundamental measurements have been obtained in the INL Graphite Characterization Laboratory to deduce the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for G-348 isotropic graphite, which has been used by City College of New York in thermal experiments related to gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, mass, volume and thermal expansion were converted to thermal conductivity in accordance with ASTM Standard Practice C781-08. Data are tabulated and a preliminary correlation for the thermal conductivity is presented as a function of temperature from laboratory temperature to 1000C.

  4. Lightweight, Fire-Resistant Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; MING-TA-HSU

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft safety improved with interior paneling made of new laminate with good thermophysical properties. Featuring lightweight graphite composite, laminate more heat-and flame-resistant and produces much less smoke in fire than commonly used epoxy-resin-containing laminates. New laminate prepared without epoxy resin. Graphite unidirectional cloth preimpregnated with blend of vinyl polystyrylpyridine and bismaleimide (VPSP-BMI). Either of two types of VPSP-BMI blend used, depending on method of preparation of chemicals and technique used to fabricate panel.

  5. Eddy current inspection of graphite fiber components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Bryson, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    The recognition of defects in materials properties still presents a number of problems for nondestructive testing in aerospace systems. This project attempts to utilize current capabilities in eddy current instrumentation, artificial intelligence, and robotics in order to provide insight into defining geometrical aspects of flaws in composite materials which are capable of being evaluated using eddy current inspection techniques. The unique capabilities of E-probes and horseshoe probes for inspecting probes for inspecting graphite fiber materials were evaluated and appear to hold great promise once the technology development matures. The initial results are described of modeling eddy current interactions with certain flaws in graphite fiber samples.

  6. Stability of Bromine Intercalated Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous evidence suggested that bromine intercalation compounds of crystalline graphite spontaneously deintercalate when the bromine atmosphere is removed. However, results show that bromine intercalated P-100 graphite fibers are stable for long periods of time. They are stable under vacuum conditions, high humidity, and current densities up to 24,000 A/sq cm. They are thermally stable to 200 C, and at temperatures as high as 400 C still retain 80 percent of the conductivity gained by intercalation. At temperatures greater than 300 C, there is significant oxidative degradation of the fibers. The environmental stability shown by the bromine compound makes it a promising candidate for practical applications in aerospace technology.

  7. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  8. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  9. CMB-13 research on carbon and graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of grinding on Santa Maria coke are considered, as well as the production of resin-bonded graphite from the coke. Kynol fibers, properties and purities of coal tar pitches, carbonization of resin components, synthesis of gamma BL (4-furfuryl 2-pentenoic acid gamma lactone), and a glass-like carbon powder for use as a filler are also discussed. The hydrogen contents of commercial cokes and graphites are tabulated, and a quantimet image-analyzing computer and its operation are described.

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE REFRACTORY COATING FOR GRAPHITE MOLDS

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.

    1958-10-21

    An improved foundry mold coating for use with graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is presented. The refractory mold coating serves to keep the molten uranium from contact with graphite of the mold and thus prevents carbon pickup by the molten metal. The refractory coating is made by dry mixing certain specific amounts of aluminum oxide, bentonite, Tennessee ball clay, and a soluble silicate salt. Water is then added to the mixture and the suspension thus formed is applied by spraying onto the mold.

  11. Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2011-11-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

  12. Computational prediction of dust production in graphite moderated pebble bed reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamian, Maziar

    The scope of the work reported here, which is the computational study of graphite wear behavior, supports the Nuclear Engineering University Programs project "Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermomechanics Issues for Design and Safety" funded by the US Department of Energy. In this work, modeling and simulating the contact mechanics, as anticipated in a PBR configuration, is carried out for the purpose of assessing the amount of dust generated during a full power operation year of a PBR. A methodology that encompasses finite element analysis (FEA) and micromechanics of wear is developed to address the issue of dust production and its quantification. Particularly, the phenomenon of wear and change of its rate with sliding length is the main focus of this dissertation. This work studies the wear properties of graphite by simulating pebble motion and interactions of a specific type of nuclear grade graphite, IG-11. This study consists of two perspectives: macroscale stress analysis and microscale analysis of wear mechanisms. The first is a set of FEA simulations considering pebble-pebble frictional contact. In these simulations, the mass of generated graphite particulates due to frictional contact is calculated by incorporating FEA results into Archard's equation, which is a linear correlation between wear mass and wear length. However, the experimental data by Johnson, University of Idaho, revealed that the wear rate of graphite decreases with sliding length. This is because the surfaces of the graphite pebbles become smoother over time, which results in a gradual decrease in wear rate. In order to address the change in wear rate, a more detailed analysis of wear mechanisms at room temperature is presented. In this microscale study, the wear behavior of graphite at the asperity level is studied by simulating the contact between asperities of facing surfaces. By introducing the effect of asperity removal on wear rate, a nonlinear

  13. Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOEpatents

    McKernan, M.A.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Chen, C.W.

    1994-02-08

    Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface. 2 figures.

  14. Comparison of graphite materials for targets of laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Y; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Sekine, M; Munemoto, N; Cinquegrani, D; Romanelli, M; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M; Iwashita, Y

    2014-02-01

    To investigate efficient graphite material for carbon ion production in laser ion source, the plasma properties produced from these materials are measured. Comparing acquired current profile and charge state distribution, the distributions of ions in laser induced plasma from isotropic graphite and single crystal of graphite are different. The produced quantity of C(6+) from isotropic materials is larger than that from single crystal.

  15. METHOD OF COATING GRAPHITE WITH STABLE METAL CARBIDES AND NITRIDES

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.

    1959-10-27

    A method is presented for forming protective stable nitride and carbide compounds on the surface of graphite. This is accomplished by contacting the graphite surface with a fused heavy liquid metal such as bismuth or leadbismuth containing zirconium, titanium, and hafnium dissolved or finely dispersed therein to form a carbide and nitride of at least one of the dissolved metals on the graphite surface.

  16. Applications Of Graphite Fluoride Fibers In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheng; Long, Martin; Dever, Therese

    1993-01-01

    Report characterizes graphite fluoride fibers made from commercially available graphitized carbon fibers and discusses some potential applications of graphite fluoride fibers in outer space. Applications include heat-sinking printed-circuit boards, solar concentrators, and absorption of radar waves. Other applications based on exploitation of increased resistance to degradation by atomic oxygen, present in low orbits around Earth.

  17. Kinetics of the Formation of Intercalation Compounds in Crystalline Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Hickey, G. S.

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline graphite has a structure that can be best described as an ordered stack of flat aromatic layers. It is known to form intercalation compounds with bromine and nitric acid. Their formation was studied using thermal measurements and analytical techniques. Samples of graphite treated with either bromine or nitric acid were prepared by contacting these reagents with powdered graphite.

  18. Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOEpatents

    McKernan, Mark A.; Alford, Craig S.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Chen, Chih-Wen

    1994-01-01

    Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface.

  19. Electrochemical oxidation of textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Rajendra; Joshi, Himanshu; Mall, Indra D; Srivastava, Vimal C

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, studies have been performed on the electrochemical (EC) oxidation of actual textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes. Multi-response optimization of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo): 4-10, current density (j): 27.78-138.89 A/m(2), NaCl concentration (w): 0-2 g/L and electrolysis time (t): 10-130 min have been performed using Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design. It was aimed to simultaneously maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies and minimize specific energy consumption using desirability function approach. Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value for COD (R(2) = 0.8418), color (R(2) = 0.7010) and specific energy (R(2) = 0.9125) between the experimental values and the predicted values by a second-order regression model. Maximum COD and color removal and minimum specific energy consumed was 90.78%, 96.27% and 23.58 kWh/kg COD removed, respectively, were observed at optimum conditions. The wastewater, sludge and scum obtained after treatment at optimum condition have been characterized by various techniques. UV-visible study showed that all azo bonds of the dyes present in the wastewater were totally broken and most of the aromatic rings were mineralized during EC oxidation with graphite electrode. Carbon balance showed that out of the total carbon eroded from the graphite electrodes, 27-29.2% goes to the scum, 71.1-73.3% goes into the sludge and rest goes to the treated wastewater. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the generated sludge and scum can be dried and used as a fuel in the boilers/incinerators.

  20. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; natural graphite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, U.H.; Schmidt, H.W.; Taylor, H.A.; Sutphin, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Natural graphite is a crystalline mineral of pure carbon which normally occurs in the form of platelet-shaped crystals. It has important properties, such as chemical inertness, low thermal expansion, and lubricity, that make it almost irreplaceable for certain uses such as refractories and steelmaking. Graphite ore types are crystalline (flake and lump} or 'amorphous' (cryptocrystalline}. Refractory applications use the largest total amount of natural graphite, while the most important use of crystalline graphite is in crucibles for handling molten metals. All graphite deposits being mined today are found in the following metamorphic environments: (1) contact metamorphosed coal generally is a source of amorphous graphite; (2)disseminated crystalline flake graphite comes from syngenetic metasediments; and (3) crystalline lump graphite is found in epigenetic veins in high-grade metamorphic regions. Graphite may also occur as a trace mineral in ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites, but these are economically insignificant. The world's identified economically exploitable resources of crystalline graphite in major deposits are estimated to be about 9.7 million metric tons of concentrate. In-place resources of amorphous graphite are about 11.5 million metric tons. Of these, less than 2 percent of the crystalline ore and less than 1 percent of the amorphous ore are in western industrial countries. World mining production of natural graphite rose from 347,000 metric tons in 1973 to 659,000 metric tons in 1986, while the proportion produced by central economy countries increased from about 50 percent for the period from 1973 to 1978 to more than 64 percent in 1979 to 1986. It is estimated that crystalline flake graphite accounts for at least 180,000 metric tons of total annual world mining production of natural graphite, and amorphous graphite makes up the rest.

  1. Analysis of Graphite-Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Strategically embedding graphite meshes in a compliant cementitious matrix produces a composite material with relatively high tension and compressive properties as compared to steel-reinforced structures fabricated from a standard concrete mix. Although these composite systems are somewhat similar, the methods used to analyze steel-reinforced composites often fail to characterize the behavior of their more advanced graphite-reinforced counterparts. This Technical Memorandum describes some of the analytical methods being developed to determine the deflections and stresses in graphite-reinforced cementitious composites. It is initially demonstrated that the standard transform section method fails to provide accurate results when the elastic moduli ratio exceeds 20. An alternate approach is formulated by using the rule of mixtures to determine a set of effective material properties for the composite. Tensile tests are conducted on composite samples to verify this approach. When the effective material properties are used to characterize the deflections of composite beams subjected to pure bending, an excellent agreement is obtained. Laminated composite plate theory is investigated as a means for analyzing even more complex composites, consisting of multiple graphite layers oriented in different directions. In this case, composite beams are analyzed using the laminated composite plate theory with material properties established from tensile tests. Then, finite element modeling is used to verify the results. Considering the complexity of the samples, a very good agreement is obtained.

  2. Microcracking in Graphite-Epoxy Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    ply Pabric 350 -100 to -320 Kirlin/ Pynchon GY 70/X30 (0/45190/135)s 250 -170 General Dynamics/Convair Division CY 70/934 0. 350 -16 Aerospace...and Glass Matrices," J. Mat. Sci. 7, 676-681 (1972). 17. R. L. Kirlin and G. E. Pynchon , "Dimensional Stability Investigation - Graphite/Epoxy Truss

  3. US graphite reactor D&D experience

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, S.M.K.; Williams, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of the U.S. Graphite Reactor Experience Task for the Decommissioning Strategy Plan for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 1 Study. The work described in this report was performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE).

  4. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  6. Ultrasonic Welding of Graphite/Thermoplastic Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. S.; Page, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding of graphite/thermoplastic composite materials eliminates need for fasteners (which require drilling or punching, add weight, and degrade stiffness) and can be totally automated in beam fabrication and assembly jigs. Feasibility of technique has been demonstrated in laboratory tests which show that neither angular orientation nor vacuum affect weld quality.

  7. Static friction in graphite under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Corro, Elena; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentin G.; Abbasi-Perez, David; Marques, Miriam; Menendez, J.; Recio, J.; Otero-de-La-Roza, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    The Raman spectrum of graphite has been studied under different stress conditions, a quantitative comparison of these experiments leads to the unexpected result that in both cases the same pressure slope is observed for the G band, despite this band is originated by an in-plane vibration and therefore only affected by in-plane stress. These results allow us to conclude that when graphite is squeezed between opposed anvils, in-plane stress components appear on the sample. We present a combined experimental and theoretical analysis which allow us to define the main in-plane stress component acting on graphite as the friction forces against sliding, resulting from the confinement of the sample. In our experiments the anvil cell turns into a powerful tool to provide information about the stress dependence of the static friction linked to the relative displacement of the individual graphene layers. Computer simulations in bulk graphite and tri-layer graphene provide boundary values of the static friction coefficient at different relative orientations between the graphene sheets. Our major finding is that the simulated static friction between loaded graphene sheets is comparable to the experimental in-plane stress that yields the blue-shift of the G band.

  8. Extinction properties of infinitely long graphite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazbi, B.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    1991-12-01

    The extinction efficiencies of randomly oriented infinite graphite cylinders, including hollow cylinders are calculated, using the rigorous Kerker-Matijevic formulas. The peak in the mid-UV extinction varies in wavelength with particle radius and cavity size in a way that makes such particles of limited interest as models of interstellar grains.

  9. Ultrafast Multiphoton Thermionic Photoemission from Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shijing; Argondizzo, Adam; Wang, Cong; Cui, Xuefeng; Petek, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Electronic heating of cold crystal lattices in nonlinear multiphoton excitation can transiently alter their physical and chemical properties. In metals where free electron densities are high and the relative fraction of photoexcited hot electrons is low, the effects are small, but in semimetals, where the free electron densities are low and the photoexcited densities can overwhelm them, the intense femtosecond laser excitation can induce profound changes. In semimetal graphite and its derivatives, strong optical absorption, weak screening of the Coulomb potential, and high cohesive energy enable extreme hot electron generation and thermalization to be realized under femtosecond laser excitation. We investigate the nonlinear interactions within a hot electron gas in graphite through multiphoton-induced thermionic emission. Unlike the conventional photoelectric effect, within about 25 fs, the memory of the excitation process, where resonant dipole transitions absorb up to eight quanta of light, is erased to produce statistical Boltzmann electron distributions with temperatures exceeding 5000 K; this ultrafast electronic heating causes thermionic emission to occur from the interlayer band of graphite. The nearly instantaneous thermalization of the photoexcited carriers through Coulomb scattering to extreme electronic temperatures characterized by separate electron and hole chemical potentials can enhance hot electron surface femtochemistry, photovoltaic energy conversion, and incandescence, and drive graphite-to-diamond electronic phase transition.

  10. Dimensionally Stable Graphite-Fiber/Glass Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Robert; Bergen, George J.; Studer, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of making composites of glass matrices reinforced by graphite fibers provides for control of proportions, orientations, and distributions of fibers in matrices and for fused bonds between fibers and matrices. Enables fabrication of composites of high specific strength and dimensional stability. Method particularly suitable for making low-thermal-expansion platforms for optical instruments.

  11. Preparation of graphite dispersed copper composite with intruding graphite particles in copper plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Abdul Muizz Mohd; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted that copper-graphite composite was prepared locally on the surface of a copper plate with using a spot welding machine. Experiments were carried out with changing the compressive load, the repetition number of the compression and the electrical current in order to study the effect of them on carbon content and Vickers hardness on the copper plate surface. When the graphite was pushed into copper plate only with the compressive load, the composite was mainly hardened by the work hardening. The Vickers hardness increased linearly with an increase in the carbon content. When an electrical current was energized through the composite at the compression, the copper around the graphite particles were heated to the temperature above approximately 2100 K and melted. The graphite particles partially or entirely dissolved into the melt. The graphite particles were precipitated from the melt under solidification. In addition, this high temperature caused the improvement of wetting of copper to graphite. This high temperature caused the annealing, and reduced the Vickers hardness. Even in this case, the Vickers hardness increased with an increase in the carbon content. This resulted from the dispersion hardening.

  12. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-09-27

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes.

  13. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes. PMID:27671269

  14. Recycling Irradiated Nuclear Graphite - A Greener Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the successful recycle of irradiated graphite to fabricate new nuclear graphite using conventional manufacturing processes (albeit on a bench scale). Radiological concerns such as the containment of contamination in industrial scale manufacturing plants, or the release of 14C, were not considered. Moreover, a study of the annealing kinetics was conducted to elucidate the extent of property recovery over a representative temperature range. The goal of the preliminary work reported here was to determine if nuclear graphite, produced through the normal graphite fabrication process, but using crushed, previously irradiated nuclear graphite could be manufactured with sufficient mechanical integrity to warrant further investigation.

  15. Recycling Irradiated Nuclear Graphite - A Greener Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the successful recycle of irradiated graphite to fabricate new nuclear graphite using conventional manufacturing processes (albeit on a on a bench scale). Radiological concerns such as the containment of contamination in industrial scale manufacturing plants, or the release of 14C, were not considered. Moreover, a study of the annealing kinetics was conducted to elucidate the extent of property recovery over a representative temperature range. The goal of the preliminary work reported here was to determine if nuclear graphite, produced through the normal graphite fabrication process, but using crushed, previously irradiated nuclear graphite, could be manufactured with sufficient mechanical integrity to warrant further investigation

  16. Mechanism for direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongxian; Yin, Fuxing; Yu, Tao; Wang, Jian-Tao; Liang, Chunyong

    2014-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics with a more reliable reactive LCBOPII potential, we have performed a detailed study on the direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition. Our results reveal a new so-called “wave-like buckling and slipping” mechanism, which controls the transformation from hexagonal graphite to cubic diamond. Based on this mechanism, we have explained how polycrystalline cubic diamond is converted from hexagonal graphite, and demonstrated that the initial interlayer distance of compressed hexagonal graphite play a key role to determine the grain size of cubic diamond. These results can broaden our understanding of the high pressure graphite-to-diamond phase transition. PMID:25088720

  17. Heterogeneous Combustion of Porous Graphite Particles in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelliah, Harsha K.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent theoretical investigations on graphite particle combustion have employed several levels of heterogeneous reaction models, ranging from global to elementary models, to describe the oxidation of carbon to gaseous products. Unlike the counterpart homogeneous reaction models, these heterogeneous reaction models are not well developed because of the difficulties associated with decoupling the physical characteristics of the solid (e.g. surface area taking part in combustion) from the chemical kinetic data. This is certainly true for porous graphite particle combustion, where heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions occur within the pores and play an important role in the overall oxidation process. As a result, there are considerable uncertainties of physical phenomena predicted using different heterogeneous kinetic models available in the literature. A good example, discussed later in this paper, is the predicted critical particle size below which the mass burning rate becomes exponentially small. The main goal of this study is to understand the basic mechanism controlling such rapid changes in burning rates, by developing a model where physical contributions are decoupled from chemical rate constants in a consistent manner. Another important goal of the proposed study is to develop a truly intrinsic, detailed heterogeneous reaction model for porous graphite combustion at high-temperatures, and to derive a systematically reduced heterogeneous reaction model in terms of the elementary reaction rate constants of the detailed model. The validation of chemical kinetic models describing the heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion in and around a spherically symmetric porous graphite particle can be considerably simplified by experimental measurements obtained under microgravity conditions. A vital component of this study is to conduct such supporting experiments on particle burning rate and surface temperature using NASA microgravity facilities, in close coordination

  18. Development of graphite/metals bondings for fusion reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossa, F.; Franconi, E.; Schiller, P.

    1992-09-01

    The need to join graphite and metal components is particularly important in the nuclear industry, especially in the first wall components of fusion machines. The aim of this work was to find brazing agents which can wet steel and graphite without producing excessive alloying, steel dissolution or the formation of fragile components and to determine the best thermal brazing cycles. Direct steel-graphite junctions are very sensitive to thermal cycling. Multiple brazings with three components (AISI 316L-Cu-graphite or AISI 316L-Mo-graphite) and four components (AISI 316L-Cu-W-graphite) were thus made. Layers of W on the graphite were produced using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), while the Mo and some brazing agents were deposited using vacuum plasma spray (VPS). It was found that multiple brazings were clearly more resistant to thermal shocks than simple junctions.

  19. Pencil Graphite Electrodes: A Versatile Tool in Electroanalysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Due to their electrochemical and economical characteristics, pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) gained in recent years a large applicability to the analysis of various types of inorganic and organic compounds from very different matrices. The electrode material of this type of working electrodes is constituted by the well-known and easy commercially available graphite pencil leads. Thus, PGEs are cheap and user-friendly and can be employed as disposable electrodes avoiding the time-consuming step of solid electrodes surface cleaning between measurements. When compared to other working electrodes PGEs present lower background currents, higher sensitivity, good reproducibility, and an adjustable electroactive surface area, permitting the analysis of low concentrations and small sample volumes without any deposition/preconcentration step. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed overview of the PGEs characteristics, designs and applications of bare, and electrochemically pretreated and chemically modified PGEs along with the corresponding performance characteristics like linear range and detection limit. Techniques used for bare or modified PGEs surface characterization are also reviewed. PMID:28255500

  20. Shear Assisted Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite to Graphene.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Dhanraj B; Brenker, Jason; Easton, Christopher D; Tabor, Rico F; Neild, Adrian; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-04-12

    The exfoliation characteristics of graphite as a function of applied anodic potential (1-10 V) in combination with shear field (400-74 400 s(-1)) have been studied in a custom-designed microfluidic reactor. Systematic investigation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicates that at higher potentials thicker and more fragmented graphene sheets are obtained, while at potentials as low as 1 V, pronounced exfoliation is triggered by the influence of shear. The shear-assisted electrochemical exfoliation process yields large (∼10 μm) graphene flakes with a high proportion of single, bilayer, and trilayer graphene and small ID/IG ratio (0.21-0.32) with only a small contribution from carbon-oxygen species as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. This method comprises intercalation of sulfate ions followed by exfoliation using shear induced by a flowing electrolyte. Our findings on the crucial role of hydrodynamics in accentuating the exfoliation efficiency suggest a safer, greener, and more automated method for production of high quality graphene from graphite.

  1. Status of the NGNP graphite creep experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) very high temperature gas reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have three different compressive loads applied to the top half of three diametrically opposite pairs of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment.

  2. A sensitive atomic-absorption spectrometric method for the determination of tin with atomization from impregnated graphite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, H; Wegscheider, W; Knapp, G; Ortner, H M

    1979-03-01

    The atomization of Sn from graphite surfaces is potentially hindered by reactions with the surface. The impregnation of graphite tubes with other carbide-forming elements (W, Zr, Ta, Mo) favourably alters the surface characteristics of the graphite furnace for the atomization of Sn. At the acid concentrations needed to prevent the hydrolysis of Sn, these surfaces are considerably more stable (even after more than 100 atomization cycles) than those of pyrolytic graphite. Two graphite furnaces of different design, the HGA 72 and the HGA 76, were tested. With impregnated graphite tubes the determination of Sn is possible in the HGA 72 with a detection limit of approximately 15 pg. In the HGA 76 the tin determination is vastly improved with respect to prolonged lifetime of the furnaces and stable signals over much longer periods of time. Detailed interference studies reveal that the use of the "gas stop" mode minimizes the influence of many ions that are frequently either introduced by the decomposition reagents or present in the sample itself. The practical potential of this method is demonstrated for the determination of Sn in a slag material and in copper- and aluminium-based alloys.

  3. Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Trammell, Michael P; Pappano, Peter J

    2011-09-01

    The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB2000 is a

  4. A probabilisitic based failure model for components fabricated from anisotropic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chengfeng

    The nuclear moderator for high temperature nuclear reactors are fabricated from graphite. During reactor operations graphite components are subjected to complex stress states arising from structural loads, thermal gradients, neutron irradiation damage, and seismic events. Graphite is a quasi-brittle material. Two aspects of nuclear grade graphite, i.e., material anisotropy and different behavior in tension and compression, are explicitly accounted for in this effort. Fracture mechanic methods are useful for metal alloys, but they are problematic for anisotropic materials with a microstructure that makes it difficult to identify a "critical" flaw. In fact cracking in a graphite core component does not necessarily result in the loss of integrity of a nuclear graphite core assembly. A phenomenological failure criterion that does not rely on flaw detection has been derived that accounts for the material behaviors mentioned. The probability of failure of components fabricated from graphite is governed by the scatter in strength. The design protocols being proposed by international code agencies recognize that design and analysis of reactor core components must be based upon probabilistic principles. The reliability models proposed herein for isotropic graphite and graphite that can be characterized as being transversely isotropic are another set of design tools for the next generation very high temperature reactors (VHTR) as well as molten salt reactors. The work begins with a review of phenomenologically based deterministic failure criteria. A number of this genre of failure models are compared with recent multiaxial nuclear grade failure data. Aspects in each are shown to be lacking. The basic behavior of different failure strengths in tension and compression is exhibited by failure models derived for concrete, but attempts to extend these concrete models to anisotropy were unsuccessful. The phenomenological models are directly dependent on stress invariants. A set of

  5. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  6. Scattering by interstellar graphite dust analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Gazi A.; Gogoi, Ankur

    2014-10-01

    The analysis of optical scattering data of interstellar carbonaceous graphite dust analog at 543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm laser wavelengths by using an original laboratory light scattering setup is presented. The setup primarily consisted of a laser source, optical units, aerosol sprayer, data acquisition system and associated instrumentation. The instrument measured scattered light signals from 10° to 170° in steps of 1°. The results of the measurements of the volume scattering function β(θ) and degree of linear polarization P(θ) of the carbonaceous graphite dust particles that were sprayed in front of the laser beam by using an aerosol sprayer were subsequently compared with theoretically generated Mie plots with estimated parameters.

  7. Ceres: Sulfur deposits and graphitized carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith; Li, Jian-Yang

    2016-09-01

    We report new results from observations of the dwarf planet Ceres using the Hubble Space Telescope in the spectral range 1160-5700 Å. Comparisons between Ceres' UV-visible spectra and laboratory measurements indicate that both sulfur species and graphitized carbon are important on Ceres' surface. We find a latitudinal gradient in UV absorption, with northern latitudes being more UV absorbing than southern latitudes, a trend that can be explained by increasing abundances of sulfur and SO2 toward northern latitudes. The presence of graphitized carbon is consistent with the surface of this airless body being carbonized in response to processes such as charged particle bombardment. The presence of volatile sulfur species is consistent with the idea that Ceres exhibits geothermal activity. Spectral differences with previous UV observations are likely due to the changing sulfurous and carbonaceous surface of Ceres.

  8. Physical aging in graphite epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The matrix dominated mechanical behavior of a graphite epoxy composite was found to be affected by sub Tg annealing. Postcured + or - 45 deg 4S specimens of Thornel 300 graphite/Narmco 5208 epoxy were quenched from above Tg and given a sub Tg annealing at 140 C for times up to 10 to the 5th power min. The ultimate tensile strength, strain to break, and toughness of the composite material were found to decrease as functions of sub Tg annealing time. No weight loss was observed during the sub Tg annealing. The time dependent change in mechanical behavior is explained on the basis of free volume changes that are related to the physical aging of the nonequilibrium glassy network epoxy. The results imply possible changes in composite properties with service time.

  9. Phase analysis of quantum oscillations in graphite.

    PubMed

    Luk'yanchuk, Igor A; Kopelevich, Yakov

    2004-10-15

    The quantum de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations measured in graphite were decomposed by pass-band filtering onto contributions from three different groups of carriers. Generalizing the theory of dHvA oscillations for 2D carriers with an arbitrary spectrum and by detecting the oscillation frequencies using a method of two-dimensional phase-frequency analysis which we developed, we identified these carriers as (i) minority holes having a 2D parabolic massive spectrum p(2)(perpendicular)/2m(perpendicular), (ii) massive majority electrons with a 3D spectrum and (iii) majority holes with a 2D Dirac-like spectrum +/-vp(perpendicular) which seems to be responsible for the unusual strongly-correlated electronic phenomena in graphite.

  10. Thermal conductivity of graphene and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alofi, A.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The thermal conductivities of graphene and graphite are computed within the framework of Callaway's effective relaxation time theory. Analytical expressions derived by Nihira and Iwata for phonon dispersion relations and vibrational density of states are employed, based on the semicontinuum model proposed by Komatsu and Nagamiya. The conductivity of graphene is predicted to be higher than the in-plane conductivity of graphite for all temperatures. Incorporation of the 13C isotope can be expected to produce significant reduction in the conductivity of graphene in the temperature range 50-300 K. In the presence of tensile strain on graphene, the specific heat increases, but the conductivity can decrease or increase depending on the level of the purity and temperature of the sample.

  11. Analysis of Graphite Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robert E.; Gilbert, John A.; Spanyer, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes analytical methods that can be used to determine the deflections and stresses in highly compliant graphite-reinforced cementitious composites. It is demonstrated that the standard transform section fails to provide accurate results when the elastic modulus ratio exceeds 20. So an alternate approach is formulated by using the rule of mixtures to determine a set of effective material properties for the composite. Tensile tests are conducted on composite samples to verify this approach; and, when the effective material properties are used to characterize the deflections of composite beams subject to pure bending, an excellent agreement is obtained. Laminated composite plate theory is also investigated as a means for analyzing even more complex composites, consisting of multiple graphite layers oriented in different directions. In this case, composite beams are analyzed by incorporating material properties established from tensile tests. Finite element modeling is used to verity the results and, considering the complexity of the samples, a very good agreement is obtained.

  12. Graphite filter atomizer in atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katskov, Dmitri A.

    2007-09-01

    Graphite filter atomizers (GFA) for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) show substantial advantages over commonly employed electrothermal vaporizers and atomizers, tube and platform furnaces, for direct determination of high and medium volatility elements in matrices associated with strong spectral and chemical interferences. Two factors provide lower limits of detection and shorter determination cycles with the GFA: the vaporization area in the GFA is separated from the absorption volume by a porous graphite partition; the sample is distributed over a large surface of a collector in the vaporization area. These factors convert the GFA into an efficient chemical reactor. The research concerning the GFA concept, technique and analytical methodology, carried out mainly in the author's laboratory in Russia and South Africa, is reviewed. Examples of analytical applications of the GFA in AAS for analysis of organic liquids and slurries, bio-samples and food products are given. Future prospects for the GFA are discussed in connection with analyses by fast multi-element AAS.

  13. Microwave limb sounder, graphite epoxy support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pynchon, G.

    1980-01-01

    The manufacturing and processing procedures which were used to fabricate a precision graphite/epoxy support structure for a spherical microwave reflecting surface are described. The structure was made fromm GY-70/930 ultra high modulus graphite prepreg, laminated to achieve an isotropic in plane thermal expansion of less than + or - 0.1 PPM/F. The structure was hand assembled to match the interface of the reflective surface, which was an array of 18 flexure supported, aluminum, spherically contoured tiles. Structural adhesives were used in the final assembly to bond the elements into their final configuration. A eutectic metal coating was applied to the composite surface to reduce dimensional instabilities arising from changes in the composite epoxy moisture content due to environmental effects. Basic materials properties data are reported and the results of a finite element structural analysis are referenced.

  14. Model calculations of superlubricity of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Gertjan S.; Dienwiebel, Martin; Frenken, Joost W.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, friction between a finite, nanometer-sized, rigid graphite flake and a rigid graphite surface is analyzed theoretically in the framework of a modified Tomlinson model. Lateral forces are studied as a function of orientational misfit between flake and surface lattices, pulling direction of the flake, flake size and flake shape. The calculations show that the orientation dependence of the friction provides information on the contact size and shape. We find good agreement between the calculations and the experimental results, discussed in a recent publication by Dienwiebel et al. [

    M. Dienwiebel, G. S. Verhoeven, N. Pradeep, J. W. M. Frenken, J. A. Heimberg, and H. W. Zandbergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 126101 (2004)
    ].

  15. Layering-induced Superlubricity: Gold on Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Guerra, Roberto; Tosatti, Erio; Nanofriction Group Sissa Team

    2015-03-01

    By means of realistic MD simulations, we explore the static friction trend as a function of the true contact area and the model dimensionality for 2D gold nanoislands and 3D gold nanoclusters deposited on graphite, interesting tribological systems whose slow and fast dynamics have been previously investigated. For increasing island size, because of the relative gold-graphite lattice mismatch, the interface stress energy has the chance to pile up by forming frustrated unmatched (i.e., incommensurate) regions and to develop a continuous solitonic pathway, foreshadowing a possible condition for the occurrence of ultra-low friction regimes. The significant reduction of the depinning threshold, towards superlubricity, with the system dimensionality can be ascribed to a layering-induced effective stiffness of the interface contact, favoring the natural Au-C lattice incommensurability. Partly sponsored under SNSF Sinergia Grant CRSII2 136287/1, EU ERC Grant No. 320796 MODPHYSFRICT, EU COST Action MP1303.

  16. Method for disposing of radioactive graphite and silicon carbide in graphite fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.

    1995-09-12

    Method is described for destroying radioactive graphite and silicon carbide in fuel elements containing small spheres of uranium oxide coated with silicon carbide in a graphite matrix, by treating the graphite fuel elements in a molten salt bath in the presence of air, the salt bath comprising molten sodium-based salts such as sodium carbonate and a small amount of sodium sulfate as catalyst, or calcium-based salts such as calcium chloride and a small amount of calcium sulfate as catalyst, while maintaining the salt bath in a temperature range of about 950 to about 1,100 C. As a further feature of the invention, large radioactive graphite fuel elements, e.g. of the above composition, can be processed to oxidize the graphite and silicon carbide, by introducing the fuel element into a reaction vessel having downwardly and inwardly sloping sides, the fuel element being of a size such that it is supported in the vessel at a point above the molten salt bath therein. Air is bubbled through the bath, causing it to expand and wash the bottom of the fuel element to cause reaction and destruction of the fuel element as it gradually disintegrates and falls into the molten bath. 4 figs.

  17. Graphite-to-Graphene: Total Conversion.

    PubMed

    Buzaglo, Matat; Bar, Ilan Pri; Varenik, Maxim; Shunak, Liran; Pevzner, Svetlana; Regev, Oren

    2017-02-01

    The rush to develop graphene applications mandates mass production of graphene sheets. However, the currently available complex and expensive production technologies are limiting the graphene commercialization. The addition of a protective diluent to graphite during ball-milling is demonstrated to result in a game-changer yield (>90%) of defect-free graphene, whose size is controlled by the milling energy and the diluent type.

  18. Electron oxidation of graphite by fluorospecies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, G.L.

    1984-09-01

    The fluoride-ion affinity (A/sub F/sup -//) of phosphorus pentafluoride was determined to be 100 kcal/mole from the heats of reaction of the Lewis bases SF/sub 4/ and ClO/sub 2/F with PF/sub 5/ near room temperature. The fluoride-ion affinity of boron trifluoride was determined to be 92 kcal/mole from the heat of reaction of ClO/sub 2/F with BF/sub 3/. The crystal structure of ClO/sub 2/BF/sub 4/ was determined and a precise lattice energy was calculated from this structure and used to determined A/sub F/sup -//. Both PF/sub 5/ and BF/sub 3/ were found to react with graphite in the presence of fluorine gas to yield a variety of non-stoichiometric compounds. The fluoride-ion affinity of silicon tetrafluoride is not known, but it does not react with graphite and F/sub 2/ except at high pressures. These and previous results suggested a threshold in oxidizing power of intercalating species below which the oxidative intercalation reaction would not occur. The reduction of C/sub x/PF/sub 6/ by PF/sub 3/ proved that the reaction is thermodynamically controlled to some extent. The displacement of PF/sub 5/ in C/sub x/PF/sub 6/ by BF/sub 3/ (with a smaller A/sub F/sup -//) suggested that two BF/sub 3/ molecules may have a larger fluoride-ion affinity than one PF/sub 5/ and that B/sub 2/F/sub 7//sup -/ may be a stable anion in graphite. Conductivity studies of PF/sub x/ and BF/sub y/ salts showed that a large drop in conductivity when the reaction reaches first stage is due in the most part to direct fluorination of carbon in graphite.

  19. Cooling of weapons with graphite foam

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James W.; Trammell, Michael P.

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed are examples of an apparatus for cooling a barrel 12 of a firearm 10 and examples of a cooled barrel assembly 32 for installation into an existing firearm 10. When assembled with the barrel 12, a contact surface 16 of a shell 14 is proximate to, and in thermal communication with, the outer surface of the barrel 18. The shell 14 is formed of commercially available or modified graphite foam.

  20. Conductive composites based on exfoliated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasov, I.M.; Morozov, V.A.; Seleznev, A.N.; Avdeev, V.V.

    2008-06-15

    Conductive composites of exfoliated graphite (EG) and coal-tar pitch have been prepared by mixing the components. The electrical properties of the composites have been studied, and the results have been interpreted in terms of the percolation theory. The threshold EG content for electrical conduction is determined to be similar or equal to 1.5 wt %, independent of the properties of the pitch and EG.

  1. Flammabilities Of Graphite-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes tests and comparisons of flammabilities, thermal properties, and selected mechanical properties of composite materials made of epoxy and other matrices reinforced by graphite fibers. Composites also compared with baseline epoxy/fiberglass composite. Considers such properties as limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, products of thermal degradation, total heat release, heat-release rate, loss of mass, spread of flames, resistance to ignition, and thermal stability.

  2. Graphite intercalation compound with arsenic pentafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, S.P.; Nikonorov, Yu.I.

    1987-04-01

    A decrease in the electrical resistance of the graphite compound with arsenic pentafluoride of the composition C/sub 10.2/AsF/sub 5/ is observed in the 293-510/sup 0/K range. It was hypothesized that this is due to elimination of the weakly conducting fluorides in the compound. When C/sub 10.2/AsF/sub 5/ is treated with water and hydrogen fluoride, it decomposes.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Phonons in Pyrolitic Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, B. N.; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4°K and 1500°C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol using graphite anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Y.M.; Abuzaid, N.S.

    1999-02-01

    The effects of current and pH on the electrochemical oxidation of phenol on graphite electrodes is investigated in this study. There was no sign of deterioration of the graphite bed after 5 months of operation. Phenol removal efficiency was a function of the current applied and was around 70% at a current of 2.2 A. The increase of phenol removal efficiency with current is attributed to the increase of ionic transport which increases the rate of electrode reactions responsible for the removal process. The percentage of complete oxidation of phenol increases with current, with a maximum value of about 50%. However, at pH 0.2 it is slightly higher than that at pH 0.5 at all currents. The phenol removal rate increases with increases of current and pH. While the current (CO{sub 2}) efficiency reaches a maximum value in the current range of 1.0--1.2 A, it increases with an increase of acid concentration. The findings of this study have important implications: while anodic oxidation of phenol on graphite can achieve acceptable removal of phenol, the extent of oxidation should not be overlooked.

  5. Nitrogen Adsorption on Graphite: Defying Physisorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Scheffler, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of a nitrogen molecule at the graphite surface can be considered a paradigm of molecular physisorption [1]. The binding of N2 can be phenomenologically described in terms of a competition between quadrupole--quadrupole and van der Waals dispersion energies. Of particular interest is the relative stability of the so-called ``in-plane'', ``out-of-plane'' and ``pin-wheel'' monolayer structures, in which the nitrogen molecules alternate between parallel and perpendicular configurations on the surface. By combining state-of-the-art electronic structure methods, such as dispersion-corrected density-functional theory and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory along with high-level coupled cluster [CCSD(T)] calculations, we are able to gain quantitative insight into the adsorption mechanism of N2@graphite and achieve very good agreement with experimental desorption enthalpy. We challenge the commonly held view of a closed-shell adsorbed N2 molecule, finding a noticeable charge-density polarization for nitrogen in a perpendicular configuration on the surface. We map out the N2@graphite potential energy surface as a function of sliding and orientation and discuss the influence of quantum zero-point energy for different adsorption sites. [1] D. Marx and H. Wiechert, Adv. Chem. Phys. 95, 213 (1996).

  6. Resistivity of Rotated Graphite-Graphene Contacts.

    PubMed

    Chari, Tarun; Ribeiro-Palau, Rebeca; Dean, Cory R; Shepard, Kenneth

    2016-07-13

    Robust electrical contact of bulk conductors to two-dimensional (2D) material, such as graphene, is critical to the use of these 2D materials in practical electronic devices. Typical metallic contacts to graphene, whether edge or areal, yield a resistivity of no better than 100 Ω μm but are typically >10 kΩ μm. In this Letter, we employ single-crystal graphite for the bulk contact to graphene instead of conventional metals. The graphite contacts exhibit a transfer length up to four-times longer than in conventional metallic contacts. Furthermore, we are able to drive the contact resistivity to as little as 6.6 Ω μm(2) by tuning the relative orientation of the graphite and graphene crystals. We find that the contact resistivity exhibits a 60° periodicity corresponding to crystal symmetry with additional sharp decreases around 22° and 39°, which are among the commensurate angles of twisted bilayer graphene.

  7. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  8. Graphite formation by carbonate reduction during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Matthieu E.; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Benzerara, Karim; Chaduteau, Carine; Malvoisin, Benjamin; Malavieille, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Carbon is transported from Earth's surface into its interior at subduction zones. Carbonates in sediments overlying hydrothermally altered rocks (including serpentinites) within the subducted slab are the main carriers of this carbon. Part of the carbon is recycled back to the surface by volcanism, but some is transferred to the deep Earth. Redox transformations during shallow subduction control the transfer and long-term fate of carbon, but are poorly explored. Here we use carbon stable isotopes and Raman spectroscopy to analyse the reduction of carbonate in an exhumed serpentinite-sediment contact in Alpine Corsica, France. We find that highly crystalline graphite was formed during subduction metamorphism and was concentrated in the sediment, within a reaction zone in direct contact with the serpentinite. The graphite in this reaction zone has a carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of up to 0.8+/-0.1‰, similar to that of the original calcite that composed the sediments, and is texturally associated with the calcium-bearing mineral wollastonite that is also formed in the process. We use mass-balance calculations to show that about 9% of the total carbonaceous matter in the sedimentary unit results from complete calcite reduction in the reaction zone. We conclude that graphite formation, under reducing and low-temperature conditions, provides a mechanism to retain carbon in a subducting slab, aiding transport of carbon into the deeper Earth.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-07-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

  10. Reduced graphite oxide in supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Belén; Vretenár, Viliam; Kotrusz, Peter; Hulman, Martin; Centeno, Teresa A

    2015-05-15

    The current energy needs have put the focus on highly efficient energy storage systems such as supercapacitors. At present, much attention focuses on graphene-like materials as promising supercapacitor electrodes. Here we show that reduced graphite oxide offers a very interesting potential. Materials obtained by oxidation of natural graphite and subsequent sonication and reduction by hydrazine achieve specific capacitances as high as 170 F/g in H2SO4 and 84F/g in (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile. Although the particle size of the raw graphite has no significant effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the reduced materials, that exfoliated from smaller particles (<75 μm) result more advantageous for the release of the stored electrical energy. This effect is particularly evident in the aqueous electrolyte. Graphene-like materials may suffer from a drop in their specific surface area upon fabrication of electrodes with features of the existing commercial devices. This should be taken into account for a reliable interpretation of their performance in supercapacitors.

  11. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  12. Treatment of irradiated graphite from French Bugey reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Howard; Laurent, Gerard

    2013-07-01

    In 2008, following the general French plan for nuclear waste management, Electricite de France attempted to find for irradiated graphite an alternative solution to direct storage at the low-activity long-life storage center in France managed by the national agency for wastes (ANDRA). EDF management requested that its engineering arm, EDF CIDEN, study the graphite treatment alternatives to direct storage. In mid-2008, this study revealed the potential advantage for EDF to use a steam reforming process known as Thermal Organic Reduction, 'THOR' (owned by Studsvik, Inc., USA), to treat or destroy the graphite matrix and limit the quantity of secondary waste to be stored. In late 2009, EDF began a test program with Studsvik to determine if the THOR steam reforming process could be used to destroy the graphite. The program also sought to determine if the graphite could be treated to release the bulk of activity while minimizing the gasification of the bulk mass of the graphite. In October 2009, tests with non-irradiated graphite were completed and demonstrated destruction of a graphite matrix by the THOR process at satisfactory rates. After gasifying the graphite, focus shifted to the effect of roasting graphite at high temperatures in inert gases with low concentrations of oxidizing gases to preferentially remove volatile radionuclides while minimizing the graphite mass loss to 5%. A radioactive graphite sleeve was imported from France to the US for these tests. Completed in April 2010, 'Phase I' of testing showed that the process removed >99% of H-3 and 46% of C-14 with <6% mass loss. Completed in September 2011, 'Phase II' testing achieved increased removals as high as 80% C-14. During Phase II, it was also discovered that roasting in a reducing atmosphere helped to limit the oxidation of the graphite. Future work seeks to explore the effects of reducing gases to limit the bulk oxidation of graphite. If the graphite could be decontaminated of long-lived radionuclides

  13. Iosipescu shear properties of graphite fabric/epoxy composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walrath, D. E.; Adams, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Iosipescu shear test method is used to measure the in-plane and interlaminar shear properties of four T300 graphite fabric/934 epoxy composite materials. Different weave geometries tested include an Oxford weave, a 5-harness satin weave, an 8-harness satin weave, and a plain weave with auxiliary warp yarns. Both orthogonal and quasi-isotropic layup laminates were tested. In-plane and interlaminar shear properties are obtained for laminates of all four fabric types. Overall, little difference in shear properties attributable to the fabric weave pattern is observed. The auxiliary warp material is significantly weaker and less stiff in interlaminar shear parallel to its fill direction. A conventional strain gage extensometer is modified to measure shear strains for use with the Iosipescu shear test. While preliminary results are encouraging, several design iterations failed to produce a reliable shear transducer prototype. Strain gages are still the most reliable shear strain transducers for use with this test method.

  14. Porous tooling process for manufacture of graphite/polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiser, L. W.; Orr, K. K.; Araujo, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A porous tooling system was selected for the processing of Graphite/PMR-15 Polyimide laminates in thickness up to 3.2 mm. (0.125 inch). This tool system must have a reasonable strength, permeability dimensional stability, and thermal conductivity to accomplish curing at 600 F and 200 psi and 200 psi autoclave temperature and pressure. A permeability measuring apparatus was constructed and permeability vs. casting water level determined to produce tools at three different permeability levels. On these tools, laminates of 5, 11, and 22 plies (.027, .060, and 0.121 inch) were produced and evaluated by ultrasonic, mechanical, and thermal tests to determine the effect of the tool permeability on the cured laminates. All tools produced acceptable laminates at 5 and 11 plies but only the highest permeability produced acceptable clear ultrasonic C-Scans. Recommendations are made for future investigations of design geometry, and strengthening techniques for porous ceramic tooling.

  15. Graphite Waste Tank Cleanup and Decontamination under the Marcoule UP1 D and D Program - 13166

    SciTech Connect

    Thomasset, Philippe; Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Thiebaut, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant in Marcoule reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. During more than 40 years, the decladding operations produced thousands of tons of processed waste, mainly magnesium and graphite fragments. In the absence of a French repository for the graphite waste, the graphite sludge content of the storage pits had to be retrieved and transferred into a newer and safer pit. After an extensive R and D program, the equipment and process necessary for retrieval operations were designed, built and tested. The innovative process is mainly based on the use of two pumps (one to capture and the other one to transfer the sludge) working one after the other and a robotic arm mounted on a telescopic mast. A dedicated process was also set up for the removal of the biggest fragments. The retrieval of the most irradiating fragments was a challenge. Today, the first pit is totally empty and its stainless steel walls have been decontaminated using gels. In the second pit, the sludge retrieval and transfer operations have been almost completed. Most of the non-pumpable graphite fragments has been removed and transferred to a new storage pit. After more than 6 years of operations in sludge retrieval, a lot of experience was acquired from which important 'lessons learned' could be shared. (authors)

  16. Novel polymer-graphite composite grid as a negative current collector for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shukai; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Wenfeng; Cao, Gaoping; Zhao, Hailei; Yang, Yusheng

    2016-12-01

    We design a novel polymer-graphite composite grid as the negative current collector for lead-acid batteries. With this novel grid, the negative active material (NAM) can deliver a specific capacity of 170 mAh g-1 at a discharge rate of 0.1 C. After that, we conduct structural optimization and surface treatment on the grid to improve its performance. Through the structural optimization, additional lead pastes can be loaded and the cycle stability of the battery is enhanced. By using the optimized grid, the weight of the negative current collector can be remarkably reduced by more than 50%. To handle the serious hydrogen evolution on the graphite surface and the unfavorable adhesion between graphite and NAM, fine PbSO4 particles are coated onto the surface of the graphite grids by chemical deposition. The cells employing the PbSO4-deposition grids exhibit excellent cycling stability as well as low polarization and then high Coulombic efficiency. We present here a possible mechanism that how PbSO4 deposits effectively enhance the performance of negative plates based on the testing results.

  17. Graphite-fiber-reinforced polyimide liners of various compositions in plain spherical bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A plain spherical bearing design with a ball diameter of 28.6 mm, a race length of 12.7 mm, and a 1.7-mm-thick, molded composite liner was evaluated. The liner material is a self-lubricating composite of graphite-fiber-reinforced polyimide resin (GFRPI). The liner is prepared by transfer molding a mixture of one part chopped graphite fiber and one part partially polymerized resin into the space between the bearing ball and the outer race and then completing the polymerization under heat and pressure. Several liner compositions were evaluated: two types of polyimide, condensation and addition; two types of graphite fiber, low and high modulus; and four powder additives - cadmium oxide, cadmium iodide, graphite fluoride, and molybdenum disulfide. The bearings were oscillated + or - 15 deg at 1 Hz for 20 kilocycles under a radial unit load of 29 MN sq m (4200 psi) in dry air at 25, 200, or 315 C. Both types of fiber and polyimide gave low friction and wear. A simple equation was developed to fit the wear-time data and adequately predicted wear to 100 kilocycles.

  18. Getting graphite nano-sheets with different sizes by choosing parent graphite: ultrasonication assisted preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Haiping; Qin, Chunlin; Bi, Sifu

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a simple and effective method for preparing graphite nano-sheet (GNS) was investigated. The size choosing of the parent graphite is important to obtain smaller size of GNSs diameter or thickness with the ultrasonication treatment. The ultrasonication treating parameter was confirmed under the optimal preparing condition,. The microstructure was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM). It is The experimental results show that the GNS size decreases decreased sharply at the high power factor stage of ultrasonication and then the decrement trend was slow down with the decreasing power factor of ultrasonication treatment. It is employed that choosing smaller size of parent graphite (>200-mesh) can obtain smaller size GNSs with the diameter value of (<10μm) and thickness value of (∼4nm).

  19. Disseminated flake graphite and amorphous graphite deposit types. An analysis using grade and tonnage models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of differences derived from genetic, descriptive, and grade-tonnage data, graphite deposits are classified here into three deposit types: disseminated flake, amorphous (microcrystalline), or graphite veins. Descriptive models have been constructed for each of these deposit types, and grade-tonnage models are constructed for disseminated flake and amorphous deposit types. Grade and tonnage data are used also to construct grade-tonnage models that assist in predicting the size and grade of undiscovered graphite deposits. The median tonnage and carbon grade of disseminated flake deposits are 240 000 tonnes and 9% carbon and for amorphous deposits, 130 000 tonnes and 40% carbon. The differences in grade between disseminated flake and amorphous deposit types are statistically significant, whereas the differences in amount of contained carbon are not.

  20. The origin of epigenetic graphite: evidence from isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weis, P.L.; Friedman, I.; Gleason, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios measured in syngenetic graphite, epigenetic graphite, and graphitic marble suggests that syngenetic graphite forms only by the metamorphism of carbonaceous detritus. Metamorphism of calcareous rocks with carbonaceous detritus is accompanied by an exchange of carbon between the two, which may result in large changes in isotopic composition of the non-carbonate phase but does not affect the relative proportions of the two reactants in the rock. Epigenetic graphite forms only from carbonaceous material or preexisting graphite. The reactions involved are the water gas reaction (C + H2O ??? CO + H2) at 800-900??C, and the Boudouard reaction (2CO ??? C + CO2), which probably takes place at temperatures about 50-100??C lower. ?? 1982.

  1. The origin of epigenetic graphite: evidence from isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Paul L.; Friedman, Irving; Gleason, Jim P.

    1981-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios measured in syngenetic graphite, epigenetic graphite, and graphitic marble suggests that syngenetic graphite forms only by the metamorphism of carbonaceous detritus. Metamorphism of calcareous rocks with carbonaceous detritus is accompanied by an exchange of carbon between the two, which may result in large changes in isotopic composition of the non-carbonate phase but does not affect the relative proportions of the two reactants in the rock. Epigenetic graphite forms only from carbonaceous material or preexisting graphite. The reactions involved are the water gas reaction (C + H2O → CO + H2) at 800-900°C, and the Boudouard reaction (2CO → C + CO2), which probably takes place at temperatures about 50-100°C lower.

  2. Friction and wear of metals in contact with pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with gold, iron, and tantalum single crystals sliding on prismatic and basal orientations of pyrolytic graphite in various environments, including vacuum, oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen, and hydrogen bromide. Surfaces were examined in the clean state and with various adsorbates present on the graphite surfaces. Auger and LEED spectroscopy, SEM, and EDXA were used to characterize the graphite surfaces. Results indicate that the prismatic and basal orientations do not contain nor do they chemisorb oxygen, water vapor, acetylene, or hydrogen bromide. All three metals exhibited higher friction on the prismatic than on the basal orientation and these metals transferred to the atomically clean prismatic orientation of pyrolytic graphite. No metal transfer to the graphite was observed in the presence of adsorbates at 760 torr. Ion bombardment of the graphite surface with nitrogen ions resulted in the adherence of nitrogen to the surface.

  3. Effect of expanded graphite lattice in exfoliated graphite nanofibers on hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Lueking, Angela D; Pan, Ling; Narayanan, Deepa L; Clifford, Caroline E B

    2005-07-07

    A graphite exfoliation technique, using intercalation of a concentrated sulfuric/nitric acid mixture followed by a thermal shock, has successfully exfoliated a herringbone graphite nanofiber (GNF). The exfoliated GNF retains the overall nanosized dimensions of the original GNF, with the exfoliation temperature determining the degree of induced defects, lattice expansion, and resulting microstructure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that the fibers treated at an intermediate temperature of 700 degrees C for 2 min had dislocations in the graphitic structure and a 4% increase in graphitic lattice spacing to 3.5 A. The fibers treated at 1000 degrees C for 36 h were expanded along the fiber axis, with regular intervals of graphitic and amorphous regions ranging from 0.5 to >50 nm in width. The surface area of the starting material was increased from 47 m(2)/g to 67 m(2)/g for the 700- degrees C treatment and to 555 m(2)/g for the 1000- degrees C treatment. Hydrogen uptake measurements at 20 bar indicate that the overall hydrogen uptake and operative adsorption temperature are sensitive to the structural variations and graphitic spacing. The increased surface area after the 1000- degrees C treatment led to a 1.2% hydrogen uptake at 77 K and 20 bar, a 3-fold increase in hydrogen physisorption of the starting material. The uptake of the 700- degrees C-treated material had a 0.29% uptake at 300 K and 20 bar; although low, this was a 14-fold uptake over the starting material and higher than other commonly used pretreatment methods that were tested in parallel. These results suggest that selective exfoliation of a nanofiber is a means by which to control the relative binding energy of the hydrogen interaction with the carbon structure and thus vary the operative adsorption temperature.

  4. Precision linear shaped charge severance of graphite-epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, Manuel G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Precision Linear Shaped Charge (PLSC) components designed to sever a variety of target materials. Recent data for the severance of graphite-epoxy panels or targets with PLSC's are presented. A brief history of the requirement to originate the development of PLSC's for weapon components at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. The Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapon systems have continually decreased in size. Today's relatively small weapons require the design of much more efficient, lighter, and smaller explosive components because fragments, air shocks, and pyro-shocks associated with the function of these components can damage electrical and other sensitive components located nearby. The DOE requirements for PLSC's are listed. Therefore, linear shaped charge (LSC) components for weapon systems can no longer be empirically or experimentally designed for a given application. Many of today's designs require severing concentric cylinders, for example, where the LSC jet is designed to sever only one of the two cylinders as was the case for the B90/Nuclear Depth Strike Bomb. Therefore, code modeling and simulation technology must be utilized to obtain a better understanding of the LSC jet hydrodynamic penetration, fracture, shear, and spall mechanisms associated with the severance of metallic as well as composite targets.

  5. Thermal expansion behavior of graphite/glass and graphite/magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Ard, K. E.; Sharp, G. Richard

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of n (+/- 8)s graphite fiber reinforced magnesium laminate and four graphite reinforced glass-matrix laminates (a unidirectional laminate, a quasi-isotropic laminate, a symmetric low angle-ply laminate, and a random chopped-fiber mat laminate) was determined, and was found, in all cases, to not be significantly affected by thermal cycling. Specimens were cycled up to 100 times between -200 F and 100 F, and the thermal expansion coefficients determined for each material as a function of temperature were found to be low. Some dimensional changes as a function of thermal cycling, and some thermal-strain hysteresis, were observed.

  6. Graphite-Fiber-Reinforced Glass-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Dicus, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    G/GI structural composite material made of graphite fibers embedded in borosilicate glass exhibit excellent strength, fracture toughness, and dimensional stability at elevated temperatures. It is made by passing graphite-fiber yarn through slurry containing suspension of fine glass particles in carrier liquid and winding on drum to produce prepegged uniaxial tape. After drying, tapes are cut into appropriate lengths and laid up in graphite die in desired stacking scheme. Stack is consolidated by hot pressing in furnace.

  7. Hydrostatic pressure testing of graphite/epoxy cylinder C6-1

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, H.W.; Starbuck, J.M.

    1992-07-01

    This report details the design, fabrication, and testing of IM6 graphite cylinder C6-1, which achieved a record pressure in hydrotest without failure. Included are the details of the cylinder construction, the design calculations for stress and buckling, and the cylinder failure predictions. Also provided are the design details of the metal end closures including the design calculations for the linear tapered end plugs. Finally, the test data and observations from the hydrotest are summarized. This work is performed under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. The project is funded by the Director as a three-year project.

  8. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Bush, Harold; Sutter, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis.

  9. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Bush, H.; Sutter, T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Feasibility of Isotopic Measurements: Graphite Isotopic Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas W.; Gerlach, David C.; Reid, Bruce D.; Morgan, W. C.

    2001-04-30

    This report addresses the feasibility of the laboratory measurements of isotopic ratios for selected trace constituents in irradiated nuclear-grade graphite, based on the results of a proof-of-principal experiment completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 1994. The estimation of graphite fluence through measurement of isotopic ratio changes in the impurity elements in the nuclear-grade graphite is referred to as the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). Combined with reactor core and fuel information, GIRM measurements can be employed to estimate cumulative materials production in graphite moderated reactors. This report documents the laboratory procedures and results from the initial measurements of irradiated graphite samples. The irradiated graphite samples were obtained from the C Reactor (one of several production reactors at Hanford) and from the French G-2 Reactor located at Marcoule. Analysis of the irradiated graphite samples indicated that replicable measurements of isotope ratios could be obtained from the fluence sensitive elements of Ti, Ca, Sr, and Ba. While these impurity elements are present in the nuclear-grade graphite in very low concentrations, measurement precision was typically on the order of a few tenths of a percent to just over 1 percent. Replicability of the measurements was also very good with measured values differing by less than 0.5 percent. The overall results of this initial proof-of-principal experiment are sufficiently encouraging that a demonstration of GIRM on a reactor scale basis is planned for FY-95.

  11. Shock loading of graphite between water layers: Numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurshalov, L. V.; Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    A series of numerical experiments on shock loading of graphite between water layers is realized. A simple model of the phase transition of graphite to diamond is formulated. The general scheme of the computational experiment is based on mechanical and thermal interactions of different substances (graphite, diamond, water) subjected to impact by a massive steel flyer in a cylindrical channel. The process of graphite-to-diamond transformation is traced out. The important problem of retaining the formed diamond sample and some favorable conditions to solve this question are discussed.

  12. PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM-IMPREGNATED GRAPHITE BODY

    DOEpatents

    Kanter, M.A.

    1958-05-20

    A method for the fabrication of graphite bodies containing uniformly distributed uranium is described. It consists of impregnating a body of graphite having uniform porosity and low density with an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate preferably by a vacuum technique, thereafter removing excess aqueous solution from the surface of the graphite, then removing the solvent water from the body under substantially normal atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure in the presence of a stream of dry inert gas, and finally heating the dry impregnated graphite body in the presence of inert gas at a temperature between 800 and 1400 d C to convert the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to an oxide of uranium.

  13. Silicon oxycarbide glass for the immobilisation of irradiated graphite waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, James W.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hand, Russell J.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon oxycarbide glass has been investigated as a potential immobilisation medium for irradiated graphite waste from nuclear power generation. The glass was synthesised via sol-gel techniques using alkoxysilane precursors. Attempts to produce a wasteform via conventional sintering were unsuccessful, but dense wasteforms were achieved by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Microstructural investigations showed that the addition of graphite to the glass did not alter the structure of the matrix; no reaction between the graphite and the glass matrix was observed. Silicon oxycarbide glass is a viable candidate for encapsulation of graphite waste prior to disposal.

  14. PROCESS OF COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM-TITANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Halden, F.A.; Smiley, W.D.; Hruz, F.M.

    1961-07-01

    A process of coating graphite with niobium - titanium carbide is described. It is found that the addition of more than ten percent by weight of titanium to niobium results in much greater wetting of the graphite by the niobium and a much more adherent coating. The preferred embodiment comprises contacting the graphite with a powdered alloy or mixture, degassing simultaneously the powder and the graphite, and then heating them to a high temperature to cause melting, wetting, spreading, and carburization of the niobium-titanium powder.

  15. Dependence of strength on particle size in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.P.; Kennedy, C.R.

    1980-06-08

    The strength to particle size relationship for specially fabricated graphites has been demonstrated and rationalized using fracture mechanics. In the past, similar studies have yielded empirical data using only commercially available material. Thus, experimental verification of these relationships has been difficult. However, the graphites of this study were fabricated by controlling the particle size ranges for a series of isotropic graphites. All graphites that were evaluated had a constant 1.85 g/cm/sup 3/ density. Thus, particle size was the only variable. This study also considered the particle size effect on other physical properties; coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), electrical resistivity, fracture strain, and Young's modulus.

  16. Transforming graphite to nanoscale diamonds by a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Nueske, R.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Enquist, H.; Harb, M.; Larsson, J.; Fang, Y.; Haakanson, U.

    2012-01-23

    Formation of cubic diamond from graphite following irradiation by a single, intense, ultra-short laser pulse has been observed. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were irradiated by a 100 fs pulse with a center wavelength of 800 nm. Following laser exposure, the HOPG samples were studied using Raman spectroscopy of the sample surface. In the laser-irradiated areas, nanoscale cubic diamond crystals have been formed. The exposed areas were also studied using grazing incidence x-ray powder diffraction showing a restacking of planes from hexagonal graphite to rhombohedral graphite.

  17. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOEpatents

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  18. Statistical distribution of mechanical properties for three graphite-epoxy material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, C.; Sorem, J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy composites are playing an increasing role as viable alternative materials in structural applications necessitating thorough investigation into the predictability and reproducibility of their material strength properties. This investigation was concerned with tension, compression, and short beam shear coupon testing of large samples from three different material suppliers to determine their statistical strength behavior. Statistical results indicate that a two Parameter Weibull distribution model provides better overall characterization of material behavior for the graphite-epoxy systems tested than does the standard Normal distribution model that is employed for most design work. While either a Weibull or Normal distribution model provides adequate predictions for average strength values, the Weibull model provides better characterization in the lower tail region where the predictions are of maximum design interest. The two sets of the same material were found to have essentially the same material properties, and indicate that repeatability can be achieved.

  19. Efficient graphite ring heater suitable for diamond-anvil cells to 1300 K

    SciTech Connect

    Du Zhixue; Amulele, George; Lee, Kanani K. M.; Miyagi, Lowell

    2013-02-15

    In order to generate homogeneous high temperatures at high pressures, a ring-shaped graphite heater has been developed to resistively heat diamond-anvil cell (DAC) samples up to 1300 K. By putting the heater in direct contact with the diamond anvils, this graphite heater design features the following advantages: (1) efficient heating: sample can be heated to 1300 K while the DAC body temperature remains less than 800 K, eliminating the requirement of a special alloy for the DAC; (2) compact design: the sample can be analyzed with in situ measurements, e.g., x-ray, optical, and electrical probes are possible. In particular, the side access of the heater allows for radial x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in addition to traditional axial XRD.

  20. Feasibility Study of Graphite Epoxy Antenna for a Microwave Limb Sounder Radiometer (MLSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of a feasibility study to design graphite epoxy antenna reflectors for a jet propulsion laboratory microwave limb sounder instrument (MLSR). Two general configurations of the offset elliptic parabolic reflectors are presented that will meet the requirements on geometry and reflector accuracy. The designs consist of sandwich construction for the primary reflectors, secondary reflector support structure and cross-tie members between reflector pairs. Graphite epoxy materials of 3 and 6 plies are used in the facesheets of the sandwich. An aluminum honeycomb is used for the core. A built-in adjustment system is proposed to reduce surface distortions during assembly. The manufacturing and environmental effects are expected to result in surface distortions less than .0015 inch and pointing errors less than .002 degree.

  1. Can doping graphite trigger room temperature superconductivity? Evidence for granular high-temperature superconductivity in water-treated graphite powder.

    PubMed

    Scheike, T; Böhlmann, W; Esquinazi, P; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Ballestar, A; Setzer, A

    2012-11-14

    Granular superconductivity in powders of small graphite grains (several tens of micrometers) is demonstrated after treatment with pure water. The temperature, magnetic field and time dependence of the magnetic moment of the treated graphite powder provides evidence for the existence of superconducting vortices with some similarities to high-temperature granular superconducting oxides but even at temperatures above 300 K. Room temperature superconductivity in doped graphite or at its interfaces appears to be possible.

  2. SU-E-T-267: Development of the Compact Graphite Calorimetry System for the High Energy Photon Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yi, C. Y.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Graphite calorimeter systems are used for the absolute photon dosimetry. But many electronics are demanded in order to measure the tiny temperature changes. Minimizing the control system is needed to make a portable graphite calorimeter. Methods: A Domen-type graphite calorimetry system is constructing to measure the absorbed dose of the high energy photon beam. The graphite calorimeter divided into three parts, Core, Jacket, and Shield. In order to measure the temperature rising of the core due to the radiation accurately, the temperatures of the jacket and the shield should be controlled properly. A commercial temperature controller (Model 350, Lake Shore Cryogenics) was used to minimize the size of control system for making a portable graphite calorimetry system at the cost of the measurement uncertainty. The PID control of the jacket is conducted by the software (LabView) and Model 350 maintain the temperature of shield. Results: Our design value of the heat deposition power in the core is 0.04 mW for the dose rate of 3 Gy/min where the temperature sensitivity of the graphite is 1.4 mK/Gy. While the residuals of the Steinhart-hart equation fitting for the core thermistor were less than 0.1 mK, the temperature resolution of Model 350 is 1 mK. The temperature of the shield was kept within the 5 mK when the room temperature variation was about 0.5 K. Conclusion: The resolution of Model 350 for the temperature measurement and control is not good enough as the control system for the compact graphite calorimetry system. But The performance of Model 350 is good enough to maintain the temperature of the shield constantly. The Model 350 will be replaced by the AC resistance bridge (Model 372, Lake Shore Cryogenics) for the core temperature measurement and the jacket control.

  3. Examination of Experimental Data for Irradiation - Creep in Nuclear Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasheran, Amir Sassan

    The objective of this dissertation was to establish credibility and confidence levels of the observed behavior of nuclear graphite in neutron irradiation environment. Available experimental data associated with the OC-series irradiation -induced creep experiments performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were examined. Pre- and postirradiation measurement data were studied considering "linear" and "nonlinear" creep models. The nonlinear creep model considers the creep coefficient to vary with neutron fluence due to the densification of graphite with neutron irradiation. Within the range of neutron fluence involved (up to 0.53 times 10^{26} neutrons/m ^2, E > 50 KeV), both models were capable of explaining about 96% and 80% of the variation of the irradiation-induced creep strain with neutron fluence at temperatures of 600^circC and 900^circC, respectively. Temperature and reactor power data were analyzed to determine the best estimates for the actual irradiation temperatures. It was determined according to thermocouple readouts that the best estimate values for the irradiation temperatures were well within +/-10 ^circC of the design temperatures of 600^circC and 900 ^circC. The dependence of the secondary creep coefficients (for both linear and nonlinear models) on irradiation temperature was determined assuming that the variation of creep coefficient with temperature, in the temperature range studied, is reasonably linear. It was concluded that the variability in estimate of the creep coefficients is definitely not the results of temperature fluctuations in the experiment. The coefficients for the constitutive equation describing the overall growth of grade H-451 graphite were also studied. It was revealed that the modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus are not affected by creep and that the electrical resistivity is slightly (less than 5%) changed by creep. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion does change with creep. The consistency of

  4. Improved Li(+) Storage through Homogeneous N-Doping within Highly Branched Tubular Graphitic Foam.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinyang; Xue, Yanming; Zhang, Chao; Weng, Qunhong; Dai, Pengcheng; Yang, Yijun; Zhou, Min; Li, Cuiling; Cui, Qiuhong; Kang, Xiaohong; Tang, Chengchun; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Wang, Xi

    2017-02-01

    A novel carbon structure, highly branched homogeneous-N-doped graphitic (BNG) tubular foam, is designed via a novel N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-mediated chemical vapor deposition method. More structural defects are found at the branched portions as compared with the flat tube domains providing abundant active sites and spacious reservoirs for Li(+) storage. An individual BNG branch nanobattery is constructed and tested using in situ transmission electron microscopy and the lithiation process is directly visualized in real time.

  5. Misorientations in spheroidal graphite: some new insights about spheroidal graphite growth in cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J.; Theuwissen, K.; Laffont, L.; Véron, M.

    2016-03-01

    Local diffraction patterning, orientation mapping and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging have been used to characterize misorientations in graphite spheroids of cast irons. Emphasis is put here on bulk graphite, away from the nucleus as well as from the outer surface of the spheroids in order to get information on their growth during solidification. The results show that spheroidal graphite consists in conical sectors made of elementary blocks piled up on each other. These blocks are elongated along the prismatic a direction of graphite with the c axes roughly parallel to the radius of the spheroids. This implies that the orientation of the blocks rotates around the spheroid centre giving low angle tilting misorientations along tangential direction within each sector. Misorientations between neighbouring sectors are of higher values and their interfaces show rippled layers which are characteristic of defects in graphene. Along a radius of the spheroid, clockwise and anticlockwise twisting between blocks is observed. These observations help challenging some of the models proposed to explain spheroidal growth in cast ions.

  6. [Determination of trace barium in soil and sediment by Zeeman graphite AAS with coated graphite tube].

    PubMed

    Ji, Hai-Bing; Liu, Jin-Song; Pang, Xiao-Lu

    2007-11-01

    The sample was decomposed by HNO3-HF-HClO4. Using a tungsten-coated graphite tube, trace barium in soil and sediment was determined by Zeeman graphite AAS. To avoid producing carbide, the graphite tube was coated with tungsten. Tungsten and carbon in the surface layer of graphite tube became tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide prevented barium and carbon from forming barium carbide, which in turn not only led to a long service life for the tube, but also increased greatly the sensitivity and precision of the determination Ba. Tungsten carbide belongs to internal filled type and can give reduction environment. To some extent, the common interfering elements co-existing in the soil and sediment had little chance to form oxides to interfere the determination of Ba in the atomization period. The method was easy and sensitive. The detection limit of Ba was 4.2 x 10(-10) g x g(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 2.0%-6.5% (n = 4). The relative deviations from the certificated values of standard soils were under 5%.

  7. ISOCHRONS IN PRESOLAR GRAPHITE GRAINS FROM ORGUEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, Ernst; Jadhav, Manavi

    2013-05-10

    Primitive meteorites contain tiny dust grains that condensed in stellar outflows and explosions. These stardust grains can be extracted from their host meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. We investigated depth profiles of the Al-Mg, Ca-K, and Ti-Ca isotopic systems obtained during NanoSIMS isotopic analysis of presolar graphite grains from the CI carbonaceous meteorite Orgueil. Large {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca, and {sup 44}Ti/{sup 48}Ti ratios, inferred from {sup 26}Mg, {sup 41}K, and {sup 44}Ca excesses from the decay of the short-lived radioisotopes {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 44}Ti, indicate a supernova (SN) origin. From the depth distribution of the radiogenic isotopes and the stable isotopes of their parent elements we constructed isochron-type correlation plots. The plots indicate quantitative retention of radiogenic {sup 26}Mg, {sup 41}K, and {sup 44}Ca in most grains. Deviations from straight lines in the Al-Mg and Ca-K plots can be explained by contamination with {sup 27}Al and isotopically normal Ca, respectively. For the Ti-Ca system in some grains, the lack of parent-daughter correlation indicates either redistribution of radiogenic {sup 44}Ca or heterogeneity in the initial {sup 44}Ti/{sup 48}Ti ratio. We also obtained Si isotopic depth profiles in three graphite grains with large {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si excesses, for which a SN origin has been proposed. In two grains no Si-rich subgrains are observed; in the third grain with an apparent Si-rich subgrain the anomalous Si isotopic ratios in the subgrain are the same as in the rest of the graphite host. Our studies show that by measuring depth profiles, information on presolar grains can be obtained that cannot be obtained by whole-grain analysis.

  8. Coating for gasifiable carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, Jan (Inventor); Dowler, Warren L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thin, uniform, firmly adherent coating of metal gasification catalyst is applied to a carbon-graphite fiber by first coating the fiber with a film-forming polymer containing functional moieties capable of reaction with the catalytic metal ions. Multivalent metal cations such as calcium cross-link the polymer such as a polyacrylic acid to insolubilize the film by forming catalytic metal macro-salt links between adjacent polymer chains. The coated fibers are used as reinforcement for resin composites and will gasify upon combustion without evolving conductive airborne fragments.

  9. Graphite polystyryl pyridine (PSP) structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malassine, B.

    1981-01-01

    PSP6022 M resin, PSP 6024 M resin and W 133 Thormel T 300 graphite fabric reinforced panels were fabricated and provided to NASA Ames Research Center. PSP6022 and PSP6024 characteristics, process specifications for the fabriation of prepregs and of laminates are detailed. Mechanical properties, thermomechanical properties and moisture resistance were evaluated. PSP6022 and PSP6024 appear as high performance thermostable systems, very easy to process, being soluble in MEK for prepregging and being cured at no more than 250C, and even 200C.

  10. High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Electronic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, S. O.; Young, G. L.; Mellberg, W. J.; Wellman, A. F.; Cooney, J. E.

    1996-08-01

    This project will apply high thermal conductivity graphite to three major spacecraft electronic components: (1) the thermal plane of a printed wiring board, (2) the subassembly or tray that holds the board, and (3) the equipment panel that the tray mounts on. The complete heat transfer path from chip level heat source to radiative rejection on the exterior surface of the equipment panel will therefore be addressed. Thermal and structural requirements representative of current spacecraft will drive an optimized solution strategy. The project will be completed by fabricating the three prototypical test articles and measuring their performance in a representative space environment.

  11. Criticality Studies of Graphite Moderated Production Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    eu~ i~ a i5Report) 21 o ages Release unlimited 2.fciri ~i ae 2 rc (See ANSI-Z39. 1S) See Instructions on Reverse OPTMOAL PORN 272 (4-47) (Formerly...E 26 tl ,,-4 26 0 24.5 . 1.65 .7 5.75 1.80 Graphit Denltl 1in/cm Fig 6. 11 Vaito in opiu fue cell pic wit grpht denity for wae-coe reactor.IIl...Powdered Pitch BinderI l " Green Product FeedFI0MOLDING OR EXTRUSION - Green hapes 󈧄 l" lCALCINING-/ Heat 1400OF CARBON RODUCT Pic SokiT

  12. Structure-Property Relationships in Intercalated Graphite.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-10

    McNeil, J. Steinbeck, L. Salamanca- Riba and G. Dresselhaus, Bull. APS 29, 253 (1984). 4. "The Effect of Impurities on the Electronic Phase Transition In...12. "Raman Microprobe Observation of Intercalate Contraction In Graphite Inter- calation Compounds", L.E. McNeil, J. Steinbeck, L. Salamanca- Riba and...17. "High Resolution Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Studies on SbCl5 - GI0", G. Roth, L. Salamanca- Riba , A.R. Kortan, G. Dresselhaus, R.J

  13. The microstructural modelling of nuclear grade graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.; Marsden, B. J.; Fok, S. L.

    2006-07-01

    By using the finite element method it has been possible to simulate irradiation-induced property changes, namely dimensional and Young's modulus changes, from which the probable microstructural mechanisms have been identified. In the finite element models, both property changes were shown to be dependent upon the filler particle dimensional changes and the accommodation porosity. However, these need to be corroborated through the examination of actual specimens. Further work is also required to adapt the procedure to other graphites, reactor conditions, and material properties.

  14. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  15. Hydrogen recycling in graphite at higher fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, D.; Bergsåker, H.; Hedqvist, A.

    Understanding hydrogen recycling is essential for particle control in fusion devices with a graphite wall. At Extrap T2 three different models have been used. A zero-dimensional (0D) recycling model reproduces the density behavior in plasma discharges as well as in helium glow discharge. A more sophisticated one-dimensional (1D) model is used along with a simple mixing model to explain the results in isotopic exchange experiments. Due to high fluxes some changes in the models were needed. In the paper, the three models are discussed and the results are compared with experimental data.

  16. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  17. Highly Conducting Graphite Epoxy Composite Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved if graphite polymer composites could replace aluminum in structures such as electromagnetic interference shielding covers and grounding planes. This could result in significant cost savings, especially for the mobile electronics found in spacecraft, aircraft, automobiles, and hand-held consumer electronics. However, such composites had not yet been fabricated with conductivity sufficient to enable these applications. To address this lack, a partnership of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Manchester College, and Applied Sciences, Inc., fabricated nonmetallic composites with unprecedented electrical conductivity. For these composites, heat-treated, vapor-grown graphite fibers were selected which have a resistivity of about 80 mW-cm, more than 20 times more conductive than typical carbon fibers. These fibers were then intercalated with iodine bromide (IBr). Intercalation is the insertion of guest atoms or molecules between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. Since the carbon planes are not highly distorted in the process, intercalation has little effect on mechanical and thermal properties. Intercalation does, however, lower the carbon fiber resistivity to less than 10 mW-cm, which is comparable to that of metal fibers. Scaleup of the reaction was required since the initial intercalation experiments would be carried out on 20-mg quantities of fibers, and tens of grams of intercalated fibers would be needed to fabricate even small demonstration composites. The reaction was first optimized through a time and temperature study that yielded fibers with a resistivity of 8.7 2 mW-cm when exposed to IBr vapor at 114 C for 24 hours. Stability studies indicated that the intercalated fibers rapidly lost their conductivity when exposed to temperatures as low as 40 C in air. They were not, however, susceptible to degradation by water vapor in the manner of most graphite intercalation compounds. The 1000-fold scaleup

  18. Rapid analysis with transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhang; Carnrick, Glen; Slavin, Walter

    1993-09-01

    A new graphite furnace instrument using a transversely heated furnace tube with a longitudinal Zeeman correction system has been specifically designed to provide more nearly stabilized temperature platform furnace (STPF) conditions than previous furnace systems. Because there are no cold ends on this furnace tube on which to condense analyte and matrix materials, the vapor phase interferences are expected to be smaller. Also, the cooldown step can be avoided, thus saving time. This instrument permits the delivery of sample into a furnace already heated. The delivery rate of the autosampler can be slowed. These opportunities make it feasible for the sample to be dry on the platform by the time the delivery is complete. Several elements of environmental significance were chosen for test: As, Pb, Se, Tl, Cd, Cu, Cr and V. In almost all of these situations, the analyte was fully recovered without using a matrix modifier or a pyrolysis step. However, As and Pb in urine and As in sediment required a modifier and pyrolysis step for accurate results. A new fast furnace protocol was developed to accommodate use of a matrix modifier and this new protocol was successful for Pb and As in these matrices. All the procedures required less than 1 min total cycle times and produced results in agreement with certified values. This is in contrast with conventional methods which require 2-3 min per firing. These results confirm that graphite furnace methods can be accomplished with a throughput greater than 60 determinations per hour, and eventually, it may be possible to increase this rate beyond 100 determinations per hour.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Silicon/Graphite Spherical Composites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Jun; Yang, Kap Seung; Park, Min-Sik

    2016-05-18

    A high-performance Si/carbon/graphite composite in which Si nanoparticles are attached onto the surface of natural graphite by carbonization of coal-tar pitch is proposed for use in lithium-ion batteries. This multicomponent structure is favorable for improving Li(+) storage capability because the amorphous carbon layer encapsulating Si nanoparticles offers sufficient electric conductivity and strong elasticity to facilitate relaxation of strain caused by electrochemical reaction of Si during cycles. The Si/carbon/graphite composite exhibits a specific capacity of 712 mAh g(-1) at a constant current density of 130 mA g(-1), and maintains more than 80% of its initial capacity after 100 cycles. Moreover, it shows a high capacity retention of approximately 88% even at a high current density of 5 C (3250 mA g(-1)). On the basis of electrochemical and structural analyses, we suggest that a rational design of the Si/carbon/graphite composite is mainly responsible for delivering a high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance. Furthermore, the proposed synthetic route for the Si/carbon/graphite composite is simple and cost-effective for mass production.

  20. Performance of Graphite Pastes Doped with Various Materials as Back Contact for CdS/CdTe Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafusa, Akira; Aramoto, Tetsuya; Morita, Akikatsu

    2001-12-01

    To date the problem of developing a suitable back contact for CdS/CdTe solar cells has yet to be resolved. The Cu-doped graphite paste that is widely used as a back contact is associated with degradation problems due to possible Cu diffusion across the CdS/CdTe junction. This study was designed to find ways to improve the graphite paste for superior electrical contacts. Mixtures of graphite paste with various material constituents and dopants consisting of silver-, lead-, nickel-, antimony-, bismuth-, or phosphor-based compounds, were studied. Results show that the performances of solar cells fabricated from these graphite pastes vary with the change in the composition. In the cases of Ag2Te and Ni2P, we studied their relationship with the solar cell characteristics with regard to dopant quantity, and furthermore in the case of Ag2Te, with regard to the sintering temperature of the graphite electrode. A fill factor (F.F.) of over 0.65 and efficiencies over 13% were obtained with Ag2Te, Ag3PO4, Ag2MoO4, and NiTe, and efficiencies over 12% were obtained with AgF, AgCl, Ni2P, and Ni3P.

  1. Implications of Graphite Radiation Damage on the Neutronic, Operational, and Safety Aspects of Very High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman I

    2011-08-30

    In both the prismatic and pebble bed designs of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR), the graphite moderator is expected to reach exposure levels of 1021 to 1022 n/cm2 over the lifetime of the reactor. This exposure results in damage to the graphite structure. In this work, molecular dynamic and ab initio molecular static calculations will be used to: 1) simulate radiation damage in graphite under various irradiation and temperature conditions, 2) generate the thermal neutron scattering cross sections for damaged graphite, and 3) examine the resulting microstructure to identify damage formations that may produce the high-temperature Wigner effect. The impact of damage on the neutronic, operational and safety behavior of the reactor will be assessed using reactor physics calculations. In addition, tests will be performed on irradiated graphite samples to search for the high-temperature Wigner effect, and phonon density of states measurements will be conducted to quantify the effect on thermal neutron scattering cross sections using these samples.

  2. Effects of imbalanced currents on large-format LiFePO4/graphite batteries systems connected in parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Hu, Xiaosong; Jin, Chao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Yanru; Yip, Tony

    2016-05-01

    With the development and popularization of electric vehicles, it is urgent and necessary to develop effective management and diagnosis technology for battery systems. In this work, we design a parallel battery model, according to equivalent circuits of parallel voltage and branch current, to study effects of imbalanced currents on parallel large-format LiFePO4/graphite battery systems. Taking a 60 Ah LiFePO4/graphite battery system manufactured by ATL (Amperex Technology Limited, China) as an example, causes of imbalanced currents in the parallel connection are analyzed using our model, and the associated effect mechanisms on long-term stability of each single battery are examined. Theoretical and experimental results show that continuously increasing imbalanced currents during cycling are mainly responsible for the capacity fade of LiFePO4/graphite parallel batteries. It is thus a good way to avoid fast performance fade of parallel battery systems by suppressing variations of branch currents.

  3. Fuel performance improvement program. The development of graphite-coated cladding for improved PCI performance of LWR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, L.R.; Welty, R.K.

    1981-06-01

    One of the fuel concepts being tested and demonstrated as part of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program includes a graphite coating applied to the inner surface of the Zircaloy cladding. The technology for producing acceptable coatings was developed starting with the selection of a suitable graphite and culminating with the coating of 200 cladding tubes for demonstration irradiations in the Big Rock Point Reactor. During the process development, methods for controlling the coating thickness and minimizing its hydrogen content were developed that were compatible with production scale operation. During the same period, the graphite coatings were characterized and their properties were determined, mainly to provide information needed for fuel design and licensing considerations. Purity, structure, coating-to-cladding compatibility, thermal conductivity, and friction/wear characteristics were measured.

  4. Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.

    PubMed

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

    2009-06-01

    In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity.

  5. Experimental evaluation of two 36 inch by 47 inch graphite/epoxy sandwich shear webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The design is described and test of two large (36 in. x 47 in.) graphite/epoxy sandwich shear webs. One sandwich web was designed to exhibit strength failure of the facings at a shear load of 7638 lbs/in., which is a characteristic loading for the space shuttle orbiter main engine thrust beam structure. The second sandwich web was designed to exhibit general instability failure at a shear load of 5000 lbs/in., to identify problem areas of stability critical sandwich webs and to assess the adequacy of contemporary analysis techniques.

  6. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  7. Triple templating of graphitic carbon nitride to enhance photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Danks, A. E.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Schnepp, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride materials show some promising properties for applications such as photocatalytic water splitting. However, the conversion efficiency is still low due to factors such as a low surface area and limited light absorption. In this paper, we describe a "triple templating" approach to generating porous graphitic carbon nitride. The introduction of pores on several length-scales results in enhanced photocatalytic properties.

  8. 6. VIEW OF INSIDE OF RAIL CAR CONTAINING GRAPHITE DELIVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INSIDE OF RAIL CAR CONTAINING GRAPHITE DELIVERED TO BUILDING 444. THE GRAPHITE WAS FORMED INTO MOLDS AND CRUCIBLE FOR USE IN THE FOUNDRY. (1/12/54) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. USE OF GRANULAR GRAPHITE FOR ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  10. Tribological behaviour of graphite powders at nano- and macroscopic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M.; Bistac, S.; Jradi, K.

    2007-04-01

    With its high resistance, good hardness and electrical conductibility in the basal plans, graphite is used for many years in various tribological fields such as seals, bearings or electrical motor brushes, and also for applications needing excellent lubrication and wearreducing properties. But thanks to its low density, graphite is at the moment destined for technologies which need a reducing of the weight combined with an enhancement of the efficiency, as it is the case in aeronautical industry. In this contexte, the friction and wear of natural (named graphite A) and synthetic (called graphites B and C) powders were evaluated, first at the macroscopic scale when sliding against steel counterfaces, under various applied normal loads. Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM in tapping mode were used to observe the morphological modifications of the graphites. It is noticed that an enlargement of the applied normal load leads to an increase of the friction coefficient for graphites A and C; but for the graphite B, it seems that a ''limit'' load can induce a complete change of the tribological behaviour. At the same time, the nano-friction properties of these powders were evaluated by AFM measurements in contact mode, at different contact loads. As it was the case at the macroscopic scale, an increase of the nano-contact load induces higher friction coefficients. The determining of the friction and wear mechanisms of the graphite powders, as a function of both their intrinsic characteristics and the applied normal load, is then possible.

  11. Method of forming impermeable carbide coats on graphite

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of forming an impermeable refractory metal carbide coating on graphite is described in which a metal containing oxidant and a carbide former are applied to the surface of the graphite, heated to a temperature of between 1200 and 1500 deg C in an inert gas, under a vacuum and continuing to heat to about 2300 deg C. (Official Gazette)

  12. Expanded graphite as superior anode for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yang; He, Kai; Zhu, Yujie; Han, Fudong; Xu, Yunhua; Matsuda, Isamu; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Cumings, John; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-06-01

    Graphite, as the most common anode for commercial Li-ion batteries, has been reported to have a very low capacity when used as a Na-ion battery anode. It is well known that electrochemical insertion of Na+ into graphite is significantly hindered by the insufficient interlayer spacing. Here we report expanded graphite as a Na-ion battery anode. Prepared through a process of oxidation and partial reduction on graphite, expanded graphite has an enlarged interlayer lattice distance of 4.3 Å yet retains an analogous long-range-ordered layered structure to graphite. In situ transmission electron microscopy has demonstrated that the Na-ion can be reversibly inserted into and extracted from expanded graphite. Galvanostatic studies show that expanded graphite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 284 mAh g-1 at a current density of 20 mA g-1, maintain a capacity of 184 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, and retain 73.92% of its capacity after 2,000 cycles.

  13. Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  14. Industry technology assessment of graphite-polymide composite materials. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the current state of the art and the future prospects for graphite polyimide composite material technology is presented. Presentations and discussions given at a minisymposium of major issues on the present and future use, availability, processing, manufacturing, and testing of graphite polyimide composite materials are summarized.

  15. Reconstruction of low-index graphite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The low-index graphite surfaces (10 1 -0), (10 1 -1), (11 2 -0) and (11 2 - 1) have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) including van-der-Waals (vdW) corrections. Different from the (0001) surface which has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, there is no comprehensive study on the (10 1 -0)- (10 1 -1)-, (11 2 -0)- and (11 2 - 1)-surfaces available, although they are of relevance for Li insertion processes, e.g. in Li-ion batteries. In this study the structure and stability of all non-(0001) low-index surfaces were calculated with RPBE-D3 and converged slab models. In all cases reconstruction involving bond formation between unsaturated carbon atoms of two neighboring graphene sheets reduces the surface energy dramatically. Two possible reconstruction patterns have been considered. The first possibility leads to formation of oblong nanotubes. Alternatively, the graphene sheets form bonds to different neighboring sheets at the upper and lower sides and sinusoidal structures are formed. Both structure types have similar stabilities. Based on the calculated surface energies the Gibbs-Wulff theorem was applied to construct the macroscopic shape of graphite single crystals.

  16. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-04

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  17. Bolted joints in graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    All-graphite/epoxy laminates and hybrid graphite-glass/epoxy laminates were tested. The tests encompassed a range of geometries for each laminate pattern to cover the three basic failure modes - net section tension failure through the bolt hole, bearing and shearout. Static tensile and compressive loads were applied. A constant bolt diameter of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) was used in the tests. The interaction of stress concentrations associated with multi-row bolted joints was investigated by testing single- and double-row bolted joints and open-hole specimens in tension. For tension loading, linear interaction was found to exist between the bearing stress reacted at a given bolt hole and the remaining tension stress running by that hole to be reacted elsewhere. The interaction under compressive loading was found to be non-linear. Comparative tests were run using single-lap bolted joints and double-lap joints with pin connection. Both of these joint types exhibited lower strengths than were demonstrated by the corresponding double-lap joints. The analysis methods developed here for single bolt joints are shown to be capable of predicting the behavior of multi-row joints.

  18. Hindered Glymes for Graphite-Compatible Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Shanmukaraj, Devaraj; Grugeon, Sylvie; Laruelle, Stephane; Armand, Michel

    2015-08-24

    Organic carbonate mixtures are used almost exclusively as lithium battery electrolyte solvents. The linear compounds (dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate) act mainly as thinner for the more viscous and high-melting ethylene carbonate but are the least stable component and have low flash points; these are serious handicaps for lifetime and safety. Polyethers (glymes) are useful co-solvents, but all formerly known representatives solvate Li(+) strongly enough to co-intercalate in the graphite negative electrode and exfoliate it. We have put forward a new electrolyte composition comprising a polyether to which a bulky tert-butyl group is attached ("hindered glyme"), thus completely preventing co-intercalation while maintaining good conductivity. This alkyl-carbonate-free electrolyte shows remarkable cycle efficiency of the graphite electrode, not only at room temperature, but also at 50 and 70 °C in the presence of lithium bis(fluorosulfonimide). The two-ethylene-bridge hindered glyme has a high boiling point and a flash point of 80 °C, a considerable advantage for safety.

  19. The shear fracture toughness, KIIc, of graphite

    DOE PAGES

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Erdman, III, Donald L.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the critical shear stress intensity factor, KIIc, here-in referred to as the shear fracture toughness, KIIc (MPa m), of two grades of graphite are reported. The range of specimen volumes was selected to elucidate any specimen size effect, but smaller volume specimen tests were largely unsuccessful, shear failure did not occur between the notches as expected. This was probably due to the specimen geometry causing the shear fracture stress to exceed the compressive failure stress. In subsequent testing the specimen geometry was altered to reduce the compressive footprint and the notches (slits) made deeper to reduce themore » specimen's ligament length. Additionally, we added the collection of Acoustic Emission (AE) during testing to assist with the identification of the shear fracture load. The means of KIIc from large specimens for PCEA and NBG-18 are 2.26 MPa m with an SD of 0.37 MPa m and 2.20 MPa m with an SD of 0.53 MPa m, respectively. The value of KIIc for both graphite grades was similar, although the scatter was large. In this work we found the ratio of KIIc/KIc ≈ 1.6. .« less

  20. Multiscale modeling of polyisoprene on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Yogendra Narayan; Brayton, Alexander; Doxastakis, Manolis; Burkhart, Craig; Papakonstantopoulos, George J.

    2014-02-07

    The local dynamics and the conformational properties of polyisoprene next to a smooth graphite surface constructed by graphene layers are studied by a multiscale methodology. First, fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of oligomers next to the surface are performed. Subsequently, Monte Carlo simulations of a systematically derived coarse-grained model generate numerous uncorrelated structures for polymer systems. A new reverse backmapping strategy is presented that reintroduces atomistic detail. Finally, multiple extensive fully atomistic simulations with large systems of long macromolecules are employed to examine local dynamics in proximity to graphite. Polyisoprene repeat units arrange close to a parallel configuration with chains exhibiting a distribution of contact lengths. Efficient Monte Carlo algorithms with the coarse-grain model are capable of sampling these distributions for any molecular weight in quantitative agreement with predictions from atomistic models. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations with well-equilibrated systems at all length-scales support an increased dynamic heterogeneity that is emerging from both intermolecular interactions with the flat surface and intramolecular cooperativity. This study provides a detailed comprehensive picture of polyisoprene on a flat surface and consists of an effort to characterize such systems in atomistic detail.

  1. Hydrogenation-induced ferromagnetism on graphite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaied, Mohammed; Alvarez, J. V.; Palacios, J. J.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of hydrogenated graphite surfaces using van der Waals density functional theory (DFT) and model Hamiltonians. We find, as previously reported, that the interaction between hydrogen atoms on graphene favors adsorption on different sublattices along with an antiferromagnetic coupling of the induced magnetic moments. On the contrary, when hydrogenation takes place on the surface of graphene multilayers or graphite (Bernal stacking), the interaction between hydrogen atoms competes with the different adsorption energies of the two sublattices. This competition may result in all hydrogen atoms adsorbed on the same sublattice and, thereby, in a ferromagnetic state for low concentrations. Based on the exchange couplings obtained from the DFT calculations, we have also evaluated the Curie temperature by mapping this system onto an Ising-like model with randomly located spins. Remarkably, the long-range nature of the magnetic coupling in these systems makes the Curie temperature size dependent and larger than room temperature for typical concentrations and sizes.

  2. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Noramalina; Jorge, A Belen; Corà, Furio; Gibbs, Christopher; Jervis, Rhodri; McMillan, Paul F; Wang, Xiaochen; Brett, Daniel J L

    2014-04-03

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li(+)Cl(-)), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li(+)Cl(-) catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA.

  3. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  4. Preparation and characterization of gold-decorated graphite nanosheet composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Nam, Dae Geun; Oh, Weon Tae

    2013-05-01

    Some composites of gold nanoparticles and graphite nanosheets were prepared by electrostatic interaction, and structurally and electrochemically characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UVNis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cyclic-voltammetry. Pristine graphite was chemically treated using aqueous acid solution, and dispersed inpoly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride aqueous solution to prepare positively charged graphite nanosheets. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in this work were stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate, poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), or poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Gold nanoparticles and graphite nanosheet composites with gold nanoparticles showed the characteristic surface plasmon band at -530 nm. The electrochemical properties of the graphite nanosheet composites with gold nanoparticles were studied by cyclic voltammetry, in which reduction potential and reduction current of gold nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the gold-wrapped stabilizer in the composites.

  5. Thermal conductivity degradation of graphites irradiated at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to study the thermal conductivity degradation of new, high thermal conductivity graphites and to compare these results to more standard graphites irradiated at low temperatures. Several graphites and graphite composites (C/C`s) have been irradiated near 150{degree}C and at fluences up to a displacement level of 0.24 dpa. The materials ranged in unirradiated room temperature thermal conductivity of these materials varied from 114 W/m-K for H-451 isotropic graphite, to 670 W/m-K for unidirectional FMI-1D C/C composite. At the irradiation temperature a saturation reduction in thermal conductivity was seen to occur at displacement levels of approximately 0.1 dpa. All materials were seen to degrade to approximately 10 to 14 % of their original thermal conductivity after irradiation. The effect of post irradiation annealing on the thermal conductivity was also studied.

  6. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  7. Compression behavior of graphite-thermoplastic and graphite-epoxy panels with circular holes or impact damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the compression behavior of laminated specimens made from graphite-epoxy tape, graphite-thermoplastic tape and graphite-thermoplastic fabric was conducted. Specimens with five different stacking sequences were loaded to failure in uniaxial compression. Some of the specimens had central circular holes with diameters up to 65 percent of the specimen width. Other specimens were subjected to low speed impact with impact energies up to 35 J prior to compressive loading. This investigation indicates that graphite-thermoplastic specimens with holes have up to 15 percent lower failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and hole size. However, graphite-thermoplastic specimens subjected to low speed impact have up to 15 percent higher failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and impact energy. Compression tests of graphite-thermoplastic specimens constructed of unidirectional tape and fabric indicate that the material form has little effect on failure strains in specimens with holes or low speed impact damage.

  8. AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell

    2006-08-01

    This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.

  9. Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Stephen

    2013-09-09

    This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

  10. NASA/aircraft industry standard specification for graphite fiber toughened thermoset resin composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A standard specification for a selected class of graphite fiber/toughened thermoset resin matrix material was developed through joint NASA/Aircraft Industry effort. This specification was compiled to provide uniform requirements and tests for qualifying prepreg systems and for acceptance of prepreg batches. The specification applies specifically to a class of composite prepreg consisting of unidirectional graphite fibers impregnated with a toughened thermoset resin that produce laminates with service temperatures from -65 F to 200 F when cured at temperatures below or equal to 350 F. The specified prepreg has a fiber areal weight of 145 g sq m. The specified tests are limited to those required to set minimum standards for the uncured prepreg and cured laminates, and are not intended to provide design allowable properties.

  11. Graphite irradiation testing for HTR technology at the High Flux Reactor in Petten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeling, J. A.; Wouters, O.; Laan, J. G. van der

    2008-10-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group started a large graphite irradiation program for the development of High Temperature Reactor technology in the European framework. The irradiation experiments, containing present day available graphite grades, are performed at the High Flux Reactor in Petten. The grades are NBG-10, NBG-17, NBG-18, NBG-20, NBG-25, PCEA, PPEA, PCIB, LPEB, IG-110 and IG-430. In the fifth framework programme (2001-2004) and sixth framework programme (2005-2009) four irradiation experiments are foreseen, resulting in design curves at irradiation temperatures between 650 °C and 950 °C. The post-irradiation testing is focused on dimensional changes, dynamic Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion and coefficient of thermal conductivity. The irradiation programme and preliminary results from the first irradiation experiment at 750 °C to 8 dpa will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Analysis of lithium in deep basalt groundwaters using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.A.; Marcy, A.D.

    1986-05-01

    Lithium is under consideration for use as a reactive (sorptive) tracer in experiments designed to provide information regarding natural attenuation processes in a basalt-groundwater environment. In support of these activities, background lithium concentrations in samples obtained from a variety of test horizons have been determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant interference was observed in these determinations and was found to be due to the presence of silicate in the samples. It was found that these problems could be circumvented through the use of alkaline silicate or synthetic groundwater matrix modifiers. This matrix effect was examined in some detail. Results obtained using the graphite furnace were compared to results obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

  13. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, α-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6 V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

  14. Geometrical aspects of the tribological properties of graphite fiber reinforced polymide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A latin square statistical experimental test design was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, load and sliding speed on the tribological properties of graphite fiber reinforced polymide (GFRPI) composite specimens. Hemispherically tipped composite riders were slid against 440 C HT stainless steel disks. comparisons were made to previous studies in which hemispherically tipped 440 C HT stainless steel riders were slid against GFRPI composite disks and to studies in which GFRPI was used as a liner in plain spherical bearings. The results indicate that sliding surface geometry is especially important, in that different geometries can give completely different friction and wear results. Load, temperature, and sliding distance were found to influence the friction and wear results but sliding speed was found to have little effect. Experiments on GFRPI riders with 10 weight percent additions of graphite fluoride showed that this addition has no effect on friction and wear.

  15. Removal of 14C from Irradiated Graphite for Graphite Recycle and Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Windes, Will; Marsden, Barry

    2014-06-10

    The aim of the research presented here was to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A greater understanding of the chemical form of this longest-lived isotope in irradiated graphite will inform not only management of legacy waste, but also development of next generation gas-cooled reactors. Approximately 250,000 metric tons of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide, with the largest single quantity originating in the Magnox and AGR reactors of UK. The waste quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation I gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. Of greatest concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 14C, with a half-life of 5730 years.

  16. Graphite-bearing CO 2-fluid inclusions in granulites: Insights on graphite precipitation and carbon isotope evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan

    2005-08-01

    Graphite in deep crustal enderbitic (orthopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz) granulites (740°C, 8.9 kb) of Nilgiri hills, southern India were investigated for their spectroscopic and isotopic characteristics. Four types of graphite crystals were identified. The first type (Gr I), which is interstitial to other mineral grains, can be grouped into two subtypes, Gr IA and Gr IB. Gr IA is either irregular in shape or deformed, and rough textured with average δ 13C values of -12.7 ± 0.4‰ ( n = 3). A later generation of interstitial graphite (Gr IB) shows polygonal crystal shapes and highly reflecting smooth surface features. These graphite grains are more common and have δ 13C values of -11.9 ± 0.3‰ ( n = 14). Both subtypes show well-defined Raman shifts suggesting a highly crystalline nature. Cores of interstitial graphite grains have, on average, lower δ 13C values by ˜0.5‰ compared to that of the rim. The second type of graphite (Gr II) occurs as solid inclusions in silicate minerals, commonly forming regular hexagonal crystals with a slightly disordered structure. The third type of graphite (Gr III) is associated with solid inclusions (up to 100 μm) that have decrepitation halos of numerous small (<15 μm) satellite fluid inclusions of pure CO 2 with varying density (1.105 to 0.75 g/cm 3). The fourth type of graphite (Gr IV) is found as daughter crystals within primary type CO 2-fluid inclusions in garnet and quartz. These fluid inclusions have a range of densities (1.05 to 0.90 g/cm 3), but in general are significantly less dense than graphite-free primary, pure CO 2 fluid inclusions (1.12 g/cm 3). Raman spectral characteristics of graphite inside fluid inclusions suggest graphite crystallization at low temperature (˜ 500°C). The precipitation of graphite probably occurred during the isobaric cooling of CO 2-rich peak metamorphic fluid as a result of oxyexsolution of oxide phases. The oxyexsolution process is evidenced by the magnetite

  17. Rate-dependent mode I interlaminar crack growth mechanisms in graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlsson, L. A.; Smiley, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the mode I fracture behavior of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK composites is examined over four decades of crosshead rates (0.25-250 mm/min). Straight-sided double-cantilever-beam specimens consisting of unidirectional laminates were tested at room temperature. For graphite/epoxy the load-deflection response was linear to fracture, and stable slow crack growth initiating at the highest load level was observed for all rates tested. In contrast, mode I crack growth in the graphite/PEEK material was often unstable and showed stick-slip behavior. Subcritical crack growth occurring prior to the onset of fracture was observed at intermediate displacement rates. A mechanism for the fracture behavior of the graphite/PEEK material (based on viscoelastic, plastic, and microcrack coalescence in the process zone) is proposed and related to the observed rate-dependent phenomena.

  18. Recent advances in graphite/epoxy motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William G.; Christensen, Paul E.; York, James L.

    1993-11-01

    Much has been published concerning improvements and enhancements in materials and technology used in the design and construction of solid rocket motors. However, there are important aspects of the improvement process that are seldom discussed, particularly process control and continuous improvement. This has been applied successfully to the resolution of challenges, which remained at the termination of the Filament Wound Case (FWC) Program. The FWC Program for the Space Shuttle boosters was terminated in 1986. At that time, although the FWC met all requirements, there were issues with composites that needed improvement. This paper discusses the success in resolving those challenges and describes how the continuous improvement methodologies were implemented at Hercules for design and fabrication of graphite/epoxy motor cases. Advancements in materials and engineering data are first evaluated. The implementation of an approach that includes concurrent engineering, process controls, statistical process controls, continuous improvement, and product acceptance are then discussed. The successes in recent years have been realized from application of these principles. Discrepancies have been reduced by an order of magnitude. Delaminations have been virtually eliminated. Voids have been reduced to 'hardly detectable.' Enhancements in manufacturing technology and cost reductions have also been realized. The application of process control and continuous improvement principles has resulted in 100 percent flight performance success while simultaneously achieving improved vehicle performance.

  19. Catalytic Incineration of Graphite Fibers in a Graphite/Epoxy Composite Fire.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-20

    Carbon, 13, pp. 381-390 (1975). 9. Levenspiel , 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering , pp. 332-357, John Wiley &Sons, Inc., N2York (1962). 10. McKee, D. W...and a physical process dependent not only on the chemical reaction mechanism but also on heat and mass transport processes. A discussion of the...factors which influence the rate of graphite combustion follows. Chemical reaction . There are at least four formal reaction equations for the oxidation of

  20. Hot forging of graphite-carbide composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, G.M.; Holland, L.R.

    1998-07-15

    This project was aimed at hot shaping of titanium carbide/graphite and vanadium carbide/graphite composite materials by heating them to above 2000 degrees celsius and pressing into an electrographite die. The sample was to be a preformed cylinder of powdered graphite mixed with powdered titanium or vanadium, lightly sintered. The preform would be heated in a hot press and the titanium or vanadium would react with some of the graphite to form titanium or vanadium carbide. The remaining (excess) graphite would form a composite with the carbide, and this could then be deformed plastically at temperatures well below the onset of plasticity in pure graphite. There were to be two major thrusts in the research: In the first, an electron beam furnace at Sandia Laboratory was to be used for rapid heating of the sample, which would then be transferred into the press. The second thrust was to be entirely at Alabama A and M University, and here they intended to use a heated, controlled atmosphere press to forge the graphite/carbide preforms at a steady temperature and measure their viscosity as a function of temperature. This report discusses the progress made on this project.