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Sample records for grass pea lathyrus

  1. Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) and its neurotoxin ODAP.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ze-Yi; Spencer, Peter S; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Liang, Yong-Min; Wang, Ya-Fu; Wang, Chun-Ying; Li, Fen-Min

    2006-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a high-yielding, drought-resistant legume consumed as a food in Northern India and neighboring countries as well as in Ethiopia. Its development into an important food legume, however, has been hindered by the presence of the neurotoxin - beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in seeds which, if consumed in large quantities for prolonged periods, can cause irreversible paralysis. Recently, some low-toxin lines have been developed that may prove safe for both animal and human foods. Cultivation of L. sativus should thus be considered in suitable regions because the demand for legume animal feed protein products is expected to increase. This paper addresses advances in understanding L. sativus from the perspective of its taxonomy, genetics, ecology, chemistry, nutrition, medicine, biology and for animal nutrition.

  2. Efficient intergeneric fusion of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Durieu, P; Ochatt, S J

    2000-07-01

    Large numbers of viable protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) were efficiently and reproducibly obtained and, for the first time, fused. Different procedures for fusion were compared, based either on electrofusion (750, 1000, 1250 or 1500 V cm(-1)), or on the use of macro or micromethods with a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 or PEG 1540), or a glycine/high pH solution. Over 10% of viable heterokaryons were obtained, with PEG as the most efficient and reproducible agent for protoplast fusion (>20% of viable heterokaryons). Both the division of heterokaryons and the formation of small calluses were observed.

  3. [Ecological function and application of toxin beta-ODAP in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Bai, Xue; Batool, Asfa; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Wang, Ya-Fu; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-04-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a legume with various adverse adaptability and rich nutrition. However, it can lead to the human and animal neurotoxicity after long-term consumption due to its neurotoxin, beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), limiting its utilization. This paper summarized the influences of beta-ODAP on osmotic adjustment and growth regulation in grass pea under drought stress, the research progress in analysis methods, toxicological mechanisms and practical utility of beta-ODAP, and the breeding strategies for low- and zero-beta-ODAP. Beta-ODAP synthesis was found to be abundant in grass pea under drought stress and its content was enhanced gradually with the increasing extent of drought stress. beta-ODAP could supply nitrogen for plant growth and seed development, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), involve in osmotic adjustment as a soluble amino acid, transport zinc-ions as a carrier molecule, and impact nodule development. However, increasing the content of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) could decrease the level of toxicity of grass pea. There were a lot of investigations on collecting genetic resources, cross breeding, tissue culture, and gene manipulation for low- and zero-toxin in grass pea in recent years. Although beta-ODAP could induce excitotoxicity by damaging intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and as glutamate analogues, it has medicinal value on hemostasis and anti-tumor.

  4. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  5. Changes in chemical composition during development of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Korus, Anna; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2003-12-01

    The level of chemical components was determined in seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), cv. Krab, harvested at a dry matter content between 25.9 and 49.6 g/100 g of the raw material, and divided into five degrees of maturity. The results presented suggest that, in general, with an increasing maturity of seeds, the level of the following components increased if related to fresh matter: starch, dietary fibre, acids, total and protein nitrogen, total amino acids and sulphur amino acids, ash and its alkalinity, magnesium, calcium, total phosphorus and phytic phosphorus, and thiamine. The following components were reduced: vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls. No such regularity could be found with respect to the accumulation of sugars, essential amino acids, and iron. By expressing the results in dry matter, increases were noted in starch, protein nitrogen, and thiamine. The content of sugars, total nitrogen, total amino acids, essential and sulphur amino acids, ash and its alkalinity, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls were reduced while that of dietary fibre, iron, calcium, and phytic phosphorus varied.

  6. Identification and purification of metalloprotease from dry grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Vadde; Rajasekhar, Sake; Reddy, Lokireddy Sudarsana

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes play a central role in the biochemical mechanism of germination. The present study reported the presence of Zn(2+)-dependent endoproteases in the dry seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) with maximum caseinolytic activity observed at pH 8.0. Studies with class-specific inhibitors (specific for cysteine, serine, aspartate, and metalloproteases) on crude extract identified the inhibitory effect of 1,10-phenanthroline. This inhibitory effect was overcome by addition of Zn(2+), not with Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, or Co and indicates that the protease is Zn(2+) dependent. This metalloprotease was further characterized by attempting gelatin-PAGE zymography and observed three distinct zones of proteolytic activity with higher mobility. The protease fraction consisted of three isoforms as evidenced by the appearance of three different bands on gelatin-PAGE zymogram. We also purified these proteases to 110-fold by a three-step procedure comprising crude extract from dry seeds, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractionation, and casein-alginate affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of isoforms of metalloproteases is 25, 18, and 14 kDa.

  7. Lead accumulation in the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): a novel plant for phytoremediation systems?

    PubMed

    Brunet, Judicaëlle; Repellin, Anne; Varrault, Gilles; Terryn, Nancy; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2008-11-01

    Eleven day-old grass pea plants (Lathyrus sativus L.) were grown hydroponically for 96 h in the presence of 0.5 mM lead nitrate (Pb(NO(3))(2)). The survival rate was 100%. The mean lead content (measured by ICP-OES) in root tissues was 153 mg Pb g(-1) dry matter. Over three quarters of the lead was not labile. Compared with control plants, lead-exposed plants showed a six-fold, two-fold and three and a half-fold reduction in their root calcium, zinc and copper contents, respectively. Together, these results suggested that Lathyrus sativus L. was tolerant to a deficiency in essential nutrients and able to store large amounts of lead in its root tissues. Therefore, it could be used for the development of new rhizofiltration systems.

  8. Effects of Planting Date on Biomass Production by Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grass pea is a cool-season legume commonly grown for human consumption and livestock feed in Asia and East Africa. A better understanding of the agronomic importance of planting date and the influence of photoperiod may lead to improved management strategies for cultivation of grass pea in the sout...

  9. Exploring the genetic diversity of Ethiopian grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) using EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, E; Pè, M E; Porceddu, E; Ponnaiah, M

    2012-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases and cross-species transferable markers are considered to be a cost-effective means for developing sequence-based markers for less-studied species. In this study, EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Lathyrus sativus L. EST sequences and cross-transferable EST-SSRs derived from Medicago truncatula L. were utilized to investigate the genetic diversity among grass pea populations from Ethiopia. A total of 45 alleles were detected using eleven EST-SSRs with an average of four alleles per locus. The average polymorphism information content for all primers was 0.416. The average gene diversity was 0.477, ranging from 0.205 for marker Ls942 to 0.804 for MtBA32F05. F(ST) values estimated by analysis of molecular variance were 0.01, 0.15, and 0.84 for among regions, among accessions and within accessions respectively, indicating that most of the variation (84%) resides within accessions. Model-based cluster analysis grouped the accessions into three clusters, grouping accessions irrespective of their collection regions. Among the regions, high levels of diversity were observed in Gojam, Gonder, Shewa and Welo regions, with Gonder region showing a higher number of different alleles. From breeding and conservation aspects, conducting a close study on a specific population would be advisable for genetic improvement in the crop, and it would be appropriate if future collection and conservation plans give due attention to under-represented regions. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9662-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  10. Towards the re-introduction of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) in the West Balkan Countries: the case of Serbia and Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Mikić, A; Mihailović, V; Ćupina, B; Durić, B; Krstić, D; Vasić, M; Vasiljević, S; Karagić, D; Dorđević, V

    2011-03-01

    Vetchlings (Lathyrus spp.) are widely distributed in both Serbia and Srpska, and represent a valuable component of local floras all over the Balkan Peninsula. Despite this and the existence of a traditional Serbian name for grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), sastrica, and a pan-Slavic name for all vetchlings, grahor, today they are almost forgotten crops. The joint action of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops and the Faculty of Agriculture is aimed at re-introducing grass pea and other vetchlings as multifunctional crops. Within the legume collection in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, a small Lathyrus spp. collection, including about 100 accessions of 16 species, most of them being grass pea, was established in 2002. The landraces of grass pea were collected in several regions of Serbia and Srpska, where they are used for human consumption. Grass pea is commonly used boiled and along with other pulses, with no reports on lathyrism among the local people. The first Serbian breeding programme in Novi Sad produced already two grass pea lines that were registered in November 2009 under the names of Studenica and Sitnica, developed from the crosses of Polish cultivars and local Serbian landraces.

  11. Reciprocal translocations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): pattern of transmission, detection of multiple interchanges and their independence.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a diploid crop having 2n = 14 chromosomes. Four different plant types, heterozygous for reciprocal translocation (RT), RT-1, RT-2, RT-3, and RT-4 showing pollen semisterility, were isolated in induced mutant population of three varieties of grass pea. Transmission rate of these 4 translocations was studied in advanced selfed and intercrossed progenies, whereas multiple chromosomal interchanges were detected by the pattern of chromosomal ring formation at meiosis I in the F(1) progeny of RTxRT. RT transmitted at an average of 48.89% in selfed progeny and along with normal plants, RT and translocation homozygotes produced some trisomic plants in the segregation progeny. RT-3 showing maximum frequency (68.20%) of zig-zag or alternate chromosome orientation exhibited highest transmission (55.20%). Presence of a ring of 6 or 2 rings of 4 chromosomes in F(1) double heterozygotes obtained from RTxRT suggested involvement of one common chromosome in translocations of RT-1, RT-2, and RT-4 but a different one in common between RT-2 and RT-3. No common chromosome, however, was shared by RT-3 and RT-4. Thus, 5 out of 7 chromosomes are involved in the present RTs, and one of the translocated chromosomes in RT-1 line was always associated with nucleolar organizing region.

  12. Effect of methionine supplement on physical responses and neurological symptoms in broiler chicks fed grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)-based starter ration.

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Yami, Alemu; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Ahmed, Seid; Gheysen, Godelieve; Lambein, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Starter feeding experiments of broiler chicks with raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) supplemented with different levels of DL-methionine were undertaken for 4 weeks to assess the toxicity of grass pea-based feed and to correlate it with neurological symptoms. Four hundred fifty day-old broiler chicks were divided into two groups and were given formulations containing 35% (ration I) or 98.5% (ration II) grass pea, respectively. Each ration included controls and treatments with added methionine of four different concentrations. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were much higher in ration I than in ration II and these parameters significantly improved by addition of methionine in both rations. Significant increase of neurological signs with higher grass pea intake and significant reduction of acute neurological signs with addition of methionine were observed. Tolerance for grass pea was enhanced with increasing methionine in the diet and with age. Despite a similarity in the initial intake, a significant (p0.05) increase in the final feed intake by the chicks with methionine addition was found in both rations. These results suggest that methionine can improve a grass pea-based diet for broiler chicks and especially can protect young chicks from neurological symptoms.

  13. Gene interactions and genetics for yield and its attributes in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Parihar, A K; Dixit, G P; Singh, Deepak

    2016-12-01

    Grain yield is a complex character representing a multiplicative end product of many yield attributes. However, understanding the genetics and inheritance that underlies yield and its component characters pose a prerequisite to attain the actual yield potential of any crop species. The knowledge pertaining to gene actions and interactions is likely to direct and strengthen the crop breeding programmes. With this objective, the present investigation was undertaken by using six generations derived from three different crosses in grass pea. The study underscores the significance of additive-dominance model, gene action involved in inheritance of quantitative characters and heritability. Of note, nonallelic interactions influencing the traits were detected by both scaling test and joint scaling test, indicating the inadequacy of the additive-dominance model alone in explaining the manifestation of complex traits such as yield. Besides, additive (d) and dominance (h) gene effects, different types of interallelic interactions (i, j, l) contributed towards the inheritance of traits in the given crosses. Nevertheless, predominance of additive variance suggests a difference between homozygotes at a locus with positive and negative alleles being distributed between the parents. Duplicate epistasis was prevalent in most of the cases for traits like plant height, seeds/pod, 100-seed weight and pod width. In view of the diverse gene actions, i.e. additive, dominant and epistasis, playing important roles in the manifestation of complex traits like yield, we advocate implementation of population improvement techniques in particular reciprocal recurrent selection to improve productivity gains in grass pea.

  14. Abscisic acid promotes accumulation of toxin ODAP in relation to free spermine level in grass pea seedlings (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, You-Cai; Xing, Geng-Mei; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Shao-Ming; Fan, Xian-Wei; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Wang, Ya-Fu

    2006-01-01

    Interrelationship among abscisic acid (ABA) content, accumulation of free polyamines and biosynthesis of beta-N-oxalyl-l-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) was studied in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seedlings under drought stress induced by 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Increase of ABA content occurred prior to that of ODAP and polyamine contents, and was found significantly positive correlation between ABA content and ODAP content. Addition of exogenous ABA increased ODAP content in leaves. On the other hand, pretreatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, significantly suppressed the accumulation of free putrescine (Put), free spermidine (Spd) and free spermine (Spm), which in turn inhibited biosynthesis of ODAP in well-watered leaves. Meanwhile, addition of exogenous Put alleviated DFMA-induced inhibition on the biosynthesis of Put and Spd, but did not affect the biosynthesis of Spm and ODAP in well-watered leaves. Same result was also achieved in drought-stressed leaves. Increasing accumulation of ODAP was significantly correlated with increasing Spm content (R=0.7957**) but not with that of Spd and Put. Therefore, it can be argued that ABA stimulated the biosynthesis of ODAP simultaneously with increasing the level of free Spm under drought stress condition.

  15. Purification and characterization of insulin-mimetic inositol phosphoglycan-like molecules from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Pañeda, C.; Villar, A. V.; Alonso, A.; Goñi, F. M.; Varela, F.; Brodbeck, U.; León, Y.; Varela-Nieto, I.; Jones, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Signal transduction through the hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) leading to the release of the water-soluble inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) molecules has been demonstrated to be important for mediating some of the actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, GPI from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds has been purified and partially characterized on the basis of its chromatographic properties and its compositional analysis. RESULTS: The results indicate that it shows similarities to GPI previously isolated from other sources such as rat liver. IPG was generated from L. sativus seed GPI by hydrolysis with a GPI-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD). This IPG inhibited protein kinase A (PKA) in an in vitro assay, caused cell proliferation in explanted cochleovestibular ganglia (CVG), and decreased 8-Br-cAMP-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression in cultured hepatoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that L. sativus seed IPG possess insulin-mimetic activities. This may explain why L. sativus seeds have been used in some traditional medicines to ameliorate diabetic symptoms. PMID:11683370

  16. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection.

  17. Influence of heat stress on genome of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Ritambhara

    2009-05-01

    Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability that culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. Several abiotic environmental factors such as heat may cause anomalies at genetic level that ultimately impair fertility of the plant. In the present study, the effect of heat stress on various morphological and cytological parameters has been studied in Lathyrus sativus. The most interesting anomaly recorded during the study was the formation of synezetic knot in prophase-l instead of leptotene and zygotene stages. Furthermore, a large number of interesting karyological and cytoplasmic irregularities viz. multivalents, transmigration of chromosomes, bridges, tripolarity, etc. were found among the heat treated population of 48 hr duration in M2 generation.

  18. Improvement of nutritive value of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal in the formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish gut bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Bairagi, A; Ray, A K

    2005-09-01

    Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.0 kcalg(-1) approximately) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fish meal based diet and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings for 80 days and fish performance was studied. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities were used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 degrees C. Fermentation of grass pea seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and anti-nutritional factors, such as tannins, phytic acid and the neurotoxin, beta-ODAP and enhancing the available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth response, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, 30% fermented grass pea seed meal incorporated diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of fish fed diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to those fed diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The highest deposition of carcass protein was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicated that fermented grass pea seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to 30% level compared to 10% level of raw seed meal.

  19. Flavonoid-deficient mutants in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): genetic control, linkage relationships, and mapping with aconitase and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase isozyme loci.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2012-01-01

    Two flavonoid-deficient mutants, designated as fldL-1 and fldL-2, were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 10 h) M(2) progeny of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Both the mutants contained total leaf flavonoid content only 20% of their mother varieties. Genetic analysis revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of the trait, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. The two mutants differed significantly in banding patterns of leaf aconitase (ACO) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) isozymes, possessing unique bands in Aco 1, Aco 2, and Gsnor 2 loci. Isozyme loci inherited monogenically showing codominant expression in F(2) (1:2:1) and backcross (1:1) segregations. Linkage studies and primary trisomic analysis mapped Aco 1 and fld 1 loci on extra chromosome of trisomic-I and Aco 2, fld 2, and Gsnor 2 on extra chromosome of trisomic-IV in linked associations.

  20. Grass pea (Lathyrus Sativus L.) as a pre-plant N source for continuous conventionally tilled winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sources of organic nitrogen (N) for the southern Great Plains (SGP) - and methods of their use – need testing to find ways to counter the rising cost of N fertilizer. This study examined the function of the cool-season pulse grass pea (GP) as a pre-plant N source for continuous, conventionally tille...

  1. Accumulation of lead in the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) plants triggers systemic variation in gene expression in the shoots.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Judicaëlle; Varrault, Gilles; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Repellin, Anne

    2009-11-01

    The impact of lead nitrate (Pb(NO(3))(2); 0.5mM) on steady-state accumulation of messengers corresponding to stress responsive genes was studied in two local lines of 11-d grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) plants exposed for 96 h in a hydroponic system. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique was used with grass pea-specific primers designed from newly isolated partial cDNA. Increases in accumulation of glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase transcripts suggested that roots enhanced detoxification mechanisms involving glutathione. In the leaves where no lead was translocated, the pollutant indirectly triggered increases in expression of several genes. This process probably resulted from systemic signals originating from the roots where lead accumulated in large amounts, approximately 150 mg Pbg(-1) dry weight. A preventive and/or adaptive role for the signal is assumed, since it concerned genes implicated in reactive oxygen species scavenging (ascorbate peroxidase), protein protection (heat shock protein 70) and proteolysis (cysteine and aspartic proteases).

  2. The effect of germination on antioxidant and nutritional parameters of protein isolates from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A; Stodolak, B; Mickowska, B

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the antioxidant and nutritional (selected objects) properties of protein isolates obtained from grass pea seedlings as compared with soaked and raw seeds. Two percent extract of isolate from 5-day-old seedlings showed the highest total antioxidant activity (25%) and the ability to chelate Fe²+ (2.35 mg/g d.m.) as compared with other isolates. Protein isolates from grass pea seeds had on average 89% total protein, 87% in vitro protein bioavailability, about 5574 TIU/g (d.m.) (trypsin inhibitors activity) and did not contain ODAP. Germination of seeds for 5 days considerably improved the in vitro bioavailability of isolates, by 12%, and profile of sulfur amino acids by 42%, in comparison with isolates obtained from the raw seeds. Isolates from 5-day-old grass pea seedlings had the best antioxidant properties and improved nutritional parameters (as compared with raw seeds), which makes them worthy of being considered as a potential food additive.

  3. Water stress and accumulation of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus).

    PubMed

    Xing, G; Cui, K; Ji, L; Wang, Y; Li, Z

    2001-01-01

    Grass pea seedlings were grown in an irrigated field. Roots of 15-day-old seedlings were treated with PEG, and leaves were studied. With the duration of PEG treatment, changes in the lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as contents of hydrogen peroxide and beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) were assayed. The results indicate that with the duration of PEG treatment, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase decreased, whereas contents of hydrogen peroxide and ODAP, extent of lipid peroxidation, and activity of glutathione reductase increased. Both diethyldithiocarbamate and aminotriazole strongly inhibit activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, respectively. At same time, the extent of lipid peroxidation was obviously increased. However, mannitol decreased the extent of lipid peroxidation. Diethyldithiocarbamate, aminotriazole, and mannitol do not affect the accumulation of ODAP. The observations suggest that there is no direct relationship between the accumulation of ODAP and the metabolism of free radicals. In addition, the relationship between water stress and ODAP accumulation in grass pea is discussed.

  4. Effect of maturity stage on the content of ash components in raw and preserved grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Korus, Anna; Kmiecik, Waldemar; Gebczyński, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The grains of grass pea cultivar krab of dry matter content at the level of 26-40 g/100 g were used in the production of preserves by freezing and canning in air tight containers. The content of ash and its alkalinity and of potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, total phosphorus, and phytic phosphorus was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products stored for six months and then cooked to consumption consistency, and in sterilized canned products after the same storage period. With the increasing degree of maturity the content of all the above constituents calculated per 100 g fresh matter, increased. Blanching considerably reduced the level of ash and its alkalinity, of potassium, and of phytic phosphorus. The cooking of frozen seeds and the sterilization in salty brine caused a reduction of the components analysed except for the content of ash, its alkalinity, and of calcium. In comparison with canned sterilized preserves in cooked frozen grains a higher content of all the mineral components was determined.

  5. Lathyrus hirsutus (Caley Pea) intoxication in a herd of horses.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Stein, F P; Morgan, S E; Avery, A L; Confer, A W; Panciera, R J

    2015-01-01

    Caley Pea (Lathyrus hirsutus) is potentially toxic to horses, but large case series are not reported. To describe the clinical signs of horses intoxicated with Lathyrus hirsutus and speculate on the neuroanatomical lesion localization and pathogenesis based upon the observed clinical signs. Twenty-two of 25 horses ranging in age from 6 to 34 months were affected. Five affected horses were presented to the OSUCHVS for evaluation and treatment after having been attended at the ranch by a local veterinarian (ALA). An additional horse that had been euthanized was also presented for necropsy. A case series is presented. Diagnostic evaluation included: physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, CSF analysis, EMG, ERG, upper airway endoscopy, muscle biopsy, and serum vitamin E analysis. The grain ration consumed by the affected horses was analyzed for ionophores and cultured for fungi: the hay was examined for toxic plants. Bermuda grass hay consumed by the horses contained large quantities of mature Lathyrus hirsutus. Acute clinical signs conform to earlier descriptions of Lathyrus hirsutus intoxication in cattle. Residual neurologic signs were characterized by incoordination in the rhythmicity of multiple gaits. Evidence of mild neurogenic muscle atrophy was recognized in 1 of 5 horses biopsied. Caley Pea intoxication may occur within days of seed pod consumption. The neurologic signs are unique and suggest involvement of the upper motor neuron system and regions of the spinal cord influencing voluntary motor movement. Drought conditions during plant growth may increase the risk of toxicosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. The contents of the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid), and other free and protein amino acids in the seeds of different genotypes of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Korbu, Lijalem; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Lambein, Fernand

    2008-09-15

    The free and protein amino acids of nine different genotypes of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds were analysed by HPLC with pre-column PITC (phenyl isothiocyanate) derivatisation. Among the free amino acids, homoarginine was quantitatively the most important (up to 0.8% seed weight) and stable while the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) showed highest variation (0.02-0.54%) in the nine genotypes examined. Among protein amino acids, glutamic acid was quantitatively most significant, followed by aspartic acid, arginine, leucine, lysine and proline. The sulphur amino acid, methionine, showed the lowest concentration in all the L. sativus genotypes, and also in lentil (Lens culinaris) and in soybean (Glycine max) seeds analysed at the same time.

  7. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed.

  8. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    PubMed

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products.

  9. Grass pea as a nitrogen source for continuous no-till winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sources of organic nitrogen (N) for crop production in the southern Great Plains (SGP) - and methods of their use - need evaluation to find ways to counter the rising cost of N fertilizer. This study examined N availability from the cool-season pulse grass pea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus.L.) for continuo...

  10. Genotypic Variation in the Concentration of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seeds Is Associated with an Accumulation of Leaf and Pod β-ODAP during Vegetative and Reproductive Stages at Three Levels of Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Xiong, You-Cai; Bai, Xue; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Zhu, Hao; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Wang, Jian-Yong; Turner, Neil C

    2015-07-15

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation is limited because of the presence in seeds and tissues of the nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin that can cause lathyrism in humans. Seven grass pea genotypes differing in seed β-ODAP concentration were grown in pots at three levels of water availability to follow changes in the concentration and amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods and seeds. The concentration and amount of β-ODAP decreased in leaves in early reproductive development and in pods as they matured, while water stress increased β-ODAP concentration in leaves and pods at these stages. The net amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods at early podding was positively associated with seed β-ODAP concentration at maturity. We conclude that variation among genotypes in seed β-ODAP concentration results from variation in net accumulation of β-ODAP in leaves and pods during vegetative and early reproductive development.

  11. Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

    2011-03-01

    Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of β-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods.

  12. Grass pea (Lthyrus sativum L.) as pre-plant organic fertilizer for conventionally tilled winter wheat: effects on yield and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sources of organic nitrogen (N) for the southern Great Plains (SGP) - and methods of their use – need testing to find ways to counter the rising cost of N fertilizer. This study investigated the cool-season pulse grass pea (Lathyrus sativum L.) (GP) as a pre-plant N source for continuous, convention...

  13. Leaf rolling and stem fasciation in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) mutant are mediated through glutathione-dependent cellular and metabolic changes and associated with a metabolic diversion through cysteine during phenotypic reversal.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations.

  14. Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations. PMID:24987684

  15. [Composition and food value of the flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris L.)].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Bähr, H; Anke, M; Gruhn, K; Löhnert, H J; Wolf, I

    1982-05-01

    Flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris L.) is suitable as 'pioneer plant' for the recultivation of slag heaps and mining areas for agricultural production. Flat pea contains between 20 and 30% crude protein in the dry matter and is richer in protein than other feed legumes. It is comparable to foxtail clover and lucerne as regards the content of amino acids (g/16 g N) and minerals. The digestibility of the crude nutrients of various dried products of flat pea was ascertained in seven experiments with five rams. The digestibility of the organic matter of the hay (before budding) was 66.2%, energy concentration 526 EFU/kg DM; 55% and 410 EFU/kg DM were ascertained for seed straw. The protein digestibility for hay and dried green fodder varied between 72.3 and 75.8%. Since there have been no reports lathyrogenous substances in the vegetative parts of flat pea, its use as green fodder or dried green fodder for feeding sheep, cattle or wild ruminants is possible.

  16. Homoarginine, β-ODAP, and asparagine contents of grass pea landraces cultivated in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onar, A Nur; Erdoğan, Behice Yavuz; Ayan, Ilknur; Acar, Zeki

    2014-01-15

    The seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), a drought tolerant crop, were analysed for quantitative determination of the free amino acids β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), homoarginine and asparagine by a simple and fast capillary electrophoretic method. In boric acid (80mM, pH 8.0) running buffer system, not only were α and β-ODAP successfully separated, but also an efficient sample stacking was achieved during hydrodynamic sample introduction. The validated method was used for quantification of β-ODAP, homoarginine and asparagine in seed extracts of 52 Lathyrus local landraces from various regions of Turkey and one released cultivar. The concentration ranges of amino acids were found as 0.21-1.27% (w/w) for homoarginine, 0.10-0.87% (w/w) for β-ODAP and 0.006-0.47% (w/w) for asparagine. A positive correlation between homoarginine and β-ODAP quantities in seeds of 53 Lathyrus local landraces was shown to exist (r(2)=0.649).

  17. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparative morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of lentil and grass pea genotypes under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in the family Fabaceae are two important cool-season food legumes, often experiencing water stress conditions during growth and maturity. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the response of these two crops under different water stress regimes. Materials and Methods: Different morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were studied in a pot experiment under controlled environmental conditions. Along with control (proper irrigation, 0 stress), three sets of plants were subjected to mild (6 d), moderate (13 d) and severe (20 d) water stress by withholding irrigation at the appropriate time. Results: Compared with control, plant growth traits and seed yield components reduced significantly in both crops with increasing period of water stress, resulting in lowering of dry mass with more severe effect on lentil compared with grass pea. Foliar Relative Water Content (RWC) (%), K+/Na+ ratio, chlorophyll (chl) a, chl a/b ratio, stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate declined considerably in both crops under water stress. Leaf-free proline level increased significantly in both crops, but it decreased markedly in nodules of lentil and remained unchanged in grass pea. Nodulation was also affected due to water stress. The impairment in growth traits and physio-biochemical parameters under water stress was manifested in reduction of drought tolerance efficiency of both crops. Conclusion: Impact of water stress was more severe on lentil compared with grass pea, and modulation of growth traits signified necessity of a detailed strategy in breeding of food legumes under water stress. PMID:24082740

  19. Crystal structure and functional insights of hemopexin fold protein from grass pea.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vineet; Qureshi, Insaf A; Singh, Apekshita; Chanana, Veenu; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2010-04-01

    A regulatory protein from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), LS-24, a close homolog of albumin 2 from garden pea (Pisum sativum) that is associated with polyamine biosynthesis, was characterized and the structure of a hemopexin-type fold among plant proteins illustrated. Crystal structure of LS-24 determined at 2.2 A resolution by multiple isomorphous replacement phasing showed four-bladed beta-propeller structure having a pseudo 4-fold molecular symmetry along a metal ion-binding central channel. The structure represents typical mammalian hemopexin fold with discernible features correlated with the possible functional variations. The protein was found to exist in the dimeric state. While LS-24 dimer binds to spermine in the crystal structure as well as in solution, binding of heme in solution resulted in the dissociation of the dimer into monomers with concomitant release of bound spermine. Interactions of heme and spermine with LS-24 bear physiological implications. While binding of spermine to LS-24 can be linked with polyamine biosynthesis that of heme correlates with oxidative stress. Mutually exclusive binding of heme and spermine in different oligomeric states suggest a role for LS-24 in sensing oxidative stress through a ligand-regulated monomer-dimer transition switch.

  20. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  1. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide reversibly inhibits root gravitropism and induces horizontal curvature of primary root during grass pea germination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinglong; Su, Miao; Wang, Liyan; Jiao, Chengjin; Sun, Zhengxi; Cheng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Wang, Chongying

    2012-04-01

    During germination in distilled water (dH(2)O) on a horizontally positioned Petri dish, emerging primary roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) grew perpendicular to the bottom of the Petri dish, due to gravitropism. However, when germinated in exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the primary roots grew parallel to the bottom of the Petri dish and asymmetrically, forming a horizontal curvature. Time-course experiments showed that the effect was strongest when H(2)O(2) was applied prior to the emergence of the primary root. H(2)O(2) failed to induce root curvature when applied post-germination. Dosage studies revealed that the frequency of primary root curvature was significantly enhanced with increased H(2)O(2) concentrations. This curvature could be directly counteracted by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H(2)O(2), but not by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and pyridine, inhibitors of H(2)O(2) production. Exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment caused both an increase in the activities of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes [including ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)] and a reduction in endogenous H(2)O(2) levels and root vitality. Although grass pea seeds absorbed exogenous H(2)O(2) during seed germination, DAB staining of paraffin sections revealed that exogenous H(2)O(2) only entered the root epidermis and not inner tissues. These data indicated that exogenously applied H(2)O(2) could lead to a reversible loss of the root gravitropic response and a horizontal curvature in primary roots during radicle emergence of the seedling.

  2. Diamine Oxidase from White Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Combined with Catalase Protects the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line from Histamine Damage.

    PubMed

    Jumarie, Catherine; Séïde, Marilyne; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-01-20

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) administration has been proposed to treat certain gastrointestinal dysfunctions induced by histamine, an immunomodulator, signaling, and pro-inflammatory factor. However, H2O2 resulting from the oxidative deamination of histamine by DAO may be toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent DAO from white pea (Lathyrus sativus), alone or in combination with catalase, may modulate histamine toxicity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The results show that histamine at concentrations higher than 1 mM is toxic to the Caco-2 cells, independently of the cell differentiation status, with a LC50 of ≅ 10 mM following a 24-h exposure. Depending on its concentration, DAO increased histamine toxicity to a greater extent in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cultures. In the presence of catalase, the DAO-induced increase in histamine toxicity was completely abolished in the undifferentiated cells and only partially decreased in differentiated cells, showing differences in the sensitivity of Caco-2 cells to the products resulting from histamine degradation by DAO (H2O2, NH3, or imidazole aldehyde). It appears that treatment of food histaminosis using a combination of vegetal DAO and catalase would protect against histamine toxicity and prevent H2O2-induced damage that may occur during histamine oxidative deamination.

  3. Evaluation of several holding solutions for prolonging vase-life and keeping quality of cut sweet pea flowers (Lathyrus odoratus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Elhindi, Khalid M.

    2011-01-01

    Cut spikes of sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) were kept in 2% sucrose, 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), pulsing treatment with 200 ppm 8-HQS in combination with 2% sucrose for 12 h, pulsing the spikes with 0.2 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) for 1 h and pulsing with 0.2 mM STS for 1 h followed by 2% sucrose solution. Therefore, this study aimed to see their effects on keeping quality and vase-life of the cut flowers. A control (deionized water) and a standard preservative were also included in the experiment. The results showed that all treatments had improved the keeping quality and vase-life of the cut flowers comparing to control ones. Among all these treatments, the 8-HQS combined with 2% sucrose showed the best water uptake, water balance, percentage of maximum increase in fresh weight of the cut flower stems and vase-life which was extended up to 17 days. Moreover, this keeping solution retarded the chlorophyll as well as carbohydrate degradation. However, anthocyanin concentrations were increased by treatments with sucrose alone or STS followed by sucrose during the postharvest life. It has been concluded that 200 ppm 8-HQS combined with 2% sucrose solution has the potential to be used as a commercial cut flower preservative solution to delay flower senescence, enhance post harvest quality and prolong the vase-life of sweet pea cut flowers. PMID:23961179

  4. Transferability of molecular markers from major legumes to Lathyrus spp. for their application in mapping and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Trindade Leitão, Susana; Caminero, Constantino; Torres, Ana Maria; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2014-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. (chickling pea) and L. sativus L. (grass pea) have great potential among grain legumes due to their adaptability to inauspicious environments, high protein content and resistance to serious diseases. Nevertheless, due to its past underused, further activities are required to exploit this potential and to capitalise on the advances in molecular biology that enable improved Lathyrus spp. breeding programmes. In this study we evaluated the transferability of molecular markers developed for closely related legume species to Lathyrus spp. (Medicago truncatula, pea, lentil, faba bean and lupin) and tested the application of those new molecular tools on Lathyrus mapping and diversity studies. Genomic and expressed sequence tag microsatellite, intron-targeted amplified polymorphic, resistance gene analogue and defence-related gene markers were tested. In total 128 (27.7 %) and 132 (28.6 %) molecular markers were successfully cross-amplified, respectively in L. cicera and L. sativus. In total, the efficiency of transferability from genomic microsatellites was 5 %, and from gene-based markers, 55 %. For L. cicera, three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and one derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker based on the cross-amplified markers were also developed. Nine of those molecular markers were suitable for mapping in a L. cicera recombinant inbred line population. From the 17 molecular markers tested for diversity analysis, six (35 %) in L. cicera and seven (41 %) in L. sativus were polymorphic and discriminate well all the L. sativus accessions. Additionally, L. cicera accessions were clearly distinguished from L. sativus accessions. This work revealed a high number of transferable molecular markers to be used in current genomic studies in Lathyrus spp. Although their usefulness was higher on diversity studies, they represent the first steps for future comparative mapping involving these species.

  5. Antioxidant properties of extracts from fermented and cooked seeds of Polish cultivars of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Jamróz, Małgorzata

    2008-07-15

    Antiradical and total antioxidant activities of extracts from raw, prepared for inoculation, fermented (tempeh) and cooked seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus Krab and Derek cultivars) were measured. Tempeh fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals which correlated well with the content of total phenols. In Derek cultivar, fermentation caused a significant inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by methanol extracts. In buffer extracts the highest TAA values were observed in raw seeds. Cooking of seeds lowered RSA values as compared to fermentation, especially for the DPPH assay. Methanol and buffer extracts from cooked seeds showed prooxidant activity towards linoleic acid.

  6. β-N-Oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) Content in Lathyrus sativus: The Integration of Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism through β-Cyanoalanine Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Quanle; Liu, Fengjuan; Chen, Peng; Jez, Joseph M.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2017-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Long-term consumption of Lathyrus and β-ODAP is linked to lathyrism, which is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome. Pharmacological studies indicate that nutritional deficiencies in methionine and cysteine may aggravate the neurotoxicity of β-ODAP. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of β-ODAP is poorly understood, but is linked to sulfur metabolism. To date, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in grass pea on the sulfur assimilatory enzymes and how these enzymes regulate the biosynthesis of β-ODAP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of sulfur metabolism in grass pea and its contribution to β-ODAP biosynthesis. Unraveling the fundamental steps and regulation of β-ODAP biosynthesis in grass pea will be vital for the development of improved varieties of this underutilized legume. PMID:28264526

  7. β-N-Oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) Content in Lathyrus sativus: The Integration of Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism through β-Cyanoalanine Synthase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Quanle; Liu, Fengjuan; Chen, Peng; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2017-02-28

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Long-term consumption of Lathyrus and β-ODAP is linked to lathyrism, which is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome. Pharmacological studies indicate that nutritional deficiencies in methionine and cysteine may aggravate the neurotoxicity of β-ODAP. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of β-ODAP is poorly understood, but is linked to sulfur metabolism. To date, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in grass pea on the sulfur assimilatory enzymes and how these enzymes regulate the biosynthesis of β-ODAP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of sulfur metabolism in grass pea and its contribution to β-ODAP biosynthesis. Unraveling the fundamental steps and regulation of β-ODAP biosynthesis in grass pea will be vital for the development of improved varieties of this underutilized legume.

  8. Agronomic characterization and α- and β-ODAP determination through the adoption of new analytical strategies (HPLC-ELSD and NMR) of ten sicilian accessions of grass pea.

    PubMed

    Gresta, Fabio; Rocco, Concetta; Lombardo, Grazia M; Avola, Giovanni; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2014-03-19

    Ten accessions of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) from different Sicilian sites, cultivated in the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for their morphological and productive parameters and for the content of two non-protein amino acids: α- and β-ODAP (α- and β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid). The β-isomer is the neurotoxin responsible for the neuron disease known as lathyrism. This analysis was carried out using two common analytical methodologies never applied in their determination, an HPLC separation with evaporative light scattering (ELS) as detector, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The content of the two isomers falls in the range reported for these compounds: 0.42-0.74 and 2.69-4.59 g/kg for α- and β-ODAP, respectively; and the two methods yield comparable results. High productivity and a high protein content were detected in three Sicilian accessions. Low β-ODAP content was found to be linked to accessions with heavier seeds and those originating at lower altitudes.

  9. Genetic improvement of grass pea for low neurotoxin (β-ODAP) content.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Bejiga, G; Ahmed, S; Nakkoul, H; Sarker, A

    2011-03-01

    Grass pea is a promising crop for adaptation under climate change because of its tolerance to drought, water-logging and salinity, and being almost free from insect-pests and diseases. In spite of such virtues, global area under its cultivation has decreased because of ban on its cultivation in many countries. The ban is imposed due to its association with neurolathyrism, a non-reversible neurological disorder in humans and animals due to presence of neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) in its seedlings and seeds. The traditional varieties of grass pea contain 0.5-2.5% β-ODAP. Exploitable genetic variability for β-ODAP has been observed for development of low ODAP varieties, which along with improved agronomic and detoxification practices can help reduce the risk of lathyrism. Collaborative efforts between ICARDA and NARS have resulted in development of improved varieties such as Wasie in Ethiopia, Ratan, Prateek and Mahateora in India, and BARI Khesari-1 and BARI Khesari-2 in Bangladesh with <0.10% β-ODAP. Soil application of 15-20 kg ha(-1) zinc sulphate, early planting, and soaking seeds in water have shown significant effects on β-ODAP. Because of the often cross-pollination nature, the current breeding procedures being followed in grass pea requires paradigm shift in its approach for a possible genetic breakthrough.

  10. Storage proteins from Lathyrus sativus seeds.

    PubMed

    Rosa, M J; Ferreira, R B; Teixeira, A R

    2000-11-01

    The proteins from Lathyrus sativus Linn. (chickling vetch or grass pea) seeds were investigated. Protein constitutes approximately 20% of the seed dry weight, >60% of which is composed by globulins and 30% by albumins. A single, 24 kDa polypeptide comprises more than half of the protein present in the albumin fraction. The globulins may be fractionated into three main components, which were named alpha-lathyrin (the major globulin), beta-lathyrin, and gamma-lathyrin. alpha-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 18S, is composed of three main types of unglycosylated subunits (50-66 kDa), each of which produce, upon reduction, a heavy and a light polypeptide chain, by analogy with 11S. beta-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 13S, is composed by a relatively large number of subunits (8-66 kDa). Two major polypeptides are glycosylated and exhibit structural similarity with beta-conglutin from Lupinus albus. One of these possesses an internal disulfide bond. gamma-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 5S, contains two interacting, unglycosylated polypeptides, with no disulfide bonds: the major 24 kDa albumin and the heavier (20 kDa) polypeptide chain of La. sativus lectin.

  11. Isolation and characterization of novel variants of BBI coding genes from the legume Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    De Paola, Domenico; Blanco, Emanuela; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2012-08-01

    A pool of twelve cDNA sequences coding for Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) was identified in the legume grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). The corresponding amino acid sequences showed a canonical first anti-trypsin domain, predicted according to the identity of the determinant residue P(1). A more variable second binding loop was observed allowing to identify three groups based on the identity of residue P(1): two groups (Ls_BBI_1 and Ls_BBI_2) carried a second reactive site specific for chymotrypsin, while a third group (Ls_BBI_3) was predicted to inhibit elastase. A fourth variant carrying an Asp in the P(1) position of the second reactive site was identified only from genomic DNA. A phylogenetic tree constructed using grass pea BBIs with their homologs from other legume species revealed grouping based on taxonomy and on specificity of the reactive sites. Five BBI sequences, representing five different second reactive sites, were heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins demonstrated to be active against trypsin, while three of them were also active against chymotrypsin, and one against human leukocyte elastase. Comparative modeling and protein docking were used to further investigate interactions between two grass pea BBI isoforms and their target proteases. Thus two reliable 3D models have been proposed, representing two potential ternary complexes, each constituted of an inhibitor and its target enzymes.

  12. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  13. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno F; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding.

  14. Factors affecting β-ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus and their possible physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jiao, C-J; Jiang, J-L; Ke, L-M; Cheng, W; Li, F-M; Li, Z-X; Wang, C-Y

    2011-03-01

    A neuroexcitatory non-protein amino acid, β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), present in the seeds of the hardy legume crop grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), was considered responsible for human lathyrism. The levels of β-ODAP were reported to vary in different tissues during plant development, and to be affected by a wide range of environmental stresses. In this paper, dynamic changes in β-ODAP level at specific stages of plant development as well as the influences of various environmental factors, including nutrient deficiency, drought, salinity, toxic heavy metals, and Rhizobium symbiosis on β-ODAP levels were analyzed, highlighting the relationship between changes in β-ODAP concentrations and Rhizobium growth. Possible mechanisms underlying β-ODAP accumulation are proposed and future research is suggested.

  15. β-ODAP accumulation could be related to low levels of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Jiao, C-J; Jiang, J-L; Li, C; Ke, L-M; Cheng, W; Li, F-M; Li, Z-X; Wang, C-Y

    2011-03-01

    Level of the neuroexcitatory β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) varies with development and environmental stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (mainly O(2)ⁱ- and H(2)O(2)) are frequently reported to play important roles in plant development and in response to various stresses. To investigate the possible inter-relationship between contents of β-ODAP and ROS, grass pea leaves have been analyzed for contents of β-ODAP, O(2)ⁱ- and H(2)O(2). The results showed that leaves containing high levels of β-ODAP, exhibited low levels of O(2)ⁱ- and H(2)O(2), while leaves with high contents of O(2)ⁱ- and H(2)O(2) accumulated little β-ODAP. The application of pyridine or ABA which inhibit the production of O(2)ⁱ- or H(2)O(2) led to an increase in β-ODAP contents in intact or detached young leaves, whereas inhibition of catalase activity using AT (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), leading to an increase in H(2)O(2) content, result in significant decrease in β-ODAP levels of detached young leaves. In addition, inoculation of Rhizobium to young seedlings enhanced O(2)ⁱ- and H(2)O(2) levels, but reduced β-ODAP contents in shoots. These results suggest that β-ODAP accumulation could be related to low levels of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in grass pea tissues.

  16. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease "neurolathyrism", present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple.

  17. Analysis of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Chen, X; Hu, Z; Li, Q; Chen, Q; Li, Z

    1999-10-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus (LS; grass pea). A new Na2B4O7-Na2SO4 run buffer was used and the pH was 9.20, contents of beta-ODAP and homoarginine in crude extracts of LS plant material were determined with this method, the RSDs of peak areas of beta-ODAP and homoarginine were 2.62% and 3.61%, respectively. It was found that the equilibrium concentration ratio of alpha- and beta-ODAP decreased from 34.5/65.5 to 28.6/71.4 when the pH of the solution increased from pH 3.0 to pH 11.0.

  18. Studies on the etiology and pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. II. Clinical and electrophysiologic features of pyramidal dysfunction in macaques fed Lathyrus sativus and IDPN.

    PubMed

    Hugon, J; Ludolph, A; Roy, D N; Schaumburg, H H; Spencer, P S

    1988-03-01

    A primate model of lathyrism has been produced in well-nourished male cynomolgus monkeys chronically fed a fortified diet composed of Lathyrus sativus (chickling or grass pea) and given daily per os an alcoholic extract of this legume. Animals given a diet of non-neurotoxic Cicer arietinum (chick pea) cross-matched with the nutritional properties of the experimental diet served as controls. Another group of animals received the same diet and oral doses of beta, beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), a reference compound that has been termed an "experimental neurolathyrogen." Monkeys fed Lathyrus developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of corticospinal deficits after 3 to 10 months of feeding. Animals administered IDPN showed clinical and/or electrophysiologic changes in the PNS and CNS motor and sensory pathways, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Since the two primate disorders are separable on clinical and electrophysiologic grounds, further use of the term "experimental neurolathyrogen" to describe the neurotoxic properties of IDPN seems inappropriate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of developing a model of early human lathyrism in adequately nourished nonhuman primates.

  19. Climatic, edaphic and altitudinal factors affecting yield and toxicity of Lathyrus sativus grown at five locations in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Negwo, Tesgera; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Lambein, Fernand; Ahmed, Seid

    2011-03-01

    A 2 years (2005-2006) data analysis based on agronomic, qualitative, climatic and edaphic factors was carried out using 10 grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) genotypes grown at five eco-divergent locations (Alem Tena, Debre Zeit, Denbi, Akaki, Chefe Donsa) in Ethiopia. Crop yield showed considerable variability among locations, years and genotypes. Path coefficient analysis indicated that rainfall and days to maturity have a large positive influence on yield. High level of micronutrients Mn(2+) and S(2-) negatively affected yield. Path analysis revealed that Zn(2+)/P, days to maturity, yield and K(+) were dominant variables affecting the response variable β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid), the neuro-excitatory amino acid in grass pea seeds considered as the cause of neurolathyrism. Linear correlation analysis between β-ODAP and the 35 factors considered showed that β-ODAP level was positively correlated (r > 0.70) with K(+) and sunshine hours (ssh) and negatively correlated (r < 0.70) with soil pH, days to maturity and yield. The strongest correlation of ssh with β-ODAP level was found during the phase of crop maturity. Our results suggest that β-ODAP biosynthesis and its response to environmental stress are maximized during the post-anthesis stage.

  20. Allelic diversity in the transcriptomes of contrasting rust-infected genotypes of Lathyrus sativus, a lasting resource for smart breeding.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Leitão, Susana Trindade; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2014-12-19

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a valuable resource for potentially durable partial resistance to rust. To gain insight into the resistance mechanism and identify potential resistance genes, we generated the first comprehensive transcriptome assemblies from control and Uromyces pisi inoculated leafs of a susceptible and a partially rust-resistant grass pea genotype by RNA-seq. 134,914 contigs, shared by both libraries, were used to analyse their differential expression in response to rust infection. Functional annotation grouped 60.4% of the contigs present in plant databases (37.8% of total) to 33 main functional categories, being "protein", "RNA", "signalling", "transport" and "stress" the most represented. Transcription profiles revealed considerable differences in regulation of major phytohormone signalling pathways: whereas Salicylic and Abscisic Acid pathways were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Jasmonate and Ethylene pathways were down-regulated in the susceptible one. As potential Resistance-genes we identified a mildew resistance locus O (MLO)-like gene, and MLO-related transcripts. Also, several pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the resistant and exclusively down regulated in the susceptible genotype. Pathogen effectors identified in both inoculated libraries, as e.g. the rust Rtp1 transcript, may be responsible for the down-regulation of defence-related transcripts. The two genotypes contained 4,892 polymorphic contigs with SNPs unevenly distributed between different functional categories. Protein degradation (29.7%) and signalling receptor kinases (8.2%) were the most diverged, illustrating evolutionary adaptation of grass pea to the host/pathogens arms race. The vast array of novel, resistance-related genomic information we present here provides a highly valuable resource for future smart breeding approaches in this hitherto under-researched, valuable legume crop.

  1. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease “neurolathyrism”, present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple. PMID:26524073

  2. Forage intake, meal patterns, and milk production of lactating dairy cows fed grass silage or pea-wheat bi-crop silages.

    PubMed

    Salawu, M B; Adesogan, A T; Dewhurst, R J

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the feed intake, milk production, and plasma nutrient status in dairy cows fed inter-cropped pea-wheat (bi-crop) silages comprised of contrasting ratios of pea to wheat. Spring peas (cv. Magnus) and wheat (cv. Axona) sown at either high (75:25) or low (25:75) pea inclusion rates were harvested after 13 (Cut 1) or 15 (Cut 2) wk. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows between wk 9 and 10 of lactation were used in a cyclical changeover design with three 28-d periods. Cows were fed the bi-crop silages and 6 kg of concentrates or second-cut grass silage supplemented with 6 (GS6) or 9 (GS9) kg/d of concentrates. Forage intakes were higher when bi-crops were fed (10.3 to 11.4 kg dry matter [DM]/d) than when grass silage was fed (8.6 kg DM/d). Total DM intake was similar among cows fed the bi-crop silages and GS9 diets, but intakes for GS6 were at least 1.7 kg DM/d lower. Increasing the pea inclusion rate increased the crude protein (CP) content of the ration, but it did not enhance forage quality or animal performance. The rate of intake of the different forages was similar, so that the higher intakes of bi-crop silages were associated with more time spent at the feedbunk and an increased number of meals. Diet digestibility ranged from 531 to 650 g/kg, and the highest value was given by the Cut 1 bi-crop silage diet. Milk yield tended to be similar for cows fed the Cut 2 bi-crop and GS9 diets, and these values were at least 1.7 kg higher than those for cows fed on other treatments. Generally, the bi-crop diets resulted in higher milk fat contents and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. Milk protein content was highest for cows fed the GS9 diet. Blood metabolite content was unaffected by treatment except for blood urea nitrogen content, which was higher in cows fed the bi-crop silages, reflecting reduced N-use efficiency with these diets. The study showed that pea-wheat bi-crop silages can be used to replace moderate-quality grass silage in dairy

  3. Rhizobium anhuiense as the predominant microsymbionts of Lathyrus maritimus along the Shandong Peninsula seashore line.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Yajing; Li, Xiangyue; Yu, Bing; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yunzhao; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-09-01

    Beach pea [Lathyrus maritimus Bigelow, or Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (L.) P.W. Ball] is a wild legume distributed on the seashore line, and the rhizobia nodulating with this plant have been reported only rarely. In order to reveal the diversity of beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula, China, a total of 124 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of beach pea plants collected from five sites. All the isolates were divided into five recA types after screening by recA gene sequence analysis and they consisted of Rhizobium anhuiense covering 122 symbiotic isolates in three recA types, as well as two single isolates Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium lusitanum representing distinct recA types. The recA genotype III of R. anhuiense (103 isolates) represented by strain YIC11270 was dominant at all five sampling sites. Identical symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) were detected in the three recA genotypes of R. anhuiense isolates that were closely related to those of the pea and faba rhizobia. This study clarified that R. anhuiense was the main symbiont for beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula. The low level genetic diversity of beach pea rhizobia revealed by both MLSA and the symbiotic genes might be related to the strong selection pressure produced by the saline-alkaline environment and the host plants.

  4. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  5. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  6. Liquid chromatographic determination of total and beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid in lathyrus sativus seeds using both refractive index and bioelectrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Y; Larsson, N; Gorton, L; Ruzgas, T; Solomon, T

    2001-09-21

    A further improved chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of the total amount of ODAP, selectively the amount of its neurotoxic form, beta-ODAP, and free L-glutamate in raw Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seed samples is described using post-column refractive index in combination with bioelectrochemical detection. The biosensor is based on crosslinking horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and an Os-containing mediating polymer with poly(ethyleneglycol)(400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE), forming an inner hydrogel layer and then immobilising L-glutamate oxidase (GlOx) as an outer layer on top of a graphite electrode. Addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the hydrogel is believed to have sensitivity and stability enhancing effect on the biosensor. The double-layer approach in the biosensor construction avoided direct electrical wiring of GlOx and resulted in a higher sensitivity of 4.6 mA/M cm2 with respect to beta-ODAP and a wider linear range (1-250 microM) for both L-glutamate and beta-ODAP when compared with a single-layer approach where GlOx, HRP, and Os-polymer are crosslinked together. The limit of detection for the chromatographic-biosensor system was found to be 2 microM with respect to beta-ODAP and 0.7 microM with respect to L-glutamate. The refractive index detection on-line with the biosensor enabled full control of the chromatographic system for the determination of the total amount of ODAP, selectively the amount of beta-ODAP and L-glutamate. Ten grass pea samples have been collected from Lathyrism prone areas of Ethiopia to test the applicability of the presently developed analytical system for real sample analysis. The toxin levels of grass pea collections were determined in an aqueous extracts and ranged from 0.52 to 0.76%, dry mass basis. Comparison of results of an established spectrophotometric assay and that of the present system has shown an extraordinary degree of agreement as revealed by parallel "t" test (90% confidence limit). The

  7. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-04

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  8. Effect of environmental factors on the biosynthesis of the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) in callus tissue of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rabiul M; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Lambein, Fernand; Hussain, Muhammed

    2011-03-01

    Habituated callus tissues derived from leaf explants of Lathyrus sativus L. (grass pea) were cultured under different environmental conditions such as drought, salinity and deficiency or oversupply of micronutrients. The biosynthesis of the neuro-excitatory β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) was induced by feeding the precursor BIA, (β-isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)-alanine, to those calli habituated under different stress conditions. Conversion of BIA into β-ODAP was reduced by Zn(2+) at different levels of Fe(2+) supplements while excess of Fe(2+) enhanced it at different Zn(2+) levels in the media. The biosynthesis of β-ODAP was increased by both oversupply and deficiency of Mn(2+) manganese while B(3+) as well as Co(2+) increased it significantly by oversupply. Al(3+) enhanced the conversion of BIA into β-ODAP significantly in a concentration-dependent way. Cu(2+) also reduced the formation of β-ODAP when increased in the media. Mo(6+) had no apparent effect. NaCl decreased the conversion of BIA into β-ODAP proportionately with the increase in salinity. β-ODAP was increased with increasing mannitol concentration till -0.23MPa while at this osmotic potential created with PEG-20,000 the formation of β-ODAP is completely inhibited in low toxin calli. These experiments demonstrate the importance of environmental factors, especially micronutrients and salinity, on the biosynthesis of β-ODAP.

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Lathyrus japonicus indigenous to Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Seishiro; Kondo, Tetsuya; Prévost, Danielle; Nakata, Sayuri; Kajita, Tadashi; Ito, Motomi

    2010-11-01

    Sixty-one rhizobial strains from Lathyrus japonicus nodules growing on the seashore in Japan were characterized and compared to two strains from Canada. The PCR-based method was used to identify test strains with novel taxonomic markers that were designed to discriminate between all known Lathyrus rhizobia. Three genomic groups (I, II, and III) were finally identified using RAPD, RFLP, and phylogenetic analyses. Strains in genomic group I (related to Rhizobium leguminosarum) were divided into two subgroups (Ia and Ib) and subgroup Ia was related to biovar viciae. Strains in subgroup Ib, which were all isolated from Japanese sea pea, belonged to a distinct group from other rhizobial groups in the recA phylogeny and PCR-based grouping, and were more tolerant to salt than the isolate from an inland legume. Test strains in genomic groups II and III belonged to a single clade with the reference strains of R. pisi, R. etli, and R. phaseoli in the 16S rRNA phylogeny. The PCR-based method and phylogenetic analysis of recA revealed that genomic group II was related to R. pisi. The analyses also showed that genomic group III harbored a mixed chromosomal sequence of different genomic groups, suggesting a recent horizontal gene transfer between diverse rhizobia. Although two Canadian strains belonged to subgroup Ia, molecular and physiological analyses showed the divergence between Canadian and Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis of nod genes divided the rhizobial strains into several groups that reflected the host range of rhizobia. Symbiosis between dispersing legumes and rhizobia at seashore is discussed.

  10. Moisture dependent physical properties of lathyrus.

    PubMed

    Kenghe, Rajendra Narayan; Nimkar, Prabhakar Manohar; Shirkole, Shivanand Shankarrao

    2013-10-01

    The moisture dependent physical properties of different lathyrus varieties namely NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan were studied at moisture content of 7.33 to 30.29, 6.75 to 29.95 and 7.90 to 30.90% (d.b.), respectively. The grain size, thousand grain weight, angle of repose, grain volume and surface area were found increased linearly. The grain size was found increased from 4.43 to 4.70, 4.96 to 5.32 and 5.08 to 5.49 mm. Thousand grain weight was found increased from 64.6 to 103.5, 69.1 to 105.3 and 85.3 to 125.6 g. The angle repose was increased from 28.3 to 35.4, 29.5 to 35.8 and 26.9 to 33.5°. The grain volume was increased from 9.13 to 10.38,11.73 to 13.24 and 12.22 to 14.15 mm(3) whereas, surface area increased from 54.78 to 62.29, 70.38 to 79.45 and 73.31 to 84.88 mm(2),respectively with the corresponding increase in moisture content, for NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan. The sphericity and porosity increased initially and then found decreased with increase in further moisture content. The bulk density values decreased linearly from 827.5 to 697.2, 851.3 to 726.3 and 856.0 to 727.4 kg/m(3). The true density values were found decreased from 1288.3 to 1074.3, 1324.0 to 1118.4 and 1277.7 to 1102.5 kg/m(3), respectively for these varieties with the corresponding increase in moisture content.

  11. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and OM than those offered the GS diets. Lambs offered the WCP silages had an increased (P < 0.05) N intake, N output, and digestibility of GE compared with those offered GS. Mean N digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) in lambs offered LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P < 0.001) digestibility of DM, OM, GE and N, and N- intake, output, retention, and digestibility compared with those offered the LP diets. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than those offered the GS diets. Feeding diets containing HP increased (P < 0.001) total DMI, slaughter BW, ADG, and FCE. Lambs offered the WCP had a greater (P < 0.05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and urea concentration compared with those offered the GS diets. Feeding lambs HP diets

  12. Isolated history of the coastal plant Lathyrus japonicus (Leguminosae) in Lake Biwa, an ancient freshwater lake

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Tatsuo; Kaneko, Yuko; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Lake Biwa is one of the world's few ancient lakes. Formed ∼4 million years ago, the lake harbours many coastal species that commonly inhabit seashores. The beach pea Lathyrus japonicus is a typical coastal species of this freshwater lake, but its inland populations are faced with the threat of extinction. Here, we investigated the phylogeographical and population structures of both inland and coastal populations of L. japonicus. We also elucidated the historical isolation of the Lake Biwa population. Methodology In total, 520 individuals from 50 L. japonicus populations were sampled throughout the species distribution in Japan. Chloroplast haplotyping using intergenic spacers psbA–trnH and atpI–atpH was performed to investigate the phylogeographical structure as well as the genetic diversity of L. japonicus. Six nuclear microsatellite markers were also used to analyse the population structure. Principal results Population structure analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) identified inland and coastal groups. Based on the genetic differentiation, inland populations exhibited a single cpDNA haplotype and significantly lower values of HS, AR and FIS than coastal populations. In addition to the presence of a bottleneck, the lack of gene flow among inland populations was supported by estimates of recent migration rates between subpopulations. Conclusions Our data revealed that inland populations have been isolated in Lake Biwa as ‘landlocked’ populations since the predecessor lake was isolated from sea. This was also seen in a previous study of Calystegia soldanella. However, the high genetic differentiation, accompanied by a lack of gene flow among the Lake Biwa populations (according to the BAYESASS+ analysis), contradicts the results with C. soldanella. We conclude that because of the presence of a bottleneck and low genetic diversity of the inland populations, self-sustaining population persistence may be difficult in

  13. Excitotoxicity of lathyrus sativus neurotoxin in leech retzius neurons.

    PubMed

    Cemerikic, D; Nedeljkov, V; Lopicic, S; Dragovic, S; Beleslin, B

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin were studied on the cell membrane potential and cellular cation composition in Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga, with ion-selective microelectrodes using liquid ion-exchangers. Bath application of 10(-4) mol/l Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin for 3 min depolarized the cell membrane potential and decreased the input resistance of directly polarized membrane in Retzius neurons. At the same time the cellular Na+ activity increased and cellular K+ activity decreased with slow but complete recovery, while the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was not changed. Na+-free Ringer solutions inhibited the depolarizing effect of the neurotoxin on the cell membrane potential. Zero-Ca2+ Ringer solution or Ni2+-Ringer solution had no influence on the depolarizing effect of the neurotoxin on the cell membrane potential. It is obvious that the increase in membrane conductance and depolarization of the cell membrane potential are due to an influx of Na+ into the cell accompanied by an efflux of K+ from the cell.

  14. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.

    PubMed

    Antón Gironés, M; de la Hoz Caballer, B; Muñoz Martín, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Sánchez-Cano, M

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old non-smoking man, who had worked as a carpenter for 6 years and who reported a history of rhinorrhea, paroxysmal sneezing, nasocular pruritus, lacrimation, wheezing and dyspnea attacks while preparing a mixture to seal the junctures between wooden panels. Allergy study consisted of skin prick testing (SPT) to inhalants, foods and Lathyrus sativus flour (LSF) extract, specific bronchial provocation test with LSF extract, cytological analysis of sputum, specific IgE antibodies against LSF, and histamine releasing test with dilutions (1:5, 1:25, 1:125, 1:625) of LSF. The results demonstrated occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to LSF exposure. We provide a review of published reports to date.

  15. Tendril-less Regulates Tendril Formation in Pea Leaves[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Julie; Turner, Lynda; Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike; Isaac, Peter; Butcher, Susan; Weller, James; Dupin, Adeline; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ellis, Noel

    2009-01-01

    Tendrils are contact-sensitive, filamentous organs that permit climbing plants to tether to their taller neighbors. Tendrilled legume species are grown as field crops, where the tendrils contribute to the physical support of the crop prior to harvest. The homeotic tendril-less (tl) mutation in garden pea (Pisum sativum), identified almost a century ago, transforms tendrils into leaflets. In this study, we used a systematic marker screen of fast neutron–generated tl deletion mutants to identify Tl as a Class I homeodomain leucine zipper (HDZIP) transcription factor. We confirmed the tendril-less phenotype as loss of function by targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) in garden pea and by analysis of the tendril-less phenotype of the t mutant in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus). The conversion of tendrils into leaflets in both mutants demonstrates that the pea tendril is a modified leaflet, inhibited from completing laminar development by Tl. We provide evidence to show that lamina inhibition requires Unifoliata/LEAFY-mediated Tl expression in organs emerging in the distal region of the leaf primordium. Phylogenetic analyses show that Tl is an unusual Class I HDZIP protein and that tendrils evolved either once or twice in Papilionoid legumes. We suggest that tendrils arose in the Fabeae clade of Papilionoid legumes through acquisition of the Tl gene. PMID:19208900

  16. Toxic Interaction of Lathyrus sativus and Manganese in Guinea Pig Intestine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Kannan, A; Upreti, R K; Mishra, Geeta; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2003-01-01

    The combined effects on the intestinal cells of guinea pigs following feeding them with lathyrus and manganese (Mn) for 90 days were studied in this investigation. Guinea pigs given Mn (4 ppm of their diets) for 90 days showed no change in either intestinal bioconstituents or marker enzymes, with the exception of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and quinone reductase (QR). Exposure to a diet of 80% lathyrus only resulted in significant (p <. 05) inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP), sucrase, GGT, QR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) along with significant (p <. 05) depletion of total hexose and phospholipids. Animals given lathyrus and Mn showed a significant (p <. 05) decrease in intestinal ALP, Ca +2 Mg +2 -ATPase, sucrase, GGT, GST, and QR along with significant (p <. 05) depletion in total hexose and phospholipids and concomitant enhancement in cholesterol when compared to controls. The data clearly indicate that combined treatment with lathyrus and Mn potentiates intestinal toxicity more than does Mn or lathyrus alone.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Lathyrus species: insights from sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Marghali, S; Touati, A; Gharbi, M; Sdouga, D; Trifi-Farah, N

    2016-03-31

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to evaluate the intra- and interspecific variation among 40 Lathyrus genotypes (four species) (Fabaceae). Ten SRAP primer combinations resulted in a total of 94 bands, and they exhibited high interspecific variability. The genetic differentiation among Lathyrus, estimated using AMOVA, was highly significant. The results indicated that 58% of the total genetic variation existed among species, and 42% of the differentiation was within species. This was explained by the high level of genome conservation of these species as well as the recent and slow evolution of this genus. These results were confirmed by the topology of the neighbor-joining cladogram and the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Our data support previous results based on seed protein diversity. These results make SRAP markers choice markers for the study of functional polymorphism that is directly related to the transcriptomic data. The SRAP markers used in this study provide an accurate picture of the population structure within Lathyrus germplasm, which is critically important information for the design of genetic diversity and structure analyses. Moreover, further extensive studies are necessary to fully examine other Lathyrus species and tests that adopt the SRAP technique to enrich the Lathyrus library for next-generation sequencing, thus providing a potent protocol for the study of polymorphism.

  18. Effect of blend moisture and extrusion temperature on physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P; Kasprzak, M; Rzedzicki, Z; Sobota, A; Wirkijowska, A; Sykut-Domańska, E

    2015-10-01

    The effect of everlasting pea in combination with wheat on physical properties and microstructure of extrudates were studied. The share of everlasting pea (Lathyrus sativus) was variable, at 35, 50 and 65 %, respectively. The everlasting pea-wheat mixtures were moistened to the required level (18, 21, and 24 %), homogenized, conditioned and extruded in twin-screw extruder with counter-rotating conical screws. All of the obtained extrudates were characterised by a slow degree of radial expansion and high specific density. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant linear Pearson correlation (p < 0.05) between chemical compositions of the blends and physical properties of the extrudates. The expansion ratio increased as the concentration of the fibers and proteins increased, while specific density and hardness decreased. Inverse relationship was observed for crude fat. The microstructure of the extrudates was determined by both the moisture of the blend and the process temperature. The differences observed in the size, number of air cells and in the cell wall shapes and thickness indicate possibilities of the modification of physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates. The extrudates produced from everlasting pea-wheat blends (50:50) at higher barrel temperature (110/140/180/170/130 °C) were characterised by more numerous air cells of smaller diameters. Increasing moisture content of extruded blends results in extrudates with a higher porosity. No significant effect was shown in the chemical compositions on the level of metal contamination in the extrudates. The application of a counter-rotating twin-screw extrusion-cooker in the study permitted the production of compact, hard everlasting pea-wheat extrudates for use in vegetarian lunch dishes.

  19. Ascochyta blight of peas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification, taxonomy & nomenclature, epidemiology, symptoms, host ranges, and management are described for three fungal pathogens which collectively and individually cause Ascochyta blight of field pea (Pisum sativum): Ascochyta pisi, Ascochyta pinodes, and Ascochyta pinodella. The first two are...

  20. Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Grant, Jan; Cooper, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a robust method for transformation of peas that has been successfully used in our laboratory since 1992. Using immature pea seed collected from field- or greenhouse-grown plants, we have produced transgenic lines for over 30 genotypes including named pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines. This method uses immature cotyledons as the explant, and the transformation efficiency is in the range 0.2 to 13.5% of cotyledons producing at least one independently transformed line. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1 and KYRT1 are the most successful in our procedure, and kanamycin, phosphinothricin, and hygromycin are reliable selectable markers. Potentially useful genes have been introduced for pest and disease resistance, altering quality traits, and investigating metabolic pathways and are being studied in transgenic pea lines.

  1. Performance index: An expeditious tool to screen for improved drought resistance in the Lathyrus genus.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Susana; Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota; Marques da Silva, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Some species of the Lathyrus genus are among the most promising crops for marginal lands, with high resilience to drought, flood, and fungal diseases, combined with high yields and seed nutritional value. However, lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying its outstanding performance and methodologies to identify elite genotypes has hampered its proper use in breeding. Chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transient (JIP test), was used to evaluate water deficit (WD) resistance in Lathyrus genus. Our results reveal unaltered photochemical values for all studied genotypes showing resistance to mild WD. Under severe WD, two Lathyrus sativus genotypes showed remarkable resilience maintaining the photochemical efficiency, contrary to other genotypes studied. Performance index (PIABS) is the best parameter to screen genotypes with improved performance and grain production under WD. Moreover, we found that JIP indices are good indicators of genotypic grain production under WD. Quantum yield of electron transport (ϕEo) and efficiency with which trapped excitons can move electrons further than QA (ψ0) revealed as important traits related to improved photosynthetic performance and should be exploited in future Lathyrus germplasm improvements. The JIP test herein described showed to be an expeditious tool to screen and to identify elite genotypes with improved drought resistance.

  2. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family.

  3. Linkage Maps in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, THN.; Turner, L.; Hellens, R. P.; Lee, D.; Harker, C. L.; Enard, C.; Domoney, C.; Davies, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed segregation patterns of markers among the late generation progeny of several crosses of pea. From the patterns of association of these markers we have deduced linkage orders. Salient features of these linkages are discussed, as is the relationship between the data presented here and previously published genetic and cytogenetic data. PMID:1551583

  4. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  5. Potentiation of neurotoxicity of Lathyrus sativus by manganese: alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Geeta; Shukla, Rakesh; Hasan, Mahdi; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2009-05-01

    Environmental factors have been speculated to play an important role in potentiating the neurotoxicity of Lathyrus sativus (LS). Hence, blood-brain barrier permeability and neurotoxicity studies were carried out in manganese- and LS-exposed animals. Dietary feeding of LS (80%) plus Mn (0.4 mg/100 g diet) for 90 days to guinea pigs showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in brain nucleotidase and ATPase activities when compared to control or LS alone treated groups. Combined treatment of LS and Mn showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in neuronal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (36-40%), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (40-45%), glutathione-S-transferase (27-31%), and quinone reductase (24-25%) activities when compared to control and LS alone treated animals. Lipid peroxidation, a marker for membrane damage, was found to be relatively more enhanced (58-141%) along with significant (p < 0.05) depletion of GSH levels in LS+Mn-treated animals when compared to control, Mn alone, and LS alone treated groups. The neuronal catalase activity of lathyrus plus Mn-treated animals showed a pronounced decrease (37-49%) when compared to control, Mn, and lathyrus alone treated groups. On the contrary, glutathione peroxidase in brain of Mn and lathyrus alone treated animals indicated a respective increase (p < 0.05) of 18% and 20%, while the combined effect of lathyrus plus Mn exhibited an increase of almost 50% when compared to control guinea pigs. Single parenteral administration of Mn (15 mg/kg b.wt) to guinea pigs followed by single oral intubation of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diamino propionic acid (ODAP, 75 mg/guinea pig) resulted in a significant increase (143%) in neuronal ODAP content. ODAP (50 mg/kg,iv) treatment to mice pretreated with MnCl2 (10 mg/kg b.wt for 3 days or 40 mg/kg b.wt for 1 day), caused an enhancement in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (129-196%), while ODAP and Mn alone showed relatively less enhancement (66-87%). The lumbar region of LS+Mn showed a

  6. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can be poisonous. ... of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name and ingredients.

  7. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparison of Dryland Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and Admiral Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Grown Under Different Row Spacings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasspea (GP) is a drought-tolerant legume grown for forage and grain in Europe and the Middle East. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in rotation with common grain crops in the High Plains. However, the agronomics of GP for our region have not been investigated to date. W...

  9. [Accumulation of ABA and ODAP in Lathyrus sativus under water stress].

    PubMed

    Xing, G; Zhou, G; Li, Z; Cui, K

    2000-10-01

    The roots of fifteen days old Lathyrus sativus seedlings were treated by PEG, PEG + ABA and ABA, and their leaves were sampled to determine the contents of endogenic ABA, ODAP, MDA and H2O2 and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The results showed that after treated, the contents of ABA and ODAP in leaves increased markedly. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the increment of MDA and H2O2 contents and retarded the attenuation of CAT activity, which were induced by PEG stress, and enhanced the GR activity. In addition, when materials were treated with exogenous ABA in a long time, the ABA content in leaves was increased markedly, and ODAP was then accumulated. There was no significant effect on metabolism of active oxygen in the early days(0-3 days) of ABA treatment, but the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and GR decreased, and the contents of MDA and H2O2 increased in leaves of Lathyrus sativus with the duration of ABA treatment(7-15 days). The results indicated that ABA could promote the accumulation of ODAP in leaves of Lathyrus sativus.

  10. Comparative effect of dietary administration of Lathyrus sativus pulse on behaviour, neurotransmitter receptors and membrane permeability in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Amba, Archana; Seth, Kavita; Ali, Mohamed; Das, Mukul; Agarwal, A K; Khanna, Subhash K; Seth, P K

    2002-01-01

    Neurolathyrism, an upper motor neuron disease, has been thought to be caused by long-term dietary consumption of lathyrus pulse, which contains the toxin beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid. Earlier behavioural studies employing oral feeding of lathyrus pulse to animals has been conducted without evaluating the biochemical toxicity potential. In the present investigation the effect of dietary feeding of 10%, 50% and 80% lathyrus pulse to rats and guinea pigs for 3 months on neurobehavioural parameters, including locomotor activity, inclined plain test and neurotoxicological parameters such as neurotransmitter receptor binding, Ca(2+) influx and membrane fluidity, was investigated. Exposure of 50% low and high toxin lathyrus to rats did not cause any significant change in locomotor activity, whereas guinea pigs at the same dosage regimen of high toxin lathyrus showed significant lowering of inclined plain test scores. Furthermore, studies of neuroreceptor binding in rats fed 50% low and high toxin lathyrus showed significant changes in glutamate, dopamine and muscarinic receptors, whereas the benzodiazepine receptor elicited no change. Guinea pigs, on the other hand, fed 50% and 80% lathyrus in the diet showed significant changes in glutamate, dopamine, muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors. Interestingly, significant elevation in intracellular calcium with a concomitant increase in membrane fluidity was observed in rats (50% low and high toxin) and guinea pigs (50% and 80%) fed a lathyrus diet. These results indicate that although both species (rats and guinea pigs) are susceptible to neurochemical changes on exposure to lathyrus, locomotor changes are only noticed in guinea pigs. Thus, guinea pigs may be more prone to lathyrus toxicity and may serve as a sensitive animal model compared with rats.

  11. Underutilized Grasses.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perennial warm-season grasses have been recognized for having several properties, such as high rates of net photosynthesis, energy and labor savings, and reduced soil and nutrient losses that make them better suited for biofuel production than many annual crops. Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinat...

  12. Pea Chaperones under Centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalaiev, Oleksandr

    2008-06-01

    Etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings were subjected to altered g-forces by centrifugation (3-14g). By using semiquantitative RT-PCR, we studied transcripts of pea genes coding for chaperones that are representatives of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) family. Four members from the different classes of sHsps: cytosolic Hsp17.7 and Hsp18.1 (class I and class II accordingly), chloroplast Hsp21 (class III) and endoplasmic reticulum Hsp22.7 (class IV) were investigated. We conclude that exposure to 3, 7, 10 and 14g for 1h did not affect the level of sHsp transcripts.

  13. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Insaf A; Sethi, Dhruv K; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 A.

  14. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Marsden, Margery P. F.; Delmer, Deborah P.

    1987-01-01

    Since xyloglucan is believed to bind to cellulose microfibrils in the primary cell walls of higher plants and, when isolated from the walls, can also bind to cellulose in vitro, the binding mechanism of xyloglucan to cellulose was further investigated using radioiodinated pea xyloglucan. A time course for the binding showed that the radioiodinated xyloglucan continued to be bound for at least 4 hours at 40°C. Binding was inhibited above pH 6. Binding capacity was shown to vary for celluloses of different origin and was directly related to the relative surface area of the microfibrils. The binding of xyloglucan to cellulose was very specific and was not affected by the presence of a 10-fold excess of (1→2)-β-glucan, (1→3)-β-glucan, (1→6)-β-glucan, (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan, arabinogalactan, or pectin. When xyloglucan (0.1%) was added to a cellulose-forming culture of Acetobacter xylinum, cellulose ribbon structure was partially disrupted indicating an association of xyloglucan with cellulose at the time of synthesis. Such a result suggests that the small size of primary wall microfibrils in higher plants may well be due to the binding of xyloglucan to cellulose during synthesis which prevents fasciation of small fibrils into larger bundles. Fluorescent xyloglucan was used to stain pea cell wall ghosts prepared to contain only the native xyloglucan:cellulose network or only cellulose. Ghosts containing only cellulose showed strong fluorescence when prepared before or after elongation; as predicted, the presence of native xyloglucan in the ghosts repressed binding of added fluorescent xyloglucan. Such ghosts, prepared after elongation when the ratio of native xyloglucan:cellulose is substantially reduced, still showed only faint fluorescence, indicating that microfibrils continue to be coated with xyloglucan throughout the growth period. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665254

  15. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  16. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  17. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crop. Dry peas. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), Austrian Peas (Pisum sativum spp arvense), Lentils (Lens... with grading under the United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas, Split Peas and Lentils will not be... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and...

  18. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... crop. Dry peas. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), Austrian Peas (Pisum sativum spp arvense), Lentils (Lens... with grading under the United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas, Split Peas and Lentils will not be... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and...

  19. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Lentil Handbook, which is available on GIPSA's public Web site at: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/Publications... under the AMA include those for rice, whole dry peas, split peas, feed peas, lentils and beans. The U.S. standards for whole dry peas, split peas, feed peas, lentils and beans no longer appear in the Code of...

  20. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... crop. Dry peas. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), Austrian Peas (Pisum sativum spp arvense), Lentils (Lens... with grading under the United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas, Split Peas and Lentils will not be... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and...

  1. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  2. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Peas, and Lentils AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA ACTION: Notice... Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To ensure that the standards and... current U.S. Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils are meeting the needs in today's marketing...

  3. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Millimeters Inch Extra small Up to 7.5 0.295 Very small Up to 8.2 .32 Small Up to 8.75 .34 Medium Up to 10.2... peas, i.e., yellow or white but edible peas; (ii) Not more than 10 percent by weight blemished peas, i... cotyledons and loose skins, but excluding entire intact peas with skins detached; (v) Not more than...

  4. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  5. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  6. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  7. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  8. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  9. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term...

  10. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Polonenko, Daniel R.; Camirand, Anne; Maclachlan, Gordon

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of xyloglucan were examined during early stages of wall regeneration by protoplasts isolated from growing regions of etiolated peas. During early stages of cultivation, fluorescence microscopy showed that the protoplast surface bound Calcofluor and ammonium salt of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid and, in time, it also bound fluorescent fucose-binding lectin. Based on chemical analysis, 1,3-β-glucan was the main polysaccharide formed by protoplasts and xyloglucan and cellulose were minor wall components. Binding between cellulose and xyloglucan was not as strong as that in tissues of intact pea plants, i.e. mild alkali could dissolve most xyloglucan from the protoplast. However, the addition of exogenous pea xyloglucan into the culture medium stimulated the deposition of new polysaccharides into the protoplast wall and enhanced the close association of newly formed xyloglucan with cellulose. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:16665011

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant potential, enzyme inhibition activity and phenolic profile of Lathyrus cicera and Lathyrus digitatus: Potential sources of bioactive compounds for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Zengin, G; Mocan, A; Simirgiotis, M J; Ceylan, R; Uysal, S; Aktumsek, A

    2017-09-01

    The genus Lathyrus has great importance in terms of food and agricultural areas. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory activity evaluation (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase) of L. cicera and L. digitatus were investigated, as well as their phytochemical profiles. The screening of the main phytochemical compounds in aerial parts of L. cicera and L. digitatus was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)), observing that flavonoids represent the highest percentage of identified compounds, with abundance of tri- and tetra-glycosilated flavonoids, including acylated ones, especially in L. cicera. Generally, L. digitatus exhibited stronger antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities in correlation with its higher level of phenolics. The high number of phenolic compounds and the results of the antioxidant and enzyme assays suggest that these plants may be further used as sources of bioactive compounds, and for the preparation of new nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Insaf A.; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of L. sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 Å.

  13. A novel polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from Lathyrus sativus L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Tamburino, Rachele; Chambery, Angela; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2012-08-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular plant proteins bound to the plant cell wall containing leucine-rich repeats (LRR). They play an important role in plant defence being able to inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (EPGs), the first enzymes secreted by phytopathogenic fungi during plant infection. In the present work, a novel PGIP (LsPGIP) has been isolated from Lathyrus sativus seeds. LsPGIP exhibited an inhibitory activity towards EPGs from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus spp. A pI value of 8.3 and a molecular mass of 40 kDa were determined for the purified inhibitor. Furthermore, N-terminal sequence up to residue 20 revealed that LsPGIP exhibit a high percentage of identity with PGIP from Actinidia deliciosa. A secondary structure similar to those of other polygalacturonase inhibitors was also inferred form circular dichroism data.

  14. Adsorption of nickel on husk of Lathyrus sativus: behavior and binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Bandopadhyay, T S; Guha, A K

    2007-06-15

    Husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) has been found to be a good sorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from its aqueous solution. The adsorption process depends on pH of the solution with an optimum at 5.0, and follows Langmuir isotherm model (correlation coefficient 0.998). Initial adsorption rate is very fast and reaches equilibrium following pseudo-second order kinetics within 60 min. Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phosphate groups of the biomass are involved in chemical interaction with nickel ions as revealed from SEM-EDX and FTIR studies. Chemical modifications of the functional groups of the biosorbent show that amino groups contribute largely (approximately 57%) for the binding of nickel ions and probably undergo chelation through dative bond formation. HLS biomass has been found to adsorb both nickel and cadmium equally from their mixed solution to the extent of approximately 70% indicating the importance of this sorbent in industrial effluent treatment.

  15. Biosorption of cadmium and nickel by functionalized husk of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Guha, A K

    2008-04-01

    The husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) has been functionalized by introducing thio groups with the help of carbon disulphide treatment in alkaline environment. Elemental analysis indicates that sulphur content of the functionalized biomass increases to 3.7% from 0.36% of the pristine biomass suggesting the incorporation of thio group on HLS. A conspicuous change in the surface morphology of the biomass due to functionalization is depicted by SEM images. EDX data support the introduction of sulphur group on the HLS. The involvement of the hydroxyl groups mainly in the functionalization process is demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study. The adsorption capacity of the functionalized biomass with respect to cadmium and nickel is observed to increase by about 50% compared to that of pristine one. Similar to the case of unmodified HLS the adsorption process involving the functionalized one obeys Langmuir isotherm model and attains equilibrium in 10 min compared with 60 min in the case of unmodified biomass.

  16. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E.; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  17. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  18. Lathyrus diversity: available resources with relevance to crop improvement – L. sativus and L. cicera as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Patto, M. C.; Rubiales, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lathyrus genus includes 160 species, some of which have economic importance as food, fodder and ornamental crops (mainly L. sativus, L. cicera and L. odoratus, respectively) and are cultivated in >1·5 Mha worldwide. However, in spite of their well-recognized robustness and potential as a source of calories and protein for populations in drought-prone and marginal areas, cultivation is in decline and there is a high risk of genetic erosion. Scope In this review, current and past taxonomic treatments of the Lathyrus genus are assessed and its current status is examined together with future prospects for germplasm conservation, characterization and utilization. A particular emphasis is placed on the importance of diversity analysis for breeding of L. sativus and L. cicera. Conclusions Efforts for improvement of L. sativus and L. cicera should concentrate on the development of publicly available joint core collections, and on high-resolution genotyping. This will be critical for permitting decentralized phenotyping. Such a co-ordinated international effort should result in more efficient and faster breeding approaches, which are particularly needed for these neglected, underutilized Lathyrus species. PMID:24623333

  19. Strigolactones promote nodulation in pea.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Davies, Noel W

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones are recently defined plant hormones with roles in mycorrhizal symbiosis and shoot and root architecture. Their potential role in controlling nodulation, the related symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, was explored using the strigolactone-deficient rms1 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.). This work indicates that endogenous strigolactones are positive regulators of nodulation in pea, required for optimal nodule number but not for nodule formation per se. rms1 mutant root exudates and root tissue are almost completely deficient in strigolactones, and rms1 mutant plants have approximately 40% fewer nodules than wild-type plants. Treatment with the synthetic strigolactone GR24 elevated nodule number in wild-type pea plants and also elevated nodule number in rms1 mutant plants to a level similar to that seen in untreated wild-type plants. Grafting studies revealed that nodule number and strigolactone levels in root tissue of rms1 roots were unaffected by grafting to wild-type scions indicating that strigolactones in the root, but not shoot-derived factors, regulate nodule number and provide the first direct evidence that the shoot does not make a major contribution to root strigolactone levels.

  20. Feeding value of field pea as a protein source in forage-based diets fed to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Encinias, A M; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S

    2012-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of field peas as a protein source in diets for beef cattle. In the first study, 4 cultivars of field pea were incubated in situ to determine rate and extent of CP disappearance. Results indicate that field pea cultivars vary in CP content (22.6, 26.1, 22.6, and 19.4%, DM basis for Profi, Arvika, Carneval, and Trapper, respectively). Soluble protein fraction ranged from 34.9% for Trapper to 54.9% for Profi. Degradable CP fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for Trapper compared with the other cultivars, and no differences (P ≥ 0.25) were observed among Profi, Arvika, and Carneval. Rate of CP degradation differed (P ≤ 0.03) for all cultivars, with Profi being the greatest and Trapper the smallest (10.8, 10.0, 8.1, and 6.3 ± 1.4%/h for Profi, Carneval, Arvika, and Trapper, respectively). Estimated RDP was not different (P = 0.21) for all 4 cultivars. In the second study, 30 crossbred beef steers (301 ± 15 kg) were individually fed and used to evaluate effects of field pea processing (whole, rolled, or ground) on steer performance. Diets contained 40% field pea grain. Growing steers consuming whole field pea had greater ADG (P = 0.08) than those consuming processed field pea (1.69, 1.52, and 1.63 ± 0.05 kg/d, for whole, rolled, and ground, respectively). However, DMI (kg/d and as % of BW) and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.24). In the third study, 35 individually fed gestating beef cows (694 ± 17 kg) were used to evaluate the use of field pea as a protein supplement for medium quality grass hay (9.3% CP). Treatments consisted of whole field peas at 1) 0 g (CON), 2) 680 g (FP680), 3) 1,360 g (FP1360), and 4) 2,040 g (FP2040), and 5) 1,360 g of 74% barley and 26% canola meal (BCM). Total intake (forage + supplement) of gestating beef cows increased with increasing field pea level (linear, P = 0.01; supplemented vs. nonsupplemented, P = 0.01). In summary, protein quantity and rate of ruminal protein degradation

  1. Characterization, evolution and chromosomal distribution of two satellite DNA sequence families in Lathyrus species.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, M; Sarri, V; Polizzi, E; Andreozzi, G; Cionini, P G

    2010-06-01

    DNA clones containing highly repetitive DNA sequences were selected from partial libraries of Lathyrus sativus and L. sylvestris. Two satellite DNA sequence families were isolated from the genome of the former species. A first family was made up of repeats that varied in length from 54-56 bp, and shared 51.7-94.8% nucleotide sequence similarity. The repeats of the second sequence family were 52-62 bp in length, and shared a 58.5-78.5% nucleotide sequence similarity. All the repeat units contained in a clone from L. sylvestris were 41 bp in length and showed an almost perfect structural conservation (95.1-100% nucleotide sequence similarity). The evolution of the first sequence family from L. sativus and of that isolated from L. sylvestris was studied by dot-blot hybridization to the genomic DNA of these species and 3 other Lathyrus species, L. clymenum, L. latifolius and L. odoratus. The former repeats were found to be species-specific and their redundancy was calculated to be 2.9 x 10(7). The satellite DNA sequence isolated from L. sylvestris was present also in L.latifolius, with a redundancy of 1.4 x 10(7) and 1.1 x 10(7), respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to investigate the chromosomal distribution of the two sequence families and of 45S and 5S ribosomal genes. The species-specific sequences of L. sativus were located around the centromere of chromosome pair IV, where they occupied a very broad region, and, in a much smaller amount, close to the centromere in the short arm of pair II. Sequences related to the repeat units isolated from L. sylvestris were found, both in this species and L. latifolius, in all of the chromosome pairs at terminal and interstitial regions, where they co-localize with the vast majority of DAPI bands. The pattern of distribution of the satellite DNA sequences investigated, together with that of DAPI bands and ribosomal DNA, allowed each chromosome pair of the 3 complements studied to be identified

  2. Effect of field pea level on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and in situ disappearance in beef steers fed forage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gilbery, T C; Caton, J S

    2004-07-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred beef steers (397+/-55 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effects of increasing level of field pea supplementation on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and in situ disappearance in steers fed moderate-quality (8.0% CP, DM basis) grass hay. Basal diets, offered ad libitum twice daily, consisted of chopped (15.2-cm screen) grass hay. Supplements were 0, 0.81, 1.62, and 2.43 kg (DM basis) per steer daily of rolled field pea (23.4% CP, DM basis) offered in equal proportions twice daily. Steers were adapted to diets on d 1 to 9; on d 10 to 14, DMI were measured. Field pea and grass hay were incubated in situ, beginning on d 10, for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h. Ruminal fluid was collected and pH recorded at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after feeding on d 13. Duodenal samples were taken for three consecutive days beginning on d 10 in a manner that allowed for a collection to take place every other hour over a 24-h period. Linear, quadratic, and cubic contrasts were used to evaluate the effects of increasing field pea level. Total DMI and OMI increased quadratically (P = 0.09), whereas forage DMI decreased quadratically (P = 0.09) with increasing field pea supplementation. There was a cubic effect (P < 0.001) for ruminal pH. Ruminal (P = 0.02) and apparent total-tract (P = 0.09) NDF disappearance decreased linearly with increasing field pea supplementation. Total ruminal VFA concentrations responded cubically (P = 0.008). Bacterial N flow (P = 0.002) and true ruminal N disappearance (P = 0.003) increased linearly, and apparent total-tract N disappearance increased quadratically (P = 0.09) with increasing field pea supplementation. No treatment effects were observed for ruminal DM fill (P = 0.82), true ruminal OM disappearance (P = 0.38), apparent intestinal OM digestion (P = 0.50), ruminal ADF disappearance (P = 0.17), apparent total-tract ADF

  3. [Effect of combined treatment of 60Co gamma-ray and EMS on antioxidase activity and ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus].

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Wang, F; Wang, X; Zhou, G; Li, Z

    2000-12-01

    Lathyrus sativus seeds were treated with 60Co gamma-ray and EMS(ethyl methane sulfonate), and their emergence rate and SOD, POD and CAT activities were determined. The result indicated that the treatment decreased the emergence rate. The activities of SOD and POD were changed in accordance with the increase of irradiation dose and EMS concentration, while that of CAT had no obvious change. After treatment, the ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus decreased. Amutant was developed, with toxin content of 0.1%, compared to 0.2% in control.

  4. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  5. Growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in the dry regions of eastern Kenya, due to its drought tolerance and high protein content; however, farmer’s yield is limiting. Ojwang et al. (HortTech Vol 26 (1), 2016) evaluated twelve pigeon pea cultivars for flowering, plant height, branches, pod length and yield...

  6. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of...

  7. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of...

  8. Lessons from neurolathyrism: a disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal).

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya S; Rao, S L N

    2013-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal) is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid) the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.

  9. Testing uniformity of mutants of the Lathyrus sativus L. (grasspea) using Bennet's method.

    PubMed

    Zawieja, B; Bocianowski, J; Rybin'ski, W

    2012-02-01

    In this paper interest is focused on uniformity of individual mutants. Because before the registration of a new variety the criteria for DUS (distinctness, uniformity and stability) are checked, so you should also check whether the mutant meets them. The aim of created mutants, in many genetic experiments, is to expand variation of the initial material. This is achieved through use of the mutagen or combination of mutagens on different stages of plants growth. The experimenter should choose some of obtained mutants (for example these which showed better property as regards the same trait). Calculations were done on the basis of results of test with variety Krab of the Lathyrus sativus L. (grasspea) species and 17 mutants getting from this variety. Uniformity was checked with the use of the Bennett's method which is based on testing of equality of coefficients of variation. After analysis the mutants with codes K3, K37, K63 and K64 were detected as uniform at the same level as variety Krab.

  10. A Bowman-Birk inhibitor with anti-elastase activity from Lathyrus sativus L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Micaela; Malorni, Livia; Chambery, Angela; Poerio, Elia; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2011-08-01

    Four Bowman-Birk inhibitors, named LSI-1/4, were isolated and purified from Lathyrus sativus L. seeds. The purification procedure consisted of two cation-exchange chromatography steps, followed by gel-filtration and RP-HPLC. Mass spectrometry analysis of LSI-1/4 inhibitors yielded relative molecular masses of 7914.41 for LSI-1, 6867.67 for LSI-2, 7341.24 for LSI-3 and 7460.01 for LSI-4. N-terminal sequences (up to 30 residues) of LSI-1/4 inhibitors were identical with the exception of sequence positions 21, 27 and 28 and highly similar to those of other Bowman-Birk inhibitors isolated from Leguminosae plants. Inhibitors LSI-1/4 were active towards trypsin and α-chymotrypsin, with IC(50) values for 12.6 nM of trypsin ranging from 4.9 to 24.3 nM. A lower activity was observed against bovine α-chymotrypsin (IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 μM for 15.0 nM of α-chymotrypsin). Peptide mapping of the LSI-1 sequence showed the presence of an Ala residue in the second reactive site, thus explaining the low anti-chymotrypsin activity of this inhibitor. In addition, LSI-1 was endowed with anti-elastase activity, being able to inhibit human leukocyte elastase.

  11. Adsorption of cadmium on husk of Lathyrus sativus: physico-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Chatterjee, S; Maity, P B; Bandopadhyay, T S; Guha, A K

    2006-06-01

    Adsorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by low-cost biosorbents was investigated. Husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) was found to be the most efficient in this respect and removed approximately 95% of the metal. The influence of pH, temperature, contact time and metal ion concentration on the adsorption process by HLS was studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the solution greatly influenced the process with an optimum at pH 5.0-6.0, whereas temperature had no significant effect. The process was very fast and more than 90% of the total adsorption took place within the first 5 min and was found to follow pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The adsorption data can better be explained by Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 35 mg/g of HLS at pH 5.0 and 30 degrees C. Scanning electron micrographs showed that cadmium was present as micro precipitate on the surface of the adsorbent. Cadmium replaced calcium of the biomass as revealed from the EDX analysis indicating that the adsorption proceeds through ion exchange mechanism. Cadmium could be desorbed from the loaded biomass by lowering pH approximately 1.0 with mineral acid.

  12. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) profiling of phenolic compounds from Lathyrus cicera L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, F; Magalhães, S C Q; Gil-Izquierdo, A; Valentão, P; Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Andrade, P B

    2017-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. seeds are of interest for food and feed purposes. Despite the recognized antioxidant activity of the seeds, arising from the phenolic fraction, their phenolic compounds have not been studied in depth yet. Therefore, to determine the phenolics profile of these seeds, a target analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode-array detection and electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)). Thirty-seven glycosylated flavonoids were identified for the first time in the seeds of this species and, according to their MS fragmentation, clustered in flavonol-3-O-di-/tri-glycosides-7-O-rhamnosides and other flavonol-glycosides, and flavonol-3-O-(cinnamoyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides, flavonol-3-O-(dihydrophaseoyl, cinnamoyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides and flavonol-3-O-(malonyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides. Glycosides of kaempferol were the main flavonoids found (10 non-acylated and 21 acylated), followed by those of quercetin (3) and those of isorhamnetin, apigenin and luteolin (1). The most abundant flavonols were identified as kaempferol-3-O-(2-hexosyl)hexoside-7-O-rhamnosides. The methodology used allowed to increase the knowledge on a relevant phytochemical class of seeds from L. cicera.

  13. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  14. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  15. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  16. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Green peas genetically developed to be eaten without shelling (e.g., snap peas, snow peas, and Chinese... peas genetically developed to be shelled prior to eating, canning or freezing. 2. Unit Division (a) For..., either of which causes the acreage to be bypassed. (2) Fire; (3) Insects, but not damage due to...

  17. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  18. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  19. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  20. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  1. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  2. ß-N-oxalyl-L-a,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP) content in Lathyrus sativus: the integration of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism through ß-cyanoalanine synthase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This under utilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for p...

  3. Pests in ornamental grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  4. Chapter 18. Grasses

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Monsen; Richard Stevens; Nancy Shaw

    2004-01-01

    Grasses are adapted to a wide range of edaphic and climatic conditions and are found in nearly all plant communities. In the Western United States, grasses are seeded on disturbances to provide forage (Hull and Holmgren 1964; Vallentine 1989), wildlife habitat (Plummer and others 1968), and watershed stability (Cornelius 1946; Hafenrichter and others 1949; Piper 1934;...

  5. Grass flower development.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Tanaka, Wakana; Toriba, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    Grasses bear unique flowers lacking obvious petals and sepals in special inflorescence units, the florets and the spikelet. Despite this, grass floral organs such as stamens and lodicules (petal homologs) are specified by ABC homeotic genes encoding MADS domain transcription factors, suggesting that the ABC model of eudicot flower development is largely applicable to grass flowers. However, some modifications need to be made for the model to fit grasses well: for example, a YABBY gene plays an important role in carpel specification. In addition, a number of genes are involved in the development of the lateral organs that constitute the spikelet. In this review, we discuss recent progress in elucidating the genes required for flower and spikelet development in grasses, together with those involved in fate determination of the spikelet and flower meristems.

  6. Bean alpha-amylase inhibitors in transgenic peas inhibit development of pea weevil larvae.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Majer, Maria José; Hardie, Darryl C; Turner, Neil C; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2007-08-01

    This glasshouse study used an improved larval measurement procedure to evaluate the impact of transgenic pea, Pisum sativum L., seeds expressing a-amylase inhibitor (AI)-1 or -2 proteins on pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Seeds of transgenic 'Laura' and 'Greenfeast' peas expressing alpha-(AI)-1 reduced pea weevil survival by 93-98%. Larval mortality occurred at an early instar. Conversely, in nontransgenic cultivars, approximately 98-99% of the pea weevils emerged as adults. By measuring the head capsule size, we determined that larvae died at the first to early third instar in alpha-(AI)-1 transgenic peas, indicating that this inhibitor is highly effective in controlling this insect. By contrast, transgenic Laura and 'Dundale' expressing alpha-(AI)-2 did not affect pea weevil survival, but they did delay larval development. After 77 d of development, the head capsule size indicated that the larvae were still at the third instar stage in transgenic alpha-(AI)-2 peas, whereas adult bruchids had developed in the nontransgenic peas.

  7. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching.

    PubMed

    Doust, Andrew N

    2007-02-01

    Variation in grass architecture profoundly affects light capture, competition, and reproductive success, and is responsive to environmental factors such as crowding and nutrient limitation. Recent work in both model and crop systems has uncovered many aspects of the genetic control of branching, including conservation of the MONOCULM1 and MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING/DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE/RAMOSUS (MAX/DAD/RMS) genetic pathways among the grasses and the model dicot systems of tomato, Arabidopsis, Petunia and pea. Parallel studies on the effect of environment on branching have also begun to uncover links between environmental sensing through phytochrome pathways, and resultant changes in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 expression, and meristem inhibition. Future work promises to integrate knowledge of phenotypic responses to environment with our understanding of the genetic and hormonal changes that underlie phenotypic change.

  8. Karyotype characterization and evolution in South American species of Lathyrus (Notolathyrus, Leguminosae) evidenced by heterochromatin and rDNA mapping.

    PubMed

    Chalup, Laura; Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Neffa, Viviana Solís; Seijo, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Notolathyrus is a section of South American endemic species of the genus Lathyrus. The origin, phylogenetic relationship and delimitation of some species are still controversial. The present study provides an exhaustive analysis of the karyotypes of approximately half (10) of the species recognized for section Notolathyrus and four outgroups (sections Lathyrus and Orobus) by cytogenetic mapping of heterochromatic bands and 45S and 5S rDNA loci. The bulk of the parameters analyzed here generated markers to identify most of the chromosomes in the complements of the analyzed species. Chromosome banding showed interspecific variation in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin, and together with the distribution of rDNA loci, allowed the characterization of all the species studied here. Additionally, some of the chromosome parameters described (st chromosomes and the 45S rDNA loci) constitute the first diagnostic characters for the Notolathyrus section. Evolutionary, chromosome data revealed that the South American species are a homogeneous group supporting the monophyly of the section. Variation in the amount of heterochromatin was not directly related to the variation in DNA content of the Notolathyrus species. However, the correlation observed between the amount of heterochromatin and some geographical and bioclimatic variables suggest that the variation in the heterochromatic fraction should have an adaptive value.

  9. Finding linked markers to En for efficient selection of pea enation Mosaic Virus resistance in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) causes an important disease of cool season food legumes, resulting in significant yield loss worldwide. The present investigation was carried out to study the inheritance and identify the molecular markers linked with the PEMV resistance gene (En) in field pea (Pisum ...

  10. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  11. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  12. Arthropod diversity in peas with normal or reduced waxy bloom

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Gary C.; Rutledge, Claire E.; Biggam, Russell C.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2004-01-01

    Crop traits can alter economically important interactions between plants, pests, and biological control agents. For example, a reduced waxy bloom on the surface of pea plants alters interactions between pea aphids and their natural enemies. In this study, we assess whether the effect of wax reduction extends beyond the 2 or 3 arthropod species closely associated with the plants and into the structure of the broader arthropod community of over 200 taxa at our site. We sampled arthropods on lines of peas with normal and reduced wax in Latah Co., Idaho using pitfall traps within randomly assigned pairs of 5 × 5 meter plots. During the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons, we collected 12,113 individual arthropods from 221 unambiguously identified morphospecies. The number of individuals collected from each morphospecies responded idiosyncratically to the reduced wax peas. To test whether arthropod community structure differed between the collections from plots having peas with normal or reduced wax, we performed a randomization test. The collection from peas with reduced wax had higher species evenness and thus higher community diversity despite having lower species richness. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single plant trait, epicuticular wax, to affect a community of arthropods. Two pests of peas had opposite responses to peas with reduced wax. The number of pea aphids collected was greater from peas with normal wax peas than those with reduced wax. In contrast, the number of pea leaf weevils collected was greater from peas with reduced wax. PMID:15861234

  13. Improving forage quality and availability in the southern Great Plains with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rising cost of inorganic commercial fertilizer has renewed interest in introducing legumes into paddocks of tame grass. Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen (N), which will be available to the legume and some will be available to the following non-legume crop, reducing the need for N fertilizers (Ba...

  14. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    PubMed

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  15. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  16. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  17. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  18. Valorization of traditional foods: nutritional and bioactive properties of Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. pulses.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Alzira; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional foods can enrich our diet, perpetuating important elements of local knowledge and cultural inheritance. Raw, soaked and cooked samples of two Fabaceae species (Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L.) were characterized regarding nutritional and bioactive properties. L. sativus gave the highest carbohydrate, protein, ash, saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and lowest fat and energy value. Furthermore, it also showed the highest concentration of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Cicer arietinum gave the highest concentration of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The soaking process did not significantly affect macronutrients, but cooking (boiling) decreased protein, ash, sugars and organic acids, and increased carbohydrates, fat, tocopherols, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. No differences were obtained for fatty acid composition. The present study highlights the nutritional profile and bioactive properties of these agricultural varieties of C. arietinum and L. sativus pulses, and valorizes their traditional consumption and the use in modern diets. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  20. Potential alternative hosts for a powdery mildew on pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. trifolii and E. baeumleri have also been reported. From greenhouse-grown peas, we obtained powdery mildew samples with rDNA ITS ...

  1. Pea Disease Diagnostic Series- Rhizoctonia seed, seedling and root rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea disease diagnostic cards that growers can carry with them into the field that are water resistant and durable which can be used to identify the signs and symptoms of major pea pathogens were developed. Color photographs of major fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens on peas and a brief descript...

  2. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition.

    PubMed

    Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Groot, Jolan; Gruppen, Harry; Visser, Richard G F

    2006-01-25

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines, which produce round, wrinkled, flat, and round-dimpled seeds, have starch as the major reserve, with an average content of 46%. Protein content varied from 13.7 to 30.7% of the seed dry matter, with an overall average of 22.3%. Densitometric quantification of the individual globulins (legumin, vicilin, convicilin, and globulin-related proteins) based on SDS-PAGE gels showed no lines lacking any particular globulin. Among the lines tested, variation was shown in both their total globulins content and their globulin composition. The total globulin content ranged from 49.2 to 81.8% of the total pea protein extract (TPPE). Legumin content varied between 5.9 and 24.5% of the TPPE. Vicilin was the most abundant protein of pea, and its content varied between 26.3 and 52.0% of the TPPE. Both processed and nonprocessed vicilins occurred. The processed vicilin was the predominant one, with values between 17.8 and 40.8%, whereas the nonprocessed ones constituted between 3.1 and 13.5% of the TPPE. Convicilin was the least abundant globulin, and its content ranged from 3.9 to 8.3%. Finally, the globulin-related proteins were present in amounts ranging from 2.8 to 17.3%. They were less abundant in comparison with legumin and vicilin, but they showed the largest relative variation of the four globulin classes. Correlations between the different external characteristics and globulin composition were determined. Comparison with soybean showed that pea lines show more variety in the abundance of globulin proteins, enabling a wider range of food application.

  3. Evidence that QTL may be involved in a tolerance response to Pea enation mosaic virus in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a serious disease of fresh market and dry pea in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The En gene confers resistance to PEMV in pea, however a limited number of available cultivars contain the gene, and sources of tolerance have not been reported. In 2007, ad...

  4. Traditionally Used Lathyrus Species: Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Cytotoxic Effects, and in silico Studies of L. czeczottianus and L. nissolia

    PubMed Central

    Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J.; Zengin, Gokhan; Fernández-de Córdova, María L.; Bender, Onur; Atalay, Arzu; Ceylan, Ramazan; Mollica, Adriano; Mocan, Andrei; Uysal, Sengul; Guler, Gokalp O.; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Lathyrus are used as food and as traditional medicines. In order to find new sources of biologically-active compounds, chemical and biological profiles of two Lathyrus species (L. czeczottianus and L. nissolia) were investigated. Chemical profiles were evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MSn, as well as by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In addition, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects were also investigated. Antioxidant properties were tested by using different assays (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation). Cholinesterases (AChE and BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase were used to evaluate enzyme inhibitory effects. Moreover, vitexin (apigenin-8-C-glucoside) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were further subjected to molecular docking experiments to provide insights about their interactions at molecular level with the tested enzymes. In vitro cytotoxic effects were examined against human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) by using iCELLigence real time cell analysis system. Generally, L. czeczottianus exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than L. nissolia. However, L. nissolia had remarkable enzyme inhibitory effects against cholinesterase, amylase and glucosidase. HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis revealed that flavonoids were major components in these extracts. On the basis of these results, Lathyrus extracts were rich in biologically active components; thus, these species could be utilized to design new phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulations. PMID:28289386

  5. Registration of Pea Germplasm Partially Resistant to Aphanomyces Root Rot for Breeding Fresh or Freezer Pea and Dry Pea Types

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven F8 derived breeding lines, 846-07, 847-08, 847-22, 847-45, 847-50, 847-53 and 847-68, of green pea (Pisum sativum, L.) were selected from a recombinant inbred line population that was developed by the USDA ARS in 2002. These lines are unique as they combine high levels of tolerance to Aphanom...

  6. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  7. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1990, we found an unknown grass growing on a farm in southwestern Wisconsin. We have identified this grass as meadow fescue, popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century before tall fescue was imported into the USA. The grass was established throughout the Charles Opitz farm by harve...

  8. Grass Roots Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, John W.

    Some aspects of a grass roots evaluation training program are presented. The program consists of two elements: (1) a series of 11 slide/tape individualized self-paced units, and (2) a six-week summer program. Three points of view on this program are: (1) University graduate programs in quantitative areas are usually consumed by specialists; (2)…

  9. Native grasses for biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable breeding and genetic research is currently dedicated to the development of warm-season perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as dedicated biomass crops. However, the Great Basin and other large regions of the western United States and World are dominated by cool-se...

  10. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  11. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  12. Actin and Myosin in Pea Tendrils 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ze; Yen, Lung-Fei

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate here the presence of actin and myosin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) tendrils. The molecular weight of tendril actin is 43,000, the same as rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The native molecular weight of tendril myosin is about 440,000. Tendril myosin is composed of two heavy chains of molecular weight approximately 165,000 and four (two pairs) light chains of 17,000 and 15,000. At high ionic strength, the ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by K+-EDTA and Ca2+ and is inhibited by Mg2+. At low ionic strength, the Mg2+-ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Superprecipitation occurred after incubation at room temperature when ATP was added to the crude actomyosin extract. It is suggested that the interaction of actin and myosin may play a role in the coiling movement of pea tendril. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666586

  13. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4)…

  14. Pea disease diagnostic series - White mold

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White mold is a serious disease of pea worldwide, and it is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Water soaked lesions and white mycelial growth may occur on leaves, stems and pods, and are characteristics of the disease. The pathogen may form black fruiting bodies called sclerotia on infec...

  15. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... than 15 percent by count of the peas may sink in a solution containing 16 percent salt by weight... determination. (i) Extracting solutions: (a) One hundred parts of ethanol denatured with five parts of methanol volume to volume (formula 3A denatured alcohol), or (b) A mixture of 95 parts of formula 3A...

  16. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... percent by weight, or more than 12 sq cm (2 sq in) in area, extraneous vegetable material, i.e., vine or.... With cloth wipe surplus water from lower screen surface. Weigh 250 g. of peas into high-speed blender.... From this weight deduct weight of dish, cover, and paper. Calculate percent by weight of alcohol...

  17. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydrogen ion concentration. (xiii) Seasonings and garnishes: (a) Pieces of green or red peppers or mixtures... designation “green.” The term “early,” “June,” or “early June” shall precede or follow the name in the case of... characteristics. Where the peas are of sweet green wrinkled varieties or hybrids having similar characteristics...

  18. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of... drained weight of the finished food. (b) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (c) Mint leaves. (d... following shall be included as part of the name or in close proximity to the name of the food: (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of... drained weight of the finished food. (b) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (c) Mint leaves. (d... following shall be included as part of the name or in close proximity to the name of the food: (a)...

  20. Pea dehydrins: identification, characterisation and expression.

    PubMed

    Roberton, M; Chandler, P M

    1992-09-01

    An antiserum raised against dehydrin from maize (Zea mays) recognised several polypeptides in extracts of pea (Pisum sativum) cotyledons. A cDNA expression library was prepared from mRNA of developing cotyledons, screened with the antiserum and positive clones were purified and characterised. The nucleotide sequence of one such clone, pPsB12, contained an open reading frame which would encode a polypeptide with regions of significant amino acid sequence similarity to dehydrins from other plant species. The deduced amino acid sequence of the pea dehydrin encoded by B12 is 197 amino acids in length, has a high glycine content (25.9%), lacks tryptophan and is highly hydrophilic. The polypeptide has an estimated molecular mass of 20.4 kDa and pI = 6.4. An in vitro synthesised product from the clone comigrates with one of the in vivo proteins recognised by the antiserum. A comparison of the pea dehydrin sequence with sequences from other species revealed conserved amino acid regions: an N-terminal DEYGNP and a lysine-rich block (KIKEKLPG), both of which are present in two copies. Unexpectedly, pea dehydrin lacks a stretch of serine residues which is conserved in other dehydrins. B12 mRNA and dehydrin proteins accumulated in dehydration-stressed seedlings, associated with elevated levels of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Applied ABA induced expression of dehydrins in unstressed seedlings. Dehydrin expression was rapidly reversed when seedlings were removed from the stress or from treatment with ABA and placed in water. During pea cotyledon development, dehydrin mRNA and proteins accumulated in mid to late embryogenesis. Dehydrin proteins were some of the most actively synthesised at about the time of maximum fresh weight and represent about 2% of protein in mature cotyledons.

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  6. Plant waxy bloom on peas affects infection of pea aphids by Pandora neoaphidis.

    PubMed

    Duetting, Patrick S; Ding, Hongjian; Neufeld, Jeffrey; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the effects of the surface wax bloom of pea plants, Pisum sativum, on infection of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis. In prior field surveys, a higher proportion of P. neoaphidis-killed pea aphids (cadavers) had been observed on a pea line with reduced wax bloom, as compared with a sister line with normal surface wax bloom. Laboratory bioassays were conducted in order to examine the mechanisms. After plants of each line infested with aphids were exposed to similar densities of conidia, the rate of accumulation of cadavers on the reduced wax line was significantly greater than on the normal wax bloom line; at the end of the experiment (13d), the proportion of aphid cadavers on the reduced wax line was approximately four times that on the normal wax bloom line. When plants were exposed to conidia first and then infested with aphids, the rate of accumulation of cadavers was slightly but significantly greater on the reduced wax line, and infection at the end of the experiment (16d) did not differ between the lines. When aphids were exposed first and then released onto the plants, no differences in the proportion of aphid cadavers were observed between the pea lines. Greater infection of pea aphid on reduced wax peas appears to depend upon plants being exposed to inoculum while aphids are settled in typical feeding positions on the plant. Additional experiments demonstrated increased adhesion and germination by P. neoaphidis conidia to leaf surfaces of the reduced wax line as compared with normal wax line, and this could help explain the higher infection rate by P. neoaphidis on the reduced wax line. In bioassays using surface waxes extracted from the two lines, there was no effect of wax source on germination of P. neoaphidis conidia.

  7. Waving of Aquatic Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Richards, K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the fluid-structure interaction between submerged flexible grass stems and unidirectional flow in a channel. The stems deform in response to the drag force imposed by the flow. The drag, however, varies non-linearly with the fluid velocity and it's angle of incidence with the stems' axis. An increase in fluid velocity increases drag that consequently decelerates the fluid, but also bends the stems further and reduces drag. Such a drag-induced feedback mechanism between the plant structures and water results in an instability that is responsible for the synchronous waving of aquatic grasses in a flow field that is initially uniform. We construct a model for this phenomenon to explore its dependence on parameters. Experiments are also in progress. We further propose to test the applicability of similar mechanisms to sediment transport over deformable beds.

  8. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  9. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  10. Determination of neurotoxin 3-N-oxalyl-2,3-diaminopropionic acid and non-protein amino acids in Lathyrus sativus by precolumn derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Chen, X; Chen, Q; Qin, X; Li, Z

    2000-06-23

    A rapid and simple method is presented for determining neuro-excitatory nonprotein amino acid 3-N-oxalyl-2,3-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) and non-protein amino acids in Lathyrus sativus. Seed and foliage extracts of Lathyrus sativus were treated with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (RP HPLC) for the separation of the derivatives in the pmol range is reported. The RP HPLC method and a colorimetric method were compared for measuring ODAP.

  11. Pea, Pisum sativum, and Its Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rungruangmaitree, Runchana; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Pisum sativum (Family: Fabaceae), as known as green pea or garden pea, has long been important in diet due to its content of fiber, protein, starch, trace elements, and many phytochemical substances. It has been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemia, and antioxidant activities and also shown anticancer property. Its nonnutritive biologically active components include alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, isoflavones, phenols, phytosterols, phytic acid, protease inhibitors, saponins, and tannins. This plant is rich in apigenin, hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, luteolin, and quercetin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including anticarcinogenesis property. Based on established literature on the anticancer property of P. sativum and possible mode of action, this review article has focused to demonstrate that P. sativum could be further explored for the development of anticancer treatment. PMID:28503053

  12. Pea, Pisum sativum, and Its Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Rungruangmaitree, Runchana; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Pisum sativum (Family: Fabaceae), as known as green pea or garden pea, has long been important in diet due to its content of fiber, protein, starch, trace elements, and many phytochemical substances. It has been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemia, and antioxidant activities and also shown anticancer property. Its nonnutritive biologically active components include alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, isoflavones, phenols, phytosterols, phytic acid, protease inhibitors, saponins, and tannins. This plant is rich in apigenin, hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, luteolin, and quercetin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including anticarcinogenesis property. Based on established literature on the anticancer property of P. sativum and possible mode of action, this review article has focused to demonstrate that P. sativum could be further explored for the development of anticancer treatment.

  13. Effects of europium ions (Eu3+) on the distribution and related biological activities of elements in Lathyrus sativus L roots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Li, Feng Min; Zeng, Fuli

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were used to study the distributions of different types of elements in the epidermis, exodermis, endodermis, and vascular cylinder of the fracture face in the Lathyrus sativus L. roots in the presence or absence of Eu3+. Some index of the biological activity related to the elements binding with protein were determined also. The results showed that the tissular distributions of elements in the fracture face are different in the presence and absence of Eu3+. The atomic percentages of P, S, Ca, and Mn were influenced more than those of other elements. Eu3+ promoted the biological activities of various kinds of element. The one possible mechanism changing the biological activities was that the reaction of Eu3+ +e--> Eu2+ would influence the electron capture or transport in elements of binding protein. Another mechanism was that CaM-Ca2+ becoming CaM-Eu3+ through Eu3+ instead of Ca2+ would affect the biological activity of elements by regulating the Ca2+ level in the plant cell.

  14. Effects of Eu3+ on the metabolism of amino acid and protein in xerophytic Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Zeng, Fu Li; Li, Feng Min; Shan, Lun

    2005-01-01

    The contents of amino acids and proteins and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase were determined in roots, stems, and leaves of Eu3+-treated Lathyrus sativus L. The results showed that the treatment of Eu3+ made the contents of amino acid and protein and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase change. The first possible mechanism was that Eu3+ directly made the electric potential of -NH2 or -COOH of amino acid change. The second possible mechanism was that Eu3+ played a role in metallic-activated factors of certain enzymes, which catalyze the catabolism and anabolism of protein. Then, the contents of amino acids and proteins were relatively changed. The third possible mechanism was that Eu3+ regulated the activity of ATPase through changing the Na+/K+ ratio. The energy released by ATPase was the driving force for the translocation of amino acids and proteins in the plant cell. Because of the changeability of its valence, Eu3+ played an important role in regulating certain physiological reactions to increase the adaptability of L. sativus in arid environment.

  15. The neurotoxicity of β-N-oxalyl-l-αβ-diaminopropionic acid, the neurotoxin from the pulse Lathyrus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, P. S.; Malathi, K.; Padmanaban, G.; Sarma, P. S.

    1969-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of β-N-oxalyl-l-αβ-diaminopropionic acid, the neurotoxin from Lathyrus sativus, to 12-day-old rats causes typical convulsions within 10min. There is a striking accumulation of glutamine in the brain, and chronic ammonia toxicity is indicated. There are no changes in the amounts of urea, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the brain. Adult rats, even when injected with a dose of excess of β-N-oxalyl-l-αβ-diaminopropionic acid, do not develop symptoms, and there are no changes in the amounts of glutamine or ammonia in the brain. A significant concentration of β-N-oxalyl-l-αβ-diaminopropionic acid can be detected in the brain of the young rat but not in that of the adult animal. It is concluded that β-N-oxalyl-l-αβ-diaminopropionic acid interferes with the ammonia-generating or -fixing mechanisms in the brain and leads to chronic ammonia toxicity. PMID:5774501

  16. DPPH scavenging, PRAP activities and essential oil composition of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. (Cyprus Vetch, Luvana) from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. was investigated by simultaneous GC, GC/MS analyses under the same conditions. Trace amount of oil (0.01> mL) obtained by hydro distillation of 200 g fresh plants was trapped in 1 mL n-hexane. Twenty components were detected representing 91.55 ± 0.56 % of the oil. The main components were phytol 49.39 ± 0.44 %, hexadecanoic acid 20.64 ± 0.89 % and pentacosane 4.20 ± 0.09 %. Essential oil solution (1% oil: n-hexane) afforded similar DPPH scavenging activity (9.28 ± 1.30 %) when compared with positive controls α-tocopherol (9.74 ± 0.21 %) and BHT (7.79 ± 0.26 %) at the same concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using a new HPTLC-PRAP assay. The oil afforded two fold higher reducing activity of phosphomolybdenum complex (594.85 ± 5.14 AU) when compared with positive controls α- tocopherol (271.10 ± 2.86 AU) and BHT (210.53 ± 1.81 AU) at the same concentration.

  17. Exotic Grass Yields Under Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    H.A. Pearson

    1975-01-01

    Kentucky 31 and Kenwell tall fescue, Pensacola bahia, and Brunswick grasses yielded nea,rly three times more forage under an established pine stand than native grasses 7 years after seeding. Introducing exotic grasses did not significantly increase total grass production but did enhance range quality since the cool-season grasses are green during winter and are higher...

  18. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  19. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose : IV. Assembly of beta-Glucans by Pea Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Polonenko, D R; Camirand, A; Maclachlan, G

    1986-09-01

    The synthesis and assembly of xyloglucan were examined during early stages of wall regeneration by protoplasts isolated from growing regions of etiolated peas. During early stages of cultivation, fluorescence microscopy showed that the protoplast surface bound Calcofluor and ammonium salt of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid and, in time, it also bound fluorescent fucose-binding lectin. Based on chemical analysis, 1,3-beta-glucan was the main polysaccharide formed by protoplasts and xyloglucan and cellulose were minor wall components. Binding between cellulose and xyloglucan was not as strong as that in tissues of intact pea plants, i.e. mild alkali could dissolve most xyloglucan from the protoplast. However, the addition of exogenous pea xyloglucan into the culture medium stimulated the deposition of new polysaccharides into the protoplast wall and enhanced the close association of newly formed xyloglucan with cellulose.

  20. X-rays from Green Pea analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, M.; Kaaret, P.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray observations of two metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG; SHOC 486 and SDSS J084220.94+115000.2) with properties similar to the so-called Green Pea galaxies were obtained using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Green Pea galaxies are relatively small, compact (a few kpc across) galaxies that get their green colour from strong [O iii] λ5007 Å emission, an indicator of intense, recent star formation. These two galaxies were predicted to have the highest observed count rates, using the X-ray luminosity-star formation rate (LX-SFR) relation for X-ray binaries, from a statistically complete sample drawn from optical criteria. We determine the X-ray luminosity relative to SFR and metallicity for these two galaxies. Neither exhibits any evidence of active galactic nuclei, and we suspect that the X-ray emission originates from unresolved populations of high-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss the LX-SFR-metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies and show that the two LCGs are consistent with the prediction of this relation. This is the first detection of Green Pea analogues in X-rays.

  1. GRASS Hardware Configurations Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    portability rather than limit users to a single brand of hardware. Within GRASS, there are many processor inten- sive functions. Therefore, processor...Expansion Unit 2,000 558 RR13 2 60 MB. 1 4V tape drive 1.233 SYSI,2 2-User Licene N, C Total $ 26,710 $ 23,290 IhLs erem is not supplij, bv ,un Nficrosyterms...DOS world there are a ’arge number of vendors that can supply you with the basic 386 personal computer that wili work in place of the brand of computer

  2. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  3. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  4. Chapter 8. Genetic Adjustment to Changing Climates: Pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peas are adapted to cool, semi-arid to sub-humid growing conditions and although they are widely grown throughout the world, the best performance is realized in the cool, relatively dry areas of the mid-latitudes. The literature to date on the potential effects of climate change specifically on pea ...

  5. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  6. Appearance of Three Chloroplast Isoenzymes in Dark-grown Pea Plants and Pea Seeds 12

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Eun Yoon; Anderson, Louise E.

    1973-01-01

    Activity peaks characteristic of the chloroplastic Calvin cycle enzymes triose-phosphate isomerase, ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, and fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase are found in isoelectric focusing patterns of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings and seeds. Apparently, in this higher plant these three chloroplastic isoenzymes can be formed in the absence of light and of chloroplast formation. PMID:16658311

  7. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    PubMed

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  8. Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in dry land and semi-arid regions and is a supplementary source of dietary protein for the resource-constrained farmers. The aim of this research was to evaluate growth parameters of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes at two locations in Eastern Kenya. The number o...

  9. Development of genetic resources for association mapping in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous study of the allelic diversity of the USDA pea core collection resequenced ten loci of 32 diverse pea germplasm accessions from which SNP assays were designed for Agpl1, AspS2, Cwi1, DRR206c, PPlike, PsAS2, SOD9, Thaumatin1, PsLD, and Viola2 (Aubert et al. 2006; Gilpin et al 1997; Hecht ...

  10. Additional pea EST-SSR markers for comparative mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The availability of a large set of molecular markers is an excellent resource for both applied and basic research for any organism. The current consensus molecular map of pea is 1,430 cM and contains 239 simple sequence repeat markers. The goal was to identify and test unique gene-based simple sequ...

  11. Kinetic studies of pea carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I M; Forsman, C

    1993-12-01

    Chloroplast carbonic anhydrase from Pisum sativum has been isolated. The kinetic properties of the enzyme have been studied and comparisons to the well characterised human carbonic anhydrase II made. Pea carbonic anhydrase was found to be dependent on a reducing agent in order to retain the catalytic activity. Oxidised, inactive, enzyme could be activated by the addition of a SH-agent. However, such activation gave only 60% of the activity of an enzyme kept in a reduced state all the time. The kinetics of CO2 hydration show an increase in kcat as well as in kcat/Km with pH, but the pH profile does not follow a simple titration curve. The pH dependence is more complicated and it seems as if there are several titratable groups affecting the activity. At pH 9 we obtain a turnover number of 4 x 10(5) s-1 and a kcat/Km value of 1.8 x 10(8) M-1 s-1 with reference to the subunit. We also find that the enzyme needs high concentrations of buffer to work at a maximal rate. Apparent Km values with respect to the total buffer concentration are found between 52-185 mM at neutral and high pH. At low pH the situation is complex with deviations from Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Chloroplast carbonic anhydrase from higher plants have been reported to have primary structures that are completely different from the enzyme from animals. In addition, we find the circular dichroic spectrum of pea carbonic anhydrase to be well distinguished from that of human carbonic anhydrase II. Despite those structural differences the kinetic parameters indicate that pea carbonic anhydrase is equally efficient as human carbonic anhydrase II in catalysing the hydration of CO2. However, the mechanism for proton transfer from the active site to the surrounding medium seems to differ between the two enzymes.

  12. Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Sima; Mandi, Sukumar; Tarafdar, Jayanta

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.

  13. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  14. The nutritive value of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) and allied species, their toxicity to animals and the role of malnutrition in neurolathyrism.

    PubMed

    Enneking, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    The safe use of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) and allied species (L. cicera, L. clymenum and L. ochrus) requires a better understanding of the factors that are involved in the development of neurolathyrism. A suitable animal model is needed. The nutritional quality, seed chemical composition, the role of malnutrition, synergistic action of antinutritional factors, the toxicity of both seed and forage to animals, metabolism and tissue distribution of the toxic amino acid beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-L-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) in mammals are reviewed. Malnutrition is not necessary for the development of neurolathyrism, however, the supply of sulfur amino acids by Lathyrus spp. is limited by the combined action of several antinutritional factors and the low inherent levels in the seeds. Metabolism or excretion of ODAP and clearance from the central nervous system appear to function well under normal circumstances, while species differences exist. Interruptions to these processes and excessive concurrent demands for reduced sulfur amino acids are likely to be conducive to the onset of neurotoxicity.

  15. In vitro activation of protein kinase C by beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid, the Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Singh, M Raghuveer; Pratap Rudra, M P; Rao, S L N; Singh, Surya S

    2004-07-01

    Beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (L-ODAP) toxicity has been associated with lathyrism; a spastic paraparesis caused by excessive dietary intake of the pulse Lathyrus sativus. We investigated the effect of Lathyrus neurotoxin L-ODAP on protein kinase C (PKC) activity under in vitro conditions. L-ODAP activated phosphorylation activity of purified chick brain PKC. Both lysine-rich (histone III-S) and arginine-rich (protamine sulfate) substrate phosphorylation was enhanced in the presence of L-ODAP. The activation is concentration dependent, and maximal activation is observed at 100 microM concentration. Protamine sulfate phosphorylation was enhanced by 47%, whereas histone III-S phosphorylation was enhanced by 50% over PS/PDBu/Ca2+ dependent activity. The nontoxic D-isomer (D-ODAP) did not affect both histone III-S and protamine sulfate phosphorylation activity. These results indicate that L-ODAP taken up by neuronal cells could also contribute to PKC activation and so be associated with toxicity.

  16. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  17. Extending juvenility in grasses

    DOEpatents

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  18. Equine grass sickness.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Glycolate transporter of the pea chloroplast envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Howitz, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of a glycolate transporter in the pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast envelope is described. Several novel silicone oil centrifugation methods were developed to resolve the initial rate kinetics of (/sup 14/C)glycolate transport by isolated, intact pea chloroplasts. Chloroplast glycolate transport was found to be carrier mediated. Transport rates saturated with increasing glycolate concentration. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) pretreatment of chloroplasts inhibited transport, an inhibition prevented by glycolate. Glycolate distributed across the envelope in a way which equalized stromal and medium glycolic acid concentrations, limiting possible transport mechanisms to facilitated glycolic acid diffusion, proton symport or hydroxyl antiport. The effects of stomal and medium pH's on the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ fit the predictions of mobile carrier kinetic models of hydroxyl antiport or proton symport (H/sup +/ binds first). The carrier mediated transport was fast enough to be consistent with in vivo rates of photorespiration. The 2-hydroxymonocarboxylates, glycerate, lactate and glyoxylate are competitive inhibitors of chloroplast glycolate uptake. Glyoxylate, D-lactate and D-glycerate cause glycolate counterflow, indicating that they are also substrates of the glycolate carrier. This finding was confirmed for D-glycerate by studies on glycolate effects on (1-/sup 14/C)D-glycerate transport.

  20. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  1. Dune Grass Fertilization and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    plants often suffer, thereafter, from neglect. PURPOSE: To recommend a fertilization and maintenance program to sustain healthy dune grasses in coastal...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1982 to 00-00-1982 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dune Grass Fertilization and Maintenance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...TO APPLY: Apply a granular or pelletized agricultural type fertilizer . It need not be a costly, slow- release material. A.t\\!OUNT OF FERTILIZER TO

  2. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  3. Fungal endophytes of grasses.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aiko; Takemoto, Daigo; Chujo, Tetsuya; Scott, Barry

    2012-08-01

    Epichloae endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with temperate grasses and confer on the host a number of bioprotective benefits through production of fungal secondary metabolites and changed host metabolism. Maintenance of this mutualistic interaction requires that growth of the endophyte within the host is restricted. Recent work has shown that epichloae endophytes grow in the leaves by intercalary division and extension rather than tip growth. This novel pattern of growth enables the fungus to synchronise its growth with that of the host. Reactive oxygen species signalling is required to maintain this pattern of growth. Disruption of components of the NADPH oxidase complex or a MAP kinase, result in a switch from restricted to proliferative growth and a breakdown in the symbiosis. RNAseq analysis of mutant and wild-type associations identifies key fungal and plant genes that define the symbiotic state. Endophyte genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are only expressed in the plant and under conditions of restricted growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone attenuates genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route, tested in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomie, Ganngam; Sahu, Hrushi K; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2016-08-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellularly from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using kernel extract from ripe mango Mengifera indica L. under four different reaction conditions of the synthesis media such as the (i) absence of the reducing agent, trisodium citrate (AgNPI), (ii) presence of the reducing agent (AgNPII), (iii) presence of the cleansing agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP (AgNPIII), and (iv) presence of the capping agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP (AgNPIV). The synthesis of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs were characterised by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Functional groups on the AgNPs were established by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs (AgNPI, AgNPII, AgNPIII and AgNPIV) were spherical in shape with the diameters and size distribution-widths of 14.0±5.4, 19.2±6.6, 18.8±6.6 and 44.6±13.2nm, respectively. Genotoxicity of the AgNPs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100mgL(-1) was determined by the Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay and several endpoint assays including the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death, lipid peroxidation, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus formation (MN), and DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. The dose-dependent induction of genotoxicity of the silver ion (Ag(+)) and AgNPs was in the order Ag(+)>AgNPII>AgNPI>AgNPIV>AgNPIII that corresponded with their relative potencies of induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the findings underscored the CA and MN endpoint-based genotoxicity assay which demonstrated the genotoxicity of AgNPs at concentrations (≤10mgL(-1)) lower than that (≥10mgL(-1)) tested in the Comet assay. This study demonstrated the protective action of PVPP against the genotoxicity of AgNPIII which was independent of the size of the AgNPs in the L. sativus L. root bioassay

  5. [Fasciation in pea: basic principles of morphogenesis].

    PubMed

    Siniushin, A A; Gostimskiĭ, S A

    2006-01-01

    A study of fasciated pea Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae) mutant Shtambovy in comparison with the wild type (Nemchinovsky cultivar) has shown that fasciation is a result of abnormal cohesion of axial or other structures which arise in a superfluous amount due to uncontrolled meristic processes. In some cases, the organs with the same number and position as in the wild type can be fascinated. Subsequent defasciation and some features of tissue differentiation suggest that the meristem of a fasciated shoot retains a certain degree of discreteness which reflects its complex structure. The number and position of leaves in a node is a function of the diameter of the leaf primordium inhibitory zone, size of the shoot apical meristem, and number of bundles in a shoot. In the absence of the apex proliferative activity combined with the reduction of phyllomes in the upper nodes, abnormal cohesion of the second order axes, racemes, can take place. As a result, inflorescences of special type develop.

  6. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in isolated pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Lingru; Sparace, S.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Plastids have been isolated from germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots by differential centrifugation and purified on Percoll gradients. Marker enzymes (NADPH: cytochrome c reductase, fumarase and fatty acid synthesis) indicate that greater than 50% of the plastids are recovered essentially free from mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum contamination. Fatty acids synthesized from ({sup 14}C)acetate by Percoll-purified plastids are primarily 16:0, 16:1 and 18:1. ({sup 14}C)Acetate-labelled fatty acids and ({sup 14}C)glycerol-3-phosphate are both readily incorporated into glycerolipid. Approximately 12% of the total activity for glycerolipid biosynthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate is recovered in the purified plastid fraction. Glycerolipids synthesized from these precursors are primarily TAG, DAG, PE, PG, PC, PI and PA. Acyl-CoA's also accumulate when acetate is the precursor.

  7. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented.

  8. Ozone stress proteins in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, P.; Mozley, D.; Price, A.; Hetherington, A.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    21 day old pea plants were fumigated with 200, 100, 50 and 0 ppb ozone (8 hrs/day) for 5 days. Soluble proteins were extracted from the first 6 leaves and analyzed by 1D SDS PAGE. Polypeptides were visualized after coomassie blue staining. With respect to controls, fumigation resulted in a dose dependent decrease in staining intensity of several polypeptides (of approximate M.W. 94, 54, 35 kD). However, treatment with 200 ppb ozone resulted in the appearance of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of circa 32 kD. This polypeptide was absent from control (0 ppb ozone) plants. Currently, we are (1) purifying the c32kD polypeptide, (2) studying the temporal aspects of the synthesis of this polypeptide and (3) investigating whether this represents a general response to pollutant gases.

  9. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seed-borne was assessed by collecting dev...

  10. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance... operation of harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected...

  11. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance... harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected number of acres...

  12. Lyα and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, Junxian

    2017-03-01

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Lyα escape, we study the spatial profiles of Lyα and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. We extract the spatial profiles of Lyα emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Lyα emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Lyα spatial profile is about 2-4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high-z LAEs probably have larger Lyα sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Lyα photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Lyα line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Lyα line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3-6 LAEs have similar Lyα and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low-z and high-z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Lyα light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Lyα to UV continuum size ratios (˜1.4-4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  13. Isolation and forward genetic analysis of developmental genes in pea.

    PubMed

    Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Sussmilch, Frances C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of developmental processes relies heavily on isolation and functional characterization of relevant genes. The garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the classic model species in plant genetics and has been used for a wide range of physiological and molecular studies of plant development. Here we describe the resources and approaches available for isolation of genes and genetic characterization of loci affecting development in pea.

  14. Biochemical and immunological characterization of pea nuclear intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Sonal S D; Clark, Gregory B; Roux, Stanley J

    2004-04-01

    In immunoblot assays, at least three putative nuclear intermediate filament (NIF) proteins were detected in nuclear envelope-matrix (NEM) and lamin (L1) fractions of nuclei from plumules of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. These NIF proteins had apparent molecular masses of ca. 65, 60, and 54 kDa (also referred to as p65, p60, and p54), and appeared as multiple isoelectric forms, with pIs ranging from ca. 4.8 to 6.0. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to the 65-kDa NIF protein bands excised from gels after electrophoresis. These anti-pea antibodies were specifically cross-reactive with the pea nuclear p65, p60, and p54 proteins and also with chicken lamins. Sequence alignment of peptide fragments obtained from the 65- and 60-kDa pea NIF proteins showed similarity with animal intermediate filament proteins such as lamins and keratins and with certain plant proteins predicted to have long coiled-coil domains. These pea NIF proteins were further purified and enriched from the NEM fraction using methods similar to those used for isolating animal lamins. When negatively stained and viewed by transmission electron microscopy, the filaments in the pea lamin (L1) fraction appeared to be 6-12 nm in diameter. As assayed by immunofluorescence cytochemistry using a confocal laser-scanning microscope, fixed pea plumule cells displayed uniform as opposed to peripheral nuclear staining by several of the antibody preparations, both polyclonal and monoclonal. This report describes the biochemical and immunological properties of these pea NIF proteins.

  15. Molecular Evolution of Grass Stomata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guang; Dai, Fei; Wang, Yizhou; Hills, Adrian; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Zhang, Guoping; Franks, Peter J; Nevo, Eviatar; Blatt, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Grasses began to diversify in the late Cretaceous Period and now dominate more than one third of global land area, including three-quarters of agricultural land. We hypothesize that their success is likely attributed to the evolution of highly responsive stomata capable of maximizing productivity in rapidly changing environments. Grass stomata harness the active turgor control mechanisms present in stomata of more ancient plant lineages, maximizing several morphological and developmental features to ensure rapid responses to environmental inputs. The evolutionary development of grass stomata appears to have been a gradual progression. Therefore, understanding the complex structures, developmental events, regulatory networks, and combinations of ion transporters necessary to drive rapid stomatal movement may inform future efforts towards breeding new crop varieties.

  16. Protein kinase B/Akt binds and phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, stabilizing its antiapoptotic action.

    PubMed

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser(116). In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser(116) PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser(116). In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser(116)-->Gly (PED(S116-->G)) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also induced phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 at Ser(116). Based on pull-down and coprecipitation assays, PED/PEA-15 specifically bound Akt, independently of Akt activity. Serum activation of Akt as well as BAD phosphorylation by Akt showed no difference in 293 cells transfected with PED/PEA-15 and in untransfected cells (which express no endogenous PED/PEA-15). However, the antiapoptotic action of PED/PEA-15 was almost twofold reduced in PED(S116-->G) compared to that in PED/PEA-15(WT) cells. PED/PEA-15 stability closely paralleled Akt activation by serum in 293 cells. In these cells, the nonphosphorylatable PED(S116-->G) mutant exhibited a degradation rate threefold greater than that observed with wild-type PED/PEA-15. In the U373MG glioma cells, blocking Akt also reduced PED/PEA-15 levels and induced sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand apoptosis. Thus, phosphorylation by Akt regulates the antiapoptotic function of PED/PEA-15 at least in part by controlling the stability of PED/PEA-15. In part, Akt survival signaling may be mediated by PED/PEA-15.

  17. Red Thread Found on Bermuda Grass

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1966-01-01

    Red thread fungus (Corticium fuciforme (Berk.) Wakef.) was observed in 1965 and 1966 on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) on lawns in Leland, Mississippi. Red thread is a serious disease on fescues but has not previously been reported on Bermuda grass.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Pea Epicotyl beta-Amylase.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, P A; Henson, C A; Duke, S H

    1990-03-01

    The most abundant beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) in pea (Pisum sativum L.) was purified greater than 880-fold from epicotyls of etiolated germinating seedlings by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, glycogen precipitation, and preparative electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobility and relative abundance of this beta-amylase are the same as that of an exoamylase previously reported to be primarily vacuolar. The enzyme was determined to be a beta-amylase by end product analysis and by its inability to hydrolyze beta-limit dextrin and to release dye from starch azure. Pea beta-amylase is an approximate 55 to 57 kilodalton monomer with a pl of 4.35, a pH optimum of 6.0 (soluble starch substrate), an Arrhenius energy of activation of 6.28 kilocalories per mole, and a K(m) of 1.67 milligrams per milliliter (soluble starch). The enzyme is strongly inhibited by heavy metals, p-chloromer-curiphenylsulfonic acid and N-ethylmaleimide, but much less strongly by iodoacetamide and iodoacetic acid, indicating cysteinyl sulfhydryls are not directly involved in catalysis. Pea beta-amylase is competitively inhibited by its end product, maltose, with a K(i) of 11.5 millimolar. The enzyme is partially inhibited by Schardinger maltodextrins, with alpha-cyclohexaamylose being a stronger inhibitor than beta-cycloheptaamylose. Moderately branched glucans (e.g. amylopectin) were better substrates for pea beta-amylase than less branched or non-branched (amyloses) or highly branched (glycogens) glucans. The enzyme failed to hydrolyze native starch grains from pea and glucans smaller than maltotetraose. The mechanism of pea beta-amylase is the multichain type. Possible roles of pea beta-amylase in cellular glucan metabolism are discussed.

  19. Gene-based SNP discovery and genetic mapping in pea.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Anoop; Ramsay, Larissa; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Stonehouse, Robert; Li, Rong; Condie, Janet; Shunmugam, Arun S K; Liu, Yong; Jha, Ambuj B; Diapari, Marwan; Burstin, Judith; Aubert, Gregoire; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E; Warkentin, Thomas D; Sharpe, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Gene-based SNPs were identified and mapped in pea using five recombinant inbred line populations segregating for traits of agronomic importance. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the world's oldest domesticated crops and has been a model system in plant biology and genetics since the work of Gregor Mendel. Pea is the second most widely grown pulse crop in the world following common bean. The importance of pea as a food crop is growing due to its combination of moderate protein concentration, slowly digestible starch, high dietary fiber concentration, and its richness in micronutrients; however, pea has lagged behind other major crops in harnessing recent advances in molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics, partly due to its large genome size with a large proportion of repetitive sequence, and to the relatively limited investment in research in this crop globally. The objective of this research was the development of a genome-wide transcriptome-based pea single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker platform using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 1,536 polymorphic SNP loci selected from over 20,000 non-redundant SNPs identified using deep transcriptome sequencing of eight diverse Pisum accessions were used for genotyping in five RIL populations using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The first high-density pea SNP map defining all seven linkage groups was generated by integrating with previously published anchor markers. Syntenic relationships of this map with the model legume Medicago truncatula and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) maps were established. The genic SNP map establishes a foundation for future molecular breeding efforts by enabling both the identification and tracking of introgression of genomic regions harbouring QTLs related to agronomic and seed quality traits.

  20. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  1. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  2. Pea enation mosaic virus genoma RNA contains no polyadenylate sequences and cannot be aminoacylated.

    PubMed

    German, T L; De Zoeten, G A; Hall, T C

    1978-01-01

    An active synthetase enzyme preparation from peas (Pisum sativum L.) did not catalyze the aminoacylation of pea enation mosaic virus RNA. The viral RNA was shown not to contain polyadenylic acid sequences.

  3. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  4. 3-Methyleneoxindole Reductase of Peas 1

    PubMed Central

    Moyed, H. S.; Williamson, Valerie

    1967-01-01

    A 100-fold purification of a reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide/3-methyleneoxindole reductase of peas has been achieved using conventional protein fractionation procedures. Reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide is 25-fold less effective than reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide as the reductant. The preparation is free of other reductase activities including those linking the oxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotide coenzymes to the reduction of cytochrome c; vitamins K1, K2, and K3; O2; nitrate; oxidized glutathione; and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium. The affinity of the enzyme for 3-methyleneoxindole (Ks = 0.5 mm 3-methyleneoxindole) is relatively high. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that 3-methyleneoxindole is the normal substrate. The enzyme is inhibited by indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-aldehyde, and by l-naph-thaleneacetic acid. While these are not especially powerful inhibitors (K1 = 1.9-4.0 mm) the competitive relationship with 3-methyleneoxindole indicates that significant inhibition might occur at low intracellular concentrations of the substrate. PMID:6042360

  5. Redistribution of annexin in gravistimulated pea plumules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Rafati, D. S.; Bolton, R. J.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of gravistimulation on annexin localization in etiolated pea plumule shoots. In longitudinal sections, an asymmetric annexin immunostaining pattern was observed in a defined group of cells located just basipetal to apical meristems at the main shoot apex and at all of the axillary buds, an area classically referred to as the leaf gap. The pattern was observed using both protein-A-purified anti-annexin and affinity-purified anti-annexin antibodies for the immunostaining. A subset of the cells with the annexin staining also showed an unusually high level of periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their cell walls. Prior to gravistimulation, the highest concentration of annexin was oriented toward the direction of gravity along the apical end of these immunostained cells. In contrast, both at 15 and 30 min after gravistimulation, the annexin immunostain became more evenly distributed all around the cell and more distinctly cell peripheral. The asymmetry along the lower wall of these cells was no longer evident. In accord with current models of annexin action, we interpret the results to indicate that annexin-mediated secretion in the leaf gap area is preferentially toward the apical meristem prior to gravistimulation, and that gravistimulation results in a redirection of this secretion. These data are to our knowledge the first to show a correlation between the vector of gravity and the distribution of annexins in the cells of flowering plants. c 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  6. Redistribution of annexin in gravistimulated pea plumules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Rafati, D. S.; Bolton, R. J.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of gravistimulation on annexin localization in etiolated pea plumule shoots. In longitudinal sections, an asymmetric annexin immunostaining pattern was observed in a defined group of cells located just basipetal to apical meristems at the main shoot apex and at all of the axillary buds, an area classically referred to as the leaf gap. The pattern was observed using both protein-A-purified anti-annexin and affinity-purified anti-annexin antibodies for the immunostaining. A subset of the cells with the annexin staining also showed an unusually high level of periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their cell walls. Prior to gravistimulation, the highest concentration of annexin was oriented toward the direction of gravity along the apical end of these immunostained cells. In contrast, both at 15 and 30 min after gravistimulation, the annexin immunostain became more evenly distributed all around the cell and more distinctly cell peripheral. The asymmetry along the lower wall of these cells was no longer evident. In accord with current models of annexin action, we interpret the results to indicate that annexin-mediated secretion in the leaf gap area is preferentially toward the apical meristem prior to gravistimulation, and that gravistimulation results in a redirection of this secretion. These data are to our knowledge the first to show a correlation between the vector of gravity and the distribution of annexins in the cells of flowering plants. c 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  7. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile ({sup 3}H)methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the ({sup 3}H)methyl group.

  8. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that prefer Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import. PMID:26388889

  9. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  10. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    2010-02-23

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.

  11. Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems. PMID:20186266

  12. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Wild peas vary in their cross-compatibility with cultivated pea (Pisum sativum subsp. sativum L.) depending on alleles of a nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility locus.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, V S; Kosterin, O E; Yadrikhinskiy, A K

    2014-05-01

    Divergent wild and endemic peas differ in hybrid sterility in reciprocal crosses with cultivated pea depending on alleles of a nuclear 'speciation gene' involved in nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility. In hybrids between cultivated and wild peas, nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict frequently occurs. One of the nuclear genes involved, Scs1, was earlier mapped on Linkage Group III. In reciprocal crosses of seven divergent pea accessions with cultivated P. sativum, some alleles of Scs1 manifested incompatibility with an alien cytoplasm as a decrease in pollen fertility to about 50 % in the heterozygotes and lack of some genotypic classes among F2 segregants. Earlier, we defined monophyletic evolutionary lineages A, B, C and D of pea according to allelic state of three markers, from nuclear, plastid and mitochondrial genomes. All tested representatives of wild peas from the lineages A and C exhibited incompatibility due to Scs1 deleterious effects in crosses with testerlines of P. sativum subsp. sativum (the common cultivated pea) at least in one direction. A wild pea from the lineage B and a cultivated pea from the lineage D were compatible with the testerline in both directions. The tested accession of cultivated P. abyssinicum (lineage A) was partially compatible in both directions. The Scs1 alleles of some pea accessions even originating from the same geographic area were remarkably different in their compatibility with cultivated Pisum sativum cytoplasm. Variability of a gene involved in reproductive isolation is of important evolutionary role and nominate Scs1 as a speciation gene.

  14. Potential alternative hosts for the pea powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe trifolii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew pathogen on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. baeumleri and E. trifolii have also been reported. We recently showed that E. trifolii is frequently found on pea in th...

  15. 76 FR 37136 - Post-Entry Amendment (PEA) Processing Test: Modification, Clarification, and Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Post-Entry Amendment (PEA) Processing Test: Modification... (CBP's) Post-Entry Amendment (PEA) Processing test, which allows the amendment of entry summaries prior to liquidation. The test is being modified to reflect that PEA procedures will no longer be accepted...

  16. The International Pea Genome Sequencing Project: Sequencing and Assembly Progresses Updates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Consortium for the Pea Genome Sequencing (ICPG) includes scientists from six countries around the world. Its aim is to provide a high quality reference of the pea genome to the scientific community as well as to the pea breeder community. The consortium proposed a strategy that int...

  17. Differences in weed seedling emergence is not involved in pea synergism to corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have observed the dry pea is synergistic to corn and improves its tolerance to weeds. We are examining various aspects of this interaction between dry pea and corn to understand this natural benefit. This study compared the impact of soybean and dry pea on corn growth and tolerance to foxtail m...

  18. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  19. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Guwen; Xu, Shengchun; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Gong, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch) and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar) revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding. PMID:26635856

  20. Characterization of proanthocyanidin metabolism in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Kiva; Jin, Alena L; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Reinecke, Dennis M; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-09-16

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) accumulate in the seeds, fruits and leaves of various plant species including the seed coats of pea (Pisum sativum), an important food crop. PAs have been implicated in human health, but molecular and biochemical characterization of pea PA biosynthesis has not been established to date, and detailed pea PA chemical composition has not been extensively studied. PAs were localized to the ground parenchyma and epidermal cells of pea seed coats. Chemical analyses of PAs from seeds of three pea cultivars demonstrated cultivar variation in PA composition. 'Courier' and 'Solido' PAs were primarily prodelphinidin-types, whereas the PAs from 'LAN3017' were mainly the procyanidin-type. The mean degree of polymerization of 'LAN3017' PAs was also higher than those from 'Courier' and 'Solido'. Next-generation sequencing of 'Courier' seed coat cDNA produced a seed coat-specific transcriptome. Three cDNAs encoding anthocyanidin reductase (PsANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (PsLAR), and dihydroflavonol reductase (PsDFR) were isolated. PsANR and PsLAR transcripts were most abundant earlier in seed coat development. This was followed by maximum PA accumulation in the seed coat. Recombinant PsANR enzyme efficiently synthesized all three cis-flavan-3-ols (gallocatechin, catechin, and afzalechin) with satisfactory kinetic properties. The synthesis rate of trans-flavan-3-ol by co-incubation of PsLAR and PsDFR was comparable to cis-flavan-3-ol synthesis rate by PsANR. Despite the competent PsLAR activity in vitro, expression of PsLAR driven by the Arabidopsis ANR promoter in wild-type and anr knock-out Arabidopsis backgrounds did not result in PA synthesis. Significant variation in seed coat PA composition was found within the pea cultivars, making pea an ideal system to explore PA biosynthesis. PsANR and PsLAR transcript profiles, PA localization, and PA accumulation patterns suggest that a pool of PA subunits are produced in specific seed coat cells early in

  1. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  2. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems.

  3. Nicotinamide attenuates the decrease of astrocytic phosphoprotein PEA-15 in focal cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2012-03-01

    Nicotinamide exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemic injury. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is prominently expressed in astrocytes that exert broad anti-apoptotic functions. This study investigated whether nicotinamide modulates PEA-15 and levels of two phosphorylated PEA-15 (Serine 104 and 116) in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced injury. Adult male rats were treated with vehicle or nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) 2 hr after the onset of MCAO and cerebral cortices were collected at 24 hr after MCAO. In a proteomic approach, MCAO induced decreases of PEA-15 levels, while nicotinamide treatment attenuated the injury-induced decrease in PEA-15. The results of Western blot analysis suggest that nicotinamide prevented injury-induced reduction in phospho-PEA-15 (Serine 104) and phospho-PEA-15 (Serine 116) levels. The phosphorylation of PEA-15 exerts anti-apoptotic functions, and reduction of PEA-15 phosphorylation leads to apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that nicotinamide exerts a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the injury-induced decreases of PEA-15 and phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) proteins.

  4. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation.

  5. New anthocyanins from purple pods of pea (Pisum spp.).

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Honda, T; Hayashi, M; Ishimaru, K

    2000-12-01

    Two new anthocyanins were isolated from purple pods of pea (Pisum spp.). Their structures were identified as delphinidin 3-xylosylgalactoside-5-acetylglucoside and its deacetylated derivative by the usual chemical degradation methods and by spectroscopic methods such as UV-VIS, MS and NMR. Both pigments showed moderate stability and antioxidative activity in a neutral aqueous solution.

  6. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  7. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Adequate stand. A population of live plants per acre that will produce at least the yield used to establish... processor/seed company contract, you retain control of the acreage on which the dry peas are grown, you are... not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest control measures; (d) Plant disease...

  8. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Adequate stand. A population of live plants per acre that will produce at least the yield used to establish... processor/seed company contract, you retain control of the acreage on which the dry peas are grown, you are... not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest control measures; (d) Plant disease...

  9. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A preliminary report on green peas in Alaska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western Regional Plant Introduction Station at Pullman, Washington and Seneca Foods Corporation in Dayton, WA collaborated with the Sub-arctic Agricultural Research Unit (SARU) to test a set of established cultivars and breeding lines of green peas under sub-arctic growing conditions. This test set ...

  11. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, r...

  12. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  13. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Construction of a linkage map based on a Lathyrus sativus backcross population and preliminary investigation of QTLs associated with resistance to ascochyta blight.

    PubMed

    Skiba, B; Ford, R; Pang, E C K

    2004-11-01

    A linkage map of the Lathyrus sativus genome was constructed using 92 backcross individuals derived from a cross between an accession resistant (ATC 80878) to ascochyta blight caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes and a susceptible accession (ATC 80407). A total of 64 markers were mapped on the backcross population, including 47 RAPD, seven sequence-tagged microsatellite site and 13 STS/CAPS markers. The map comprised nine linkage groups, covered a map distance of 803.1 cM, and the average spacing between markers was 15.8 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with ascochyta blight resistance were detected using single-point analysis and simple and composite interval mapping. The backcross population was evaluated for stem resistance in temperature-controlled growth room trials. One significant QTL, QTL1, was located on linkage group 1 and explained 12% of the phenotypic variation in the backcross population. A second suggestive QTL, QTL2, was detected on linkage group 2 and accounted for 9% of the trait variation. The L. sativus R-QTL regions detected may be targeted for future intergenus transfer of the trait into accessions of the closely related species Pisum sativum.

  15. Characterization and application of a diamine oxidase from Lathyrus sativus as component of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of biogenic amines in wine and beer.

    PubMed

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Federico, Rodolfo; Boffi, Alberto; Macone, Alberto; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we have characterized a diamine oxidase (DAO) from Lathyrus sativus and evaluated its use, for the first time, as biocatalytic component of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of biogenic amines index in wine and beer samples. Firstly, DAO was electrokinetically characterized free in solution by means of a platinum electrode and then immobilized by using polyazetidine prepolimer on the surface of screen-printed electrodes constituted of two gold working electrodes. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of +600 mV vs the internal silver pseudo reference in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 mol l(-1), pH = 7.4). The analysis of wine and beer samples were performed in flow injection system using the dual channel transducer providing simultaneous detection of sample and blank signal, and the resulting signal (after subtraction of the blank signal) was referred to that of putrescine. The results were compared with those obtained using a modified reference method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on the same samples. The results obtained in the analysis of Italian wines shows the better suitability of DAO-based biosensor in the determination of the biogenic amines (BAs) index expressed as putrescine equivalent in both red and white wines, being less efficient in beer samples where it underestimates by about 50% the BAs content.

  16. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kamal K.; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A.; Achary, V. Mohan M.; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Sahu, Hrushi K.; Panda, Brahma B.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO)2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone. PMID:28524089

  17. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn(2+) from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L(-1) for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and (•)OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn(2+) alone.

  18. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    PubMed

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study.

  19. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  20. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  1. Water use and yields of no-till managed dryland grasspea and yellow pea under different planting configurations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasspea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus) is a drought-tolerant legume that can be grown for forage and grain. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in dryland rotations with non-legume grain crops. However, the agronomics of GP for the Central Great Plains region have not been investi...

  2. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  3. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  4. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  5. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  6. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  7. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  8. Grass vs. legume forages for dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is the primary forage fed to lactating dairy cows; however, there is renewed interest in utilizing grass forages in lactating dairy cow diets particularly because of farm nutrient management issues. Yield and perceived quality is generally lower for grass species compared to legumes while ot...

  9. Native grass seeding and forb planting establishment

    Treesearch

    I Nan Vance; Andrew Neill; Frank Morton

    2006-01-01

    After a dense stand of conifers encroaching on an oak savanna/meadow was removed, exotic forbs and grasses quickly populated the newly disturbed area. Establishing desirable native grasses and forbs that contribute to native plant diversity and compete with exotic species could aid in restoring this oak savanna plant community. Two experiments were conducted over time...

  10. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Treesearch

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  11. Performance characteristics of common temperate grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal changes in productivity and nutritive value of cool-season grasses influences pasture management and ration balancing decisions by the producer. Grass sward structure also influences intake by grazing animals. We determined seasonal yield and quality changes in the leaf and stem fraction ...

  12. Fescues ‘leaf’ other grasses behind

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yield and nutritive value of leaves, stems, and total forage of eight different perennial cool-season grasses were compared at 30-day intervals in spring, summer, and fall at two Wisconsin locations. Total forage production of all grasses was greatest during spring, as expected, and differences ...

  13. Immunolocalization of pectic polysaccharides during abscission in pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) and in abscission less def pea mutant seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, YeonKyeong; Ayeh, Kwadwo Owusu; Ambrose, Mike; Hvoslef-Eide, Anne Kathrine

    2016-08-31

    In pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.), the presence of the Def locus determines abscission event between its funicle and the seed coat. Cell wall remodeling is a necessary condition for abscission of pea seed. The changes in cell wall components in wild type (WT) pea seed with Def loci showing seed abscission and in abscission less def mutant peas were studied to identify the factors determining abscission and non-abscission event. Changes in pectic polysaccharides components were investigated in WT and def mutant pea seeds using immunolabeling techniques. Pectic monoclonal antibodies (1 → 4)-β-D-galactan (LM5), (1 → 5)-α-L-arabinan(LM6), partially de-methyl esterified homogalacturonan (HG) (JIM5) and methyl esterified HG (JIM7) were used for this study. Prior to abscission zone (AZ) development, galactan and arabinan reduced in the predestined AZ of the pea seed and disappeared during the abscission process. The AZ cells had partially de-methyl esterified HG while other areas had highly methyl esterified HG. A strong JIM5 labeling in the def mutant may be related to cell wall rigidity in the mature def mutants. In addition, the appearance of pectic epitopes in two F3 populations resulting from cross between WT and def mutant parents was studied. As a result, we identified that homozygous dominant lines (Def/Def) showing abscission and homozygous recessive lines (def/def) showing non-abscission had similar immunolabeling pattern to their parents. However, the heterogeneous lines (Def/def) showed various immunolabeling pattern and the segregation pattern of the Def locus. Through the study of the complexity and variability of pectins in plant cell walls as well as understanding the segregation patterns of the Def locus using immunolabeling techniques, we conclude that cell wall remodeling occurs in the abscission process and de-methyl esterification may play a role in the non-abscission event in def mutant. Overall, this study contributes new insights into

  14. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PEA)-15: A potential therapeutic target in multiple disease states

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Nixon, Graeme F.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 (PEA-15) is a cytoplasmic protein that sits at an important junction in intracellular signalling and can regulate diverse cellular processes, such as proliferation and apoptosis, dependent upon stimulation. Regulation of these processes occurs by virtue of the unique interaction of PEA-15 with other signalling proteins. PEA-15 acts as a cytoplasmic tether for the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) preventing nuclear localisation. In order to release ERK1/2, PEA-15 requires to be phosphorylated via several potential pathways. PEA-15 (and its phosphorylation state) therefore regulates many ERK1/2-dependent processes, including proliferation, via regulating ERK1/2 nuclear translocation. In addition, PEA-15 contains a death effector domain (DED) which allows interaction with other DED-containing proteins. PEA-15 can bind the DED-containing apoptotic adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) which is also dependent on the phosphorylation status of PEA-15. PEA-15 binding of FADD can inhibit apoptosis as bound FADD cannot participate in the assembly of apoptotic signalling complexes. Through these protein–protein interactions, PEA-15-regulated cellular effects have now been investigated in a number of disease-related studies. Changes in PEA-15 expression and regulation have been observed in diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurological disorders and the cardiovascular system. These changes have been suggested to contribute to the pathology related to each of these disease states. As such, new therapeutic targets based around PEA-15 and its associated interactions are now being uncovered and could provide novel avenues for treatment strategies in multiple diseases. PMID:24657708

  15. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  16. Purification and Characterization of Pea Chloroplastic Phosphoriboisomerase 12

    PubMed Central

    Skrukrud, Cynthia L.; Gordon, Ilana M.; Dorwin, Sally; Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Johansson, Göte; Anderson, Louise E.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplastic phosphoriboisomerase (EC 5.3.1.6) can be purified to apparent homogeneity in less than 2 days time with a 53% yield. Important steps in the purification include heat treatment and pseudoaffinity chromatography on Red H-3BN Sepharose. The purified isomerase has a subunit molecular mass of 26.4 kD. The N-terminal sequence has been determined through 34 residues. pH optima are 7.8 (ribose-5-phosphate) and 7.7 (ribulose-5-phosphate); Km values are 0.9 millimolar (ribose-5-phosphate) and 0.6 millimolar (ribulose-5-phosphate). The enzyme is inhibited by erythrose-4-phosphate, sedoheptulosebisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and 3-phosphoglycerate at concentrations close to those found in photosynthesizing chloroplasts. Countercurrent phase partitioning experiments indicate that the pea chloroplastic phosphoriboisomerase interacts physically with phosphoribulokinase. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668459

  17. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-05-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of {sup 3}H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action.

  18. Cutinase is not required for fungal pathogenicity on pea.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, D J; Schäfer, W

    1992-01-01

    Cutinase, a fungal extracellular esterase, has been proposed to be crucial in the early events of plant infection by many pathogenic fungi. To test the long-standing hypothesis that cutinase of Nectria haematococca (Fusarium solani f sp pisi) is essential to pathogenicity, we constructed cutinase-deficient mutants by transformation-mediated gene disruption of the single cutinase gene of a highly virulent N. haematococca strain. Four independent mutants were obtained lacking a functional cutinase gene, as confirmed by gel blot analyses and enzyme assays. Bioassays of the cutinase-deficient strains showed no difference in pathogenicity and virulence on pea compared to the wild type and a control transformant. We conclude that the cutinase of N. haematococca is not essential for the infection of pea. PMID:1392588

  19. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  20. Isolation and study of the functional properties of pea proteins.

    PubMed

    Tömösközi, S; Lásztity, R; Haraszi, R; Baticz, O

    2001-10-01

    Proteins of pea seeds were isolated after defatting with hexane using alkaline (0.1 M sodium hydroxide) extraction and acid (HCl) precipitation. Concentrates were also prepared by hexane extraction and ethanolic extraction (pH = 5). Gross chemical composition amino acid content and functional properties (solubility profile, emulsifying--and foaming properties, water--and oil absorption) were studied. The results were compared with the same parameters of soy and lupin protein products. Although the majority of functional characteristics of isolates were lower in comparison to soy isolates, pea protein concentrate and isolate could be successfully used in bakery products for enrichment in protein and improvement of biological value. Their utilization as meat protein substitute in some Frankfurter type sausages is also possibly.

  1. Analysis of PEA photopolymers at zero spatial frequency limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés; Riquelme, Marina; Neipp, Cristian; Ortuño, Manuel; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2012-06-01

    The PEA photopolymer is composed of dipentaerythritol penta/hexa-acrylate as monomer and binder, N-vinyl pirrolidone as crosslinker, ethyl eosin as dye and N-methyl diethanolamine as radical generator. This photopolymer is suitable to work with dispersed liquid crystal molecules in dynamic holographic and diffractive applications. In order to characterize these materials we have analyzed the behaviour of different compositions at zero spatial frequency limit. This method is based on an interferometer that has been successfully applied in the phase-shift versus applied voltage characterization of liquid-crystal displays, in addition to that it has been applied to characterize PVA/AA and PVA/NaAO photopolymers. In PEA case there is no shrinkage since the photopolymer is coverplated. Samples have a glass substrate as the cover plate. In our analysis we have studied the importance of the monomer, crosslinker and crystal liquid molecules concentrations, in the phase shift produced in the layer during photopolymerization process.

  2. Chloroplast and cytoplasmic enzymes : V. Pea-leaf carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Kachru, R B; Anderson, L E

    1974-09-01

    Chloroplastic and cytoplasmic forms of pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf carbonic anhydrase were separated by isoelectric focusing. The two forms have identical pH optima, 7.0 for the hydration reaction and 7.5 for the dehydration reaction, and identical Michaelis constants for CO2, 0.03 M. Neither isozyme is affected by any of several compounds involved in carbon metabolism in the green plant.

  3. [Preparation of flour processed with pigeon pea seed].

    PubMed

    Mueses, C; de León, L; Matute, J; Bressani, R

    1993-03-01

    Pigeon pea is a legume grain of good production capacity and of a relatively high nutritive value, which has not been used in Latin America on the basis of the potential it offers. In this study experiments were conducted to learn about the possibility of processing pigeon pea to yield an intermediate flour with good functional characteristics for food product development. The intermediate pigeon pea flour was produced through a selection of a process to efficiently dehull the grain followed by a thermic process to improve its functional properties and nutritive value. The best dehulling process was subjecting the grain to a vapor treatment for five minutes, followed by a 2-hour dehydration of surface moisture with air at 60 degrees and dehulling with an 8-disc dehuller for 10 minutes. Yield was 84% with 70.7% dehulling efficiency. Pigeon pea flours were prepared by three thermic processes: pressure cooking at 15 lb (121 degrees C) for 5 and 10 minutes as a reference product; cooking and drying with a drum dryer at 120 degrees C and 4 rpm and by extrusion-cooking with the material with 18 and 21% moisture at 270 and 300 degrees F, respectively. Process selection was based on the functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, soluble nitrogen and viscosity, through chemical analysis of protein, available lysine and methionine and residual trypsin inhibitors, and through a biological evaluation of protein digestibility and quality. Both pressure cooking products had similar functional and chemical characteristics, however, the 5-minute cooked product has higher protein quality than the 10-minute product.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Role of H₂O₂ in pea seed germination.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José Antonio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The imbibition of pea seeds with hydrogen peroxide H₂O₂ increased the germination as well as the seedling growth, producing an invigoration of the seeds. We propose that H₂O₂ could acts as signaling molecule in the beginning of seed germination involving specific changes at proteomic, transcriptomic and hormonal levels. These findings have practical implication in the context of seed priming technologies to invigorate low vigour seeds.

  5. Close-up view Pea pods in Russian Lada greenhouse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-12

    ISS007-E-05295 (May 2003) --- Inside the Russian Lada greenhouse, these peas have dried and “gone to seed.” They are part of an experiment to investigate plant development and genetics. The crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon harvest the seeds. Eventually, some will be re-planted onboard the ISS and some will be returned to Earth for further study.

  6. Hyperglycemia aggravates decreases of PEA-15 and its two phosphorylated forms in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, Jin-Hee; KOH, Phil-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic health disorder and an important risk factor for stroke. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is a multifunctional protein modulating cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and glucose metabolism. This study investigated whether diabetes modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and were underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) 4 weeks after streptozotocin injection. Brain tissues were collected 24 hr after MCAO and stained using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in right cerebral cortex. Infarct volume during MCAO injury was severely increased in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. We identified the decrease in PEA-15 in animals that underwent MCAO using proteomic approach. PEA-15 expression during MCAO was strongly decreased in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. Western blots analysis confirmed that diabetes exacerbated the decrease in PEA-15 expression after MCAO. Moreover, decrease in expression of phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) was greater in diabetic than in non-diabetic animals. These results suggested that a diabetic condition may aggravate brain damage through decreasing expression of PEA-15 and phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in ischemic brain injury. PMID:28216548

  7. Final Step of Phosphatidic Acid Synthesis in Pea Chloroplasts Occurs in the Inner Envelope Membrane 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jaen; Ohlrogge, John B.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    The second enzyme of phosphatidic acid synthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate, 1-acylglycerophospate acyltransferase, was localized to the inner envelope membrane of pea chloroplasts. The activity of this enzyme was measured by both a coupled enzyme assay and a direct enzyme assay. Using the coupled enzyme assay, phosphatidic acid phosphatase was also localized to the inner envelope membrane, although this enzyme has very low activity in pea chloroplasts. The addition of UDP-galactose to unfractionated pea chloroplast envelope preparations did not result in significant conversion of newly synthesized diacylglycerol to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, the envelope synthesized phosphatidic acid may not be involved in galactolipid synthesis in pea chloroplasts. PMID:16664266

  8. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-03-01

    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  10. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Possibility of using flour of pigeon pea in products prepared with rice or wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Mueses, C; de León, L; Bressani, R

    1993-03-01

    The present study reports on the development of foods containing processed pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour. The pigeon pea flours described in a previous publication were prepared from dehulled pigeon peas by cooking in autoclave, by extrusion-cooking and by cooking/dehydration by drum-drying. Mixtures of cooked pigeon peas and rice were first evaluated biological through a protein complementation design using NPR. The results of this study showed that the two products had high protein quality and were similar when mixed in ratios of 80:20 to 40:60. For the evaluation of the processed pigeon pea flour, mixtures with rice (80:20) were used. All pigeon pea flours gave similar protein quality values. On the basis of these results three products were developed and tested. One was a gruel ("atole"), a second a fruit-flavored thick drink with and without 15% milk. Cookies were also prepared with a series of blends of pigeon pea flour (extrusion-cooked) and wheat. The gruel and the fruit flavored products had high acceptability based on a sensory evaluation test. Cookies with 100% pigeon pea flour were unacceptable, however, mixtures of 75% wheat flour and 25% pigeon pea flour gave cookies of attractive appearance and good taste. The study showed the possibility of preparing and utilizing tropical grain legume flours for food products of relatively high acceptability and nutritive value.

  12. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes.

    PubMed

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  13. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  14. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  15. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Wang, Junxian

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  16. Immunity and other defenses in pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genomic analyses of arthropod defense mechanisms suggest conservation of key elements underlying responses to pathogens, parasites and stresses. At the center of pathogen-induced immune responses are signaling pathways triggered by the recognition of fungal, bacterial and viral signatures. These pathways result in the production of response molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides and lysozymes, which degrade or destroy invaders. Using the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), we conducted the first extensive annotation of the immune and stress gene repertoire of a hemipterous insect, which is phylogenetically distantly related to previously characterized insects models. Results Strikingly, pea aphids appear to be missing genes present in insect genomes characterized to date and thought critical for recognition, signaling and killing of microbes. In line with results of gene annotation, experimental analyses designed to characterize immune response through the isolation of RNA transcripts and proteins from immune-challenged pea aphids uncovered few immune-related products. Gene expression studies, however, indicated some expression of immune and stress-related genes. Conclusions The absence of genes suspected to be essential for the insect immune response suggests that the traditional view of insect immunity may not be as broadly applicable as once thought. The limitations of the aphid immune system may be representative of a broad range of insects, or may be aphid specific. We suggest that several aspects of the aphid life style, such as their association with microbial symbionts, could facilitate survival without strong immune protection. PMID:20178569

  17. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    PubMed

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  18. Gravitropic response and circumnutation in pea (Pisum sativum) seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-jeong; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Plant circumnutation is a helical movement of growing organs such as shoots and roots. Gravitropic response is hypothesized to act as an external oscillator in shoot circumnutation, although this is subject to debate. The relationship between circumnutational movement and gravitropic response in roots remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed circumnutation of agravitropic roots using the ageotropum pea (Pisum sativum) mutant, and compared it with that of wild-type (cv. Alaska) pea roots. We further examined the relationship of gravitropic response to circumnutation of Alaska seedling roots by removing the gravisensing tissue (the root cap) and by treating the roots with auxin transport inhibitors. Alaska roots displayed circumnutational movements with a period of approximately 150 min, whereas ageotropum roots did not exhibit distinct circumnutational movement. Removal of the root cap in Alaska roots reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. Treatment of Alaska roots with auxin transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), dramatically reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. These results suggest that a gravity-regulated auxin transport is involved in circumnutation of pea seedling roots. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J; Sovonick-Dunford, S A

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  20. The effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling growth of Lathyrus chrysanthus Boiss. under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Beyaz, Ramazan; Kahramanogullari, Cansu Telci; Yildiz, Cigdem; Darcin, E Selcen; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The effects of radiation at different doses (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy) of radioactive cobalt ((60)Co) γ rays on seed germination and seedling growth of Lathyrus chrysanthus were investigated under in vitro conditions. The results showed that irradiated seeds had increased seed germination percentage, seedling and root lengths, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry matter content and total chlorophyll content in the leaves of seedlings. However, at higher doses stress was evident and significant decreases in all parameters were observed. The highest seed germination percentage was recorded as 62.4%, 7 days after study initiation when seeds were irradiated with 150 Gy gamma dose, while 100 Gy gamma dose was ranked in second order. Fourteen days after culture initiation, the best shoot growth initiation was again obtained from 150 Gy gamma dose as 75.7% and this was followed by 100 Gy gamma radiation as 74.6%. Gamma doses over 150 Gy resulted in sharp decreases in all parameters examined. On the 14th day, the highest shoot and root lengths were recorded from 150 Gy gamma dose as 1.2 and 2.9 cm, respectively. Twenty eight days after study initiation, the highest values of seedling and root lengths, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry matter content and total chlorophyll content were noted from 50 Gy gamma radiation as 9.7 and 6.3 cm, 0.39, 0.09 g (23.08%) and 471.6 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. This study is important from the aspect of showing that stimulatory effect of low gamma doses for germination and seedling growth may not be the same. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  2. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-05-25

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  3. Rainfall interception by annual grass and chaparral . . . losses compared

    Treesearch

    Edward S. Corbett; Robert P. Crouse

    1968-01-01

    Loss of precipitation due to interception by annual grass and grass litter was measured during three rainy seasons on the San Dimas Experimental Forest, in southern California. Interception loss from annual grass averaged 7.9 percent; that from mature chaparral cover, 12.8 percent. If chaparral stands were converted to grass, an estimated 1.3 inches of gross...

  4. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  5. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  6. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques; Canonica, G Walter; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Nolte, Hendrik; Lawton, Simon; Nelson, Harold S

    2016-01-01

    Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. The review included the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2 years after a continuous 3-year treatment period were presented in the context of regulatory criteria that define a clinically meaningful effect. This trial demonstrated that the clinical effect of the SQ grass SLIT-tablet is maintained, which is also supported by the immunologic findings. Therefore, the SQ grass SLIT-tablet has an indication as a disease-modifying therapy in Europe, and a sustained effect is recognized in the United States.

  7. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  8. Native cool-season grasses in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Nadia. Navarrete-Tindall

    2010-01-01

    Although they may be overlooked, underestimated, unknown or simply ignored, native cool-season grasses are significant components of many plant communities in Missouri, including prairies, savannas, and woodlands.

  9. Underwater Grass Comeback Helps Chesapeake Bay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fortified Susquehanna Flats, the largest bed of underwater grasses in the Chesapeake Bay, seems able to withstand a major weather punch. Its resilience is contributing to an overall increase in the Bay’s submerged aquatic vegetation.

  10. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  11. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  12. Town of Lodge Grass NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT0021890, the Town of Lodge Grass is authorized to discharge from from its wastewater treatment facility in Big Horn County to an unnamed slough to the Little Bighorn River.

  13. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  14. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  15. Identification of tolerance to Fusarium root rot in wild pea germplasm with high levels of partial resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a serious root rot pathogen affecting peas in all pea growing areas of the USA and is damaging in both dryland and irrigated pea fields. Partial resistance to Fusarium root rot in 44 accessions from the Pisum Core Collection located in Pu...

  16. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  17. EFFORT TOWARDS A WORLD PEA (Pisum sativum L.) GERMPLASM CORE COLLECTION: The case for common markers and data compatibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using SSR and RBIP markers, several major world pea germplasm collections have been analyzed and core collections formed. These include over 1,200 pea accessions of Chinese origin contained within a larger set of over 2,000 accessions analyzed by 21 SSR loci , 310 of 5,394 USDA pea germplasm acce...

  18. Association mapping of agronomic and quality traits in USDA pea single-plant collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...

  19. Plasma palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) as a potential biomarker for impaired coronary function.

    PubMed

    Quercioli, Alessandra; Carbone, Federico; Bonaventura, Aldo; Liberale, Luca; Pataky, Zoltan; Thomas, Aurélien; Lenglet, Sébastien; Lauer, Estelle; Golay, Alain; Dallegri, Franco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Schindler, Thomas H; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2017-03-15

    Among endocannabinoid (EC)-related mediators, Oleoyl-ethanolamide (OEA) and Palmitoyl-ethanolamide (PEA), two endogenous PPARα agonists with lipolytic and anti-inflammatory action, respectively, are being actively investigated. Here, we assessed the potential association between plasma levels of PEA and OEA and coronary function in a cohort including normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese (MOB) individuals. Myocardial perfusion and endothelium-related myocardial blood flow (MBF) responses to cold pressor test (CPT) and during pharmacological vasodilation with dipyridamole were measured with (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography. OEA and PEA were extracted from human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction, separated by liquid chromatography and quantified by mass spectrometry. Serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured by colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating levels of PEA and VCAM-1 were increased in MOB as compared to normal weight subjects. Circulating levels of OEA and PEA were associated with body mass index, but not with adhesion molecules. Increases of PEA levels were associated with and predictive of worsened coronary function in MOB and the overall cohort studied. Plasma levels of PEA are increased in MOB patients and associated with coronary dysfunction as a functional precursor of CAD process. Larger trials are needed to confirm PEA as a potential circulating biomarker of coronary dysfunction in both MOB patients and the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Release of pea germplasm with Fusarium resistance combined with desirable yield and anti-lodging traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...

  1. Screening of pea genotypes for resistance to root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8, 2012.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is one of the major pathogens that causes pea root rot and stunting in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. The disease is most severe in fields where wheat has been mono-cropped for a number of years or where cereal cover crops are incorporated just before pea seedin...

  2. Estimating demand for perennial pigeon pea in Malawi using choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Kurt B; Ortega, David L; Richardson, Robert B; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2017-01-01

    Perennial crops have numerous ecological and agronomic advantages over their annual counterparts. We estimate discrete choice models to evaluate farmers' preferences for perennial attributes of pigeon pea intercropped with maize in central and southern Malawi. Pigeon pea is a nitrogen-fixing leguminous crop, which has the potential to ameliorate soil fertility problems related to continuous maize cultivation, which are common in Southern Africa. Adoption of annual pigeon pea is relatively low but perennial production of pigeon pea may be more appealing to farmers due to some of the ancillary benefits associated with perenniality. We model perennial production of pigeon pea as a function of the attributes that differ between annual and perennial production: lower labor and seed requirements resulting from a single planting with multiple harvests, enhanced soil fertility and higher levels of biomass production. The primary tradeoff associated with perennial pigeon pea intercropped with maize is competition with maize in subsequent years of production. While maize yield is approximately twice as valuable to farmers as pigeon pea yield, we find positive yet heterogeneous demand for perenniality driven by soil fertility improvements and pigeon pea grain yield.

  3. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  4. Ersiphe trifolii-a newly recognized powdery mildew pathogen of pea.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Population diversity of powdery mildews infecting pea (Pisum sativum) in the US Pacific Northwest was investigated in order to assess inconsistent resistance performances of pea genotypes in different environments. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS sequences, in combination with assessment of morph...

  5. 2015 Outbreak of Cyclosporiasis Linked to the Consumption of Imported Sugar Snap Peas in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Yvonne; Johnson, Karen; Hanson, Heather; Huneault, Danya

    2017-09-06

    An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Ontario, Canada, was investigated in the fall of 2015. Thirty-five confirmed and 10 probable cases were linked to the investigation. Epidemiological and food safety evidence implicated fresh sugar snap peas imported from Guatemala as the source of the outbreak. We describe here the first documented cyclosporiasis outbreak in Canada involving the consumption of sugar snap peas.

  6. A positive role for PEA3 in HER2-mediated breast tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Myers, E; Hill, A D K; Kelly, G; McDermott, E W; O'Higgins, N J; Young, L S

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of HER2 is associated with an adverse prognosis in breast cancer. Despite this, the mechanism of its transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood. PEA3, a MAP kinase (MAPK)-activated member of the Ets transcription factor family has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of HER2. The direction of its modulation remains controversial. We assessed relative levels of PEA3 expression and DNA binding in primary breast cultures derived from patient tumours (n=18) in the presence of an activated MAPK pathway using Western blotting and shift analysis. Expression of PEA3 in breast tumours from patients of known HER2 status (n=107) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In primary breast cancer cell cultures, growth factors induced interaction between PEA3 and its DNA response element. Upregulation of PEA3 expression in the presence of growth factors associated with HER2 positivity and axillary lymph node metastasis (P=0.034 and 0.049, respectively). PEA3 expression in breast cancer tissue associated with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), Grade III tumours (P<0.0001) and axillary lymph node metastasis (P=0.026). Co-expression of PEA3 and HER2 significantly associated with rate of recurrence compared to patients who expressed HER2 alone (P=0.0039). These data support a positive role for PEA3 in HER2-mediated oncogenesis in breast cancer. PMID:17060941

  7. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  8. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  9. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development.

  10. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of flour and starch from pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Flours and isolated starches from three different cultivars (1544-8, 1658-11 and 1760-8) of pea grown under identical environmental conditions were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility. The protein content, total starch content and apparent amylose content of pea flour ranged from 24.4 to 26.3%, 48.8 to 50.2%, and 13.9 to 16.7%, respectively. In pea starches, the 1760-8 showed higher apparent amylose content and total starch content than the other cultivars. Pea starch granules were irregularly shaped, ranging from oval to round with a smooth surface. All pea starches showed C-type X-ray diffraction pattern with relative crystallinity ranging between 23.7 and 24.7%. Pea starch had only a single endothermic transition (12.1-14.2 J/g) in the DSC thermogram, whereas pea flour showed two separate endothermic transitions corresponding to starch gelatinization (4.54-4.71 J/g) and disruption of the amylose-lipid complex (0.36-0.78 J/g). In pea cultivars, the 1760-8 had significantly higher setback and final viscosity than the other cultivars in both pea flour (672 and 1170cP, respectively) and isolated starch (2901 and 4811cP). The average branch chain length of pea starches ranged from 20.1 to 20.3. The 1760-8 displayed a larger proportion of short branch chains, DP (degree of polymerization) 6-12 (21.1%), and a smaller proportion of long branch chains, DP≥37 (8.4%). The RDS, SDS and RS contents of pea flour ranged from 23.7 to 24.1%, 11.3 to 12.8%, and 13.2 to 14.8%, respectively. In pea starches, the 1760-8 showed a lower RDS content but higher SDS and RS contents. The expected glycemic index (eGI), based on the hydrolysis index, ranged from 36.9 to 37.7 and 69.8 to 70.7 for pea flour and isolated pea starch, respectively.

  12. Phosphorylation is the switch that turns PEA-15 from tumor suppressor to tumor promoter

    PubMed Central

    Sulzmaier, Florian J.; Opoku-Ansah, John; Ramos, Joe W.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal ERK signaling is implicated in many human diseases including cancer. This signaling cascade is a good target for the therapy of certain malignancies because of its important role in regulating cell proliferation and survival. The small phosphoprotein PEA-15 is a potent regulator of the ERK signaling cascade, and, by acting on this pathway, has been described to have both tumor-suppressor and tumor-promoter functions. However, the exact mechanism by which PEA-15 drives the outcome one way or the other remains unclear. We propose that the cellular environment is crucial in determining PEA-15 protein function by affecting the protein’s phosphorylation state. We hypothesize that only unphosphorylated PEA-15 can act as a tumor-suppressor and that phosphorylation alters the interaction with binding partners to promote tumor development. In order to use PEA-15 as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target it is therefore important to evaluate its phosphorylation status. PMID:22694972

  13. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  14. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  15. Bean α-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Roger L.; Schroeder, Hart E.; Bateman, Kaye S.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Eric; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two α-amylase inhibitors, called αAI-1 and αAI-2, that share 78% amino acid sequence identity and have a differential specificity toward mammalian and insect α-amylases are present in different accessions of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using greenhouse-grown transgenic peas (Pisum sativum), we have shown previously that expression of αAI-1 in pea seeds can provide complete protection against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). Here, we report that αAI-1 also protects peas from the weevil under field conditions. The high degree of protection is explained by our finding that αAI-1 inhibits pea bruchid α-amylase by 80% over a broad pH range (pH 4.5–6.5). αAI-2, on the other hand, is a much less effective inhibitor of pea bruchid α-amylase, inhibiting the enzyme by only 40%, and only in the pH 4.0–4.5 range. Nevertheless, this inhibitor was still partially effective in protecting field-grown transgenic peas against pea weevils. The primary effect of αAI-2 appeared to be a delay in the maturation of the larvae. This contrasts with the effect of αAI-1, which results in larval mortality at the first or second instar. These results are discussed in relationship to the use of amylase inhibitors with different specificities to bring about protection of crops from their insect pests or to decrease insect pest populations below the economic injury level. PMID:10759552

  16. Light activation of fructose bisphosphatase in photosynthetically competent pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Charles, S A; Halliwell, B

    1981-11-15

    The fructose bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) activity of type A chloroplasts isolated from young (9-day-old) pea (Pisum sativum var. Progress no. 9) plants, assayed at physiological pH, substrate and Mg2+ concentrations, increased rapidly on illumination. The enzyme activity detected was more than sufficient to account for observed rates of Co2 fixation both during the induction period and during steady-state CO2 fixation, whether or not dihydroxyacetone phosphate had been added to the preparation. Omission of catalase from the suspension medium had no effect. On switching off the light, CO2 fixation by the chloroplasts ceased at once, yet fructose bisphosphatase activity decreased much more slowly. Changes in enzyme activity were much less marked if assays were conducted at 3 mM substrate and 10 mM-Mg2+. Chloroplasts from older (13--20-day-old) peas only fixed CO2 rapidly if catalase was present in the assay medium. The fructose bisphosphatase activity detected under physiological assay conditions was again more than sufficient to account for observed rates of Co2 fixation. In the presence of added dihydroxyacetone phosphate, however, the rate of Co2 fixation appeared to be determined by the rate of light activation of fructose bisphosphatase. In general, the rates of Co2 fixation and enzyme activation, and the final enzyme activity achieved, decreased markedly with increasing age of the plants. The role of light activation of fructose bisphosphatase as a means of controlling the rate of CO2 fixation in pea chloroplasts is discussed.

  17. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  18. Light activation of fructose bisphosphatase in photosynthetically competent pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, S A; Halliwell, B

    1981-01-01

    The fructose bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) activity of type A chloroplasts isolated from young (9-day-old) pea (Pisum sativum var. Progress no. 9) plants, assayed at physiological pH, substrate and Mg2+ concentrations, increased rapidly on illumination. The enzyme activity detected was more than sufficient to account for observed rates of Co2 fixation both during the induction period and during steady-state CO2 fixation, whether or not dihydroxyacetone phosphate had been added to the preparation. Omission of catalase from the suspension medium had no effect. On switching off the light, CO2 fixation by the chloroplasts ceased at once, yet fructose bisphosphatase activity decreased much more slowly. Changes in enzyme activity were much less marked if assays were conducted at 3 mM substrate and 10 mM-Mg2+. Chloroplasts from older (13--20-day-old) peas only fixed CO2 rapidly if catalase was present in the assay medium. The fructose bisphosphatase activity detected under physiological assay conditions was again more than sufficient to account for observed rates of Co2 fixation. In the presence of added dihydroxyacetone phosphate, however, the rate of Co2 fixation appeared to be determined by the rate of light activation of fructose bisphosphatase. In general, the rates of Co2 fixation and enzyme activation, and the final enzyme activity achieved, decreased markedly with increasing age of the plants. The role of light activation of fructose bisphosphatase as a means of controlling the rate of CO2 fixation in pea chloroplasts is discussed. PMID:6280684

  19. The pharmacokinetics of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA): safety evaluation comparisons in rats, rabbits, and humans.

    PubMed

    Politano, Valerie T; Diener, Robert M; Christian, Mildred S; Hawkins, David R; Ritacco, Gretchen; Api, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to compare the dermal absorption, plasma pharmacokinetics, and excretion of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by pregnant and nonpregnant rats, rabbits, and humans. The PEA is a natural fragrance material that is widely used in perfumes, soaps, and lotions and is a major ingredient of natural rose oil. Following dermal (430, 700, or 1400 mg/kg body weight [bw]), gavage (430 mg/kg bw), or dietary (430 mg/kg bw) administration of PEA to rats, plasma concentrations of PEA were found to be low regardless of the route of administration. The plasma concentrations of phenylacetic acid (PAA, the major metabolite of PEA) greatly exceeded the concentrations of PEA and were highest after gavage, followed by dermal then dietary administration. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion were compared following topical application of ¹⁴C-labeled PEA to rats, rabbits, and humans (specific activities of dosing solutions: 58-580, 164, and 50 µCi/mL, respectively). In rabbits, the plasma concentration-time profile for PAA was markedly prolonged compared to rats or humans. In humans, only 7.6% of the applied dose of PEA was absorbed, versus 77% in rats and 50% in rabbits. Based on a human dermal systemic exposure of 0.3 mg/kg per day from the use of multiple consumer personal care products containing PEA, a rat dermal no observed adverse effect level of 70 mg/kg per day, and the percentage of dose absorbed in humans, the margin of safety exceeds 2600 concluding that, under normal fragrance use conditions, PEA is not a developmental toxicity hazard for humans.

  20. The xylose-rich pectins from pea hulls.

    PubMed

    Renard, C M; Weightman, R M; Thibault, J F

    1997-08-01

    The hot acid extract of pea hull, HSP, was rich in galacturonic acid, arabinose and xylose. It was fractionated by copper precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The copper-soluble fraction represented 26% of HSP and was mostly composed of an arabinan with a low degree of branching, some heteroxylans and a glucan, probably starch. The copper-precipitate (74% of HSP) contained pectins and some residual arabinan, xylan, glucan and mannan. One of the pectic fractions was rich in terminal xylose and fucose; it could be partially degraded by endo-polygalacturonase but not by endo-xylanase and seemed to contain xylogalacturonans.

  1. Lipogenesis and Redox Balance in Nitrogen-Fixing Pea Bacteroids.

    PubMed

    Terpolilli, Jason J; Masakapalli, Shyam K; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Webb, Isabel U C; Green, Rob; Watmough, Nicholas J; Kruger, Nicholas J; Ratcliffe, R George; Poole, Philip S

    2016-10-15

    Within legume root nodules, rhizobia differentiate into bacteroids that oxidize host-derived dicarboxylic acids, which is assumed to occur via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to generate NAD(P)H for reduction of N2 Metabolic flux analysis of laboratory-grown Rhizobium leguminosarum showed that the flux from [(13)C]succinate was consistent with respiration of an obligate aerobe growing on a TCA cycle intermediate as the sole carbon source. However, the instability of fragile pea bacteroids prevented their steady-state labeling under N2-fixing conditions. Therefore, comparative metabolomic profiling was used to compare free-living R. leguminosarum with pea bacteroids. While the TCA cycle was shown to be essential for maximal rates of N2 fixation, levels of pyruvate (5.5-fold reduced), acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA; 50-fold reduced), free coenzyme A (33-fold reduced), and citrate (4.5-fold reduced) were much lower in bacteroids. Instead of completely oxidizing acetyl-CoA, pea bacteroids channel it into both lipid and the lipid-like polymer poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), the latter via a type III PHB synthase that is active only in bacteroids. Lipogenesis may be a fundamental requirement of the redox poise of electron donation to N2 in all legume nodules. Direct reduction by NAD(P)H of the likely electron donors for nitrogenase, such as ferredoxin, is inconsistent with their redox potentials. Instead, bacteroids must balance the production of NAD(P)H from oxidation of acetyl-CoA in the TCA cycle with its storage in PHB and lipids. Biological nitrogen fixation by symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in legume root nodules is an energy-expensive process. Within legume root nodules, rhizobia differentiate into bacteroids that oxidize host-derived dicarboxylic acids, which is assumed to occur via the TCA cycle to generate NAD(P)H for reduction of N2 However, direct reduction of the likely electron donors for nitrogenase, such as ferredoxin, is inconsistent with their redox

  2. [Ultrastructure and metabolic activity of pea mitochondria under clinorotation].

    PubMed

    Brykov, V A; Generozova, I P; Shugaev, A G

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data on the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration in root apex as well as metabolic activity of the organelles isolated from pea seedling roots after 5-day of clinorotation are presented. It was shown that mitochondrial condensation in the distal elongation zone correlated with an increased rate of oxygen uptake on 7%. We also observed increase in rate of malate oxidation and respiratory control ratio increased simultaneously with a decreased in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Such character of mitochondrial rearrangements in simulated microgravity is assumed to be a consequence of adaptation to these conditions.

  3. Bisphosphorylated PEA-15 Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel by Impairing the Microtubule-Destabilizing Effect of SCLIP

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuemei; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Kazansky, Anna; Diao, Lixia; Baggerly, Keith A.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kDa) regulates cell proliferation, autophagy, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism and also mediates AKT-dependent chemoresistance in breast cancer. PEA-15's functions are tightly regulated by its phosphorylation status at Ser104 and Ser116. However, the effect of PEA-15 phosphorylation status on chemosensitivity of cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PEA-15 phosphorylated at both Ser104 and Ser116 (pPEA-15) sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. We first found that knockdown of PEA-15 in PEA-15-high-expressing HEY and OVTOKO ovarian cancer cells resulted in paclitaxel resistance, whereas re-expression of PEA-15 in these cells led to paclitaxel sensitization. We next found that SKOV3.ip1-DD cells (expressing phosphomimetic PEA-15) were more sensitive to paclitaxel than SKOV3.ip1-AA cells (expressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15). Compared to SKOV3.ip1-vector and SKOV3.ip1-AA cells, SKOV3.ip1-DD cells displayed reduced cell viability, inhibited anchorage-independent growth, and augmented apoptosis when treated with paclitaxel. Furthermore, HEY and OVTOKO cells displayed enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing phosphomimetic PEA-15 and reduced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15. These results indicate that pPEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that SCLIP (SCG10-like protein), a microtubule (MT)-destabilizing protein, is involved in pPEA-15-mediated chemosensitization. We found that reduced expression and possibly posttranslational modification of SCLIP following paclitaxel treatment impaired SCLIP's MT-destabilizing effect, thereby promoting induction of mitotic arrest and apoptosis by paclitaxel. Our findings highlight the importance of pPEA-15 as a promising target for improving the efficacy of

  4. Bisphosphorylated PEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel by impairing the microtubule-destabilizing effect of SCLIP.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Kazansky, Anna; Diao, Lixia; Baggerly, Keith A; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Ueno, Naoto T

    2013-06-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kDa) regulates cell proliferation, autophagy, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism and also mediates AKT-dependent chemoresistance in breast cancer. The functions of PEA-15 are tightly regulated by its phosphorylation status at Ser104 and Ser116. However, the effect of PEA-15 phosphorylation status on chemosensitivity of cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PEA-15 phosphorylated at both Ser104 and Ser116 (pPEA-15) sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. We first found that knockdown of PEA-15 in PEA-15-high expressing HEY and OVTOKO ovarian cancer cells resulted in paclitaxel resistance, whereas re-expression of PEA-15 in these cells led to paclitaxel sensitization. We next found that SKOV3.ip1-DD cells (expressing phosphomimetic PEA-15) were more sensitive to paclitaxel than SKOV3.ip1-AA cells (expressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15). Compared with SKOV3.ip1-vector and SKOV3.ip1-AA cells, SKOV3.ip1-DD cells displayed reduced cell viability, inhibited anchorage-independent growth, and augmented apoptosis when treated with paclitaxel. Furthermore, HEY and OVTOKO cells displayed enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing phosphomimetic PEA-15 and reduced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15. These results indicate that pPEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that SCLIP (SCG10-like protein), a microtubule-destabilizing protein, is involved in pPEA-15-mediated chemosensitization. We found that reduced expression and possibly posttranslational modification of SCLIP following paclitaxel treatment impaired the microtubule-destabilizing effect of SCLIP, thereby promoting induction of mitotic arrest and apoptosis by paclitaxel. Our findings highlight the importance of pPEA-15 as a promising target for improving

  5. Differential induction of oxidative impairments in brain regions of male mice following subchronic consumption of Khesari dhal (Lathyrus sativus) and detoxified Khesari dhal.

    PubMed

    Shinomol, George K; Muralidhara

    2007-07-01

    Neurolathyrism is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the chronic consumption of Khesari dhal (Lathyrus sativus L). It is generally accepted that beta-N-oxalylamino-l-alanine (b-ODAP), a non-protein amino acid present in the seeds is the primary causative agent. Based on in vitro studies with beta-ODAP, both excitotoxic and oxidative stress mechanisms have been speculated to be responsible for its neurotoxic effects. However, occurrence and the involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in experimental animals following Khesari dhal consumption in vivo is less well understood. Accordingly in the present study, we have addressed primarily two questions: (i) whether dietary intake of Khesari dhal (KD) causes oxidative impairment in specific regions of brain, such as cortex and cerebellum and (ii) if there is any significant reduction in the oxidative damage induction following consumption of detoxified Khesari dhal (DKD). Adult male mice were fed either normal, KD or DKD incorporated diet (30%) for a period of 4 or 12 weeks. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activity of antioxidant enzymes, protein carbonyls in brain regions (cortex, cerebellum) were determined. Mice fed KD diet showed enhanced LPO levels and ROS generation in brain, while the levels of LPO and ROS were unaltered in DKD mice. Interim sampling (4 weeks) also showed a similar trend though the degree of oxidative damage was lower. Depletion of reduced GSH, significant alterations in the activity of various antioxidant enzymes and enhanced protein carbonyls in brain in KD fed mice suggested that a state of oxidative stress exists in vivo. Interestingly, no significant induction of oxidative damage was evident in the brain of mice fed DKD. However, altered cholinergic function was discernible among both treatment groups. KD consumption resulted in a marked reduction of brain AChE activity at both sampling times (cortex

  6. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; Seward, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries. Methods: Grass types used at the major AFL venues from 1992 to 2004 were established by consultation with ground managers, and ground hardness and other weather variables were measured prospectively. Results: There were 115 ACL injuries occurring in matches during the survey time period, 88 with a non-contact mechanism. In multivariate analysis, use of bermuda (couch) grass as opposed to rye grass, higher grade of match, and earlier stage of the season were independent risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. Ground hardness readings did not show a significant association with ACL injury risk, whereas weather variables of high evaporation and low prior rainfall showed univariate association with injury risk but could not be entered into a logistic regression equation. Discussion: Rye grass appears to offer protection against ACL injury compared with bermuda (couch) grass fields. The likely mechanism is reduced "trapping" of football boots by less thatch. Grass species as a single consideration cannot fully explain the ACL early season bias, but is probably responsible for the warm season bias seen in the AFL. Weather variables previously identified as predictors are probably markers for predominance of bermuda over rye grass in mixed fields. PMID:16183765

  7. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Deguang; Gong, Wangbao; Li, Zhifei; Wang, Haiying; Xia, Yun; Wei, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp. PMID:25525591

  8. Estradiol attenuates down-regulation of PEA-15 and its two phosphorylated forms in ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol exerts a neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemic injury through the inhibition of apoptotic signals. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is mainly expressed in brain that perform anti-apoptotic functions. This study investigated whether estradiol modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms of PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult female rats were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estradiol and treated with vehicle or estradiol prior to MCAO. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO and cerebral cortices were collected 24 h after MCAO. Western blot analysis indicated that estradiol prevents the MCAO-induced decrease in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116). Glutamate exposure induced a reduction in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116) in cultured neurons, whereas estradiol treatment attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in the expression of these proteins. It has been known that phosphorylation of PEA-15 is an important step in carrying out its anti-apoptotic function. Thus, these findings suggest that the regulation of PEA-15 phosphorylation by estradiol contributes to the neuroprotective function of estradiol in ischemic brain injury. PMID:25806082

  9. Cadmium induced mitochondrial redox changes in germinating pea seed.

    PubMed

    Smiri, Moêz; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Rouhier, Nicolas; Kamel, Chibani; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2010-12-01

    Mitochondria play an essential role in producing the energy required for seedling growth following imbibition. Heavy metals, such as cadmium impair mitochondrial functioning in part by altering redox regulation. The activities of two protein redox systems present in mitochondria, thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx), were analysed in the cotyledons and embryo of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germinating seeds exposed to toxic Cd concentration. Compared to controls, Cd-treated germinating seeds showed a decrease in total soluble protein content, but an increase in -SH content. Under Cd stress conditions, Grx and glutathione reductase (GR) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) concentrations decreased both in cotyledons and the embryo. Similar results were obtained with the Trx system: Trx and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) activities were not stimulated, whereas total NAD(P) contents diminished in the embryo. However, Cd enhanced the levels of all components of the Trx system in the cotyledons. On the other hand, Cd caused a significant increase in oxidative stress parameters such as the redox ratio of coenzymes (oxidized to reduced forms) and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. These results indicate that Cd induces differential redox responses on different seed tissues. We suggest that neither Grx system nor Trx one may improve the redox status of mitochondrial thiols in the embryo of germinating pea seeds exposed to Cd toxicity, but in the cotyledons the contribution of Trx/NTR/NADPH can be established in despite the vulnerability of the coenzyme pools due to enzymatic oxidation.

  10. Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea.

    PubMed

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local heating and measured in an adjacent, undamaged leaf by extracellular electrodes. CO2 assimilation was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring system. Photosystem I and II parameters were investigated using a measuring system for simultaneous assessment of P700 oxidation and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heating-induced VP reduced CO2 assimilation and electron flow through photosystem II. In response, cyclic electron flow rapidly decreased and subsequently slowly increased. Slow increases in cyclic flow were caused by decreased electron flow through photosystem II, which was mainly connected with VP-induced photosynthetic dark stage inactivation. However, direct influence by VP on photosystem I also participated in activation of cyclic electron flow. Thus, VP, induced by local leaf-heating, activated cyclic electron flow in undamaged leaves. This response was similar to photosynthetic changes observed under the direct action of stressors. Possible mechanisms of VP's influence on cyclic flow were discussed.

  11. Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea

    PubMed Central

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local heating and measured in an adjacent, undamaged leaf by extracellular electrodes. CO2 assimilation was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring system. Photosystem I and II parameters were investigated using a measuring system for simultaneous assessment of P700 oxidation and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heating-induced VP reduced CO2 assimilation and electron flow through photosystem II. In response, cyclic electron flow rapidly decreased and subsequently slowly increased. Slow increases in cyclic flow were caused by decreased electron flow through photosystem II, which was mainly connected with VP-induced photosynthetic dark stage inactivation. However, direct influence by VP on photosystem I also participated in activation of cyclic electron flow. Thus, VP, induced by local leaf-heating, activated cyclic electron flow in undamaged leaves. This response was similar to photosynthetic changes observed under the direct action of stressors. Possible mechanisms of VP's influence on cyclic flow were discussed. PMID:25610447

  12. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  13. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  14. Purification and characterization of amine oxidase from pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vianello, F; Malek-Mirzayans, A; Di Paolo, M L; Stevanato, R; Rigo, A

    1999-03-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid procedure for the purification of pea seedling amine oxidase is reported. The crude enzyme, obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation, was purified in two steps: the first one by anion-exchange chromatography and the second one by affinity chromatography. The first chromatography step was carried out on a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column. By lowering the amount of protein loaded on the column and the buffer concentration it was possible to obtain an enzyme pure at 95% (sp act 1.2 microkat/mg). To achieve a higher degree of purification various affinity resins were prepared and tested. The resins were obtained by covalent immobilization of polyamines on Sepharose according to three different procedures. The best results were obtained with 6-aminohexyl-Sepharose 2B, prepared using CNBr as coupling agent, and eluting the enzyme by a solution containing 1, 4-diaminocyclohexane. This last compound was found to be a relatively strong competitive inhibitor of the oxidative deamination of cadaverine catalyzed by pea seedling amine oxidase (Ki = 32 microM). According to this procedure an electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme, characterized by a specific activity of 1.63 microkat/mg, was obtained.

  15. The Pea Gene LH Encodes ent-Kaurene Oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Sandra E.; Smith, Jennifer J.; Helliwell, Chris A.; Poole, Andrew T.; Reid, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) homolog, PsKO1, of the Arabidopsis GA3 gene was isolated. It codes for a cytochrome P450 from the CYP701A subfamily and has ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity, catalyzing the three step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PsKO1 is encoded by the LH gene because in three independent mutant alleles, lh-1, lh-2, and lh-3, PsKO1 has altered sequence, and the lh-1 allele, when expressed in yeast, failed to metabolize ent-kaurene. The lh mutants of pea are GA deficient and have reduced internode elongation and root growth. One mutant (lh-2) also causes a large increase in seed abortion. PsKO1 (LH) is expressed in all tissues examined, including stems, roots, and seeds, and appears to be a single-copy gene. Differences in sensitivity to the GA synthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, between the mutants appear to result from the distinct nature of the genetic lesions. These differences may also explain the tissue-specific differences between the mutants. PMID:14988475

  16. [Pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of pea chlorophyll mutants].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea chlorophyll mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 have been studied. The mutants differ from the initial form (pea cultivar Torsdag) in stem and leaf color (light green in the mutant 2004 and yellow-green in the mutant 2014), relative chlorophyll content (approximately 80 and 50%, respectively), and the composition of carotenoids: the mutant 2004 contains a significantly smaller amount of carotene but accumulates more lutein and violaxanthine; in the mutant 2014, the contents of all carotenoids are decreased proportionally to the decrease in chlorophyll content. It is shown that the rates of CO2 assimilation and oxygen production in the mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 plants are reduced. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants is 29-30% lower than in the control plants; in their hybrids, however, it is 1.5-2 higher. It is proposed that both the greater role of dark respiration in gas exchange and the reduced photosynthetic activity in chlorotica mutants are responsible for the decreased phytomass increment in these plants. On the basis of these results, the conclusion is drawn that the mutations chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affect the genes controlling the formation and functioning of various components of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  17. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  18. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Renuka P.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals. PMID:24795736

  19. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  20. Ethylene Signaling Influences Light-Regulated Development in Pea.

    PubMed

    Weller, James L; Foo, Eloise M; Hecht, Valérie; Ridge, Stephen; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Reid, James B

    2015-09-01

    Plant responses to light involve a complex network of interactions among multiple plant hormones. In a screen for mutants showing altered photomorphogenesis under red light, we identified a mutant with dramatically enhanced leaf expansion and delayed petal senescence. We show that this mutant exhibits reduced sensitivity to ethylene and carries a nonsense mutation in the single pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of the ethylene signaling gene ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2). Consistent with this observation, the ein2 mutation rescues the previously described effects of ethylene overproduction in mature phytochrome-deficient plants. In seedlings, ein2 confers a marked increase in leaf expansion under monochromatic red, far-red, or blue light, and interaction with phytochromeA, phytochromeB, and long1 mutants confirms that ein2 enhances both phytochrome- and cryptochrome-dependent responses in a LONG1-dependent manner. In contrast, minimal effects of ein2 on seedling development in darkness or high-irradiance white light show that ethylene is not limiting for development under these conditions. These results indicate that ethylene signaling constrains leaf expansion during deetiolation in pea and provide further evidence that down-regulation of ethylene production may be an important component mechanism in the broader control of photomorphogenic development by phytochrome and cryptochrome.

  1. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  2. The pea gene LH encodes ent-kaurene oxidase.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sandra E; Smith, Jennifer J; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2004-03-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) homolog, PsKO1, of the Arabidopsis GA3 gene was isolated. It codes for a cytochrome P450 from the CYP701A subfamily and has ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity, catalyzing the three step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PsKO1 is encoded by the LH gene because in three independent mutant alleles, lh-1, lh-2, and lh-3, PsKO1 has altered sequence, and the lh-1 allele, when expressed in yeast, failed to metabolize ent-kaurene. The lh mutants of pea are GA deficient and have reduced internode elongation and root growth. One mutant (lh-2) also causes a large increase in seed abortion. PsKO1 (LH) is expressed in all tissues examined, including stems, roots, and seeds, and appears to be a single-copy gene. Differences in sensitivity to the GA synthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, between the mutants appear to result from the distinct nature of the genetic lesions. These differences may also explain the tissue-specific differences between the mutants.

  3. Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kimberley J; Ripley, Brad S; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Belcher, Claire M; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Thomas, Gavin H; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-01-01

    Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this variation, remains unknown.By burning leaves and plant parts, we experimentally determined how five plant traits (biomass quantity, biomass density, biomass moisture content, leaf surface-area-to-volume ratio and leaf effective heat of combustion) combined to determine the three components of flammability (ignitability, sustainability and combustibility) at the leaf and plant scales in 25 grass species of fire-prone South African grasslands at a time of peak fire occurrence. The influence of evolutionary history on flammability was assessed based on a phylogeny built here for the study species.Grass species differed significantly in all components of flammability. Accounting for evolutionary history helped to explain patterns in leaf-scale combustibility and sustainability. The five measured plant traits predicted components of flammability, particularly leaf ignitability and plant combustibility in which 70% and 58% of variation, respectively, could be explained by a combination of the traits. Total above-ground biomass was a key driver of combustibility and sustainability with high biomass species burning more intensely and for longer, and producing the highest predicted fire spread rates. Moisture content was the main influence on ignitability, where species with higher moisture contents took longer to ignite and once alight burnt at a slower rate. Biomass density, leaf surface-area-to-volume ratio and leaf effective heat of combustion

  4. Molecular aspects of flower development in grasses.

    PubMed

    Ciaffi, Mario; Paolacci, Anna Rita; Tanzarella, Oronzo Antonio; Porceddu, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    The grass family (Poaceae) of the monocotyledons includes about 10,000 species and represents one of the most important taxa among angiosperms. Their flower morphology is remarkably different from those of other monocotyledons and higher eudicots. The peculiar floral structure of grasses is the floret, which contains carpels and stamens, like eudicots, but lacks petals and sepals. The reproductive organs are surrounded by two lodicules, which correspond to eudicot petals, and by a palea and lemma, whose correspondence to eudicot organs remains controversial. The molecular and genetic analysis of floral morphogenesis and organ specification, primarily performed in eudicot model species, led to the ABCDE model of flower development. Several genes required for floral development in grasses correspond to class A, B, C, D, and E genes of eudicots, but others appear to have unique and diversified functions. In this paper, we outline the present knowledge on the evolution and diversification of grass genes encoding MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors, based on information derived from studies in rice, maize, and wheat. Moreover, we review recent advances in studying the genes involved in the control of flower development and the extent of structural and functional conservation of these genes between grasses and eudicots.

  5. Evolution of Centromeric Retrotransposons in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anupma; Presting, Gernot G.

    2014-01-01

    Centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) constitute a family of plant retroelements, some of which have the ability to target their insertion almost exclusively to the functional centromeres. Our exhaustive analysis of CR family members in four grass genomes revealed not only horizontal transfer (HT) of CR elements between the oryzoid and panicoid grass lineages but also their subsequent recombination with endogenous elements that in some cases created prolific recombinants in foxtail millet and sorghum. HT events are easily identifiable only in cases where host genome divergence significantly predates HT, thus documented HT events likely represent only a fraction of the total. If the more difficult to detect ancient HT events occurred at frequencies similar to those observable in present day grasses, the extant long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent the mosaic products of HT and recombination that are optimized for retrotransposition in their host genomes. This complicates not only phylogenetic analysis but also the establishment of a meaningful retrotransposon nomenclature, which we have nevertheless attempted to implement here. In contrast to the plant-centric naming convention used currently for CR elements, we classify elements primarily based on their phylogenetic relationships regardless of host plant, using the exhaustively studied maize elements assigned to six different subfamilies as a standard. The CR2 subfamily is the most widely distributed of the six CR subfamilies discovered in grass genomes to date and thus the most likely to play a functional role at grass centromeres. PMID:24814286

  6. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation.

  7. Environmental Impact Research Program. PARTRIDGE PEA (Cassia fasciculata). Section 7.3.3. US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    a tarpaulin or floor and then threshed to obtain seeds . Seed scarification is necessary if good stands of partridge pea are to be quickly established...parts of the Southeast. Other common names for the species include showy partridge pea and large- seeded partridge pea. DESCRIPTION Partridge pea is...distinguishing characteristics of partridge pea (Cassia fasciculata): (a) flowering branch, (b) honey gland, (c) seedpod, and (d) seed . The map shows the

  8. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  9. Genetically Modified α-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  10. Genetically modified α-amylase inhibitor peas are not specifically allergenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E; Higgins, T J V; Epstein, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice.

  11. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae from pea are phylogenetically and pathogenically diverse.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; de la Vega, Marcelino Pérez; Murillo, Jesús; Caminero, Constantino

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes extensive yield losses in the pea crop worldwide, although there is little information on its host specialization and its interactions with pea. A collection of 88 putative P. syringae pv. syringae strains (including 39 strains isolated from pea) was characterized by repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and syrB amplification and evaluated for pathogenicity and virulence. rep-PCR data grouped the strains from pea into two groups (1B and 1C) together with strains from other hosts; a third group (1A) was formed exclusively with strains isolated from non-legume species. MLST data included all strains from pea in the genomospecies 1 of P. syringae pathovars defined in previous studies; they were distributed in the same three groups defined by rep-PCR. The inoculations performed in two pea cultivars showed that P. syringae pv. syringae strains from groups 1A and 1C were less virulent than strains from group 1B, suggesting a possible pathogenic specialization in this group. This study shows the existence of genetically and pathogenically distinct P. syringae pv. syringae strain groups from pea, which will be useful for the diagnostic and epidemiology of this pathogen and for disease resistance breeding.

  12. Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Lawrence, Frank R; Hartman, Terryl J; Curran, Julianne M

    2009-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables. These recommendations target specific subgroups of vegetables, including dry beans and peas. Dry beans and peas provide an array of nutrients and phytochemicals that have been shown to have beneficial health effects, yet consumption levels in the United States are quite low. Few studies have examined the influence of legume consumption on nutrient intakes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess nutrient and food group intakes of dry bean and pea consumers compared to nonconsumers. Dietary intake data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged > or =19 years was used. Results show that on any given day only 7.9% of adults are consuming dry beans and peas; Mexican Americans or other Hispanics are more likely to be consumers than nonconsumers. Consuming approximately (1/2) c dry beans or peas resulted in higher intakes of fiber, protein, folate, zinc, iron, and magnesium with lower intakes of saturated fat and total fat. These data support the specific recommendation for dry beans and peas as part of the overall vegetable recommendation. Increased consumption of dry beans and peas-economical and nutrient-rich foods-could improve the diet quality of Americans.

  13. Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L.), however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb) and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome. Results 10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs) from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs) and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs) categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings) and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia). Among those ESTs specifically expressed, 277 (9.8%) pea ESTs

  14. Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; McPhee, Kevin E; Coram, Tristan E; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I

    2012-11-26

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L.), however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb) and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome. 10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs) from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs) and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs) categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings) and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia). Among those ESTs specifically expressed, 277 (9.8%) pea ESTs were predicted to be

  15. Analysis of neurotoxin 3-N-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid and its alpha-isomer in Lathyrus sativus by high-performance liquid chromatography with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wang, F; Chen, Q; Qin, X C; Li, Z

    2000-08-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of the neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid, 3-N-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), and its nontoxic alpha-isomer, 2-N-oxalyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropionic acid (alpha-ODAP), in the plant samples of Lathyrus sativus after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Hippuric acid was used as an internal standard. A linear response was recorded in the concentration rang 0.32-32 nmol with r > 0.999. The RP HPLC detection limit for both isomers is 1.8 ng. According to different experimental needs, a ternary gradient system can be used to determine toxin and other nonprotein amino acids. The RP HPLC method and a colorimetric method were compared for measuring ODAP.

  16. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

  17. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Amanda J; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of functional fibers on gut microbiota and metabolic health, but some less well-studied fibers and/or fractions of foods known to be high in fiber still warrant examination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of yellow pea-derived fractions varying in fiber and protein content on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats. We hypothesized that the yellow pea fiber (PF) fraction would improve glycemia and alter gut microbiota. Rats were randomized to 1 of 5 isoenergetic dietary treatments for 6 weeks: (1) control; (2) oligofructose (OFS); (3) yellow PF; (4) yellow pea flour (PFL); or (5) yellow pea starch (PS). Glycemia, plasma gut hormones, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, gut microbiota, and messenger RNA expression of genes related to hepatic fat metabolism were examined. Pea flour attenuated weight gain compared with control, PF, and PS (P < .05). Pea flour, PS, and OFS had significantly lower final percent body fat compared with control. Oligofructose but not the pea fraction diets reduced food intake compared with control (P < .05). Pea fiber resulted in lower fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve compared with control. Changes in gut microbiota were fraction specific and included a decrease in Firmicutes (percent) for OFS, PF, and PFL compared with control (P < .05). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was reduced with OFS, PF, and PFL when compared with PS (P < .05). Taken together, this work suggests that yellow pea-derived fractions are able to distinctly modulate metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in obese rats.

  18. Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Hydrogen Oxidation by Pigeon Pea Bradyrhizobium spp. in Symbiotic Association with Pigeon Pea, Cowpea, and Soybean †

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, C. S.; Hegde, S. V.; van Berkum, P.

    1988-01-01

    The pigeon pea strains of Bradyrhizobium CC-1, CC-8, UASGR(S), and F4 were evaluated for nodulation, effectiveness for N2 fixation, and H2 oxidation with homologous and nonhomologous host plants. Strain CC-1 nodulated Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, and G. soja but did not nodulate Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Trifolium repens. Strain F4 nodulated G. max cv. Peking and PI 434937 (Malayan), but the symbioses formed were poor. Similarly, G. max cv. Peking, cv. Bragg, PI 434937, PR 13-28-2-8-7, and HM-1 were nodulated by strain CC-1, and symbioses were also poor. G. max cv. Williams and cv. Clark were not nodulated. H2 uptake activity was expressed with pigeon pea and cowpea, but not with soybean. G. max cv. Bragg grown in Bangalore, India, in local soil not previously exposed to Bradyrhizobium japonicum formed nodules with indigenous Bradyrhizobium spp. Six randomly chosen isolates, each originating from a different nodule, formed effective symbioses with pigeon pea host ICPL-407, nodulated PR 13-28-2-8-7 soybean forming moderately effective symbioses, and did not nodulate Williams soybean. These results indicate the six isolates to be pigeon pea strains although they originated from soybean nodules. Host-determined nodulation of soybean by pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. may depend upon the ancestral backgrounds of the cultivars. The poor symbioses formed by the pigeon pea strains with soybean indicate that this crop should be inoculated with B. japonicum for its cultivation in soils containing only pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. PMID:16347542

  19. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    PubMed

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P < 0.05). Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P < 0.05) for diets based on cooked rice than diets based on cooked corn with diets based on pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P < 0.01). Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  20. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  1. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  2. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  3. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  4. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence.

  5. Pea3 expression is regulated by FGF signaling in developing retina

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kathryn Leigh; McGuire, Chris; Reh, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    FGF signaling has been implicated as an important regulator of retinal development. As a first step in characterizing potential downstream targets of FGF signaling in the retina, we have analyzed expression of Pea3, a member of the Pea3 class of Ets-domain transcription factors, in the developing eye. We find that Pea3 is expressed in the developing retina, and its transcription is regulated by FGF receptor activation. In addition, FGF signaling activates Cath5, a gene necessary for retinal ganglion cell differentiation. These results suggest that FGF signaling via MAPK up-regulates transcription factors that in turn control retinal ganglion cell differentiation. PMID:16273524

  6. Thermochemical characterization of pigeon pea stalk for its efficient utilization as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.

    2000-05-01

    Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.

  7. The Parent Experience of Assessment Scale (PEAS): Development and Relation to Parent Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Austin, Cynthia A; Finn, Stephen F; Keith, Timothy Z; Tharinger, Deborah J; Fernando, April D

    2016-09-14

    This study outlines the development of the Parent Experience of Assessment Scale (PEAS), which is based on principles of Therapeutic Assessment. The study includes pilot testing of a 64-item questionnaire across 134 participants, with psychometric analyses utilizing confirmatory factor analysis. The revised version consists of 24 items across five subscales with appropriate internal consistency reliability (alphas from .76 to .88). The PEAS demonstrates statistically significant relations with general parent satisfaction, with two subscales indicating significant direct effects via structural equation modeling. The PEAS has the potential utility to provide more nuanced clinical and investigative feedback regarding the parent process during child psychological assessment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Shigella sonnei infections in Norway associated with sugar peas, May-June 2009.

    PubMed

    Heier, B T; Nygard, K; Kapperud, G; Lindstedt, B A; Johannessen, G S; Blekkan, H

    2009-06-18

    In May 2009, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) identified a possible outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection involving four cases. Additionally, five suspected cases in two separate households were reported. Inspectors from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) visited the two households and found an unopened package of sugar peas imported from Kenya in one of the households. One sample from the sugar peas was positive for Shigella sonnei by two PCR methods. Based on this result and information from patient interviews, the NFSA prohibited all sales of sugar peas imported from Kenya.

  9. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  10. Establishing Grass Range In the Southwest Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    H.S. Crawford; A.J. Bjugstad

    1967-01-01

    Prescribed burning to prepare a seed-bed, seedling native grasses or fescue on proper sites, and fertilizing are all necessary for successfully establishing good grass production where trees have been killed by aerially applied berbicides.

  11. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH3-N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  12. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  13. A Single, Plastic Population of Mycosphaerella pinodes Causes Ascochyta Blight on Winter and Spring Peas (Pisum sativum) in France

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant. PMID:23023742

  14. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    PubMed

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  15. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... boundaries; and (3) Be managed and maintained using acceptable growing practices for the geographical...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... boundaries; and (3) Be managed and maintained using acceptable growing practices for the geographical...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss... boundaries; and (3) Be managed and maintained using acceptable growing practices for the geographical...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss..., as determined by CCC. (e) The land, waterbed, or facility in which the eligible commodity was...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss..., as determined by CCC. (e) The land, waterbed, or facility in which the eligible commodity was...

  20. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  1. Native grasses as a management alternative on vegetated closure caps.

    PubMed

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  2. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  3. Invasion of the exotic grasses: Mapping their progression via satellite

    Treesearch

    Eric B. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Several exotic annual grass species are invading the Intermountain West. After disturbances including wildfire, these grasses can form dense stands with fine fuels that then shorten fire intervals. Thus invasive annual grasses and wildfire form a positive feedback mechanism that threatens native ecosystems. Chief among these within Nevada are Bromus tectorum...

  4. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  5. Characterization of starch-debranching enzymes in pea embryos

    PubMed

    Zhu; Hylton; Rossner; Smith

    1998-10-01

    Two distinct types of debranching enzymes have been identified in developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) embryos using native gel analysis and tests of substrate preference on purified or partially purified activities. An isoamylase-like activity capable of hydrolyzing amylopectin and glycogen but not pullulan is present throughout development and is largely or entirely confined to the plastid. Activities capable of hydrolyzing pullulan are present both inside and outside of the plastid, and extraplastidial activity increases relative to the plastidial activity during development. Both types of debranching enzyme are also present in germinating embryos. We argue that debranching enzymes are likely to have a role in starch metabolism in the plastid of the developing embryo and in starch degradation during germination.

  6. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  7. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Thermotolerance of Pea Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, L.

    2008-06-01

    A coordinated plant response to simulated microgravity (clinorotation) and heat stress was analyzed. 5-d pea seedlings grown on a horizontal clinostat or in the stationary conditions were exposed to different heat treatments (mild, severe and severe after pretreatment). Temperature-dependent quantitative changes in the heat stress response were revealed in the clinorotated seedlings comparatively to the stationary grown ones: less growth activity, an increase in the production of high levels of heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90, a higher extent of the membrane damage. Thus, clinorotated seedlings were more sensitive to heat stress. The data suggest that clinorotation may influence distinct functions, including Hsps synthesis and protection of membrane integrity, that affect plant growth activity and thermotolerance as a result.

  8. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  9. Development of pea protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Perez-Puyana, Víctor; Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues owing to the increasing demand for plastic products. Bioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's modulus but lower strain at break). The results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein-based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to replace conventional plastics in food packaging. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, S. D.; Cohen, J. D.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation.

  11. Phloem unloading and cell expansion in pea stems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Phloem unloading into elongating stems of dark-grown pea seedlings was greater in regions with higher relative growth rates. Phloem transport was monitored over 1 h by measuring accumulation of radiolabel from {sup 14}C-sucrose added between the cotyledons. The apical hook and plumule and 8 mm of the growing region of an intact plant were sealed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was raised to stop elongation. Phloem unloading was inhibited in the pressurized zone of elongation and accelerated in the apical hook and plumule, with the result that the magnitude of phloem transport into the stem was unchanged. The results demonstrate a coupling between cell expansion and phloem unloading.

  12. Clinorotation Affects the Ultrastructure of Pea Root Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2011-02-01

    Effects of clinorotation on the mitochondrial ultrastructure in cells of meristem, distal and central elongation zones of 3- and 5-day-old etiolated roots of pea seedling roots were studied. It was shown that mitochondria in cells of examined root growth zones revealed a different sensitivity to clinorotation. The ultrastructure of mitochondria in the meristem and central elongation zone cells did not substantially change in comparison with stationary control. At the same time, changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure in cells of the distal elongation zone under clinorotation were observed, namely: decrease in the size of mitochondria, as well as increase in both matrix electron density and crista volume. Such changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure under clinorotation are supposed to display the rearrangements of energy metabolism in cells of the distal elongation zone in these conditions.

  13. Characterization of Starch-Debranching Enzymes in Pea Embryos1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Hylton, Christopher M.; Rössner, Ute; Smith, Alison M.

    1998-01-01

    Two distinct types of debranching enzymes have been identified in developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) embryos using native gel analysis and tests of substrate preference on purified or partially purified activities. An isoamylase-like activity capable of hydrolyzing amylopectin and glycogen but not pullulan is present throughout development and is largely or entirely confined to the plastid. Activities capable of hydrolyzing pullulan are present both inside and outside of the plastid, and extraplastidial activity increases relative to the plastidial activity during development. Both types of debranching enzyme are also present in germinating embryos. We argue that debranching enzymes are likely to have a role in starch metabolism in the plastid of the developing embryo and in starch degradation during germination. PMID:9765544

  14. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems.

    PubMed

    Schmalstig, J G; Cosgrove, D J

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  15. Grassroots e-floras in the Poaceae: growing GrassBase and GrassWorld.

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Clayton, Derek; Simon, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    GrassBase and GrassWorld are the largest structured descriptive datasets in plants, publishing descriptions of 11,290 species in the DELTA format. Twenty nine years of data compilation and maintenance have created a dataset which now underpins much of the Poaceae bioinformatics. GrassBase and GrassWorld can continue to grow productively if the proliferation of alternative classifications and datasets can be brought together into a consensus system. If the datasets are reconciled instead of diverging further apart a long term cumulative process can bring knowledge together for great future utility. This paper presents the Poaceae as the first and largest model system for e-taxonomy and the study of classification development in plants. The origin, development, and content of both datasets is described and key contributors are noted. The challenges of alternative classifications, data divergence, collaborative contribution mechanisms, and software are outlined.

  16. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  17. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  18. Evolution of soluble carbohydrates during the development of pea, faba bean and lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Frias, J; Vidal-Valverde, C; Kozlowska, H; Gorecki, R; Honke, J; Hedley, C L

    1996-07-01

    Seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ergo), faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor Harz., cv. Tibo) and yellow pea lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were sampled at different days after flowering (DAF) and their content of soluble carbohydrates was determined. Analysis of samples showed that myo-inositol, fructose, glucose, galactose and sucrose were found in high abundance early in development and their content decreased gradually during maturation. alpha-Galactosides, which includes the content of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, started to appear later in seed development, at 37 DAF in peas, 40 DAF in faba beans and 45 DAF in lupins. Their accumulation increased considerably during seed growth, and the maximum content was obtained in mature seeds; 3.8% in peas, 4.5% in faba beans and 10.4% in lupins. Results obtained for these sugars during seed development were fitted to modelling curves in order to predict sugar content at different development stages.

  19. The economic impact of longer range weather information on the production of peas in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R.; Torkelson, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of benefits which will be realized in the pea industry as a result of improved long range weather forecasts are outlined. Particular attention was given to planting and harvesting operations.

  20. Electrophoretic Analysis of Histones from Gibberellic Acid-treated Dwarf Peas

    PubMed Central

    Spiker, Steven; Chalkley, Roger

    1971-01-01

    Histones from the epicotyls of light-grown dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little Marvel) which had been treated with gibberellic acid were compared to histones from control dwarf peas by the method of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The histone complements were found to be unaltered in the electrophoretic mobility and relative quantity of the individual fractions. The ratio of histone to DNA was also unaffected by treatment with gibberellic acid. The investigation confirmed earlier reports that over 95% of the histone of peas is contained in seven molecular species and that one of these can exist both as an oxidized disulfide dimer and as a reduced monomer. Evidence is presented which indicates that only the monomer form exists in vivo in the pea epicotyl tissue and that the oxidized dimer is an artifact of extraction. The implications of the data concerning the mechanism of action of gibberellic acid are discussed. Images PMID:16657619

  1. The role of the ETS gene PEA3 in the development of motor and sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ladle, David R; Frank, Eric

    2002-12-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors includes two members, ER81 and PEA3, which are expressed in groups of sensory and motor neurons supplying individual muscles. To investigate a possible role of these genes in determining sensory and/or motor neuron phenotype, we studied mice in which each of these genes was deleted. In contrast to the deletion of ER81, which blocks the formation of projections from muscle sensory neurons to motor neurons in the spinal cord, deletion of PEA3 causes no obvious effects on sensory neurons or on their synaptic connections with motor neurons. PEA3 does play a major role in the formation of some brachial motoneurons however. Motoneurons innervating the cutaneous maximus muscle, which are normally PEA3(+), fail to develop normally so that postnatally the muscle is innervated by few motoneurons and is severely atrophic. Other studies suggest that these motoneurons initially appear during development but fail to contact their normal muscle targets.

  2. Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

  3. Flowering time adaption in Swedish landrace pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Vanhala, Tytti; Normann, Kjersti R; Lundström, Maria; Weller, James L; Leino, Matti W; Hagenblad, Jenny

    2016-08-12

    Cultivated crops have repeatedly faced new climatic conditions while spreading from their site of origin. In Sweden, at the northernmost fringe of Europe, extreme conditions with temperature-limited growth seasons and long days require specific adaptation. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been cultivated in Sweden for millennia, allowing for adaptation to the local environmental conditions to develop. To study such adaptation, 15 Swedish pea landraces were chosen alongside nine European landraces, seven cultivars and three wild accessions. Number of days to flowering (DTF) and other traits were measured and the diversity of the flowering time genes HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR), LATE FLOWERING (LF) and STERILE NODES (SN) was assessed. Furthermore, the expression profiles of LF and SN were obtained. DTF was positively correlated with the length of growing season at the site of origin (GSO) of the Swedish landraces. Alleles at the HR locus were significantly associated with DTF with an average difference of 15.43 days between the two detected haplotypes. LF expression was found to have a significant effect on DTF when analysed on its own, but not when HR haplotype was added to the model. HR haplotype and GSO together explained the most of the detected variation in DTF (49.6 %). We show local adaptation of DTF, primarily in the northernmost accessions, and links between genetic diversity and diversity in DTF. The links between GSO and genetic diversity of the genes are less clear-cut and flowering time adaptation seems to have a complex genetic background.

  4. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  5. Grass seedling demography and sagebrush steppe restoration

    Treesearch

    J. J. James; M. J. Rinella; T. Svejcar

    2012-01-01

    Seeding is a key management tool for arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. A recent study inWyoming big sagebrush steppe suggested that over 90% of seeded native grass individuals die before seedlings emerged. This current study examines the timing and rate of seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling death related...

  6. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  7. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  8. Project GRADS (Grass Roots Alternative Diploma Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Harold S.; Lucas, Geoffrey S.

    A project to develop grass roots alternative diploma study (Project GRADS) was undertaken for the purpose of formulating and implementing a multimodal, systems approach to preparing rural adults to pass the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. During the year-long, countywide program, GED programming was developed and delivered via the…

  9. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  10. Managing Intermountain rangelands - sagebrush-grass ranges

    Treesearch

    James P. Blaisdell; Robert B Murray; E. Durant McArthur

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a distillation of some of the most important information resulting from a half-century of research on sagebrush-grass rangelands. It has been prepared as a reference for managers and users of rangelands and as a help for planning and decisionmaking.

  11. Wheatgrass and Wildrye Grasses (Triticeae) (Book Chapter)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheatgrass and wildrye grasses are valued throughout the temperature regions of the world as forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife as well as for other qualities relating to aesthetics, soil stabilization, weed control, and watershed management in semiarid environments. These perennial gras...

  12. The Prairie Life: The Sea of Grass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratzlaff, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that explores the importance of the environment for 19th-century frontier settlers and the conflict between ranchers and small farmers over appropriate land use. Students watch a video movie, "The Sea of Grass"; read selections from "O Pioneers!"; and write a compare/contrast essay. (MJP)

  13. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  14. Rangeland and warm-season forage grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock ranchers depend on grassland grazing for a substantial part of their livestock management systems. Grassland forages make up to 85% of the feed supply for ruminant animal products, especially in warm climates. Grass breeding in general creates some unique breeding challenges ranging from...

  15. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  16. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  17. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  18. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Z A; Munir, A; Asghar, H N; Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M

    2008-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase for growth promotion of peas under drought conditions. Ten rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops (peas, wheat, and maize) were screened for their growth promoting ability in peas under axenic condition. Three rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5), P. fluorescens (ACC-14), and P. putida biotype A (Q-7), were selected for pot trial on the basis of their source, ACC deaminase activity, root colonization, and growth promoting activity under axenic conditions. Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (4 seeds/pot) at different soil moisture levels (25, 50, 75, and 100% of field capacity). Results revealed that decreasing the soil moisture levels from 100 to 25% of field capacity significantly decreased the growth of peas. However, inoculation of peas with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on growth of peas, although with variable efficacy at different moisture levels. At the lowest soil moisture level (25% field capacity), rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5) was found to be more promising compared with the other isolates, as it caused maximum increases in fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length, number of leaves per plant, and water use efficiency on fresh and dry weight basis (45, 150, 92, 45, 140, 46, and 147%, respectively) compared with respective uninoculated controls. It is highly likely that rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase might have decreased the drought-stress induced ethylene in inoculated plants, which resulted in better growth of plants even at low moisture levels. Therefore, inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase could be helpful in eliminating the inhibitory effects of drought stress on the

  19. Identification of sex pheromone components of the pea midge, Contarinia pisi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter; Arn, Heinrich; Bengtsson, Marie; Löfqvist, Jan; Biddle, Anthony J.; Smitt, Olof; Högberg, Hans-Erik; Plass, Ernst; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    Three components in extract of pheromone glands of female pea midges, Contarinia pisi, were found to be active on male pea midge antennae by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection. The EAD active components were identified as 2-acetoxytridecane, (2S,11S)-diacetoxytridecane, and (2S,12S)-diacetoxytridecane. A blend of these compounds proved to be highly attractive to males in windtunnel experiments.

  20. Assessing the effects of architectural variations on light partitioning within virtual wheat–pea mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.; Fournier, Christian; Huynh, Pierre; Combes, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting light partitioning in crop mixtures is a critical step in improving the productivity of such complex systems, and light interception has been shown to be closely linked to plant architecture. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between plant architecture and light partitioning within wheat–pea (Triticum aestivum–Pisum sativum) mixtures. An existing model for wheat was utilized and a new model for pea morphogenesis was developed. Both models were then used to assess the effects of architectural variations in light partitioning. Methods First, a deterministic model (L-Pea) was developed in order to obtain dynamic reconstructions of pea architecture. The L-Pea model is based on L-systems formalism and consists of modules for ‘vegetative development’ and ‘organ extension’. A tripartite simulator was then built up from pea and wheat models interfaced with a radiative transfer model. Architectural parameters from both plant models, selected on the basis of their contribution to leaf area index (LAI), height and leaf geometry, were then modified in order to generate contrasting architectures of wheat and pea. Key results By scaling down the analysis to the organ level, it could be shown that the number of branches/tillers and length of internodes significantly determined the partitioning of light within mixtures. Temporal relationships between light partitioning and the LAI and height of the different species showed that light capture was mainly related to the architectural traits involved in plant LAI during the early stages of development, and in plant height during the onset of interspecific competition. Conclusions In silico experiments enabled the study of the intrinsic effects of architectural parameters on the partitioning of light in crop mixtures of wheat and pea. The findings show that plant architecture is an important criterion for the identification/breeding of plant ideotypes, particularly

  1. Assessing the effects of architectural variations on light partitioning within virtual wheat-pea mixtures.

    PubMed

    Barillot, Romain; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Fournier, Christian; Huynh, Pierre; Combes, Didier

    2014-09-01

    Predicting light partitioning in crop mixtures is a critical step in improving the productivity of such complex systems, and light interception has been shown to be closely linked to plant architecture. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between plant architecture and light partitioning within wheat-pea (Triticum aestivum-Pisum sativum) mixtures. An existing model for wheat was utilized and a new model for pea morphogenesis was developed. Both models were then used to assess the effects of architectural variations in light partitioning. First, a deterministic model (L-Pea) was developed in order to obtain dynamic reconstructions of pea architecture. The L-Pea model is based on L-systems formalism and consists of modules for 'vegetative development' and 'organ extension'. A tripartite simulator was then built up from pea and wheat models interfaced with a radiative transfer model. Architectural parameters from both plant models, selected on the basis of their contribution to leaf area index (LAI), height and leaf geometry, were then modified in order to generate contrasting architectures of wheat and pea. By scaling down the analysis to the organ level, it could be shown that the number of branches/tillers and length of internodes significantly determined the partitioning of light within mixtures. Temporal relationships between light partitioning and the LAI and height of the different species showed that light capture was mainly related to the architectural traits involved in plant LAI during the early stages of development, and in plant height during the onset of interspecific competition. In silico experiments enabled the study of the intrinsic effects of architectural parameters on the partitioning of light in crop mixtures of wheat and pea. The findings show that plant architecture is an important criterion for the identification/breeding of plant ideotypes, particularly with respect to light partitioning.

  2. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  3. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  4. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  5. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F; Zeeman, Sam; Smith, Alison; Martin, Cathie

    2002-08-01

    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be insignificant in the synthesis of amylose in pea leaves. cDNA clones encoding a second isoform of GBSSI, GBSSIb, have been isolated from pea leaves. Comparison of GBSSIa and GBSSIb activities shows them to have distinct properties. These differences have been confirmed by the expression of GBSSIa and GBSSIb in the amylose-free mutant of potato. GBSSIa and GBSSIb make distinct forms of amylose that differ in their molecular mass. These differences in product specificity, coupled with differences in the tissues in which GBSSIa and GBSSIb are most active, explain the distinct forms of amylose found in different tissues of pea. The shorter form of amylose formed by GBSSIa confers less susceptibility to the retrogradation of starch pastes than the amylose formed by GBSSIb. The product specificity of GBSSIa could provide beneficial attributes to starches for food and nonfood uses.

  6. Vacuum frying of peas: effect of coating and pre-drying.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ying-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the research was to compare the effect of coating with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hot-air and vacuum microwave pre-drying on the physicochemical properties and sensory scores of vacuum-fried peas. The three pre-treatments prior to frying were shown to obviously reduce oil absorption in vacuum-fried peas. Among the three pre-treatments, coating with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for peas produced the lowest oil content products (24.53 %), and the chlorophyll retention was 77.08 %. Vitamin C and breaking force for fried products with vacuum microwave pre-drying were 46.56 μg/100 g (db) and 8.64 N, which were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) better than those of other treatments. However, fried peas treated by hot air pre-drying showed the highest breaking force and lowest chlorophyll retention. All the fried peas had water activity (Aw) values of less than 0.35, indicating that the products have a long shelf life. Sensory scores showed vacuum-fried peas treated by vacuum microwave pre-drying had the highest acceptability.

  7. Oxidative processes in soybean and pea seeds: effect of light, temperature, and water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Oxidative processes are probable determinants of longevity of seeds in storage. Measurements of actual oxygen uptake rates were made for soybean and pea seeds as a comparison of short and long lived seeds when light, temperature, and moisture contents were varied. In both peas and soybeans, the oxygen uptake was depressed at low temperatures (<16 degrees C) and low water contents (< 0.25 gram H2O per gram dry weight). Apparent activation energies under these conditions are very high, while apparent activation energies of seeds at higher water contents and at temperatures greater than 22 degrees C are much less. Light enhances the level of oxygen uptake in pea, but reduces the level of oxygen uptake in soybean. The complexities of the interactions of oxygen uptake with environmental conditions in soybean compared to pea suggest that oxidative processes occur in soybean at low water contents, but are essentially absent in pea. It is suggested that the additional oxidative processes in soybean with moisture contents between 0.10 and 0.24 gram per gram may contribute to the poorer longevity of soybean seed compared to pea seed.

  8. Molecular diversity of native rhizobia trapped by five field pea genotypes in Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, K; Dudeja, S S; Yadav, R K

    2011-02-01

    Five pea cultivars; HFP 4, HVP 3-5, HFP 9426, Jayanti and Hariyal, being grown in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were used to isolate native rhizobia. Selected 54 rhizobia, from all cultivars, were authenticated as rhizobia by plant infectivity test. Along with nodulation, symbiotic effectiveness in terms of symbiotic ratios showed wide range of effectiveness of pea rhizobia from 1.11 to 5.0. DNA of all the 54 rhizobia was extracted and amplified by PCR, using ERIC and 16S rDNA primers. Dendrogram based on ERIC profiles of these 54 rhizobia showed the formation of 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. Dendrogram based on RFLP of 16S rDNA by three restriction endonucleases; Msp I, Csp 6I and Rsa I; also formed 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. However, positioning of subclusters was different from that of ERIC based dendrogram. Majority of the isolates i.e. 64.8% by ERIC profiles and 44.4% by RFLP of 16S rDNA formed one cluster. Isolates from same nodule were not 100% similar. Considering each cluster representing a rhizobial genotype, both techniques used to assess molecular diversity indicated the presence of 13 genotypes of field pea rhizobia in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm soil. Two pea rhizobial genotypes were able to nodulate all the five pea cultivars. Furthermore, high strain richness index (0.43-0.5) of field pea rhizobia was observed by both the techniques.

  9. Changes in the germination process and growth of pea in effect of laser seed irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podleśna, Anna; Gładyszewska, Bożena; Podleśny, Janusz; Zgrajka, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-sowing helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation of pea seeds on changes in seed biochemical processes, germination rate, seedling emergence, growth rate, and yield. The first experimental factor was exposure to laser radiation: D0 - no irradiation, D3 - three exposures, D5 - five exposures, and the harvest dates were the second factor. Pre-sowing treatment of pea seeds with He-Ne laser light increased the concentrations of amylolytic enzymes and the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in pea seeds and seedlings. The exposure of seeds to He-Ne laser light improved the germination rate and uniformity and modified growth stages, which caused acceleration of flowering and ripening of pea plants. Laser light stimulation improved the morphological characteristics of plants by increasing plant height and leaf surface area. Irradiation improved the yield of vegetative and reproductive organs of pea, although the effects varied at the different growth stages. The increase in the seed yield resulted from a higher number of pods and seeds per plant, whereas no significant changes were observed in the number of seeds per pod. Both radiation doses exerted similarly stimulating effects on pea growth, development, and yield.

  10. Oxidative processes in soybean and pea seeds: effect of light, temperature, and water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Oxidative processes are probable determinants of longevity of seeds in storage. Measurements of actual oxygen uptake rates were made for soybean and pea seeds as a comparison of short and long lived seeds when light, temperature, and moisture contents were varied. In both peas and soybeans, the oxygen uptake was depressed at low temperatures (<16 degrees C) and low water contents (< 0.25 gram H2O per gram dry weight). Apparent activation energies under these conditions are very high, while apparent activation energies of seeds at higher water contents and at temperatures greater than 22 degrees C are much less. Light enhances the level of oxygen uptake in pea, but reduces the level of oxygen uptake in soybean. The complexities of the interactions of oxygen uptake with environmental conditions in soybean compared to pea suggest that oxidative processes occur in soybean at low water contents, but are essentially absent in pea. It is suggested that the additional oxidative processes in soybean with moisture contents between 0.10 and 0.24 gram per gram may contribute to the poorer longevity of soybean seed compared to pea seed.

  11. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  12. Evaluation of Legumes Common to the Pacific Northwest as Hosts for the Pea Cyst Nematode, Heterodera goettingiana

    PubMed Central

    Tedford, E. C.; Inglis, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Seventeen leguminous species common to the Pacific Northwest were evaluated as potential hosts of the pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, in both greenhouse and field experiments. In all experiments, juveniles of H. goettingiana penetrated roots of these 17 species with the exception of greenhouse-grown chickpea. Nematodes molted and developed into swollen third-stage or fourth-stage juveniles in many of the plants, but cyst development occurred only in the field on green pea, edible dry pea, and faba bean. More H. goettingiana cysts developed on fava bean than on green pea or edible dry pea. In H. goettingiana-infested soils, cropping sequences that include fava bean and pea should be avoided. However, certain legumes, such as winter vetch, may have the potential of serving as trap crops for H. goettingiana in this region. PMID:19270885

  13. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Davies, Janet Mary; Li, Hongzhuo; Green, Melissa; Towers, Michelle; Upham, John Warrick

    2012-03-05

    Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  14. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  15. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  16. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R(2) = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  17. Protein Synthesis by Isolated Etioplasts and Chloroplasts from Pea and Wheat and the Effects of Chloramphenicol and Cycloheximide 1

    PubMed Central

    Reger, Bonnie J.; Smillie, R. M.; Fuller, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Etioplasts capable of incorporating 14C-leucine into protein have been isolated from dark-grown pea and wheat plants. The requirements for leucine incorporation for etioplasts were similar to those for chloroplasts. An ATP-generating system, Mg2+, and GTP were required. The amino-acid-incorporation activity of etioplasts from wheat was comparable to that of chloroplasts on an RNA basis, whereas the activity of pea etioplasts was about 50% of the activity of pea chloroplasts. The incorporation of leucine into protein by etioplasts and chloroplasts from pea and wheat was inhibited by chloramphenicol, and to a slight extent by cycloheximide. PMID:16658121

  18. Effects of pea chips on pig performance, carcass quality and composition, and palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Harris, E K; Lepper, A N; Berg, E P; Stein, H H

    2011-10-01

    Pea chips are produced as a by-product when field peas are processed to produce split peas for human consumption. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of pea chips in diets fed to finishing pigs does not negatively influence pig growth performance, carcass composition, and the palatability of pork. A total of 24 barrows (initial BW: 58.0 ± 6.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments and fed early finishing diets for 35 d and late finishing diets for 35 d. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) control diet and 3 diets containing pea chips were formulated for each phase. Pea chips replaced 33.3, 66.6, or 100% of the SBM in the control diet. Pigs were housed individually, and all pigs were slaughtered at the conclusion of the experiment. Overall, there were no differences (P > 0.11) in final BW, ADFI, and G:F of pigs among treatments, but there was a quadratic response in ADG (P = 0.04), with the smallest value observed in pigs fed the control diet. Dressing percentage linearly decreased (P = 0.04) as pea chips replaced SBM in diets, but there were no differences (P > 0.20) among treatments in HCW, LM area, 10th-rib backfat, lean meat percentage, and marbling. Likewise, pH in loin and ham, drip loss, and purge loss were not influenced (P > 0.13) by treatment. However, there was a quadratic response (P = 0.08) in 24-h pH in the shoulder, with the smallest value present in pigs fed the diet, in which 66.6% of the SBM was replaced by pea chips. Subjective LM color and Japanese color score standard were reduced (quadratic, P = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and LM b* values and hue angle were increased (quadratic, P = 0.09 and 0.10, respectively) when pea chips replaced SBM in the diets. Ham L* (quadratic, P = 0.04), a* (linear, P = 0.02), b* (quadratic, P = 0.07), color saturation (linear, P = 0.02), and hue angle (quadratic, P = 0.05) were increased when pea chips replaced SBM. However, there were no differences (P > 0.16) in shoulder and fat

  19. Nitrogen fixation associated with grasses in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A D; Barber, L E; Tjepkema, J; Russell, S A; Powelson, R; Evans, H J

    1976-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation associated with both natural grasslands and grain crops of Oregon was studied using the acetylene-reduction assay. A number of the grasses collected has some acetylene-reducing activity. Agrostis tenuis Sibth. had substantially greater activity than any of the other species, with a mean rate estimated at 37 g N2 fixed per hectare per day. Assuming 100 days of activity, about 3 kg of N2 would be fixed per hectare per year. This quantity of nitrogen may be important in the maintenance of this species under natural conditions. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were isolated from the root surfaces of some of the grasses. Cultures of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus polymyxa, and Enterobacter cloacoa were isolated from wheat roots as were two cultures which have not been assigned a specific taxonomic classification. Strains of N2-fixing Bacillus species and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria were isolated from Festuca and Agrostis.

  20. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  1. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration of pea leaves under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    Respiration is essential for growth, maintenance, and carbon balance of all plant cells. Mitochondrial respiration in plants provides energy for biosynthesis, and its balance with photosynthesis determines the rate of plant biomass accumulation (production). Mitochondria are not only the energetic organelles in a cell but they play an essential regulatory role in many basic cellular processes. As plants adapt to real and simulated microgravity, it is very important to understand the state of mitochondria in these conditions. Disturbance of respiratory metabolism can significantly affect the productivity of plants in long-term space flights. We have established earlier that the rate of respiration in root apices of pea etiolated seedlings rose after 7 days of clinorotation. These data indicate the oxygen increased requirement by root apices under clinorotation, that confirms the necessity of sufficient substrate aeration in space greenhouses to provide normal respiratory metabolism and supply of energy for root growth. In etiolated seedlings, substrate supply of mitochondria occurs at the expense of the mobilization of cotyledon nutrients. A goal of our work was to study the ultrastructure and respiration of mitochondria in pea leaves after 12 days of clinorotation during (2 rpm/min). Plants grew at a light level of 180 μµmol m ^{-2} s ^{-1} PAR and a photoperiod of 16 h light/4 h dark. It was showed an essential increase in the mitochondrion area on 53% in palisade parenchyma cells at the sections. Such phenomenon can not be described as swelling of mitochondria, since enlarged mitochondria contained a more quantity of crista 1.76 times. In addition, the cristae total area per organelle also increased in comparison with that in control. An increase in a size of mitochondria in the experimental conditions is supposed to occur by a partial alteration of the chondriom. Thus, a size of 49% mitochondria in control was 0.1 - 0.3 μµm ^{2}, whereas only 26

  2. Acoustic Characterization of Grass-cover Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-20

    covered ground. The tube was config- ured vertically for studying acoustic properties of granular materials i.e. soil and dirt . Software was developed to...specifically soils and grass-covered ground. The tube was config- ured vertically for studying acoustic properties of granular materials i.e. soil and dirt ...studying acoustic properties of granular materials i.e. soil and dirt . Software was developed to collect data and calibrate the impedance tube. An

  3. GRASS-Intergraph Data Conversion Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    that define a line or arc. Collections of coordinate pairs make up a line segment or arc segment, and segments eventually make up linear or polygonal ...intersection points called nodes, and corresponding x,y coordinate pairs. Arcs can be designated as lines (linear features) or areas ( polygonal features...conversion to GRASS, another vector plot may be created to verify an accurate translation. X Programmable FDG is distributed hy Axiom Software, P.O. Box

  4. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um.

  5. The anti-inflammatory effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Ahmad, Akbar; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Di Paola, Rosanna; Crupi, Rosalia; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was induced in male rats by a single footpad injection of 200μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PEA was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 7h after injection of LPS. Another group of animals was treated with vehicle. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered as a positive control. Rats were sacrificed 16h after injection and the eyes tissues were collected for histology, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The histological evaluation of the iris-ciliary body showed an increase of neutrophilic infiltration and nuclear modification of vessel of endothelial cells. PEA treatment decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration and improved histological damage of eye tissues. In addition, PEA treatment reduced pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels, protein extravasion and lipid peroxidation. Immunohistochemical analysis for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and nitrotyrosine showed a positive staining from LPS-injected rats. The degree of staining for ICAM-1 and nitrotyrosine was significantly reduced in eye sections from LPS-injected rats treated with PEA. In addition, an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF-κB) was also evaluated in inflammed ocular tissues by western blot. PEA strongly inhibited iNOS expression and nuclear NF-κB translocation. Thus, in this study we demonstrated that PEA reduces the degree of ocular inflammation in a rat model of EIU.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  7. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p < 0.01) than broilers fed the higher phosphorus level. Bone strength was higher (p < 0.01) for broilers fed diets based on low-phytate pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  9. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard

    2015-02-21

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  10. Invasive warm-season grasses reduce mycorrhizal root colonization and biomass production of native prairie grasses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gail W T; Hickman, Karen R; Williamson, Melinda M

    2012-07-01

    Soil organisms play important roles in regulating ecosystem-level processes and the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with a plant species can be a central force shaping plant species' ecology. Understanding how mycorrhizal associations are affected by plant invasions may be a critical aspect of the conservation and restoration of native ecosystems. We examined the competitive ability of old world bluestem, a non-native grass (Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii]), and the influence of B. bladhii competition on AM root colonization of native warm-season prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii or Schizachyrium scoparium), using a substitutive design greenhouse competition experiment. Competition by the non-native resulted in significantly reduced biomass production and AM colonization of the native grasses. To assess plant-soil feedbacks of B. bladhii and Bothriochloa ischaemum, we conducted a second greenhouse study which examined soil alterations indirectly by assessing biomass production and AM colonization of native warm-season grasses planted into soil collected beneath Bothriochloa spp. This study was conducted using soil from four replicate prairie sites throughout Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. Our results indicate that a major mechanism in plant growth suppression following invasion by Bothriochloa spp. is the alteration in soil microbial communities. Plant growth was tightly correlated with AM root colonization demonstrating that mycorrhizae play an important role in the invasion of these systems by Bothriochloa spp. and indicating that the restoration of native AM fungal communities may be a fundamental consideration for the successful establishment of native grasses into invaded sites.

  11. Retention of Water and Sediment by Grass Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, P. M.; Kwaad, F. J. P. M.; Klapwijk, M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses aspects of grass vegetation in relation to soil erosion control. By means of a literature research, four options for using grass vegetation were recognized, each having its own requirements concerning maintenance, vegetation characteristics and field layout. The main filter mechanisms, application in the field and effects on runoff and soil loss are discussed. Field experiments on filter strips were carried out to determine whether literature data for water and sediment retention by vegetation can be applied to sloping loess soils in South Limburg (The Netherlands). The field experiments simulated a situation in which surface runoff carrying loess sediment from an upslope field enters a grass strip. The retention of water and sediment by grass strips was determined by measuring runoff discharge and the sediment concentration at the inflow and outflow points from bordered plots. Two locations with different grass age and agricultural management were studied. Results show that grass strips are effective in filtering sediment from surface runoff as long as concentrated flow is absent. Outflow sediment concentrations could be described as a function of inflow concentrations and strip width. Reductions of sediment discharge varied between 50-60, 60-90 and 90-99% for strips of 1, 4-5 and 10 m width, respectively. Old grass, extensively used as pasture, is more effective in reducing erosion than the younger grass which was often accessed by tractors for mowing. Differences in water retention between both grass locations appear to be caused mainly by differences in grass density.

  12. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Agnieszka; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Kęsy, Jacek; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Grobela, Marcin; Motała, Rafał; Bocianowski, Jan; Morkunas, Iwona

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects), on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski) seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase) were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA) and abscisic acid (ABA) was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead) and biotic factor (aphid infestation) on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  13. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  14. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Camara, Paulo E A S; Rudall, Paula J; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T; Whipple, Clinton J; Doust, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear "front" and "back;" this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  15. Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Mark W; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Redente, Edward F

    2005-05-01

    Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg(-1). Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l(-1). These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used.

  16. Conserved Noncoding Sequences in the Grasses4

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Dan Choffnes; Bashir, Ali; Lee, Chunghau; Thomas, Brian C.; Ko, Cynthia; Goff, Stephen A.; Freeling, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As orthologous genes from related species diverge over time, some sequences are conserved in noncoding regions. In mammals, large phylogenetic footprints, or conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), are known to be common features of genes. Here we present the first large-scale analysis of plant genes for CNSs. We used maize and rice, maximally diverged members of the grass family of monocots. Using a local sequence alignment set to deliver only significant alignments, we found one or more CNSs in the noncoding regions of the majority of genes studied. Grass genes have dramatically fewer and much smaller CNSs than mammalian genes. Twenty-seven percent of grass gene comparisons revealed no CNSs. Genes functioning in upstream regulatory roles, such as transcription factors, are greatly enriched for CNSs relative to genes encoding enzymes or structural proteins. Further, we show that a CNS cluster in an intron of the knotted1 homeobox gene serves as a site of negative regulation. We showthat CNSs in the adh1 gene do not correlate with known cis-acting sites. We discuss the potential meanings of CNSs and their value as analytical tools and evolutionary characters. We advance the idea that many CNSs function to lock-in gene regulatory decisions. PMID:12952874

  17. Plant toxin β-ODAP activates integrin β1 and focal adhesion: A critical pathway to cause neurolathyrism

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Rui-Yue; Xing, Geng-Yan; Zhou, Guang-Ming; Li, Feng-Min; Hu, Wen-Tao; Lambein, Fernand; Xiong, Jun-Lan; Zhang, Sheng-Xiang; Kong, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Hao; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is a unique neurodegeneration disease caused by β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β- diaminopropionic (β-ODAP) present in grass pea seed (Lathyrus stativus L.) and its pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. This issue has become a critical restriction to take full advantage of drought-tolerant grass pea as an elite germplasm resource under climate change. We found that, in a human glioma cell line, β-ODAP treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to outside release and overfall of Ca2+ from mitochondria to cellular matrix. Increased Ca2+ in cellular matrix activated the pathway of ECM, and brought about the overexpression of β1 integrin on cytomembrane surface and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The formation of high concentration of FA units on the cell microfilaments further induced overexpression of paxillin, and then inhibited cytoskeleton polymerization. This phenomenon turned to cause serious cell microfilaments distortion and ultimately cytoskeleton collapse. We also conducted qRT-PCR verification on RNA-sequence data using 8 randomly chosen genes of pathway enrichment, and confirmed that the data was statistically reliable. For the first time, we proposed a relatively complete signal pathway to neurolathyrism. This work would help open a new window to cure neurolathyrism, and fully utilize grass pea germplasm resource under climate change. PMID:28094806

  18. Raised expression of the antiapoptotic protein ped/pea-15 increases susceptibility to chemically induced skin tumor development.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Pietro; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Libertini, Silvana; Santopietro, Stefania; Troncone, Giancarlo; Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Oriente, Francesco; Portella, Giuseppe; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2005-10-27

    ped/pea-15 is a cytosolic protein performing a broad antiapoptotic function. We show that, upon DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis, transgenic mice overexpressing ped/pea-15 (Tg(ped/pea-15)) display early development of papillomas and a four-fold increase in papilloma number compared to the nontransgenic littermates (P<0.001). The malignant conversion frequency was 24% for the Tg(ped/pea-15) mice and only 5% in controls (P<0.01). The isolated application of TPA, but not that of DMBA, was sufficient to reversibly upregulate ped/pea-15 in both untransformed skin and cultured keratinocytes. ped/pea-15 protein levels were also increased in DMBA/TPA-induced papillomas of both Tg(ped/pea-15) and control mice. Isolated TPA applications induced Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in nontransformed mouse epidermal tissues. The induction of both Caspase-3 and apoptosis by TPA were four-fold inhibited in the skin of the Tg(ped/pea-15) compared to the nontransgenic mice, accompanied by a similarly sized reduction in TPA-induced JNK and p38 stimulation and by constitutive induction of cytoplasmic ERK activity in the transgenics. ped/pea-15 expression was stably increased in cell lines from DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas, paralleled by protection from TPA apoptosis. In the A5 spindle carcinoma cell line, antisense inhibition of ped/pea-15 expression simultaneously rescued sensitivity to TPA-induced Caspase-3 function and apoptosis. The antisense also reduced A5 cell ability to grow in semisolid media by 65% (P<0.001) and increased by three-fold tumor latency time (P<0.01). Thus, the expression levels of ped/pea-15 control Caspase-3 function and epidermal cell apoptosis in vivo and determine susceptibility to skin tumor development.

  19. Analysis of transcription factors binding to the duplicated PEA1 and PEA3 sites that are required for polyomavirus mutant expression in PCC4 embryonic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nothias, J Y; Weinmann, R; Blangy, D; Melin, F

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic carcinoma (EC) cell lines, representative of early embryonic undifferentiated cells, are nonpermissive for polyomavirus (PyV) infection as a result of a blockade of viral DNA early transcription and replication. All enhancers of PyV mutants (Py EC-PCC4), selected for the ability to grow on PCC4 EC cells, display a duplication of PEA1 and PEA3 binding sites (sites 1 and 3). However, the Py EC-PCC4 rearrangement is complex and results in variable mutant enhancer activities. We demonstrate here that duplication of sites 1 and 3 is absolutely required for a cooperative cis activation of early Py EC-PCC4 mutant transcription in PCC4 EC cells. In addition, we detect in PCC4 EC cells significant amounts of site 1- and 3-binding proteins, which we characterize as related to the Fos/Jun and Ets protein families, respectively. Wild-type PyV restriction in PCC4 EC cells may be relieved by a cooperation between site 2- and 3-binding proteins that would thereby be activated. Since site 1- or 3-binding factors could be derepressed, we improved the analysis of UV cross-linked DNA-protein complexes and were able to detect a novel factor, called PEA1/2 (for PyV enhancer A site 1- and 2-binding factor). Its DNA binding sequence overlaps sites 1 and 2 (PEA2 binding site) and is not duplicated in the M1 mutant, which exhibits the highest Py EC-PCC4 enhancer activity. he suggest that PEA1/2 is also involved in the regulation of PyV enhancer activity by repressing the site 1-binding activity. Images PMID:8388487

  20. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-04-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with (/sup 14/C)-5-aminolevulinic acid (/sup 14/C)-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with (/sup 14/C)-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed.